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It 為虛主詞 

 

It 為虛主詞 , 後面往往要接不定詞片語 或名詞子句 It is necessary to learn English. It is not known when he will arrive.


關係代名詞 = 代名詞 + 連接 詞  

關係代名詞 = 代名詞 + 連接詞 關係代名詞受格 :whom( 人 ), which( 物 ),that( 人 , 物 ) 凡名詞前面有最高級形容詞修飾時 , 該名詞之 後只能用關係代名詞 that 連接形容詞子句 He is the best student whom I have ever taught. He is the best student that I have ever taught.


ď Ž

ď Ž

This have This have

is the best novel which I ever read. is the best novel that I ever read.


As far as I’m concerned,… = For my part,… 


數量詞 +of+ 關係代名詞 whom 或 which 引導的形容詞 子句 

… 數量詞 +of+ 關係代名詞 whom 或 which 引 導的形容詞子句 關係代名詞 = 代名詞 + 連接詞 , 有連接兩句的 功能 He has taught many students, five of them have become great scientists. He has taught many students, five of whom have become great scientists.


other than… other than… =except for…

Other than an old dog, the poor man has nothing. =Except for an old dog, the poor man has nothing. 


rather than… =instead of… 

Peter rather than John is wrong. =Peter instead of John is wrong. 


since 

since 可作介係詞或副詞連接詞 , 分別引導介係 詞片語或過去式副詞子句以修飾主要子句 , 而 主要子句的動詞時態應採用完成式或完成進行 式 Brian has been learning( 現在完成進行式 ) English since he entered junior high school. I have lived( 現在完成式 ) here since 1980.


as to as to… =about…  I have no idea as to where he lives. 


with an eye to +Ving =with a view to +Ving =in order to V =for the purpose of +Ving ď Ž

ď Ž

With an eye to passing the I studied even harder.

test,


have no choice but to V have no choice but to V =have no option but to V =have no alternative but to V ď Ž

ď Ž

You have no choice but to apologize to her.


when 

  

以 when, while,though, although 等連 接詞所引導的副詞子句 , 其主詞與主要子 句相同時 , 可將所引導的子句化簡為分詞 片語 , 原則如下 : (1) 刪除主詞 (2) 動詞改為現在分詞 (3) 若該動詞為 be 動詞 , 則改為現在分 詞 being, 也可將 being 直接省略掉


Though I have no money, I still feel happy. =Though having no money, I still feel happy.  When I am tired, I don’t feel like doing anything. =When (being) tired, I don’t feel like doing anything. 


All construction workers and visitors must wear a safety helmet when on the construction site. =All construction workers and visitors must wear a safety helmet when they are on the construction site. ď Ž


carefully adv. (1) 副詞可修飾動詞 Peter does everything carefully. V. adv.  (2) 副詞可修飾形容詞 John is a very honest person. adv. adj.  (3) 副詞可修飾副詞 Kevin studies very hard. adv. adv. 


with care ( 用於句尾 ) =carefully 

Tom lifted the box with care. =Tom lifted the box carefully. =Tom carefully lifted the box. 


persuade vt.   

persuade vt. persuade sb to V This salesman easily persuaded her to buy the product.


    

deny vt. deny +N/Ving There is no denying (that)… He denied stealing the money. There is no denying that honesty is the best policy.


operate  

  

operate vt. vi.( 與介係詞 on 並用 ) Do you know how to operate the machine ? The doctor will soon operate on the patient. operation n. perform an operation on … The doctor performed an operation on Linda last night.


in view of  

 

in view of… In view of her excellent performance, Michelle deserves the position. in charge of… Who’s in charge of this department ?


with 引導的情狀介係詞片 語  

with 引導的情狀介係詞片語 , 結構如下 : with+N+ 介係詞片語 / 分詞片語 由於 … With you sitting beside me, I can’t concentrate on my work. With all the jobs done, you can go home now.


reach an agreement reach an agreement = come to an agreement ď Ž

ď Ž

After a lengthy discussion, we finally reached an agreement.


keep in mind that… =bear in mind that… 

Keep in mind that eating too much is bad for your health.


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