It 為虛主詞 , 後面往往要接不定詞片語 或名詞子句 It is necessary to learn English. It is not known when he will arrive.
關係代名詞 = 代名詞 + 連接 詞
關係代名詞 = 代名詞 + 連接詞 關係代名詞受格 :whom( 人 ), which( 物 ),that( 人 , 物 ) 凡名詞前面有最高級形容詞修飾時 , 該名詞之 後只能用關係代名詞 that 連接形容詞子句 He is the best student whom I have ever taught. He is the best student that I have ever taught.
This have This have
is the best novel which I ever read. is the best novel that I ever read.
As far as I’m concerned,… = For my part,…
數量詞 +of+ 關係代名詞 whom 或 which 引導的形容詞 子句
… 數量詞 +of+ 關係代名詞 whom 或 which 引 導的形容詞子句 關係代名詞 = 代名詞 + 連接詞 , 有連接兩句的 功能 He has taught many students, five of them have become great scientists. He has taught many students, five of whom have become great scientists.
other than… other than… =except for…
Other than an old dog, the poor man has nothing. =Except for an old dog, the poor man has nothing.
rather than… =instead of…
Peter rather than John is wrong. =Peter instead of John is wrong.
since 可作介係詞或副詞連接詞 , 分別引導介係 詞片語或過去式副詞子句以修飾主要子句 , 而 主要子句的動詞時態應採用完成式或完成進行 式 Brian has been learning( 現在完成進行式 ) English since he entered junior high school. I have lived( 現在完成式 ) here since 1980.
as to as to… =about… I have no idea as to where he lives.
with an eye to +Ving =with a view to +Ving =in order to V =for the purpose of +Ving ď Ž
With an eye to passing the I studied even harder.
have no choice but to V have no choice but to V =have no option but to V =have no alternative but to V ď Ž
You have no choice but to apologize to her.
以 when, while,though, although 等連 接詞所引導的副詞子句 , 其主詞與主要子 句相同時 , 可將所引導的子句化簡為分詞 片語 , 原則如下 : (1) 刪除主詞 (2) 動詞改為現在分詞 (3) 若該動詞為 be 動詞 , 則改為現在分 詞 being, 也可將 being 直接省略掉
Though I have no money, I still feel happy. =Though having no money, I still feel happy. When I am tired, I don’t feel like doing anything. =When (being) tired, I don’t feel like doing anything.
All construction workers and visitors must wear a safety helmet when on the construction site. =All construction workers and visitors must wear a safety helmet when they are on the construction site. ď Ž
carefully adv. (1) 副詞可修飾動詞 Peter does everything carefully. V. adv. (2) 副詞可修飾形容詞 John is a very honest person. adv. adj. (3) 副詞可修飾副詞 Kevin studies very hard. adv. adv.
with care ( 用於句尾 ) =carefully
Tom lifted the box with care. =Tom lifted the box carefully. =Tom carefully lifted the box.
persuade vt. persuade sb to V This salesman easily persuaded her to buy the product.
deny vt. deny +N/Ving There is no denying (that)… He denied stealing the money. There is no denying that honesty is the best policy.
operate vt. vi.( 與介係詞 on 並用 ) Do you know how to operate the machine ? The doctor will soon operate on the patient. operation n. perform an operation on … The doctor performed an operation on Linda last night.
in view of
in view of… In view of her excellent performance, Michelle deserves the position. in charge of… Who’s in charge of this department ?
with 引導的情狀介係詞片 語
with 引導的情狀介係詞片語 , 結構如下 : with+N+ 介係詞片語 / 分詞片語 由於 … With you sitting beside me, I can’t concentrate on my work. With all the jobs done, you can go home now.
reach an agreement reach an agreement = come to an agreement ď Ž
After a lengthy discussion, we finally reached an agreement.
keep in mind that… =bear in mind that…
Keep in mind that eating too much is bad for your health.