Page 1

SERVICE MANUAL Crawler Dozer D255

Print No. 84568074A


D255 CRAWLER DOZER

Service Manual Print N° 84568074A English

THIS ALERT SYMBOL SIGNALS IMPORTANT MESSAGES INVOLVING YOUR SAFETY. Read and heed carefully the safety instructions listed and follow the precautions recommended to avoid potential risks and to safeguard your health and your safety. You will find this symbol in the text of this Manual referred to the following key words: WARNING - Cautions directed to avoid improper repair interventions involving potential consequences for the operator’s safety. DANGER - These warnings qualify specifically potential dangers for the safety of the operator or other persons directly or indirectly involved. IMPORTANT NOTICE All maintenance and repair interventions explained in this Manual must be performed exclusively by the Service Organization of the Manufacturer, observing strictly the instructions explained using, whenever necessary, the recommended specific tools. Whoever performs the operations reported without following exactly the precautions is responsible on his own, for the damages that may result. Neither the Factory nor any Organizations in its Distribution Network, including but not limited to national, regional or local distributors, are responsible for any liability arising from any damage resulting from defects caused by parts and/or components not approved by the Factory for use in maintaining and/or repairing products manufactured or merchandized by the Factory. In any case, no warranty of any kind is made or shall be imposed with respect to products manufactured or merchandized by the Factory, when failures are caused by the use of parts and/or components not approved by the Factory.

Study SAFETY RULES in the front of this manual thoroughly for the protection of machine and safety of personnel.


AVOID ACCIDENTS Most accidents and injuries occurring in industry, on the farm, at home or on the road, are caused by the failure of some individual to follow simple and fundamental safety rules or precautions. For this reason, MOST ACCIDENTS CAN BE PREVENTED by recognizing the real cause and taking the necessary precautions, before the accident occurs. Regardless of the care used in design and construction of any type of equipment, there may be conditions that cannot be completely safeguarded against without interfering with reasonable accessibility and efficient operation. A careful operator is the best insurance against accidents. The complete observance of one simple rule would prevent many thousands serious injuries each year. This rule is: Never attempt to clean, lubricate or adjust a machine while it is in motion.

WARNING On machines having hydraulically, mechanically and/or cable controlled equipment (such as showels, loaders, dozers, scrapers etc.) be certain the equipment is lowered to the ground before servicing, adjusting and/or repairing. If it is necessary to have the equipment partially or fully raised to gain access to certain items, be sure the equipment is suitably supported by means other than the hydraulic lift cylinders, cable and/or mechanical device used for controlling the equipment.

Study SAFETY RULES in the front of this manual thoroughly for the protection of machine and safety of personnel.


SUMMARY GENERALITIES

SECTION 0

ENGINE

SECTION 1

TRANSMISSION-TORQUE CONVERTER

SECTION 2

STEERING CLUTCHES - BRAKES

SECTION 3

FINAL DRIVES

SECTION 4

UNDERCARRIAGE

SECTION 5

DOZER EQUIPMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

SECTION 6

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

SECTION7

AIR CONDITIONING UNIT

SECTION 8

SECTION 8

SECTION 7 SECTION 1 SECTION 6

SECTION 3

SECTION 5

SECTION 2

SECTION 4


SECTION 0

GENERALITIES TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE

PAGE

SAFETY RULES ................................................................................................... I - VIII TECHNICAL DATA TABLES .................................................................................. 1 - 15 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS ................................................................................ 16 - 20 DIAGNOSTIC CHECKS ............................................................................................... 21 MEASURE UNITS ....................................................................................................... 22 CLASSIFICATION OF STANDARD PARTS ................................................................ 22 TIGHTENING TORQUES ............................................................................................ 23


WARNING Study this Manual before starting, operating, maintaining, fuelling or servicing the machine. Read and heed all safety rules before any intervention. SAFETY RULES - Do not allow unauthorised personnel to operate service or maintain this machine.

- Be sure all protective guards or panels are in place, and all safety devices provided are in place and in good operating conditions.

- Do not wear rings, wrist watches, jewellery, loose or hanging apparels, such as ties, torn clothing, scarves, unbuttoned or unzipped jackets that can catch on moving parts. Wear proper safety equipment as recommended for the job. Examples: hard hat, heavy gloves, ear protection, safety glasses or goggles, reflector vests, respirator. Consult your employer for specific safety equipment requirements.

- Be sure exposed personnel in the area of operation are clear of the machine before moving it or its attachments. WALK COMPLETELY AROUND the machine before mounting. Sound horn. Obey flag man, safety signals and signs. - Before starting machine, check, adjust and lock the operator’s seat for maximum comfort and control of the machine.

- Keep operator’s compartment, stepping points, grabrails and handles clear of foreign objects, oil, grease, mud or snow accumulation to minimize the danger of slipping or stumbling. Clean mud or grease from shoes before attempting to mount or operate the machine.

- Fasten your seat belt (when provided). - Obey all flag signals and signs. - Due to the presence on the machine of flammable fluids, never check or fill fuel reservoirs or batteries near open flames, smoking materials or sparks.

- Do not jump on or off the machine. Keep two hands and one foot, or two feet and one hand in contact with step grab rails and handles at all times.

- REMEMBER THAT STARTING FLUID IS FLAMMABLE. Follow recommendations printed on containers and in the Operation and Maintenance Manual.

- Do not use controls or hoses as hand holds when climbing on or off machine. Hoses and controls are movable and do not provide a solid support. Controls also may be inadvertently moved causing accidental machine or equipment movement.

- DO NOT PUNCTURE OR BURN CONTAINERS.

- Never attempt to operate the machine or its tools from any position other than seated in the operator’s seat.

- Containers must be stored in fresh, well ventilated places, out of reach of unauthorised persons. Follow strictly the instructions provided by the Manufacturer.

- Keep head, body, limbs, hands and feet inside operator’s compartment at all times to reduce exposure to hazards outside the operator’s compartment.

- Never use these preducts near open flames, smoking materials or sparks.

- Be careful of slippery conditions on stepping points, hand rails, and on the ground. Wear safety boots or shoes that have a high slip resistant sole material.

OPERATION

- Do not leave the machine until it is completely stopped.

- Do not run the engine of this machine in closed areas without proper ventilation to remove deadly exhaust gases.

- Check the seat safety belt at least twice a year. If there are signs of wear or fraying or other signs of weakness that could lead to failure, replace it.

- Roll Over Protective Structures are required on loaders, dozers, graders, excavators. NEVER OPERATE machines without ROPS.

STARTING

- Make sure the Operator’s compartment is free of foreign objects, especially if not firmly secured. Never use the machine to transport objects, unless proper securing points are provided.

- NEVER START OR OPERATE AN UNSAFE MACHINE. Before operating a machine, always ensure that any unsafe condition has been satisfactorily remedied.

- Check monitoring instruments at start-up and frequently during operation if the brake pressure gauge sugnals a pressure lower than the minimum operation value, stop immediately the machine.

- Check brakes, steering and attachment controls before moving. Advise the proper maintenance authority of any malfunctioning part or system.

I


SAFETY RULES

- DO NOT CARRY RIDERS ON MACHINE

- Be sure chains and cables are anchored and the anchor points are strong enough to handle the expected load. Keep exposed personnel clear of anchor points and cables or chains.

- Study and familiarize with escape routes alternate to normal exit routes. - Seat belts are required to be provided with Roll Over Protection Structures or cabs. Keep safety belts fastened around you during operation.

- DO NOT PULL UNLESS OPERATOR’s COMPARTMENT OF MACHINES INVOLVED ARE PROPERLY GUARDED AGAINST POTENTIAL CABLE OR CHAIN BACKLASH.

- For your personal protection, do not climb on or off machine while machine in motion.

- Be alert to soft ground conditions close to newly constructed walls. The fill material and weight of the machine may cause the wall collapse under the machine.

- Make sure that exposed persons in the area of operation are clear of the machine, before starting the engine and operating the equipment. Obey all indications provided by flags and signals.

- In darkness, check area of operation carefully before moving in with machine. Use all lights provided. Do not move into area of restricted visibility.

- NEVER COAST the machine down grades and slopes with the transmission in neutral or neutralized, or power shift type machines, or clutch disengaged on manually shifted machines.

- If engine has a tendency to stall for any reason under load or idle, report this for adjustment to proper maintenance authority immediately. Do not continue to operate machine, until condition has been corrected.

- Do not operate machinery in a condition of extreme fatigue or illness. Be especially careful towards the end of working shift. - Do not operate machine with brakes out of adjustment.

- On machines supplied with suction radiator fans, be sure to periodically check engine exhaust parts for leaks, as exhaust fumes are dangerous to the operator.

- Operate the machine at speeds slow enough to ensure complete control at all times.

- In case of enclosed cabs, always let open a discharge to the outside, to ensure air circulation.

- Travel slowly over rough terrain, on slopes or near dropoffs, in congested areas or on ice or slippery surfaces.

- Operators must know thoroughly the performances of the machine they are operating. When working on slopes or near sudden level drops of the terrain, avoid areas where ground is loose or soft since rolling-over or loss of control of machine could result.

- When backing, always look to where the machine is to be moved. Be alert to the position of exposed personnel. DO NOT OPERATE if exposed personnel enter the immediate work area. STOP THE MACHINE.

- Where noise exposure exceeds 90 dBA for 8 hours, wear approved ear protection.

- Maintain a safe distance from other machines. Provide sufficient clearance for ground and visibility conditions. Yield right-of-way to loaded machines.

- When counterweights are provided, do not work machine if they have been removed. - Overtaking manoeuvres must be performed only when absolutely necessary and unavoidable. Beware of possible uneven terrains, poor visibility conditions, the presence of other machinery or persons out of sight.

- Maintain clear vision of areas of travel or work. Keep cab windows clean and repaired. - When machines are operating in tandem, the pusher (rear) must be equipped with the appropriate deflectors to protect the unit in front from the air stream coming from the radiator.

- Operate the machine at a speed adequate to the working conditions in the site and slow enough to ensure complete control at all times.

- When pulling or towing through a cable or chain, do not start suddenly at full throttle; take-up slack carefully. Inspect carefully for flaws or troubles before using.

- Check monitoring instruments at start-up and frequently during operations. In case of abnormal condition warnings, stop immediately the machine.

- Avoid kinking chains or cables. Do not pull through a kinked chain or cable to the high stresses and possibility of failure of the kinked area. Always wear heavy gloves when handling chains or cables.

- Never use the machine as a work platform or scaffolding, nor other inappropriate operations (i.e pushing railway cars, trucks or other machines).

II


SAFETY RULES

- Be alert of people in the operating area of the machine. When operating a machine, know what clearances will be encountered, overhead doors, cables, pipes, bearing load limitations of ground, bridges, floors or ramps.

- Be alert to avoid changes in traction conditions that could cause loss of control. DO NOT DRIVE on ice or frozen ground conditions when working the machine on steep slopes or near drop-offs.

- When roading, find-out what conditions are likely to be encountered, clearances, traffic congestion, type of road surfacing, etc. Beware of fog, smoke or dust elements that obscure visibility.

- Working in virgin and rough terrains is characterized by the presence of all the perils and risks listed above. In these conditions, it is emphasised the danger represented by large tree limbs (possibly falling on the machine), large roots (acting as a leverage under the machine when up-rooted causing the roll-over of the unit) etc..

- When crossing gullies or ditches, move at an angle with reduced speed after ensuring ground conditions will permit a safe traverse.

STOPPING

- Explore the working area to identify potential risks such as: slopes, overhangs, pits, demolition rubble, fires, ravines, ditches, soft terrain, heavy traffic, crowded parking areas, closed ambients. In such conditions, proceed with extreme care.

- When the machine is stopped for whatever reason, follow the instructions of chapters “Stopping the machine” and “Stopping the engine” of the Operation and Maintenance Instruction Manual.

- Whenever possible, avoid going over obstacles such as rough terrain, rocks, logs highly irregular ground, steps, ditches, railroad tracks. When obstructions must be crossed, do so with extreme care at an angle, if possible. Reduce speed, shift-down. Ease up to the break over point, pass the balance point slowly on the obstruction and ease down on the other side.

- Always remember to position the transmission drive control in neutral and engage the control lock to secure the machine. - Set parking brake. - NEVER LEAVE THE MACHINE UNATTENTED with the engine running.

- In steep down-hill operation, do not allow engine to overspeed. Select proper gear before starting down grade.

- Always before leaving the operator’s seat and after making sure all people are clear of the machine, slowly lower the attachments or tools flat to the ground in a positive ground support position.

- Avoid side hill travel, whenever possible. Drive up and down the slope. Should the machine slipping sideways, turn it immediately downhill.

- Return the controls in neutral position. Place the gearshift lever in neutral and shut-off the engine. Lock the gearshift lever, switch-off and lock the starter switch.

- The grade of slope you should attempt will be limited by factors such as condition of the ground, load being handled, type of machine, speed of machine and visibility.

- Park in a non- operating and no-traffic area or as instructed. Park on firm level ground if possible. Where not possible, position machine at a right angle to the slope, making sure there is no danger of uncontrolled sliding movements. Set parking brake.

- There is no substitute for good judgement when working on slopes. - Avoid operating equipment too close to an overhang or high wall, either above or below the machine. Be on the look-out for caving edges, falling objects and slides. Beware of concealment by brush and undergrowth of these danger.

- If parking in traffic lanes cannot be avoided, provide appropriate flags, barriers, flares and signals as required. Also provide advance warning signals in the traffic lane of approaching traffic.

- When pushing-over trees, the machine must be equipped with proper overhead guarding. Never allow a machine to climb up on the root structure particularly while the tree is being felled. Use extreme care when pushing over any tree with dead branches.

- Keep head, body, limbs, hands and feet away from blade, arms, bucket or ripper when in raised position. Always disconnect the master switch before any intervention (i.e. cleaning, repairing, maintaining, refuelling etc.). Do the same when parking for prolonged periods of time to avoid accidental or unauthorized starting.

- Avoid brush piles, logs or rocks. NEVER DRIVE OVER THEM or other surface irregularities that brake traction with the ground, especially when on slopes or near dropoffs.

- Never lower attachments or tools other than seated in operator’s seat. Sound horn. Make sure area near the attachment is clear. Lower the attachment slowly. DO NOT USE FLOAT POSITION of hydraulic system.

III


SAFETY RULES

- Keep shoes free of mud or grease before climbing or driving the machine.

- Securely block the machine and lock it every time you leave it unattended. Return keys to authorized security. Heed all shut-down operations of the Operation and Maintenance Instruction Manual are followed. Every time you leave the machine, engage parking brake (if equipping unit).

- Never attempt to operate the machine or its tools from any position other than seated in the operator’s seat. - When maintenance operations require moving hydraulically operated attachments by means of machine’s hydraulic system remember that all manoeuvres must be made only when seated in the operator’s seat. Before starting machine or moving attachment or tools, set brakes, sound horn and call for an all clear. Raise attachment slowly.

MAINTENANCE

- Always block with external supportsany linkage or part on machine that requires work under the raised linkage, part or machine . Never allow anyone to walk under or be near unblocked raised equipment. Unless your are positively sure that total safe condition exist, avoid staying under raised equipment, even if blocked.

GENERALITIES - Before operating or performing any intervention on the machine: - read carefully all the rules contained by this Manual; - read and obey all safety related plates and instructions located on the machine.

- Never place head, body, limbs, fingers, feet or hands into exposed portions between uncontrolled or unguarded scissor points of machine without first providing secure blocking.

- Do not allow unauthorized personnel to perform any maintenance operation. Do not perform maintenance operation without prior authorization. Follow all recommended maintenance and service procedures.

- Never perform interventions with engine running, except as called for in a Manual. Do not wear loose clothing or jewellery near moving parts.

- Keep operator’s compartment free of all loose objects that are not properly secured.

- When servicing or maintenance require access to areas that cannot be reached from the ground, use a ladder or step platform that meet local and national regulations, to reach the service point. If such ladder or platform are not available, use the machine hand holds and steps as provided. Perform all service or maintenance carefully.

- Do not wear rings, wrist watches, jewellery, loose or hanging apparels, such as ties, torn clothing, scarves, unbuttoned or unzipped jackets that can catch on moving parts. Wear proper safety equipment as recommended for the job. Examples: hard hat, heavy gloves, ear protection, safety glasses or goggles, reflector vests, respirator. Consult your employer for specific safety equipment requirements.

- Shop and/or field service platforms or ladders must be constructed and maintained in accordance with local and national regulations. - Disconnect batteries and TAG all controls according to current regulations to warn that work is in progress. Block machine and all attachments that must be raised according to current regulations. Due to the presence of flammable fluids, never check or fill fuel tanks, batteries, nor use starting fluid near lighted smoking materials or open flames.

- Do not use controls or hoses as handholds when climbing on or off the machine. These components are movable and do not provide a solid support. Controls may also be moved unintentionally causing accidental machine or equipment movements. - Do not jump on or off the machine. Keep two hands and one foot, or two feet and one hand in contact with steps and grab rails and handles at all times.

- BRAKES ARE INOPERATIVE when manually released for servicing. Provisions must be made to maintain control of the machine by blocking or other means.

- Do not perform any service operation on the machine with a person seated in the operator’s compartment, unless he is an authorized operator co-operating in the operation to be performed.

- The fuel filling nose must be kept constantly inside the filling neck. Keep this contact from the beginning to the end of the fuelling operation to avoid the possibility that sparks due to static electricity are generated.

- Keep operator’s compartment, stepping points, grabrails and handles clear of foreign objects, oil, grease, mud or snow accumulation to minimize the danger of slipping or stumbling. Clean mud or grease from shoes before attempting to mount or operate the machine.

- Use only designated towing or attaching points. Use care in making attachments. Make sure pins and/or locks are secure before pulling. Stay clear of drawbars, cables or chains under load.

IV


SAFETY RULES

- For field service, move machine to level ground, if possible, and block it. If work on an incline is absolutely necessary, first block machine and its attachments securely, than move it to level ground as soon as possible.

- To move a disabled machine, use a trailer or a low-boy, if available. In case towing is needed , use all necessary signals required by local and national regulations, and follow the directions provided in this Manual. - To load/unload a machine from transporter, choose a level surface ensuring firm support to the wheels of truck or trailer. Use strong access ramps, with adequate height and angle. Keep surface free of mud, oil or slippery materials.

- Do not trust worn and /or kinked chains and cables: do not use them for lifting or pulling operations. To handle them, always use heavy gloves. - Avoid kinking chains or cables. Do not pull through a kinked chain or cable to the high stresses and possibility of failure of the kinked area. Always wear heavy gloves when handling chains or cables.

- Anchor the machine securely to the bed of truck or trailer and block wheels or tracks with appropriate wedges. - Never align holes with fingers or hands; always use appropriate aligning tools.

- Be sure chains and cables are anchored and the anchor points are strong enough to handle the expected load.

- Eliminate all sharp edges and burrs from re-worked parts.

- Keep exposed personnel clear of anchor points and cables or chains.

- Use only approved grounded auxiliary power sources for heaters, chargers, pumps and similar equipment to reduce the hazards of electrical shocks.

- DO NOT PULL UNLESS OPERATOR’s COMPARTMENT OF MACHINES INVOLVED ARE PROPERLY GUARDED AGAINST POTENTIAL CABLE OR CHAIN BACKLASH.

- Lift and handle heavy parts with a lifting device of proper capacity. Be sure parts are supported by proper slings and hooks. Use lifting eyes if provided. Watch-out for people in the vicinity.

- Keep the area where maintenance operations are performed CLEAN and DRY. Eliminate immediately all water and oil spillages.

- Never pour gasoline or diesel fuel into open, wide and low containers. Never use gasoline, solvent or other flammable fluid to clean parts. Use exclusively qualified, non-flammable, non-toxic commercial solvents.

- Do not pile oily or greasy rags; they represent a fire hazard. Store in closed metal container. - Before starting machine, check, adjust and lock the operator’s seat for maximum comfort and control of the machine. Be sure exposed personnel in the area of operation are clear of the machine before moving it or its attachments. Sound horn.

- When using compressed air for cleaning parts, use safety glasses with side shields or goggles. Limit pressure to 2 bar, in accordance with local and national regulations. - Do not run the engine in closed areas without proper ventilation to remove deadly exhaust fumes.

- Rust inhibitors are volatile and flammable Use only in well ventilated areas. Keep open flames away - DO NOT SMOKE - Store containers in a cool well ventilated place, secure against unauthorised personnel.

- Do not smoke or permit any open flames or spark near when re-fuelling or handling flammable materials. - Do not use an open flame as a light source to look for leaks or for inspection anywhere on the machine.

- Do not carry loose objects in pockets that might fall unnoticed into open compartments.

- Make sure that all mechanic’s tools are in good conditions. NEVER USE tools with mushroomed heads or frayed. Always wear eye protections.

- Wear proper protective equipment such as safety goggles or safety glasses with side shields, hard hat, safety shoes, heavy gloves when metal or other particles are apt to fly or fall.

- Move with extreme care when working under the machine, its attachments and or on or near them. Always wear protective safety equipment as required, such as hard hat, goggles, safety shoes, ear plugs.

- Wear welders protective equipment such as dark safety glasses, helmets, protective clothing, gloves and safety shoes, when welding or burning. Wear dark safety glasses near welding zones. DO NOT LOOK AT ARC WITHOUT PROPER EYE PROTECTION.

- When performing operations requiring running of the engine, have a qualified operator in the operator’s seat at all times with the mechanic on sight. Place the transmission in neutral and set the brakes and safety lock. KEEP HANDS AND CLOTHING AWAY FROM MOVING PARTS.

V


SAFETY RULES

- Know your jacking equipment and its capacity. Be sure the jacking point used on the machine is appropriate for the load to be applied. Be sure the support of the jack at the machine and under jack is appropriate and stable. Loads lifted by hydraulic jacks are always dangerous. Transfer load to appropriate blocking as a safety measure, before proceeding with service or maintenance work, according to local or national regulations.

- Do not adjust engine fuel pump when machine is moving. - Do not lubricate the machine with engine running. - Do not run the engine with air intakes, door or protections open.

- Steel cables are frayed after prolonged use; always wear appropriate protections (heavy gloves, goggles etc.).

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

- Handle all parts carefully. Keep hands and fingers away from structures, gears or moving parts. Use and wear always the appropriate protections

- Always disconnect batteries prior to any intervention on machine or electrical system (cleaning, repair, maintenance).

- Compressed air systems can have water deposits created by moisture condensation due to changes of atmospheric conditions. If required, discharge deposits, as instructed.

- Should booster batteries be used, remember to connect both ends of the booster cables in the proper manner (+) with (+) and (-) with (-). Avoid short-circuits of the terminals. Follow thoroughly the instructions of this Manual. - Before any intervention, make sure that the main switch is OFF.

STARTING

- BATTERY GAS IS HIGHLY FLAMMABLE. Leave battery box open to improve ventilation when recharging batteries. Never check charge by placing metal objects across the posts. Keep sparks or open flames away from batteries. Do not smoke near battery to guard against the possibility of causing an explosion.

- Do not run the engine in closed areas without proper ventilation to remove deadly exhaust fumes. - Do not place head, body, limbs, feet, hands or fingers, near rotating fans or belts. Be especially alert near pusher fans.

- Before any intervention, make sure that there are no fuel or electrolyte leakages; eliminate them before proceeding with further work. Do not charge batteries in closed areas: ensure enough ventilation to prevent the possibility of accidental explosions due to accumulation of gases generated during the recharging.

- REMEMBER THAT STARTING FLUID IS FLAMMABLE. Follow recommendations printed on containers and in the Operation and Maintenance Manual. - Containers must be stored in fresh, well ventilated places, out of reach of unauthorised persons. Follow strictly the instructions provided by the Manufacturer. DO NOT PUNCTURE OR BURN CONTAINERS.

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

ENGINE

- Fluid escaping under pressure from a very small hole can be almost invisible and can have sufficient force to penetrate the skin. Use a piece of cardboard or wood to search for suspected pressure leaks. DO NOT USE HANDS. If injured by escaping fluid, see a doctor at once. Serious infection or reaction can develop if proper medical treatment is not administered immediately.

- Loosen the radiator cap very slowly, to release pressure from the system, before removing it. All coolant level topups must be performed with engine OFF. - Avoid that flammable materials touch exhaust parts. Should this be possible, provide the necessary protections.

- Stop the engine and release all pressures in the system before removing panels, housings, plugs or covers.

- Do not run engine when refuelling and use care if the engine is hot due to the increased possibility of a fire if fuel is spilled.

- In case pressures must be measured, use instruments of adequate capacity. Always follow the recommended procedures.

- Never attempt to check or adjust fan belts when engine is running.

VI


SAFETY RULES

TOOLS - Keep head, body, limbs, feet, fingers or hands away from bucket, blade or ripper when in raised position.

- Clutches and brakes of this machine and eventual auxiliary equipment and attachments (such as operating cylinder or winches control valves) must always be properly adjusted in accordance with the instructions provided by the Manuals of the Manufacturer. Never perform adjustments with engine running, except when called for by the above instructions.

- Prior to any intervention, install all safety devices according to current rules and regulations. In case equipment on the machine must be operated by hydraulic systems, remember to proceed only after seating in the operator’s compartment. Make sure that there are no persons in the operating area of the machine. Alert people before operating using the horn and by voice. Move the equipment very carefully.

- Do not proceed with adjustments with engine running, unless required by prescribed procedures. - When changing work shifts, check that there are no screws and/or mounting brackets loose. If required tighten as instructed in this publication.

- Do not use machine to transport loose objects, unless proper devices for this purpose are provided.

WARNING On machines having hydraulically, mechanically, and/or cable controlled equipment (such as shovels, loaders, dozers, excavators etc.) be certain the equipment is lowered to the ground before servicing, adjusting and/or repairing. If it is necessary to have the hydraulically, mechanically, and/or cable controlled equipment partially or fully raised to gain access to certain items, be sure the equipment is suitably supported by means other than the hydraulic lift cylinders, cable and/or mechanical devices used for controlling the equipment.

VII


SAFETY RULES

SAFETY RULES FOR SEALS VITON SEALS (fluoro - elastomer) 2) check the type of material of the seals to identify if they are made with Viton, performing the test illustrated in the enclosure, on spare parts;

Seals, especially Viton made O-rings Normally coloured red) are used in systems operating at high temperatures, considering the resistance of this material to the effects of heat. However, should this material be subject to temperatures exceeding 315 °C (600 °F) - in practice only in case of a fire or subject to the flame of an oxyacetylene torch hydrofluoric acid is generated. This acid is highly corrosive and can cause severe burns if in contact with the skin. every time it is necessary to intervene on components equipped with Viton rings, and there is the suspicion that they have been exposed to excessive temperatures the following procedures must be applied:

3) if it was found or there is a reasonable doubt that Viton made components are involved, the contaminated area MUST be decontaminated prior to proceeding with further operations; 4) wear neoprene or PVC gloves and protective glasses or face shield, wash accurately the contaminated area with a solution of water lime (available at tile stores) dissolved in water until a milky looking liquid is obtained. Rinse accurately with steam or running water;

1) inspect visually, without touching them, all seals that appear to be damaged by excessive heat. They appear black and sticky;

5) eliminate the materials removed and the protective gloves in safe manner avoiding burning them.

TEST TO DISTINGUISH RUBBER MATERIAL (BUNA N) FROM "VITON" (FLUORO ELASTOMER)

WATER

WATER

TRICHLOROETHYLENE

NITRIL RUBBER / BUNA N

"VITON" FLUORO ELASTOMER

FLOATS

SINKS

VIII


D255 CRAWLER DOZER

TECHNICAL DATA TABLES


D 255

0-1

460

2315

2296

3420

TECHNICAL DATA TABLES

550 2070

175

2973

2770

4465

2940

4490

1220

700 688

3800

5415 5855 ±5

530

1500 800

BULLDOZER HSU + RIPPER

°3

0'

4460

1300

5360 5800

NOTE:

- MACHINE IN OPERATING CONDITIONS - HEIGHT OF GROUSERS: 71.4 mm - The figure includes optional tools

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual

±1

560

700

1100

ANGLEDOZER

L. 502


TECHNICAL DATA TABLES

0-2

D 255

Overall lenght (bare tractor)

mm

4 490

Overall lenght (with semi-U blade)

mm

5855

Overall lenght (with angledozer blade)

mm

5 800

Overall width (bare tractor)

mm

2 940

Overall width (with semi-U blade)

mm

3650

Overall width (with angledozer blade)

mm

4 460

Overall height (to tip of exhaust pipe)

mm

3 400

Overall height (with ROPS cab)

mm

3 420

Track gauge

mm

2 070

Minimum distance from ground

mm

460

Lenght of track on ground

mm

2 973

Track shoe width

mm

550

Shipping weight (including ROPS cab, blade lift cylinders, lubricants, coolant, 10% fuel)

kg

21 845

Operating weight with semi-U (HSU) blade and ROPS cab

kg

27000

Operating weight with angle (HA) blade, ROPS cab and ripper

kg

26 400

Fwd 1st Fwd 2nd Fwd 3rd

km/h km/h km/h

3.7 6.1 10.9

Rev 1st Rev 2nd Rev 3rd

km/h km/h km/h

4.4 7.2 12.6

DIMENSIONS

MASS

SPEEDS

Inside cab standard (Lpa)

ISO 6394 CEE 86/662

dB dB

83 83

Outside (Lwa)

ISO 6394 CEE 86/662

dB dB

113 113

With semi-U (HSU) blade and ROPS

bar

0.8085

With angle (HA) blade, ROPS cab and ripper

bar

0.791

With semi-U (HSU) blade, ROPS cab and ripper

bar

0.910

degree

45

NOISE LEVEL PERFORMANCE (Track shoes width 550 mm)

GROUND PRESSURE

GRADEABILITY

(1st speed)

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


D 255

0-3

TECHNICAL DATA TABLES Model

CUMMINS 6CTAA8.3

Type

Diesel, 4 - cycle, direct injection, turbocharged, aftercooled

Bore x stroke

114 x 135 mm

Displacement

8268 cm3

Number of cylinders Net flywheel power (SAE J1349) Net flywheel power (DIN 6270)

177 kW at 2200 rpm 240 CV / 179 kW at 2200 rpm

Net flywheel power (ISO 9249)

177 kW at 2200 rpm

Net flywheel power (CEE 80/1269)

177 kW at 2200 rpm

Max torque Governed speed Low idling

114,6 daN m (101 kgm) at 1400 rpm 2200 rpm 890 rpm

Fuel consumption ratio (max torque)

205 gr / kWh

Cranking motor

24 V - 7.5 kW

Alternator ENGINE

6

Battery

28 V - 65 A 12 V - 180 Ah x 2

Radiator

Air - water with tubes and line cores

Core size

1090 x 874 x 114 mm

Radiator cap pressure Fan Air cleaner

Muffler

0.75 bar Blower steel sheet, 7 blades, diameter 900 mm Dry type, two state with safety element and centrifugal separator, restrictor indicator Horizontal type with dust ejector, dimensions 258 x 545 mm

Aftercooler

Air - air with tubes and line cores

Core size

552 x 555 x 82 mm - Aluminium

ATH Air flow Max pressure Fan

Torque converter

POWER TRAIN SYSTEM

Transmission

-100 °C 23 kg/min 4 bar diameter 500 mm 1 stage, 1 fase, diameter 16" Stall ratio 3.28 : 1 Impeller shaft moves thru a set of gear: – implement pump – transmission pump + converter pump + oil recovery pump – steering clutches pump Countershaft, full power shift with remote hydraulic pilot control, 3 gears forward and 3 gears reverse obtained through 5 multidisc clutches actuated by single piston. Transmission with 3 clutches having centrifugal valves. FWD and REV modulating valves, speeds engagement modulating valve.

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


0-4

D 255

TECHNICAL DATA TABLES Torque converter - transmission pump

Combined with converter oil circulation pump and oil recovery pump

Capacity (2100 rpm)

96.5 l/min

Rated pressure

14 bar

Full flow (including lubrication)

Transmission filters

Suction Return

Transmission regulating valve

193 l/min Metal gauze and magnetic rod 100 micron filter capacity, without by-pass Paper type with by-pass valve Mounted on converter case

Relief valve pressure (at 10 l/min flow) Safety hand lever valve

In lock position inhibits the gear engagement and the engine cranking, and applies the parking brakes

Pilot control valve (manipulator)

On - off type with hydraulic detents. Semi-open pattern.

Position

POWER TRAIN SYSTEM

10 Âą 0.5 bar

Drive shaft Nominal lenght Power take - off provvision

Max output torque capacity (@ 0 output rpm) Max output speed (@ 0 output torque) N. of splines Module Bevel gear set Ratio Steering clutch N. of friction discs

3FWD – 3REV

2FWD N 2REV

Two U-joint and telescopic shaft type 256 mm Output from transmission reverse gear shaft. CW rotation, viewed from the rear side of the machine 241.5 daN m 2277 rpm 24 2.58 Straddle mounted pinion. Modular assembly 13 / 38 = 1 : 1.293 Multidisc, wet type, spring actuated, hydraulically released 11 (each clutch)

Total single friction area

7612 cm2

Disc I.D.

280 mm

Disc O.D.

350 mm

Friction material

1FWD N 1REV

Sinterized

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


D 255

0-5

TECHNICAL DATA TABLES

Brake

Wet, Single band, bi-directional. Brake mechanism is actuated by a spring and released by the transmission oil system, in the braking operation. It is actuated by steering system during the steering operation. The band wear is recovered with automatic adjuster device. Warning output light for excessive wear.

Drum diameter

406 mm

Band width

130 mm

Total friction area

1604 cm2

Final drive

Countershaft double reduction

Ratio

1 : 12.410

Sprocket

9 bolt-on segment type

Total N. of teeth POWER TRAIN SYSTEM

27

Pitch diameter

936.62 mm

Tooth width

95 mm

Steering and braking control system

The steering system is operated by two hand levers installed on the left side of the operator compartment. The lever travel, applies a modulated pressure in the steering control valve obtaining two proportional pressures. First pressure operate the disengagement of steering clutch. Second pressure is equal to zero until the first pressure reaches 17.5 bar (50% of lever travel) than applies positively the steering brakes. The service brake system is operated negatively by a brake pedal. Pedal acutation cuts with modulation the back pressure of the brake piston and applies, with springs, the brakin load.

Steering system pump

Gear type

Flow (@ rated engine speed)

65.5 l/min

Rated pressure

Steering system filters

38 Âą 38.7 bar Suction Return

Metal gauze and magnetic rod 100 micron filter capacity, without by-pass. Spin on type with by-pass valve 10 micron filter capacity.

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


0-6

Track frames

Box section type, oscillating beam is supported by resilient pads on the forward portion of the track frame. Rear of track frame pivots about sprocket shaft.

Track oscillation (total travel of idler wheel) Lubrication system TRACK

D 255

TECHNICAL DATA TABLES

410 mm Rollers, idlers, sprocket, pins and bushing, sealed and permanently lubricated.

Idlers

With hydraulic track adjuster

Carrier roller (each side)

2

Track roller (each side)

7

Track shoe 550 mm (600 mm - 700 mm)

Assembly type single grouser, 41 on each side.

Grouser height

71.4

Link pitch

MAIN HYDRAULIC PUMP

MAIN CONTROL VALVE

216 mm

Type

Gear type

Capacity at governed speed

2121 l/min

Relief valve pressure

190 bar

Type

Three spools Lower - raise - float control. Blade left and right tilt control. Available for rear additional implement control.

Specifications

Tandem circuit, flow reduction valve on tilt circuit. Capacity 70 l/min (nominal), safety valves on each circuit.

IMPLEMENTS HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

FRONT IMPLEMENT SINGLE CONTROL LEVER

HYDRAULIC TANK

Functions

Type

LH TILT

LOWER + FLOAT (w/DETENT)

RH TILT

LH TILT

NEUTRAL

RH TILT

LH TILT

RAISE

RH TILT

Box type. Joint with fuel tank.

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


D 255

TECHNICAL DATA TABLES

HYDRAULIC TANK FILTERS

IMPLEMENTS HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

LIFT CYLINDERS

Suction

Immersed in tank, metal gauze and 250 micron filter capacity, with by-pass (pressure cal. 0.2 bar).

Return

Immersed in tank, microfiber type and 10 micron filter capacity with by-pass (pressure cal. 2.5 bar).

Type

Double acting. Stroke end valves and quick drop valves on cylinders heads.

Cylinder bore

110 mm

Piston stroke

1302 mm

Outiside diameter of piston rod

63 mm

Max. distance between pins

1982 mm

Min. distance between pins

980 mm

Type

Multiple box section with lower reversible cutting sectors and lower edge reinforced with ribbings.

Blade support

Brace type (tilt cylinder on right). Equistatic device for uniformstress distribution on push beams.

. DIMENSIONS

IMPLEMENT (BULLDOZER)

0-7

PERFORMANCE

Blade width

3800 mm

Blade height

1500 mm

Max. lifting height from ground

1220 mm

Max. lowering depth from ground

530 mm

Max. tilt

800 mm

Cutting angle range

5° 30'

Moldboard volume

7 m3

Raising average velocity (2100 rpm)

0.371 m/s

Type

TILT - HYDR. CYLINDER (BULLDOZER)

Double acting

Cilynder bore

160 mm

Piston stroke

140 mm

Outside diameter of piston rod

80 mm

Max. distance between pins

1150 mm

Min. distance between pins

1010 mm

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


TECHNICAL DATA TABLES

0-8 Type

Hydraulic angledozer. Multiple box section with lower reversible cutting sectors and lower edge reinforced with ribbings.

Blade support

.

DIMENSIONS

PERFORMANCE IMPLEMENT (ANGLEDOZER)

C - frame, welded box section. Blade width

4460 mm

Blade height

1100 mm

Max. lifting height from ground

1300 mm

Max. lowering depth from ground

560 mm

Max. tilt

700 mm

Cutting angle range

5°

Moldboard volume

4.1 m3

Raising average velocity (2100 rpm)

0.394 m/s

Type

TILT - HYDR. CYLINDER (BULLDOZER)

Double acting

Cilynder bore

140 mm

Piston stroke

124 mm

Outside diameter of piston rod

80 mm

Max. distance between pins

1569 mm

Min. distance between pins

1445 mm

Type

N. of shanks IMPLEMENT (RIPPER)

D 255

Bore x piston rod diameter

Parallelogram type ripper PD20 two double acting cylinders. Cylinders support and tool beam in box section weld fabricated structure (three positions adjustable) 3 125 x 70 mm

Stroke

590 mm

Closed lenght

1015 mm

Extended lenght

1605 mm

Penetration force

48150 daN

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


D 255

TECHNICAL DATA TABLES

0-9

MASS Engine assembly

1230 kg

Radiator assembly

140 kg

Fuel and hydraulic tank assembly

320 kg

Rear transmission housing

3953 kg

Steering control valve assembly

10 kg

Torque converter assembly

–

Transmission assembly

726 kg

Final drive assembly (each side)

–

Hull frame assembly

2000 kg

Track frame (each side)

1070 kg

Idler assembly (each side)

230 kg

Track roller assembly (single board)

18.5 kg x 5

Track roller assembly (double board)

19.3 kg x 2

Carrier roller assembly Track shoe assembly (each side)

52 kg x 2 550 mm wet type

1910 kg

Main control valve assembly

37 kg

Engine flap door

31 kg

Transmission underguard (front)

40 kg

Transmission underguard (rear)

41 kg

Gear box underguard

30 kg

Straight tildozer assembly

1340 kg

Blade angle

1810 kg

Blade HSU

2090 kg

C - frame angle

1460 kg

Tilt cylinder assembly

170 kg

Blade lift cylinder assembly

180 kg x 2

Cab assembly

650 kg

Rops support

644 kg

Battery (each)

49 kg

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


TECHNICAL DATA TABLES

0 - 10

D 255

FLUIDS AND LUBRICANTS

ITEM

Q.TY (Liter)

COOLING SYSTEM

FUEL TANK

ENGINE

FLUIDS AND LUBRIFICANT AMBRA

REFILL (International classification)

VISCOSITY

AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (C°)

50-50 mixture of water coolant. Has adequate protection against: xidation foaming, corrosion, scaling and freezing down to -35 °C

Agriflu mixed with 50% water protects down to -35 °C

65

AGRIFLU (50%)

495

Diesel fuel ASTM No. 2-D type TT of good quality and brand

MasterGold HSP

API CH-4 ACEA E5

SAE 15W-40

-15 °C ÷ +40 °C

SuperGold

API CF-4 MIL-L-2104 E

SAE 10W-30

-25 °C ÷ +20 °C

18

BEVEL GEAR STEERING CLUTCHES BRAKES

82

SuperGold

API CF-4 MIL-L-2104 E

SAE 10W-30

-20 °C ÷ +20 °C

CONVERTER AND TRANSMISSION

67

Hydropower

ATF type A SUFFIX A ALLISON C4

SAE 10W

-20 °C ÷ +40 °C

EQUIPMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

100

Hydrosystem 46HV or Hi-Tech 46

DIN 51524/2 HVI

ISO VG 46

-20 °C ÷ +40 °C

FINAL DRIVES (each)

43

HYPOIDE 90

API GL5 MIL-L-2105

SAE 80W-90

-20 °C ÷ +40 °C

TRACK IDLERS AND ROLLERS

-15 °C ÷ +40 °C

SuperGold

API CF-4 MIL-L-2104 E

SAE 15W-40

9

SAE 10W-30

-25 °C ÷ +20 °C

GREASE FITTINGS

GR9

N.L.G.L.2, EP LITHIUM/CALCIUM

CAB TILTING SYSTEM

0.5

Hydropower

ATF Type A SUFFIX A ALLISON C4

SAE 10W

-20 °C ÷ +40 °C

NOTE:

Oil quantities indicated are those required for periodical changes. If fuel sulphur content is over 0.5% change engine oil as follows: % sulphur 0.5 to 1.0% Over 1.0%

Periodic change Half normal interval Quarter normal interval

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


D 255

TECHNICAL DATA TABLES

0 - 11

SETTING VALUES AND TESTS

ENGINE SPEED

ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM

STANDARD VALUE

PERMISS. VALUE

Nominal idling speed (50 hour break-in)

2200 rpm

High idling speed (50 hour break-in)

2460 rpm

± 50

Low idling speed (50 hour break-in)

rpm

± 50

Converter stall (50 hour break-in)

rpm

-100

Implement stall (50 hour break-in)

rpm

-100

Stall (50 hour break-in)

rpm

-100

MAX

3.4 bar

± 0.5

MIN

0.68 bar

± 0.5

90 - 121 °C

130

8 l/min

450 mm H2O 76 mm Hg

625 –

497 °C

0.81

3.5

1

5

Emissions (ISO8187 without fan and turbocharger) NOx CO HC Powder emission

6.0 g/kWh 3.5 g/kWh 1.0 g/kWh 0.2 g/kWh

6.0 3.5 1.0 0.2

Fan speed

At rated engine speed

1328 rpm

-30

Radiator pressure valve

Opening pressure

0.7 bar

± 0.15

Fan belt tension

(Dynamometer value)

65 - 70 daN

62

Oil pressure

At governed speed

Oil temperature

all speed

Max oil flow

2200 rpm Oil temperature 70°

Intake resistance Exhaust pressure

At rated speed and full load At rated speed and full load

Exaust temperature

2000 rpm (intake air temperature 20 °C) Smoke

INTAKE AND EXHAUST SYSTEM Grade of smoke

COOLING SYSTEM

(Bosh scale rated speed rpm) (Bosh scale max torque rpm)

Note – The values in the table are referred to engine on test bench. Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


TECHNICAL DATA TABLES

0 - 12

FUEL SYSTEM

TORQUE CONVERTER OUTPUT PRESSURE

STANDARD VALUE

PERMISS. VALUE

260 bar

+8 0

23°

23° ± 30'

Engine low idling

0.5 bar

± 0.1

Engine high idling

3.5 bar

± 1.5

13.7 bar 17.0 bar

± 0.5 ± 0.5

Fuel injection pressure

Nozzle tester

Fuel injection timing

Before top dead center

Transmission pressure

TRANSMISSION OPERATING PRESSURES

(at 10 l/min flow) (at 66 l/min flow)

Forward

1 st 2nd 3rd

14 ÷ 15.5 bar 14 ÷ 15.5 bar 14 ÷ 15.5 bar

±1 ±1 ±1

Reverse

1 st 2nd 3rd

14 ÷ 15.5 bar 14 ÷ 15.5 bar 14 ÷ 15.5 bar

±1 ±1 ±1

4 ÷ 5 bar

± 0,5

Engine low idling

0.35 ÷ 1.4 bar

+0.5 -0.2

Engine high idling

1.7 ÷ 2.5 bar

± 0.5

Max. pilot pressure Max. clutch pressure Max. brake pressure Start of clutch pressure Start of brake pressure

38 bar 35.5 bar 24 bar

±2 ±2 ±3

2.5 bar

± 0.5

18.5 bar

±1

Pilot pressure:

Start (@26% lever travel) Limit (@96% lever travel) Max. (@full lever travel)

11 bar 32.5 bar 38 bar

+0.5 +2 ±2

Brake pressure

Brake pedal travel % 15 bar 11 bar 6.5 bar 0 bar

±1 ± 1.5 ± 1,5 –

185 ÷ 195 bar

±5

Neutral (single clutch) Lubrication

STEERING CONTROL VALVE PRESSURES

STEERING MANIPULATOR PRESSURE SETTINGS

BRAKE VALVE PRESSURE SETTINGS

Pilot pressure @:

Up to @ @ From

WORK EQUIPMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM CALIBRATION

D 255

32 32 68 68

± ± ± ±

42% 42% 78% 78% to 100%

Operating pressure at governed speed Max. pressure valves calibration (flow 50 l/min, oil temperature 80 °C)

Principal Secondary Secondary Secondary Secondary

A1 B1 A2 B2

190 230 230 230 230

bar bar bar bar bar

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual

±7 ±5 ±5 ±5 ±5


D 255

TECHNICAL DATA TABLES

Flow control valves (tilt section)

TRAVEL OF CONTROL LEVERS

OPERATING FORCE OF CONTROL LEVERS

0 - 13

STANDARD VALUE

PERMISS. VALUE

55 ÷ 70 l/min

50 ÷ 75

Blade

Handle stroke (lift) Handle stroke (tilt)

105 mm 110 mm

105 110

Ripper

Handle stroke

105 mm

105

Fuel control

On engine On dashboard

54° 20°

±8 +5

Decelerator pedal

Center of pedal

29°

29

Brake pedal

Full stroke

78.5 mm

± 10

3 daN 3 daN 9 ÷ 11 daN 3.5 ÷ 6.5 mm

3.5 3.5 12 7

3 daN

3.5

3 daN

3.5

Raise Lower

3.4 sec 1.6 sec

4 2.5

From right tilt to left tilt From left tilt to right tilt

3.1 sec 2.2 sec

3.5 2.5

Blade lever (center of lever knob)

Hold raise Hold lower Engaged float Disengaged float

Ripper control lever Hold raise (center of lever knob) Hold lower

Blade lift (Bull conf.)

WORK EQUIPMENT SPEED

Blade lift

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


TECHNICAL DATA TABLES

0 - 14

WORK EQUIPMENT SPEED

D 255

STANDARD VALUE

PERMISS. VALUE

Raise

2.2 sec

3

Lower

1.3 sec

2

5.6 mm/min

10

8 mm/min

10

Ripper lift

Lift up the front of the machine, operating the lower control blade. Maximum re - enter of blade lift cylinders:

WORK EQUIPMENT DRIFT (Oil SAE 10 - 60 °C, engine off)

Lift up the blade to max height. Maximum lift cylinder extension:

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


D 255

TECHNICAL DATA TABLES

WORK EQUIPMENT DRIFT

0 - 15 STANDARD VALUE

PERMISS. VALUE

Beginning from blade lay down, operate the right tilt control lifting up to maximum height the left side of the machine. Max re - enter of tilt cylinder:

5 mm/min

10

Beginning from blade lay down, operate the left tilt control lifting up the right side of the machine. Max re - enter of tilt cylinder:

8 mm/min

10

Lift up the machine to maximum height operating the ripper lower control. Maximum cylinder extension:

1 mm/min

5

Lift up the ripper to maximum height operating the ripper lever control Maximum cylinder extension:

1 mm/min

5

(Oil SAE 10 - 60 °C, engine off)

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


D 255

0 - 16

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS INSTALLATION OF SHAFT SEALS

REMOVAL/INSTALLATION OF FACE SEALING RINGS

Follow these cautions: - prior to installation, soak the seals for at least half an hour in the same oil in which they will operate; - thoroughly clean the shaft and ensure that the contact surface is undamaged;

To remove, proceed as follows: - press one end of the ring into its seat (a); - hold ring in position and insert a scriber point beneath the other side to separate the interlocking ends, as shown in figure (a);

- position seal lip toward the fluid; if thrower lip type, position the grooves so that during shaft rotation the fluid is thrown back; - smear the sealing lip with a thin film of lubricant (oil is better than grease); - install the seal into its seat by pressing or using a flat ended punch; on no account use hammers; - avoid pushing the seal into its seat in a tilted position. After installation, ensure that the seal is pressed fully home; - to prevent sealing lip damage during installation, use some sort of protection between seal and shaft.

a

INSTALLATION OF O-RINGS

To install, proceed as follows:

Lubricate O-rings before installation and do not twist them when installing, otherwise leakages will occur.

- press one end of ring against the inner face of the seat (b);

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


D 255

-

0 - 17

hold ring in this position and lift the free end (b) until the two teeth lock correctly (c).

Many repair and service shops use caustic compounds to remove grease, dirt, paint or remains of gaskets etc. from components. These compounds are extremely useful and effective if used correctly, but may cause considerable damages to certain materials. Materials such as alluminum, rubber, fibres, sintered bronze and binding agents, are particularly sensitive to all high-concentration caustic compounds. Certain heat exchangers have aluminum fins. To clean both inside and outside of these parts, we recommend the use of solvents that do not react with aluminum.

DISASSEMBLY

b

When operating on the engine or on other units removed from machine, always use appropriate stands. Place small items removed from machine in appropriate containers. Be careful not to damage the machine surfaces of components and rest them, after removing them, on shelves or on wood blocks. When removing alike components, such as valves, tappets etc., place them in suitable containers to avoid incorrect re-reassembly.

ASSEMBLY

c ADVICE FOR DISASSEMBLY AND REASSEMBLY OF GROUPS The following general information is aimed at facilitating disassembly and reassembly of groups. Read with attention and follow when performing repair operations.

Carefully clean all parts to be refitted as described in the Manual. The use of special tools as specified is recommended.

Note – For the application of adhesive sealing compounds, refer to the instructions of the different commercial products. The manufactured recommends, if not otherwise indicated, the following adhesive seals: VIT Type C, or RHODORSIL CAF 1, or LOCTITE 510.

CLEANING After disconnecting the electrical system, thoroughly clean the parts to be disassembled with a jet of steam.

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


D 255

0 - 18

Whenever possible, drive bushings in to their correct position using a press. If it is necessary to use a hammer to install the bushing, employ a suitable punch to prevent any damage.

- Never use or re-use half-flanges out- of-shape more than 0.6 mm (0.023 in) in the center (see illustration).

Lubricate ball bearings before assembly and bushings prior to installing them. Lubricate the sealing lip on seals before installation.

- Lubricate the O-rings.

Whenever possible, use new seals. Cylinder head gaskets must always be renewed.

- Tighten in a uniform way, to avoid bending or damages to O-rings.

Use screws with dimensions and specifications indicated, making reference to part numbers in the Parts Catalog.

- Install pipings and supporting clamps letting them slightly loosen (tighten the clamps after tightening the connections).

Where shown, use safety washers, cotter pins, locking wires etc.

- Check that pipings can match the part to be connected, without forcing into position.

Respect specified torque loads as indicated in the appropriate section of this Manual, using suitable torque wrenches.

- If a pipe or hose is mounted straight, allow enough space to absorb contractions caused by pressure.

Self-locking nuts should be replaced every time a disassembly operation is performed, to ensure a good tightening.

- Check that the O-Ring seats are not damaged.

- Check that the O-rings are placed in their seats.

- Pipings shall not be twisted (see illustration) or touch each other or other parts, especially moving parts.

HIGH PRESSURE PIPING, FITTINGS, HOSES AND PIPES This section contains recommendations and procedures to be followed for the installation of pipings and fittings. - Keep all inside threads clean. - Remove the plugs just before connecting the piping and close immediately all free openings.

Wrong

Correct

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


D 255

0 - 19

- Check that clamp sizes are correct by referring to the diameter of the pipe to be fastened, to avoid possible wear (see illustration).

Wrong

- Ensure that clamps are fitted in the correct position, to keep pipings away from contacts (see figure).

Correct

- Do not mount clamps on a curve with a minimum radius (under pressure, possible efforts arise in the pipe; see illustration - the dashed lines indicate the contraction that is caused by pressure).

Wrong

Correct

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


D 255

0 - 20

O-RINGS - Fields of use DESIGNATION

ELASTOMER BASE

TEMPERATURE OF OPERATION (*)

- 40 ÷ 120 °C NBR

FIELD OF USE

MINERAL OIL AND GREASE, COOLING FLUIDS, FUEL, WATER UP TO 70 °C, AIR UP TO 110 °C

NITRILE BUTADIENE - 30 ÷ 125 °C

FPM

EPDM

MVQ

FLUOROCARBONIO (VITON)

- 40 ÷ 200 °C

ETILENE PROPILENE

- 40 ÷ 150 °C

SILICONE

-60 ÷ 200 °C

SAME COMPATIBILITY OF NBR 60 ÷ 75 IRHD, BETTER RESISTANCE TO EXTRUSION, USED ONLY AS STATIC SEAL FUELS, NON-FLAMMABLE FUIDS, ACIDS, SOLVENTS, MINERAL OIL. TO BE USED WITH TEMPERATURES >100 °C BRAKE FLUID (DOT 3) STEAM, HOT WATER, SILICONE OIL AND GREASE. WARNING: DO NOT USE WITH MINERAL OIL OR GREASE AIR, HOT WATER, HIGH ANILINE POINT MINERAL OIL, STEAM, USED ONLY AS STATIC SEAL

Note – (*) Temperatures applicable for static applications, provided as an indication.

O-RING CORRECTLY INSTALLED

O-RING UNDER PRESSURE

EXTRUSION OF O-RING

FRACTURE OF O-RING

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


D 255

0 - 21

DIAGNOSTIC CHECKS GENERAL For a quick trouble diagnosis, the following rules are recommended:

a) Knowing the machine.

e) Diagnosis

It is not possible the trouble-shooting and formulation of diagnosis without a good knowledge of the machine. A thorough reading of the descriptions contained in the Repair Manual, about the composition and operation of the various groups is recommended.

Once a trouble has been identified, make a list of the possible causes, with the help of the corresponding section, and find the correct one by means of practical tests, beginning from the most probable causes and the easiest to be performed.

b) Check with the operator Many troubles are caused by wrong use or lack of maintenance. Check with the operator whether the machine had similar troubles previously and whether corrective interventions have been performed with appropriate tools and genuine spare parts. Check also ambient and working conditions of the machine and how normal maintenance is performed.

c) Test the machine. The best way to check the machine conditions is to test it in real working conditions. Check: - correct operation of monitoring instruments; - performance of the machine; - possible smells or signs of overheating; - abnormal noises; check their origins and the working conditions in which they occur.

d) Machine inspection. After step c is completed stop the machine and perform a visual inspection. Check for possible leakages, loosen screws defects or deformations etc.

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


D 255

0 - 22

UNITS OF MEASURE

CLASSIFICATION OF STANDARD PARTS FOR TORQUE DETERMINATION

The units of measure of this Manual are those used by the International System and supersedes those of the M.K.S. Force:

decanewton (daN) supersedes kilogram (kg)

NOTE – If in the different sections torque values are not specifically indicated, refer to “TIGHTENING TORQUES” after identifying exactly the part.

Pressure: bar supersedes kg/sqcm Torque:

decanewton x meter (daNm) supersedes kg m

The part is identified by a eight-digit code number. Example:

To convert units of measure, use this table: I / a multiply

by

to obtain

kg

0.9807

daN

Pressure

kg/sqcm

0.9807

bar

Torques

kg m

0.9807

da Nm

Force

Note – For common repair use, the following correlations are considered valid: kg = daN; kg/sqcm = bar; kg m = da Nm.

For the conversion of measure units from the International System into British System, please refer to the table below: multiply

by

to obtain

Mass

kg

2.205

Ib

Lenght

mm

0.03937

in.

Pressure

bar

14.5

p.s.i.

Torque

daNm

7.373

lb.ft

Capacity

l/min

0.2199 USG/min (UK) 0.2641 USG/min (US)

b c

d

e / f

g

I - Standard index number It is always represented by digit 1. This number means that the part can be made in different versions, differing for material and coating.

a - b - c - d - e - Standard base number It is a number always made of five digits indicating the dimensional features of the part.

f - Material index number This digit indicates the material that is specified for a certain part. The meaning is explained in the table below.

g - Coating index number This digit indicates the coating that is specified for each part.

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


D 255

0 - 23

Strenght class and type of material Material index No. ( f ) CNH

UNI

DIN

SAE

BSI

BNA

0

R 40

D - 4S - 4A

1

A

42

1

R 50

5S - 6S

3

P

56

2

R 80

8G

5

T

80

3

R 100

8

V

100

4

Ottone

Ottone

Messing

Brass

Brass

Laiton

5

Aluminium

Aluminium

Aluminium

Aluminium

Aluminium

Aluminium

6

Rame

Rame

Copper

Copper

Cuivre

100

10K

Kupfer

7

Free for other metals

WARNING

TIGHTENING TORQUE TABLES

- Lubricate screws and nuts with engine oil up to 24 mm diameter; for larger diameters use tallow.

If the tightening torque of screws and nuts is not specifically indicated in the single sections, refer to the tables of the following page:

- Tolerance on tightening torques is Âą 5%. - Strength classes R80, R100, R120, must be considered as follows:

} }

10.9 supersedes R 100 12.9

"

screws

R 120

10

supersedes R 80

12

supersedes R 100

nuts

CDT = cadmium plated; FOSF = phosphate plated; ZNT = zinc plated.

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


D 255

0 - 24

NUTS (ZNT)

SCREWS (ZNT / DEIDR)

Strenghth grade: 10 (R 80) Diameter and pitch

normal

low type

mm

daNm

daNm

Strength grade: 10,9 (R 100)

with polyamide ring normal daNm

low type daNm

M6 x 1

1.3

1.2

-

-

M8 x 1.25

3.2

2.6

3.9

M10 x 1.25

7.2

5.2

M10 x 1.5

6.5

M12 x 1.25

Diamter and pitch

normal ZNT

Self-locking ZNT

mm

daNm

daNm

M6 x 1

1.3

-

3.2

M8 x 1.25

1.3

3.5

8.2

6.2

M10 x 1.25

7.1

7.9

5

7.7

6

M10 x 1.5

6.5

7

13

8.7

14.5

10.2

M12 x 1.25

12.7

13.9

M12 x 1.75

11

8.1

12.9

9.6

M12 x 1.75

11

12

M14 x 1.5

19.5

13

21.6

15

M14 x 1.5

20

22

M14 x 2

18

12.5

20

14.6

M14 x 2

18

19

M16 x 1.5

30

17

34

20

M16 x 1.5

30

33

-

-

-

-

M16 x 2

-

M18 x 1.5

45

25

50

29

M18 x 1.5

45

M18 x 2.5

-

-

-

-

M18 x 2.5

-

M20 x 1.5

60

30.5

64.5

35

M20 x 1.5

60

M20 x 2.5

-

-

-

-

M20 x 2,5

-

M22 x 1.5

80

41

-

-

M22 x 1.5

80

M22 x 2.5

-

-

-

-

M22 x 2.5

-

M24 x 2

100

47

108

52.5

M24 x 2

100

M24 x 3

-

-

-

-

M24 x 3

-

-

M27 x 2

95

40.1

-

-

M27 x 2

100

-

M30 x 2

130

49.9

-

-

M30 x 2

140

-

M33 x 2

170

-

-

-

M33 x 2

190

-

M36 x 3

220

-

-

-

M36 x 3

240

-

M16 x 2

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual

48 65 90 110


SECTION 1

ENGINE TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER

SUBJECT

PAGE

1.1

GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS .............................................................................................. 1

1.2

SERIES "C" ENGINE DATA ................................................................................................. 3

1.3

DIAGRAMS OF SERIES "C" ENGINE ................................................................................. 6

1.4

MOUNTING OF ENGINE ON FRAME .................................................................................. 9

1.5

AFTERCOOLER FAN DRIVE SYSTEM ................................................................................ 10

1.6

THROTTLE LINKAGE ........................................................................................................... 12


D255

1.1

1-1

ENGINE

GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS

1. The Series C engine is a diesel for heavy duty applications characterised by several design concepts tending towards simplicity and a high compactness.

Series C

2. The engine incorporates, in a single solution, all the most important characteristics and advantages of modern diesel technology.

Width mm

Height mm

Weight kg

1118

679

694

606

Technology • • • • • • • •

3. The engine has been entirely designed with metric dimensions. the only discrepancy with these specifications involves the use of connections for pipes and plugs with SAE standards. The specifications of accessories change depending upon the Supplier. Technical publications list metric values with the equivalent SAE values.

Length mm

In-line cylinders Water cooled 4 stroke Turbocharged After-cooled Direct injection Metric dimensions Air flow cooling

Engine components •

Metric specifications

Pipes connections and plugs •

SAE standards

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


D255

ENGINE

1-2

Identification of the engine Engine data plate The engine data plate provides the identification data and other important information about the engine. Have the engine data here below available when contacting a Cummins Authorised Repair Centre. The information data on the plate are compulsory when procuring Spare Parts. 1. Serial number of the engine (E.S.N.) 2. Control Parts List (CPL) Note – Do not change the engine data plate unless authorised by Cummins Engine Company, Inc. 2

1

4. The engines are designated as follows: The first digit indicates the number of cylinders, the letter to follow indicates the series of the engine, the remaining letters indicate the air intake (T = turbocharged) and the last numbers indicate the total displacement in litres.

5. The total displacement of the engine is 8 268 cm3, the bore is 114 mm and the stroke 135 mm. The firing order is the same as for the other inline, 6 cylinder Cummins engines, 1-5-3-6-2-4.

Nomenclature Model of industrial engine 6

C

T

A

8.3

No. of cylinders Series C Turbocharged After-cooled Total displacement in litres

Specifications of engine series Total displacement Bore Stroke

8 268 cm3 114 mm 135 mm

Firing order

1-5-3-6-2-4

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


D255

1.2

ENGINE

1-3

SERIES "C" ENGINE DATA

Generalities

Bore: ..........................................................................................................................................114 mm Stroke: .......................................................................................................................................135 mm Total displacement: ................................................................................................................. 8 268 cm3 Max. power rated speed ......................................................................................................... 2200 min-1 Net power at flywheel (SAE J1349) ............................................................................................ 177 kW Maximum torque ........................................................................................... 114.6 daNm (at 1400 rpm) Engine idle rated speed and various stalls: Low idle ...................................................................................................................... 920 ± 100 rpm Max. idle ................................................................................................................. 2150 ± 50 rpm Equipment stall ........................................................................................................ 2080 ± 70 rpm Torque converter stall ................................................................................................ 1780 ± 100 rpm Total stall (equipment plus torque converter) ............................................................. 1510 ± 100 rpm Compression ratio ....................................................................................................................... 17.3 : 1 Firing order: ........................................................................................................................... 1-5-3-6-2-4 Valve clearance Intake: ................................................................................................................................. 0.30 mm Exhaust: ............................................................................................................................. 0.61 mm Engine rotation (seen from front side of engine): .................................................................... Clockwise Intake ............................................................................................................................... Turbocharged Engine weight (with standard accessories) Dry: ............................................................................................................................... 603 ÷ 612 kg Filled (with engine fluids) ............................................................................................... 635 ÷ 658 kg

Lubrication system

Oil pressure At low idle (minimum allowed) ................................................................................. 0.69 bar (69 kPa) At nominal rpm (minimum allowed) .............................................................................2 bar (207 kPa) Pressure differential for oil filter by-pass valve opening .............................................. 1.68 bar (172 kPa) Oil flow at rated speed (minus the flow through the pressure relief) ................................ 106.8 litres/min Oil temperature at rated speed ............................................................................................ 99 to 126 °C Oil temperature thermostat Fully open (oil flowing through heat exchanger ........................................................................ 116 °C Closed (part of the oil by-passes the heat exchanger) ............................................................. 104 °C Oil sump capacity (all engines) (high - low) .................................................................. 18.9 a 15.1 litres Total capacity of system ......................................................................................................... 23.8 litres

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


ENGINE

1-4

D255

Cooling system

Thermostats Beginning of opening: .............................................................................................. From 81 to 83 °C Fully open: ................................................................................................................................95 °C Temperature of upper tank Maximum allowed: .................................................................................................................. 100 °C Minimum recommended: ...........................................................................................................70 °C Cap pressure with system at 99 °C (210 °F) .................................................................0.42 bar (50 kPa) Cap pressure with system at 104 °C (220 °F) ............................................................... 1.3 bar (103 kPa) Coolant pressure (Upper manifold) at rated speed of 2200 rpm ............................................................... ............................................................................................................ 1.3 ÷ 2.7 bar (103 ÷ 276 kPa) Coolant flow (thermostats fully open, at rated speed of 2200 rpm) .................................... 258 litres/min Coolant capacity .......................................................................................................................... 9 litres

Intake and exhaust

Maximum restriction allowed at rated speed and nominal load (with dry air cleaner element) ..................................................................................................................................... 63.5 cm H2O Maximum restriction allowed at turbocharger outlet at rated speed and nominal load ...................................................................................................................................... 76.2 mm Hg ................................................................................................................................... 101.6 cm H2O

Fuel system

Maximum restriction at fuel pump inlet ................................................................................. 100 mm Hg Minimum output pressure of fuel pump at rated speed low delivery .............................................................................................................. 0.7 bar (83 kPa) high delivery .......................................................................................................... 1.68 bar (172 kPa) Restriction of fuel filter (maximum pressure drop through the filters) .......................... 0.345 bar (35 kPa) Minimum pressure in pump duct at rated speed and high flow .................................... 1.37 bar (140 kPa) Minimum pressure in pump duct at rated speed and low flow ....................................... 0.42 bar (48 kPa) Restriction on fuel return (maximum) .................................................................................... 518 mm Hg

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


D255

ENGINE

1-5

Electrical system

Minimum capacity of recommended batteries 12 Volt system 18 °C Cold starting current ..................................................................................................... 1800 A (Reserve capacity)* ................................................................................................................ (640 A) 0 °C Cold starting current ....................................................................................................... 1280 A (Reserve capacity)* ................................................................................................................ (480 A) 24 Volt system** 18 °C Cold starting current ....................................................................................................... 900 A (Reserve capacity)* ................................................................................................................ (320 A) 0 °C Cold starting current ......................................................................................................... 640 A (Reserve capacity)* ................................................................................................................ (240 A) *

The quantity of plates for a given dimension of batteries determines its capacity. The reserve capacity determines the length of the period during which a sustained starting is maintained. ** Per battery (two 12 Volt batteries in series). CCA specifications are based upon - 18 °C

Batteries (Specific gravity)

Specific gravity at 27 °C

Charge status

1.260 - 1.280 1.230 - 1.250 1.200 - 1.220 1.170 - 1.190 1.110 - 1.130

100% 75% 50% 25% Exhausted

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


1.3

D255

ENGINE

1-6

DIAGRAMS OF SERIES "C" ENGINE

The illustrations here below provide information on the engine components, the location of filters, the draining points and the access locations for engine instrumentation and controls.

The illustrations and the configuration of the components shown in these diagrams are of a general nature. The locations of some components change depending upon the application and the installation.

For the removal, testing, overhaul and installation of the engine, please refer to the Workshop Manual Print Number 604.06.901.

Front lifting bracket

High pressure fuel pipes

1/4 " NPTF (air)

M22 x 1.5 (air)

Rear lifting bracket

Fuel/water separator Fuel injection pump

Fuel pump

3/4 " x 16 " UNF point for magnetic sensor

Oil filler neck

Engine front mounting bracket

Oil draining plug

Arrangement for sump oil heating

Fig. 1-8 View from injection pump side

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D255

1-7

ENGINE

Turbocharger exhaust outlet

Cylinder block breather pipe

Flywheel housing

Centring bearing

Flex disc mounting holes Flywheel

Fig. 1-9 Rear view

Turbocharger air intake

Coolant filter

Belt tensioner

Alternator

Water pump

Fig. 1-10

Turbocharger air outlet

Engine air intake

Fan pulley

Fuel pump drive cover

Drive belt

Vibration damper

Front view

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


D255

ENGINE

1-8

Turbocharger exhaust outlet

Westgate actuator

Turbocharger air outlet Water outlet connection

Arrangement for coolant heater

Lube oil temperature thermostat

Lube oil pressure (after the filter) Arrangement for cab heater

Lube oil pressure (before the filter)

Arrangement for coolant temperature sensor

1/2" NPTF (coolant) Coolant inlet

Turbocharger oil draining

Lube oil temperature sensor

Lube oil filter

Lube oil heat exchanger

Fig. 1-11 View from turbocharger side

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


D255

1.4

ENGINE

MOUNTING OF ENGINE ON FRAME

Tightening torques C1. Self-locking nut M24 x 2 ................................ (108 daNm) C2. Screw TE M12 x 1.75 ....................................... (11 daNm) C3. Self-locking nut M16 x 1.5 ............................... (30 daNm)

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual

1-9


Gear pump

PT0 speed 1,13 engine speed

8 cc/turn

38 ± 2 bar with 5 L/min

Tank

Sequence valve

16±2 bar with 19 L/min

Gear motor

Back pressure valve

8 cc/turn

1 - 10 ENGINE D255

1.5 AFTERCOOLER FAN DRIVE SYSTEM

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D255

1 - 11

ENGINE

3 5

4 2

6

7 1

Tank

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Gear pump Sequence valve Gear engine Counterpression valve Radiator Turbo Support

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


ENGINE

1 - 12

1.6

THROTTLE LINKAGE

Adjustment procedure Connect adjustable link (1) to lever “A” using pin, washer and split pin. With throttle lever “B” in low idle position, position lever “C” at the dimension indicated. Adjust the fork complete with pin and stopper located at one end of rod (1) until the securing holes corresponding with the one of cam “D” is found. Insert the pin and hook the stopper. Hook spring “E” to the to pins. Connect lever “C” to the injection pump using the adjustment of the forks located at the ends of rod (2) and install the relevant pins, washers and split pins).

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual

D255


SECTION 2

TRANSMISSION TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER

TITLE

PAGE

2.1

GENERAL DESCRIPTION .......................................................................................

1

2.2

TROUBLESHOOTING ..............................................................................................

6

2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4

CONVERTER ........................................................................................................... Removal ................................................................................................................... Disassembly ............................................................................................................. Checking parts .......................................................................................................... Converter safety valve ..............................................................................................

11 13 15 15 19

2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.4.5 2.4.6 2.4.7

TRANSMISSION ...................................................................................................... Removal ................................................................................................................... Disassembly transmission ........................................................................................ Disassembly clutch .................................................................................................. Assembly transmission ............................................................................................ Lubrication oil pressure regulating valve .................................................................... Exhaust valves ......................................................................................................... Refitting transmission ...............................................................................................

20 20 25 32 37 41 42 42

2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2

TRANSMISSION DISTRIBUTOR ............................................................................. Removal and disassembly ........................................................................................ Checking parts ..........................................................................................................

43 43 47

2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.6.4

CONTROL LEVER .................................................................................................... Disassembly ............................................................................................................. Operating diagram .................................................................................................... Checking parts .......................................................................................................... Safety deflector ........................................................................................................

51 51 52 54 55

2.7 2.7.1

CONVERTER/TRANSMISSION HYDRAULIC PUMPS ............................................. Disassembly and revision .........................................................................................

56 57

2.8 2.8.1

TRANSMISSION OIL HEAT EXCHANGER .............................................................. Cleaning and checking parts .....................................................................................

58 58

2.9 2.9.1 2.9.2

DRIVE SHAFT/CONVERTER/TRANSMISSION ....................................................... Dismantling and revision ........................................................................................... Assembly .................................................................................................................

59 59 59

2.10

OIL FILTER CONVERTER - TRANSMISSION .........................................................

61

2.11 2.11.1 2.11.2 2.11.3 2.11.4 2.11.5 2.11.6

TESTING TRANSMISSION/CONVERTER ON THE VEHICLE ................................. Testing gear selection with converter in stall ............................................................. Checking transmission-converter pressure .............................................................. Checking clutch pressure ......................................................................................... Lubricating oil pressure ............................................................................................. Converter oil pressure ............................................................................................... Transmission feed pressure check ...........................................................................

63 63 64 64 65 65 65

2.12

TECHNICAL DATA ...................................................................................................

66

2.13

TIGHTENING TORQUES .........................................................................................

71

2.14

SPECIAL TOOLS .....................................................................................................

74


D255

TRANSMISSION

2-1

2.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION CONVERTER/TRANSMISSION HYDRAULIC COMPONENTS The circuit is fed by a three section pump (Pa, Pc, Pr), respectively for transmission-converter supply, converter supply, oil recovery from the gearbox, flanged to the converter support box. The oil reservoir is a part of the gearbox in which the oil is separated from the oil in the gear housing and the clutch. The level of the oil in the gear housing and the clutch is controlled by the recovery pump (Pr), which aspirates it through a magnetic element filter and returns it to the reservoir, together with the oil recovered from the converter support box effected by dipping of the coupling (VENTURI). The oil in the gearbox reservoir is aspirated by the pair of pumps (Pa and Pc). The pump (Pa) maintains oil pressure for the gear box clutch control. The pump (Pc) sends oil to the converter to be added to the supply coming from the control pump (Pa) through the upper inlet of the gearbox oil pressure regulating valve (7). With the gears in neutral, the supply to the converter is reduced because part of the supply of the pump (Pa) passes through the lower outlet of the pressure regulating valve (7) directly to the lubrication circuit. The lubrication circuit is fed by the oil leaving the converter which, with the gears engaged, corresponds to the sum of the supply from pumps (Pc) and (Pa) less minor leakage. The oil leaving the heat exchanger (18) passes through the gearbox and flows into the lubrication circuit of the drive shafts and the clutches. The warning light (Temperature Trans.) on the Electronic Data Monitor (EDM) (1) in the cabin shows the temperature of the oil before it enters the heat exchanger. With the gears in neutral the transmission oil pressure containing member (7) is moved downwards to expose the lower outlet of the valve (7) thus reducing the oil pressure as it enters the converter and in consequence, the general pressure necessary for the gradual engagement of the clutch. The warning light (Pressure Trans.) on the EDM indicates insufficient oil delivery pressure to the distributor. In this event check whether the light remains on when the engine is running, if necessary stop the vehicle immediately and carry out the checks described in the relative paragraph. The safety valve (21) regulates the pressure in the lubrication circuit, opening when the pressure exceeds 4 bar with gears in neutral.

The oil is collected in the gear compartment, filtered by the magnetic element filter (36) and aspirated by the recovery pump (Pr) which returns it to the reservoir. Gear shift is effected by means of the control lever (8) which is fed by the pump (Pa). With the safety valve (5) in the “UNLOCKED” position the oil coming from the valve (3), after passing through the valve (6) of the transmission distributor, feeds the control lever. With the valve lever (5) in the “LOCKED” position the oil, which previously fed the control lever is released. In neutral and with the engine running at low revs the valve (6) guarantees sufficient pressure for the control lever to work correctly. When the gears are engaged the oil aspirated by the pump (Pa) passes through the filter (2) which is fitted with a renewable paper filter and a safety valve (20) which protects it from blocking. The valve guarantees the flow of oil by excluding the cartridge, totally or partially, and preventing tearing. With the control lever (8) in the neutral position the oil coming from the pump (Pa) leaves the oil pressure regulating valve (7) by both outlets: the upper is connected to the converter, the lower to the lubrication circuit of the gearbox. In this situation the oil, fed by the pump (Pa) is at low pressure, because the valve shutter (7) is subject only to the action of the spring. Moving from neutral to the first reverse gear, the pushrods (9 and 10) move from a central position to the left forcing the distributor shaft (34) to move downwards and allowing the oil to move towards the 1st speed clutch. At the same time the distributor rod (28) moves downwards to the position shown and ensures the reversing movement. The ball valve (14) prevents pressure from being released through the forward gear conduit which is in exhaust phase. At this point the regulating valve of the reverse gear begins to operate as described below. The pressure of the oil, as already mentioned, is initially low and transfers to the valve (7), working with the spring to determine the pressure which increases with respect to the initial value set only by the spring. Furthermore the pressure itself is created under the piston of the regulating valve (29) through the throat (15) causing first the compression of the external spring with consequent pressure on the seal (30) and a slow increase in the pressure under the valve (7). The spring then compresses increasing the speed of the closure of the seal (30) and consequently the pressure on the reverse gear clutch pad.

Carefully read personal and machine SAFETY PRECAUTIONS at the beginning of this Manual


2-2

TRANSMISSION

At the end of the cycle the washer will be completely closed. The throat (15) regulates the time taken by the piston (29) to complete its stroke while the throat (12) allows small supplies to control the regulating valve. A similar sequence occurs in the case of the forward gear. Moving the control lever to the second reverse gear position the control lever send the pushrods (9 and 10) towards the centre. Pressure is removed from the rod (34) and placed on the rod (32) which by moving connects the feed line to the cylinder of the (empty) gearbox. The pressure caused by the throat (27) is reduced in the lower conduit of the gear regulating valve and therefore the pistons (24) move downwards due to the increased pressure acting on the upper conduit which overcomes the spring (25). This movement causes the outlet (26) to open momentarily lowering the pressure throughout the supply circuit. The gradual refilling of the clutch cylinder in first gear causes an increase in the pressure which acting on the lower piston gradually, together with the action of the spring (25) moves both pistons upwards bringing the feed pressure levels back to normal. This sequence has caused a regulated increase of the pressure on the selected gear (first). A similar sequence occurs for the other gears. The three valves therefore: regulate the increase in pressure of the clutch control in order to ensure gradual engagement and limit the maximum pressure values of the transmission. The purpose of the rapid exhaust valves (37), one for each clutch, is to allow the direct release of the oil in the gear housing when the control pressure reaches zero, eliminating the centrifuging of the oil in the control housing, which tends to keep the clutch engaged causing unnecessary strain. The engagement of the gears and the direction in which the vehicle moves, as already mentioned, is controlled by the control lever. In the neutral position (fig. 2-2) the oil from the safety valve (5) enters the lever (8) by the joint d. In this case since the inlets are not covered by the pistons (44 and 54) the pressurised oil moves through the control lever and through the distributor and engages the second gear. Pulling the control lever (43) backwards (fig. 2-1) the piston (39) moves downwards allowing the oil from the safety valve to reach the transmission distributor engaging the selected gear (second reverse gear). At the same time, the piston (39) connects the pressurised oil coming from d with the chamber (41) under the opposite piston (38), forward gear. The pressure causes this piston to rise locking the control lever.

D255

The throat (42) regulates the flow from the chamber (41) to the exhaust (e). To release the lever (43) bring it back to the neutral position, the piston (39) rises due to the effect of the spring (40) interrupting the supply to the chamber (41) allowing the piston (38) to return to a neutral position, while the oil in the chamber (41) is released through the throat. Note – To engage the first forward gear or the first reverse gear, two pistons are compressed at the same time.

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