Page 1

Natural Science 2 ESO. Marian Ruiz


What is the basic unit of life? Robert Hooke

was a great English

experimenter.

He used one of the first microscopes

to look more

closely at the living world.

Hooke came up with the name “cells” to describe tiny compartments he saw in a piece of cork

• •

and after he outlined THE

CELL THEORY

All living things are made of cells. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things.

All cells are produced from existing cells.


How is a cell organised ? Cells are the structural and functional units of all living things. Genetic material

Cytoplasm

Cell membrane

controls and regulates how cells work. This DNA contains the hereditary information that is passed from one cell to the daughter cell.

is the inside of a cell. It contains the organelles

covers the whole cell

What are the two basic types of cells?

EUKARYOTIC CELLS

PROKARYOTIC CELLS

The DNA is contained in a nucleus.

The DNA is loose in the cytoplasm.

Animals and plants are multicellular eukaryotic organisms.

Bacteria are unicellular prokaryotic organisms.


How do animal and plant cells differ?


CELL STRUCTURE

DESCRIPTION FUNCTION

WHERE?

Cell Wall Plant, Bacteria

• • • •

Cell Membrane

Outer layer Rigid & strong Made of cellulose Support

• • •

All cells

the thin layer that surrounds the cell. Protection Controls movement of materials in/out of cell

Nucleus

All cells

• •

Controls cell activities Contains the hereditary material of the cell

The jellylike material where organelles are located .

Supports and protects cell organelles

• • •

Smooth without ribosomes Rough with embedded ribosomes Carries materials through cell

Cytoplasm All cells

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) All cells


All cells

Synthesizes proteins

Site of cellular respiration

• •

Largest organelle in plant cells Store large amounts of food or sugars in plants

Digests old cell parts

• • • •

Containing chlorophyll Uses energy from sun to make food (glucose) for the plant Process called photosynthesis Release oxygen

Package & export proteins from the cell.

Mitochondrion

All cells

Vacuole Plant cells have a single, large vacuole Animal cells have small vacuoles

Lysosome Plant - uncommon Animal - common

Chloroplast Plants

Golgi Apparatus

All cells


Cell Coloring Two of you work on the animal cell and the others work on the plant cell. Directions: Choose a color for each of the parts below and fill in the square with the color of your choice. Color the cell part to match. Cell Membrane

Ribosome

Cytoplasm

Lysosome

Nucleus

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Nuclear Membrane

Mitochondria

Nucleolus

Vacuole


Directions: Paint each of the parts below and fill in the square with the indicated color. Color the cell part to match.


Briefly describe the function of the cell parts. 1. Cell membrane 2. Endoplasmic Reticulum 3. Ribosome 4. Nucleus 5. Lysosome 6. Nucleolus 7. Mitochondria 8. Nuclear Membrane 9. Vacuole

10. Cytoplasm

LANGUAGE HELP e.g. The Cell Membrane is the thin layer that surrounds the cell. Its function is protect and control movement of materials in/out of cell .


Differences between animal and plant cells Let’s see what the most important differences between animal cells and plant cells are. Fill the following table (independent work):

ORGANELLE

TYPICAL PLANT EUKARYOTIC CELL Is it found in a plant cell?

Cell Wall

TYPICAL ANIMAL EUKARYOTIC CELL Is it found in an animal cell?

Yes

No

When you have finish you can discuss your answers with the members of your group.

Then answer those questions in group : 1. What cell parts do Animal cells have that Plant cells do not have? 2. What cell parts do Plant cells have that Animal cells do not have? 3. Why do Plant cells have cell walls and Animal cells do not? 4. Why do you think Plant cells have bigger vacuoles than Animal cells?


Useful phrases for discussions

Asking about or for an opinion

What do you think about…? What’s your opinion about ...?

In my opinion… Giving your opinion I think…

Giving an explanation

The reason for this is ....

Agreeing with an opinion

I agree.

Disagreeing with an opinion

I don’t think so.

LANGUAGE HELP e.g. - I think plant cells have cell walls whereas animal cells don’t. - I agree with you.

Dossier cell 2 ESO