GROUP TAB LOCATOR Introduction
0 2 3 5 6 7 8A 8B 8E 8F 8G 8H 8I 8J 8L 8O 8P 8Q 8R 8W 9 11 13 14 19 21 22 23 24 25
Lubrication & Maintenance Suspension Differential & Driveline Brakes Clutch Cooling Audio Chime/Buzzer Electronic Control Modules Engine Systems Heated Systems Horn Ignition Control Instrument Cluster Lamps Restraints Speed Control Vehicle Theft Security Wipers/Washers Wiring Engine Exhaust System Frame & Bumpers Fuel System Steering Transmission and Transfer Case Tires/Wheels Body Heating & Air Conditioning Emissions Control
Service Manual Comment Forms
(Rear of Manual)
INTRODUCTION TABLE OF CONTENTS page VEHICLE SAFETY CERTIFICATION LABEL DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VEHICLE EMISSION CONTROL INFORMATION (VECI) LABEL DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BODY CODE PLATE DESCRIPTION BODY CODE PLATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTERNATIONAL SYMBOLS DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
page FASTENER IDENTIFICATION DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 FASTENER USAGE DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION - FASTENER USAGE . . . . . . . . 8 DESCRIPTION - THREADED HOLE REPAIR . . 8 METRIC SYSTEM DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 TORQUE REFERENCES DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
VEHICLE SAFETY CERTIFICATION LABEL DESCRIPTION A vehicle safety certification label (Fig. 1) is attached to every DaimlerChrysler Corporation vehicle. The label certifies that the vehicle conforms to all applicable Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. The label also lists: • Month and year of vehicle manufacture. • Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR). The gross front and rear axle weight ratings (GAWR’s) are based on a minimum rim size and maximum cold tire inflation pressure. • Vehicle Identification Number (VIN). • Type of vehicle. • Type of rear wheels. • Bar code. • Month, Day and Hour (MDH) of final assembly. • Paint and Trim codes. • Country of origin. The label is located on the driver-side door shutface.
Fig. 1 VEHICLE SAFETY CERTIFICATION LABEL TYPICAL
VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER DESCRIPTION The Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) plate is located on the lower windshield fence near the left A-pillar. The VIN contains 17 characters that provide data concerning the vehicle. Refer to the VIN decoding chart to determine the identification of a vehicle. The Vehicle Identification Number is also imprinted on the:
• Vehicle Safety Certification Label. • Frame rail. To protect the consumer from theft and possible fraud the manufacturer is required to include a Check Digit at the ninth position of the Vehicle Identification Number. The check digit is used by the manufacturer and government agencies to verify the authenticity of the vehicle and official documentation. The formula to use the check digit is not released to the general public.
VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER DECODING CHART POSITION
CODE = DESCRIPTION
Country of Origin
1 = United States
J = Jeep
4 = MPV
Gross Vehicle Weight Rating
E = 3001-4000 lbs. F = 4001-5000 lbs.
A = Wrangler 4X4 (LHD) 4 = Wrangler 4X4 (RHD)
2 = SE 3=X 4 = Sport 5 = Sahara
9 = Open Body
P = 2.5L Gasoline S = 4.0L Gasoline
0 through 9 or X
P = Toledo #2
12 thru 17
Vehicle Build Sequence
VEHICLE EMISSION CONTROL INFORMATION (VECI) LABEL DESCRIPTION All models have a Vehicle Emission Control Information (VECI) Label. DaimlerChrysler permanently attaches the label in the engine compartment (Fig. 2). It cannot be removed without defacing information and destroying the label. The label contains the vehicle’s emission specifications and vacuum hose routings. All hoses must be connected and routed according to the label. The VECI label contains the following: • Engine family and displacement • Evaporative family • Emission control system schematic • Certification application • Engine timing specifications (if adjustable) • Idle speeds (if adjustable) • Spark plug and gap The label also contains an engine vacuum schematic. There are unique labels for vehicles built for sale in the state of California and the country of Canada. Canadian labels are written in both the English and French languages. These labels are permanently attached and cannot be removed without defacing information and destroying label.
BODY CODE PLATE DESCRIPTION BODY CODE PLATE A metal body code plate is attached to the floor pan under the drivers seat (Fig. 3). Disengage the snaps attaching the carpet to the floor pan to read the information. There are seven lines of information on the body code plate. Lines 4, 5, 6, and 7 are not used to define service information. Information reads from left to right, starting with line 3 in the center of the plate to line 1 at the bottom of the plate (Fig. 4).
Fig. 3 Body Code Plate Location 1 2 3 4 5 6
SNAP REAR CARPET BODY CODE PLATE SNAP FLOOR PAN FRONT CARPET
The last code imprinted on a vehicle code plate will be followed by the imprinted word END. When two vehicle code plates are required, the last available spaces on the first plate will be imprinted with the letters CTD (for continued). When a second vehicle code plate is necessary, the first four spaces on each row will not be used because of the plate overlap.
Fig. 2 VECI Label Location 1 - VECI LABEL
BODY CODE PLATE (Continued)
BODY CODE PLATE—LINE 2 DIGITS 1,2, AND 3 Paint Procedure DIGIT 4 Open Space DIGITS 5 THROUGH 8 Primary Paint (Refer to 23 - BODY/PAINT - SPECIFICATIONS) for color codes. DIGIT 9 Open Space
Fig. 4 Body Code Plate Decoding 1 - PRIMARY PAINT 2 - SECONDARY PAINT 3 - ROOF 4 - CAR LINE SHELL 5 - ENGINE 6 - TRIM 7 - VIN 8 - MARKET 9 - TRANSMISSION 10 - PAINT PROCEDURE 11 - VEHICLE ORDER NUMBER
BODY CODE PLATE—LINE 3 DIGITS 1 THROUGH 12 Vehicle Order Number
DIGITS 10 THROUGH 13 Secondary Paint DIGIT 14 Open Space DIGITS 15 THROUGH 18 Interior Trim Code DIGIT 19 Open Space DIGITS 20, 21, AND 22 Engine Code • EPE = 2.5 L 4 cyl. MPI Gasoline • ERH = 4.0L 6 cyl. MPI Gasoline
DIGITS 13, 14, AND 15 Roof • VJN = Soft Top White • VJU = Soft Top Spice • VJX = Soft Top Black • VKN = Hard Top White • VKU = Hard Top Spice • VKX = Hard Top Black
BODY CODE PLATE—LINE 1
DIGITS 16, 17, AND 18 Car Line Shell • TJJ = Wrangler (LHD) • TJU = Wrangler (RHD)
DIGIT 4 Open Space
DIGIT 19 Price Class • L = Wrangler (All) DIGITS 20 AND 21 Body Type • 77 = Wheel Base (93.4 in.)
DIGITS 1, 2, AND 3 Transmission Codes • DDQ = AX5 5–speed Manual • DDO = AX15 5–speed Manual • DGD = 30RH 3–speed Automatic • DGG = 32RH 3–speed Automatic
DIGIT 5 Market Code • B = International DIGIT 6 Open Space DIGITS 7 THROUGH 23 Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) (Refer to VEHICLE DATA/VEHICLE INFORMATION/VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER DESCRIPTION) for breakdown of VIN code.
INTERNATIONAL SYMBOLS DESCRIPTION
(Fig. 5) are used to identify various instrument controls. The symbols correspond to the controls and displays that are located on the instrument panel.
The graphic symbols illustrated in the following International Control and Display Symbols Chart
Fig. 5 INTERNATIONAL CONTROL AND DISPLAY SYMBOLS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
High Beam Fog Lamps Headlamp, Parking Lamps, Panel Lamps Turn Warning Hazard Warning Windshield Washer Windshield Wiper Windshield Wiper and Washer Windscreen Demisting and Defrosting Ventilating Fan Rear Window Defogger Rear Window Wiper
FASTENER IDENTIFICATION DESCRIPTION The SAE bolt strength grades range from grade 2 to grade 8. The higher the grade number, the greater the bolt strength. Identification is determined by the line marks on the top of each bolt head. The actual bolt strength grade corresponds to the number of line
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Rear Window Washer Fuel Engine Coolant Temperature Battery Charging Condition Engine Oil Seat Belt Brake Failure Parking Brake Front Hood Rear hood (Decklid) Horn Lighter
marks plus 2. The most commonly used metric bolt strength classes are 9.8 and 10.9. The metric strength class identification number is imprinted on the head of the bolt. The higher the class number, the greater the bolt strength. Some metric nuts are imprinted with a single-digit strength class on the nut face. Refer to the Fastener Identification and Fastener Strength Charts (Fig. 6) and (Fig. 7).
FASTENER IDENTIFICATION (Continued)
Fig. 6 FASTENER IDENTIFICATION
TJ FASTENER IDENTIFICATION (Continued)
Fig. 7 FASTENER STRENGTH
DESCRIPTION - THREADED HOLE REPAIR
Most stripped threaded holes can be repaired using a Helicoilt. Follow the vehicle or Helicoilt recommendations for application and repair procedures.
DESCRIPTION - FASTENER USAGE
WARNING: USE OF AN INCORRECT FASTENER MAY RESULT IN COMPONENT DAMAGE OR PERSONAL INJURY.
DESCRIPTION The metric system is based on quantities of one, ten, one hundred, one thousand and one million. The following chart will assist in converting metric units to equivalent English and SAE units, or vise versa.
Fasteners and torque specifications references in this Service Manual are identified in metric and SAE format. During any maintenance or repair procedures, it is important to salvage all fasteners (nuts, bolts, etc.) for reassembly. If the fastener is not salvageable, a fastener of equivalent specification must be used.
CONVERSION FORMULAS AND EQUIVALENT VALUES MULTIPLY
= Newton Meters (N·m)
= Newton Meters (N·m)
Inches Hg (60° F)
= Kilopascals (kPa)
= Inches Hg
= Kilopascals (kPa)
= Millimeters (mm)
= Meters (M)
= Kilometers/Hr. (Km/h)
= Meters/Sec (M/S)
= Meters/Sec (M/S)
= Meters/Sec (M/S)
COMMON METRIC EQUIVALENTS 1 inch = 25 Millimeters
1 Cubic Inch = 16 Cubic Centimeters
1 Foot = 0.3 Meter
1 Cubic Foot = 0.03 Cubic Meter
1 Yard = 0.9 Meter
1 Cubic Yard = 0.8 Cubic Meter
1 Mile = 1.6 Kilometers Refer to the Metric Conversion Chart to convert torque values listed in metric Newton- meters (N·m). Also, use the chart to convert between millimeters (mm) and inches (in.) (Fig. 8).
TJ METRIC SYSTEM (Continued)
Fig. 8 METRIC CONVERSION CHART
tions Chart for torque references not listed in the individual torque charts (Fig. 9).
DESCRIPTION Individual Torque Charts appear within many or the Groups. Refer to the Standard Torque Specifica-
Fig. 9 TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
LUBRICATION & MAINTENANCE
LUBRICATION & MAINTENANCE TABLE OF CONTENTS page LUBRICATION & MAINTENANCE SPECIFICATIONS - FLUID CAPACITIES . . . . INTERNATIONAL SYMBOLS DESCRIPTION — INTERNATIONAL SYMBOLS PARTS & LUBRICANT RECOMMENDATION DESCRIPTION - FLUID TYPES . . . . . . . . . . . FLUID TYPES DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION - FUEL REQUIREMENTS . . DESCRIPTION - ENGINE COOLANT . . . . . DESCRIPTION - ENGINE OIL . . . . . . . . . . DESCRIPTION - GEAR LUBRICATION RATINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DESCRIPTION - TRANSFER CASE - NV231 DESCRIPTION - AXLE LUBRICATION . . . . DESCRIPTION - MANUAL TRANSMISSION
...1 ..1 ...2
...3 ...4 ...5 .. . .. ..
.5 .5 .6 .6
LUBRICATION & MAINTENANCE
page DESCRIPTION - AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION FLUID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPERATION - AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION FLUID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HOISTING STANDARD PROCEDURE - HOISTING RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TOWING STANDARD PROCEDURE - TOWING RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUMP STARTING STANDARD PROCEDURE - JUMP STARTING PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EMERGENCY TOW HOOKS DESCRIPTION — EMERGENCY TOW HOOKS
...9 . 10
SPECIFICATIONS - FLUID CAPACITIES DESCRIPTION
19 U.S. Gallons (71.9 Liters)**** ENGINE OIL
Engine Oil - with Filter 2.5L
3.8L (4.0 qts.)
Engine Oil - with Filter 4.0L
5.7L (6.0 qts.)
1.0 L (2.2 pts.)
MANUAL TRANSMISSION AX5 Approximate dry fill or fill to bottom edge of the fill plug hole.
3.3 L (3.49 qts.)
NV3550 Approximate dry fill or fill to bottom edge of fill plug hole.
2.28 L (2.41 qts.)
FRONT AXLE ± .03 L (1 oz.) 181 FBI (Model 30)
1.2 L (2.5 pts.)
REAR AXLE ± .03 L (1 oz.)
194 RBI (Model 35)
1.66 L (3.5 pts.)*
Cooling System - 2.5 L
8.5 L (9.0 qts.)
216 RBI (Model 44)
1.89 L (4.0 pts.)*
Cooling System - 4.0 L
9.9 L (10.5 qts.)
* With Trac-lok add 0.11 L (4.0 oz.) of Friction Modifier.
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION Service Fill - 30RH
3.8 L (4.0 qts)
O-haul Fill - 30RH
4.67 L (9.86 pts.)
Service Fill - 32RH
3.8 L (4.0 qts)
O-haul Fill - 32RH
6.31L (13.33 pts.)
Dry fill capacity Depending on type and size of internal cooler, length and inside diameter of cooler lines, or use of an auxiliary cooler, these figures may vary. (Refer to 21 - TRANSMISSION/TRANSAXLE/ AUTOMATIC/FLUID - STANDARD PROCEDURE)
****Nominal refill capacities are shown. A variation may be observed from vehicle to vehicle due to manufacturing tolerance and refill procedure.
INTERNATIONAL SYMBOLS DESCRIPTION — INTERNATIONAL SYMBOLS DaimlerChrysler Corporation uses international symbols to identify engine compartment lubricant and fluid inspection and fill locations (Fig. 1).
LUBRICATION & MAINTENANCE
INTERNATIONAL SYMBOLS (Continued)
Fig. 2 API Symbol
Fig. 1 International Symbols
PARTS & LUBRICANT RECOMMENDATION DESCRIPTION - FLUID TYPES When service is required, DaimlerChrysler Corporation recommends that only Mopart brand parts, lubricants and chemicals be used. Mopart provides the best engineered products for servicing DaimlerChrysler Corporation vehicles. Only lubricants bearing designations defined by the following organization should be used to service a Chrysler Corporation vehicle. • Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) • American Petroleum Institute (API) (Fig. 2) • National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI) (Fig. 3)
SAE ratings also apply to multigrade gear lubricants. In addition, API classification defines the lubricants usage. Such as API GL-5 and SAE 75W90.
LUBRICANTS AND GREASES Lubricating grease is rated for quality and usage by the NLGI. All approved products have the NLGI symbol (Fig. 3) on the label. At the bottom NLGI symbol is the usage and quality identification letters. Wheel bearing lubricant is identified by the letter “G”. Chassis lubricant is identified by the latter “L”. The letter following the usage letter indicates the quality of the lubricant. The following symbols indicate the highest quality.
SAE VISCOSITY RATING An SAE viscosity grade is used to specify the viscosity of engine oil. These are specified with a dual SAE viscosity grade which indicates the cold-to-hot temperature viscosity range. Example SAE 5W-30 = multigrade engine oil. DaimlerChrysler Corporation only recommends multigrade engine oils.
API QUALITY CLASSIFICATION This symbol (Fig. 2) on the front of an oil container means that the oil has been certified by the American Petroleum Institute (API) to meet all the lubrication requirements specified by DaimlerChrysler Corporation.
Fig. 3 NLGI Symbol 1 - WHEEL BEARINGS 2 - CHASSIS LUBRICATION 3 - CHASSIS AND WHEEL BEARINGS
SPECIALIZED LUBRICANTS AND OILS Some maintenance or repair procedures may require the use of specialized lubricants or oils. Consult the appropriate sections in this manual for the correct application of these lubricants.
FLUID TYPES DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION - FUEL REQUIREMENTS Your engine is designed to meet all emissions regulations and provide excellent fuel economy and performance when using high quality unleaded “regular” gasoline having an octane rating of 87. The routine use of premium gasoline is not recommended. Under normal conditions the use of premium fuel will not provide a benefit over high quality regular gasolines and in some circumstances may result in poorer performance. Light spark knock at low engine speeds is not harmful to your engine. However, continued heavy spark knock at high speeds can cause damage and immediate service is required. Engine damage resulting from operation with a heavy spark knock may not be covered by the new vehicle warranty. Poor quality gasoline can cause problems such as hard starting, stalling and hesitations. If you experience these symptoms, try another brand of gasoline before considering service for the vehicle. Over 40 auto manufacturers world-wide have issued and endorsed consistent gasoline specifications (the Worldwide Fuel Charter, WWFC) to define fuel properties necessary to deliver enhanced emissions, performance and durability for your vehicle. We recommend the use of gasolines that meet the WWFC specifications if they are available.
REFORMULATED GASOLINE Many areas of the country require the use of cleaner burning gasoline referred to as “reformulated” gasoline. Reformulated gasoline contain oxygenates, and are specifically blended to reduce vehicle emissions and improve air quality. We strongly support the use of reformulated gasoline. Properly blended reformulated gasoline will provide excellent performance and durability for the engine and fuel system components.
GASOLINE/OXYGENATE BLENDS Some fuel suppliers blend unleaded gasoline with oxygenates such as 10% ethanol, MTBE, and ETBE. Oxygenates are required in some areas of the country during the winter months to reduce carbon monoxide emissions. Fuels blended with these oxygenates may be used in your vehicle. CAUTION: DO NOT use gasoline containing METHANOL. Gasoline containing methanol may damage critical fuel system components.
LUBRICATION & MAINTENANCE
MMT IN GASOLINE MMT is a manganese-containing metallic additive that is blended into some gasoline to increase octane. Gasoline blended with MMT provide no performance advantage beyond gasoline of the same octane number without MMT. Gasoline blended with MMT reduce spark plug life and reduce emission system performance in some vehicles. We recommend that gasolines free of MMT be used in your vehicle. The MMT content of gasoline may not be indicated on the gasoline pump; therefore, you should ask your gasoline retailer whether or not his/her gasoline contains MMT. It is even more important to look for gasoline without MMT in Canada because MMT can be used at levels higher than allowed in the United States. MMT is prohibited in Federal and California reformulated gasoline.
SULFUR IN GASOLINE If you live in the northeast United States, your vehicle may have been designed to meet California low emission standards with Cleaner-Burning California reformulated gasoline with low sulfur. If such fuels are not available in states adopting California emission standards, your vehicles will operate satisfactorily on fuels meeting federal specifications, but emission control system performance may be adversely affected. Gasoline sold outside of California is permitted to have higher sulfur levels which may affect the performance of the vehicle’s catalytic converter. This may cause the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL), Check Engine or Service Engine Soon light to illuminate. We recommend that you try a different brand of unleaded gasoline having lower sulfur to determine if the problem is fuel related prior to returning your vehicle to an authorized dealer for service. CAUTION: If the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL), Check Engine or Service Engine Soon light is flashing, immediate service is required; see on-board diagnostics system section.
MATERIALS ADDED TO FUEL All gasoline sold in the United States and Canada are required to contain effective detergent additives. Use of additional detergents or other additives is not needed under normal conditions.
LUBRICATION & MAINTENANCE
FLUID TYPES (Continued)
FUEL SYSTEM CAUTIONS CAUTION: Follow these guidelines to maintain your vehicle’s performance: • The use of leaded gas is prohibited by Federal law. Using leaded gasoline can impair engine performance, damage the emission control system, and could result in loss of warranty coverage. • An out-of-tune engine, or certain fuel or ignition malfunctions, can cause the catalytic converter to overheat. If you notice a pungent burning odor or some light smoke, your engine may be out of tune or malfunctioning and may require immediate service. Contact your dealer for service assistance. • When pulling a heavy load or driving a fully loaded vehicle when the humidity is low and the temperature is high, use a premium unleaded fuel to help prevent spark knock. If spark knock persists, lighten the load, or engine piston damage may result. • The use of fuel additives which are now being sold as octane enhancers is not recommended. Most of these products contain high concentrations of methanol. Fuel system damage or vehicle performance problems resulting from the use of such fuels or additives is not the responsibility of DaimlerChrysler Corporation and may not be covered under the new vehicle warranty. NOTE: Intentional tampering with emissions control systems can result in civil penalties being assessed against you.
CAUTION: Use of Propylene Glycol based coolants is not recommended, as they provide less freeze protection and less corrosion protection. The cooling system is designed around the coolant. The coolant must accept heat from engine metal, in the cylinder head area near the exhaust valves and engine block. Then coolant carries the heat to the radiator where the tube/fin radiator can transfer the heat to the air. The use of aluminum cylinder blocks, cylinder heads, and water pumps requires special corrosion protection. Mopart Antifreeze/Coolant, 5 Year/100,000 Mile Formula (MS-9769), or the equivalent ethylene glycol base coolant with organic corrosion inhibitors (called HOAT, for Hybrid Organic Additive Technology) is recommended. This coolant offers the best engine cooling without corrosion when mixed with 50% Ethylene Glycol and 50% distilled water to obtain a freeze point of -37°C (-35°F). If it loses color or becomes contaminated, drain, flush, and replace with fresh properly mixed coolant solution. CAUTION: MoparT Antifreeze/Coolant, 5 Year/100,000 Mile Formula (MS-9769) may not be mixed with any other type of antifreeze. Mixing of coolants other than specified (non-HOAT or other HOAT), may result in engine damage that may not be covered under the new vehicle warranty, and decreased corrosion protection.
DESCRIPTION - ENGINE COOLANT WARNING: ANTIFREEZE IS AN ETHYLENE GLYCOL BASE COOLANT AND IS HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED OR INHALED. IF SWALLOWED, DRINK TWO GLASSES OF WATER AND INDUCE VOMITING. IF INHALED, MOVE TO FRESH AIR AREA. SEEK MEDICAL ATTENTION IMMEDIATELY. DO NOT STORE IN OPEN OR UNMARKED CONTAINERS. WASH SKIN AND CLOTHING THOROUGHLY AFTER COMING IN CONTACT WITH ETHYLENE GLYCOL. KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN. DISPOSE OF GLYCOL BASE COOLANT PROPERLY, CONTACT YOUR DEALER OR GOVERNMENT AGENCY FOR LOCATION OF COLLECTION CENTER IN YOUR AREA. DO NOT OPEN A COOLING SYSTEM WHEN THE ENGINE IS AT OPERATING TEMPERATURE OR HOT UNDER PRESSURE, PERSONAL INJURY CAN RESULT. AVOID RADIATOR COOLING FAN WHEN ENGINE COMPARTMENT RELATED SERVICE IS PERFORMED, PERSONAL INJURY CAN RESULT.
The required ethylene-glycol (antifreeze) and water mixture depends upon climate and vehicle operating conditions. The coolant performance of various mixtures follows: Pure Water-Water can absorb more heat than a mixture of water and ethylene-glycol. This is for purpose of heat transfer only. Water also freezes at a higher temperature and allows corrosion. 100 percent Ethylene-Glycol-The corrosion inhibiting additives in ethylene-glycol need the presence of water to dissolve. Without water, additives form deposits in system. These act as insulation causing temperature to rise to as high as 149°C (300°F). This temperature is hot enough to melt plastic and soften solder. The increased temperature can result in engine detonation. In addition, 100 percent ethylene-glycol freezes at -22°C (-8°F). 50/50 Ethylene-Glycol and Water-Is the recommended mixture, it provides protection against freezing to -37°C (-34°F). The antifreeze concentration must always be a minimum of 44 percent, yearround in all climates. If percentage is lower, engine parts may be eroded by cavitation. Maximum protec-
Hello Thank you very much for your patience. At the bottom of the page there is a FREE ADD TO CART button. Click on it and you will get more free content. Please click here. Go back to the page.