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QUICK REFERENCE DATA . . . . . . . . • . . . • . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . IX CHAPTER ONE . GENERAL INFORMATION Manual organization Notes, cautions and warnings Safety first Cleaning parts Handling gasoline safely Service hints Torqu e sped fica tion s Fas teners Lubrica nts

Threadlocking compound RTV gasket sealant

.. .. .. . 1

Expendable supplies Serial numbers Warning and information labels Basic hand tools Precision measuring tools Spec ial tools Fabricat ing tools Mechanic's tips Beari ng rep lacement

Seals Storage


CHAPTER TWO . . . . . TROUBLESHOOTING Operatin g requirement s

Fue l sys tem

Troubleshooting instruments Starting the engine

Engine overheating Engine

Start ing diffi culties

Eng ine no ises Cy linder leak dow n test Power tra in Stee ring

Engine is difficult to start Engine starting system Charging system Ignition system Electroni c throttle control

Frame noise Brakes


CHAPTER THREE . .. . . . . .. .. • . •.. . LUBRICATION, MAINTENA NCE AND TUNE-UP Pre- ride chec k list Tire s and whee ls Battery Batt ery elec trica l cabl e co nnectors Pe rio dic lubrication

. . . . .. 53 Perio dic main tenance Unsc hed uled inspection and ma intenance Eng ine tune-up

.. .. .. . . . . . . 94

CHAPTER FOUR . ENGINE TOP END Eng ine prin cip les Eng ine cooling Eng ine lubrication Ser vicing the engine in the frame Exha ust syst em Cy linder head co ver Rocker ann assembl y


Cy linde r head Valves and va lve components Cy linder block Piston and piston rings Ca msha ft chai n and s proc kets Brea k-in pro cedure

CHAPTE R FIVE . . • . ENGINE LOWER END Engine Flywheel and stato r plate Recoi l starte r Cra nkcase Crankshaft inspec tion Balancer shaft inspe ction

. . . 137 Sha n end float measurement and shim select ion Oil pumr O il system on e- wa y c hec k valve Break -in pro cedure

CHAPTER SIX • . . . . FUEL SYSTEM Ca rburetor op eration Carburetor Carburetor cleaning and inspection Carburetor tests and adj ustments Throttle cable replacemen t

175 Stalling enr ichment (c hoke) cab le Fue l tank Fuel shutoff va lve A ir fi lter air box Fu ~ l pllm p

. . . . 19 8

CHAPTE R SEVEN. . . . . . . . . • COOLING SYSTE MS Po laris va riabl e transmission (PVT) a ir cooli ng system Eng ine cooling sys tem Safety precauti ons Hoses and hose clamps Engin e ga skets/sea ls

Coo ling sys te m inspect ion Radiato r Coo ling fan Coo lant pump Th erm ostat Temp erature se nso rs

. .. .. .. . . . . 213


Drive unit Drive pulley Specia l tools Driven pulley Drive belt

Drive pulle y Driven pulley Clutch outer and inner cover (all models)

. . 249


Transmission Transmission inspection Shift shafts Front output shaft

Transmission gearcase oil seal inspection and replacement Shift selector linkage

. . . . . . . . . 290

CHAPTER TEN . . . . . . . FRONT DRIVE SYSTEM Front hub and Hillard clutch Front drive axle, boots and CV (constant velocity) j oints

Front dr ive shaft Front drive unit

.. .. . 303


Basic informat ion Negative battery term inal Charging system Alternator stator Voltage regulator/rectificr Capacitor discharge ignition Ignition coil Ignition stator coils CHAPTER TWELVE . FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING Front wheel Front hub Front strut cartridge and spring Front strut/spindle Control arm

Electric starting syste m

Starter drive gears Starter solenoid Lighting system Electrical components Sw itches

Wiring diagrams

. Handlebar Tie rods Steerin g shaft Tires and wheels


CHAPTER THIRTEEN . REAR SUSPENSION Rear wheels Tire changing and tire repairs Shock absorber

Rear hub and bearing carrier

Rear axles Upper control arm


Lower control arm Upper and lower control arm inspection Stabilizer linkage

Stabilizer support


CHAP TER FOURTEEN . BRAKES Disc brakes Front brake pad replacement Fro nt cal iper Ou tput sha ft brake pad replacement (1996-1997 mode ls) O utput sha ll brake cal iper ( ]996- 1997 mode ls) Outpu t sha ll brake pad repl acement ( I998- on models) Output shaft brake caliper (I 998 -on mode ls)

.. . .. . . 382 Front master cylinder Rear master cylinder Brak e hose replace ment

Rear brake peda l Rem brake lever ( 1996 -1997 Sweden mod els) Foot brak e (199 8-on Sw eden model s) Brake d isc Bleeding the sys te m

. . . .. .. .. . 425


Radiator guard

Front rack and grille

Rear rack

Side panels Front fender Fro nt bum per (models so eq uipped )

Rear fender

SUPPLEMENT . 2001-2003 SERVICE INFORMATION Starting the engine

Ignition system Periodic maintenance Engine tUIl C- Up Cy linde r block

Piston and piston rings Engine Flywhee l and stator plate Carburetor (Sportsman 500 H.G. models)

Cleaning and inspection Carburetor tests and adjustments Drive belt Driv en pulley (200 3 mod els bui lt afte r 07/08102)




Footv..'ells Rear bump er (mode ls so eq uipped)

. . . . . . . . . . . 437 Transmission Lighting system Electrical components Stee ring sha ll (2002-on mode ls) Rear hub and bearing carrier (200 3 mode ls) Rear brake pad replacement (2003 models) Rear ca lipers (200 3 mod els)

Front master cylinder Rear master cylinder (2003 models) Rea r brake disc (200 3 mode ls) Brak e hose replace men t (2003 models)

.470 .476













Front wheels Rear wheels

34.5 34.5

5 5

"Tlre pressure for original equipment tires. Aftermarket tires may require different Inflation pressure.


Lubricant or fluid type

Engine 011

Polaris Premium 4 Synthetic 10W/4Q or 10W/40 motor all Polaris synthetic gear case 011 (part No. 2871478) Polaris front gearcase lube (part No. 2871653), or API GL5 80·90 gear lube Polaris demand drive hub fluid (part No. 2871654), or ATF Type F. DOT 3 brake fluid 50:50 mixture ethylene glycol·based coolant compounded for aluminum radiators and engines Polaris all season grease, or equivalent

Transmission all

Front gear case Front hubs Brake fluid Coolant





Engine all Transmission all Front gear case (all years) Front hubs Coolant

1.89 L (2 U.S. qts.) 946.3 cc (32 U.S. oz.} 96 cc (3.25 U.S. oz.) 75 cc (2.5 U.S. oz.) Approx. 2.16 L (2.25 U.S. qts.)





Crankcase oil drain plug Cylinder head cover screws Front gear case drain plug

19 8.2 9.4 13·17 19 20 6-7

Handlebar up per holder bol ts Oi l tank drain plug

0 11 tank screen and fitting Valve adjuster locknuts

in... lb.

ft.· lb. 14

72 83 115-150 14 15 53-62

Whee/lug nuts

15 15

21 21

Front Rear



Spec ific at ion

Disc brake pad thickness wear limit 2003 Sportsman 500 & 500 H.O.

Rear brake All other models and years Front and rear brakes Valve clearance (cold) Intake and ex haust Spark plug

4.6 mm (0.180 In.) 3.8 1 mm (0.150 In. ) 0.15 mm (0.006 In .)

400 cc Heat range Gap 500 ee Heat range 1996-1997 1998-200 1 2002·on Gap 1996 · 1998 1999-2000 200 1·on Idle sp eed 1996-1988 , 2001-on 1997·2000 Carburetor pilot air screw (34 mm) 1996 1997·1998 1999-2000 2001-on (400 ee) Carburetor pilot air screw (40 mm ) 2001 2002-on

NG K BKR 5E 0.9 mm (0.036 in.)

NGK BKR5ES NGK BKR5E NGK BKR6E 0.6-0.7 mm (0.02 4-0.028 in . 0.7 mm (0.028 In.) 0.9 m m (0.036 in.) 1100-1300 rpm 1000-1400 rpm

1 1/2 turns ou t 2 turns out 2 5/8 turns out 23/4 turns out

2 1/2 turns out 2 turns out REPLACE MENT BULBS


Spec ificati on

Headlights Grill mounted lights 1996 1997 1998-on Taillight Brake light Indicator lights 1996 1997-on

12 volt , 60/60 watt Halogen

12 12 12 12 12

volt , 37.5 watt (2) volt, 35 watt (2) volt, 27 watt volt, 8.26 watt volt , 6 .9 watt

12 volt , 1.25 wa tt 12 volt,l.0 watt




This detailed. comprehensive manual covers the Po laris Sportsman 400 , 500 and Xp lorer 500 4 x 4 from I 996-on. Keep this book hand y in the toolbox. Readin g and using it will help to better unde rstand how the ve hicle runs, lower repair cos ts and g enerally improve personal satisfaction w ith the vehicle. The following tables are incl uded at the end of this chapter: Tahle 1 lists mode l year and number. Tahle 2 lists general dimensions . Ta ble 3 lists vehicle weight (dry) .

Ta ble 8 lists metric tap and drill sizes.

Ta bles 1-8 are at the end of this chapter.

M ANU AL OR GANIZATlO:'ll All dimensions and capacities are expresse d in

English units familiar to U.S. mechanics. as well as in metric uni ts.

Table 4 lists decimal and metric equivalents.

This chapter provides general informatio n and discusses equipment and too ls useful both for preventive maintenance and troubleshooting.

Tab le 5 lists general torque specificatio ns. Tab le 6 lists conversio n tables . Ta b le 7 lists technical abbrev iations.

for the quick and accurate diagnosis and repair of problems. Troubleshooting procedures discuss typ-

Chapter Two provides methods and suggestions



ical sy mptoms and logi cal method s to pinpoin t the trouble.

rul es ca n inj ure so meo ne wor king on the ve h icle. o r dam age the AT V.

C ha pter Th ree ex p lains all pe rio di c lubrication and rou tine maint enan ce necessary to keep the vehicle funn ing wel l. Cha pter Three also incl udes reco mm en ded t UIl C-Up procedu res , el imina ting the need to co nst ant ly co nsu lt chapte rs o n the variou s ass emb lies . Subsequent chapters describe s pecific sys te ms suc h as the engi ne , clutch/drive belt sy stem, tran s-

I. Never lise gaso line o r any type o f low flash po int so lve nt to clean pa rts, Se c Cleaning Parts and Handling Gasoline Safet y in this chapter for add itional informat ion on parts c lea ning, ga so line usc and safety.

missio n, exhaust, coo ling, suspens ion and brakes. Each chapter pro vid es d isas sembly, repair an d assem bly p rocedures in a simp le s tep- by-step form . Ifa repair is impract ica l for a ho me mechanic. it is

so indicated. It is usuall y faster ami less expensive to take such repairs to a dealer or com petent repair shop. Spec ifications conc ern ing a particul ar system arc included at the end of th e app ro priate chap ter. So me of the proced ures in thi s manual spec ify special too ls. In most cases, the too l is illustrated eith er in actua l use or alone . We ll-e q uipped mec hanic s m ay find they ca n subs titute sim ilar too ls already on ha nd or ca n fabricate thei r own.


The flash point is the lowest temperalure a t which the vaporsfrom a co mbustible liquid will ign ite when in open ail: A lowjlash po int solve nt will ignite at a lower temperature than a higlzjlash point solvent. 2. Never smo ke or usc a to rch in the vici nity o f flammable liquids in ope n co ntai ners, suc h as gasoline or clean ing so lve nt.

3. lf wc lding o r bra zin g is req uir ed on the vehicle. re move the fue l rank , carburetor, and fron t and rea r shoc ks to a safe d istance at leas t 50 feet ( 15 m) awa y. 4. Use the pro per s ized wre nc hes to avo id damage to fa steners.

NOTES, CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS T he terms NOT E, CA UT IO N an d WARNING have specific mean ings in this ma nual. A NOTE pro vides add itio na l in form ation to make a step or procedure eas ie r o r clearer. Disregardi ng a NOTE could cause incon venien ce, bu t wou ld not ca use eq uipment damage or personal injury. A CAUTION empha s ize, areas w here eq uipme nt da mage co uld result. Disregard ing a CA UT ION co uld cause permanent mechanica l damage ; hO\\Iever, p ersonal inju ry is unli kely. A WARN ING emp hasi ze s area s where pe rsonal injury or eve n death co uld resu lt fro m ne glige nce. M ec ha n ica l da m age may also occur. WARNI NG S are fa be take n serio usly. In some cases , serious inj ut)' or death has resu lted from d isregarding s imilar w arn ings .

SA rETY FIRST Pro fessional mechan ics can wo rk for ye ars and never sustain a se rio us inj ury. I f a few rul es o f co mmon sense and safe ty arc ob served. many safe hours can be enjoye d serv ic ing the ATY. Ign or ing these

5. Wh en loose ning a tight or stuck nut , be gui de d by wha t wou ld happen if th e wrench slips. 6. W he n rep lacing a fa sten er, mak e su re to usc one wi th the sa me measu rem ents and streng th as the o ld one. Inco rrect or m ism atch ed fasteners can result in da mage to th e ve hicle and possibl e personal inj ury. Beware of faste ne r kits that are fill ed w ith chea p and poorly mad e nut s. bolt s, washe rs and co tte r pins. Refer to Faste ne rs in thi s ch apt er for add ition al inform ation. 7. Keep all hand and po wer tool s in go od condition. W ipe greas y and o ily too ls after us ing the m. Dirty too ls arc d iffi c ult to ho ld and can cause injury. Replace o r repair worn or damaged tools. 8. Kee p the work area c lea n and uncl uttered. 9 . Wear safety g ogg lcs during all operations invo lving drilling , g r ind ing. th e use o f a co ld chisel, usin g che m ica ls, c lea ning parts, wh en using co mpressed air or anytim e the sa fe ty o f eyes is invo lved. 10 . Mak e su re to we ar th e correct typ e of clothes for th e job. Long hair should be tied u p or covered wit h a ca p so thai it canno t be caug ht by a pie ce of mo vin g eq uipme nt or too l.

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G ENE RAL INFO RMATION 11. Keep an approved fire extinguisher nearby. Be sure it is rated fur gasoline (C lass B) and electrical (Cla ss C) fires. 12. When drying bearings or ot her rotat ing paris

with compressed air, never allow the air jet to rotate the bearing or pari. The air jet is capab le of rotating them at speeds ta r in exce ss o f those for which they were designed . The bearin g or rotating part is very likely to disintegrate and cause serious injury and dam age . To prevent bearing dam age whe n using com pressed air, hold the inner bearing race by hand.

WARNING The improper use ofcompressed air is velJ' dangerous. Using compressed air to tlUSI off clothes, the ATV or workbench can cause jly ing particles to be blown into eyes or skill. Neve r direct or blow compressed air in/a skin or through any body openin g (including cuts) as this can cause se vere injury or death. Compressed air must be used care/idly; never allow children to lise or play with a ll)' compressed air equipment or hoses. 13. Never work on the uppe r part of the ve hicle while someone is worki ng underneath it. 14. When putting the vehicle on a stand, mak e sure the vehicle is secure before wa lking away from it. 15. Never carry shar p tools in clothing pockets. 16. There is alway s a right and wrong way to use tools. Learn to use the m the right way. 17. Do not start and run the ATV in a n encl osed area , The exha ust gases conta in carbon mo nox ide, a co lorless, odorless, poisonous gas. Carbon monoxide levels build quick ly in a small closed area and can cause unconscio usness and death in a short time. When it is necessary to start and run the vehicle during a service proc edur e, always do so outside, or in a serv ice area equip ped with a ventilating sys tem. CLEANING PARTS Cleaning parts is one of the more ted ious and difficu lt serv ice jo bs performed in the home ga rage . While there are a nnmber of chemica l cleaner s and solvents availa ble for home and shop lise, most arc poiso nous and extremely flam mable. To preve nt chem ical overexposure, vapor build up, tire and sc-

rious inju ry. obse rve all man ufact urer 's direct ions and warn ings while notin g the following, I. Read the entire product label befor e using the chem ica l. O bserve the precautions and warnings on the labe l. Always know what type ofchem ica l is being used . 2. If the chem ica l product m ust be mixed, measure the proper amount according to the dire ction s. 3. Alway s pro vide sufficient ventilation when working with solvents or othe r chem ica ls. If a chemica l can be sme lled, there is some vapor in the air. The stronger the smell, the stro nge r the vapor con cent ration . 4. If a prod uct is listed as combustib le, flammable or an extremely flammable Iiquid, the danger offi re increases as the vapor collects and bui lds up in the shop. 5. lf a produ ct is listed as a poison, the vapor is poisonous as well as the liquid. o. To prevent skin exposure, wear protective gloves when cleaning parts. Select a pair of chemical-resistan t gloves suitable for the type of che rnicals that w ill be used. Replace the glove s whcn they become thi n, damaged, cha nge COIOf, or swe ll. 7. Wear safety gog gles when using chem icals and cleani ng par ts. 8. Do not lise more than one typ e of clean ing solvent at a lime. 9. If a pan must be heated to remove a bearing, clean it thoroughly to remove all oil , grease and cleaner residue. Then wash with soapy water and rinse w ith clear water, 10. Wear a respirator if the instruction label says to do so. II . Keep che mica l produc ts out of reac h of children and pets. 12. To prevent spa rks, usc a nylon bristle brush when clea ning paris. 13. When using a commerc ial paris washer, read and follow the manufacturer 's instructions lo r selecting the type of so lvent to usc. Parts washers must be equ ipped with a fusible link designed to melt and drop the cover in the event of fire. 14. Wash both hands and arms thoro ughly after cleaning parts, HANDLING GASOLINE SAFE LY Gasoline, a vola tile flamm able liquid, is one of the most dan gerou s items in the shop, However, be-




cause gasoline is used so often, many people forget that it is a da ngerous prod uct. Gasoline sho uld be

used only as fuel for internal-combustion engines. Never usc gas oline to clean parts, tools or to wa sh hands. When working on an ATV. motorcycle or any other type of gasoline engine. gasoline will al-


ways be present in tbe fuel tank, fue l line and carbu-

retor. To avoid a disastrous accident when working around gasoline or on the fuel system, carefully observe the following precautions: I. Never usc gasoline to clean parts. See Cleaning Part s in this chapter for additional information on pans cleaning and sa fety. 2. Wh en working on the fuel sys tem, work outside or in a well-ven tilated area. 3. Do not add fuel to the fuel tank or serv ice the fue l system while the ATV is in the vic inity o f open flames, sparksor where someoneissmoking. Gasoline vapors arc actually more dangerous than liquid

gasoline. Because these vapors are heavier than air. they collect in low areas and are easily ignited. 4 . Allow the engine to cool completel y before working on any fuel system component. 5. When drai ning the car bure tor, ca tch the gaso line


in a plastic container and then pour it into a safety-approved gas can. 6. Do not store gasoline in any type of glass container. If the glass shoold break . a serious explos ion

or fire could occur. 7. Wipe up spilled gasoline immediately with dry rags. Store the rags in a metal container with a lid on til they can be properly disposed of. o r put them outside in a safe place to dry. 8. Do not pour water onto a gasoline tire. Water spreads the lire and makes it more difficult to put oot. Use a C lass B. BC . or AIlC fire extingu isher to smother the names and put the fire out. 9. Always tum the engine off before refu elin g. Usc a wide-mouth funnel to prevent spilling gasoline onto the engine. exhaust pipe or muffler. Do not overfill the fuel tank. Leave anairspace at the topof the fue l tank to preven t fue l from spi lling o ut when insta lling the ca p. 10. A lways refue l the ATV wh ile it is parked outside and away from all open flames and sparks. II . When transporting the ATV in anoth er vehi cle. keep it upright with the fue l valve turned oiT. 12. Do not perform a spark test (as described in Chapter Two ) if there is any gasoline leaking from the fuel tank, fuel line or carburetor.

SERVICE HINTS ~..Iost of the service procedures covered are straightfo rward and can be performed by anyone reasonably handy wi th too ls. It is suggested. howeve r. that the personal capabilities be carefully eon sidercd before attemp ting any operation involving

major disassembly of the engine. Take time and do the job right. Do not forget that a newly rebuilt engine must be broken in the same wayas a new one. Refer to the Engine Break-In proccdure listed in Chapter Four and Chapter Five . J. Front, as used in this manual, refers to the front

o f the vehicle; the front ofany component is the end closest to the front of the vehicle. Th e left and right sides refer to the position afth e parts as viewed by a rider sitting 011 the seat rac ing forward. For example, the throttle control is on the right side. These rules aresimple. but confusion can cause a major inconvenience during service. Sec Figure 1. 2. Whenever servicing an engine or suspension

component, secure the vehicle in a safe manner. 3. Tag all similar internal parts for location and mark all mating parts fo r position. Record number



and thickness of any shims as they are removed. Small parts such as bolts can be identi fied by placing them in plastic sandw ich bags (F igu r e 2). Seal and label them with maskin g tape . 4 . Tag disconnected wires and con nectors wit h mas king tape and a markin g pen . Again, do not rely on memory alone. 5. Pro tect finished surfaces from physical damage or corrosion. Keep gaso line and other chem icals off pain ted surfaces. 6. Use penetrating oil on frozen or tight bolts, then strike the bolt head a few times with a ha mme r and punch (use a screwdriver on screws). Avo id using heat where possible, as it can warp, melt or affe ct the temper of parts. Heat also ruins finishes, especia lly paint and plastics. 7. When a part is a press fit or requires a specia l tool to remove it, the necessary informat ion or type of too l is ca lled ou t in the text. O therw ise, if a part is diffic ult to remove or install, lind out why before proceedi ng. S. To prevent small obj ects and ab rasive dust from falling into the engine, cover all openings afte r exposing them. 9. Read each pro ced ure comp lete ly while looking at the actual parts before starting a j ob. Make sure the procedu ral steps are fully understood, the n follow the proce dure step by step. 10. Recommendations are occas ionally made to refer service or maintenance to a Polaris dealership or a spec ialist in a particular field. In these cases, the work will be done more quickly and economica lly than by the home mechanic. 11. In procedural steps, the term repla ce means to disc ard a defective part and replace it with a new or rebui lt unit. Overhaul means to remove, disassem -

ble, inspect, measure, repair and/or replace parts as require d. 12 . Some operations require the usc of a hydraulic press . If a press is not availab le, it is wiser to have these ope ratio ns performed by a shop equipped for such wo rk, rather than to try to do the job yourself with makeshift equipment that may damage the machine. 13. Repai rs go much fa ster and easier if the veh icle is clean be fore starting on the jo b. There are many spec ial clean ers on the mar ket, like Bel-Ray Degrca scr, for wash ing the engine and related parts. Follow the manufacturer's direc tions on the contai ner for the best res ult s. C lean all o ily or greasy parts with cleani ng so lvent as they are removed. WARN ING

Never use gasolin e to clean parts or tools. 11 presents all extreme fire hazani. Be sure 10 work in a well-ventilated area when using cleaning solvent. Keep a fire extinguisher rated f or gasoline fires near by in any case . CAUTION

If a car wash is used to clean tile Arv, do 1I0t direct tire high-pressure water hose at steering hearings. carburetor hoses, suspe nsion components, wheel bearings, or electri cal components. The water wtllflusb grease out of the bearings or damage the seals. 14. Muc h of the labor charges for repai rs made by dealerships are fo r the time involved during the removal, disassembly, as sembly, and reinsta llation of othe r part s in order to reac h the defe ctive part. Wh en poss ible, perform the prel iminary operations and take the defective unit to the dealer for repair at considerable savings. 15. When special too ls are required, ma ke arrangcmcnts to get the m before starting on the job. It is frus trating and time-consuming to get partly into a job and the n be unable to com plete it. When special too ls are requ ired, they will be described (in cluding part number) at the beginning of a procedur e. 16. Make diag rams wherever similar-appearing parts arc fo und. For instance, crankcase bolts arc often not the same length . Do not rely on memory



a lone to rep lace part s in their proper location. There is also the possibi lity of being side tracked and not able to re turn to wo rk fo r days or even wee ks, during whic h time the carefully la id out parts may be-

come disturbed.

17. Wh en assembling part s, make sure all shims and wa shers are rein s talled exac tly as they cam e out. 18. Whenever a rotating part co ntacts a stationary pa rt, loo k for a shim or wash er. Usc new gas kets if ther e is any doubt abou t the cond ition of the o ld ones. A thin coating of o il on non-pressure typ e gas kets may hel p them sca l morc effe ctive ly. 19. Some co mpo nents are he ld in p lace with se lf-loc king nut s. The locking ability of these nu ts is lessened every time the y ar e insta lled or remo ved . It is recommended that they be replaced every tim e

they are removed. 20. Use co ld heavy greas e to ho ld sma ll part s in place ifthcy tend to fa ll out during assembly. How-

ever, keep grease and oil away from electrical and brake components.


The materials used in the manufacture of the Pola ris may be s ubj ected to uneven stresses if the fasten ers that ho ld the sub-a ssemblies are no t install ed and tightened co rrectly. Loose or m issing fasteners can ca use the cy linde r head to warp. cra nkcase leaks, and premature bearing and seal failure and sus pens ion failure from loose or m issing fa steners. Therefore, usc an accurat e torque wrench (described in this chapter) together w ith the torqu e specifica tions listed at the end of mo st chapters. To rque spec ifications throu gho ut this manu a l nrc given in Ne wton-mete rs (Ns m). foot-po und s (f't.- lb.) and, where applicable, in inch- pounds ( in.-Ib.). Existin g to rqu e wre nches calibrate d in me ter kilogra ms can be used . Move the deci mal po int one plac e to the right; for exampl e, 3.5 m kg = 35 Nsm. T he exact mathemati ca l convers ion is 3.5 mkg = 34.3 Nsm. To math emati cally co nv ert foo t-po unds to Newton meters mu ltiply the foot pounds spec ific atio n by 1.3558 to achieve a Nsrn equiva le nt. For ex am ple 150 ft.- lb. x 1.3558 = 203 Nsrn . Refer to Table 5 for ge neral tor que spec ific ati ons fo r vario us size sc rews, bolt s and nuts not listed in

the resp ect ive chapter tables . To determine the size of the bolt o r ca liper and measure the insid e threads of the nul (F ig ur e 3) and for a bolt (F igure 4).

usc the tab le, first nut. U se a vern ier di men sion of the across the threads

FAST ENERS T he mat er ials and design s ofthe various fasteners use d on the Polaris are each desig ned fe r a spec ific purpose. Fas tene r des ign detennines: the ty pe oft oo l requ ired to wo rk w ith the fastener. Fas te ner mat erial is carefu lly selec ted to decrea se the po ssibilit y of physical failure. N uts, bo lts and sc rews are manu fa ctured in a w ide ran ge of thr ead pattern s. To join a nu t and bo lt, th e d iameter of the bolt and the di am eter of the ho le in the nut mu st be the same. It is j ust as important that the threads on both be pro perly matched.



1.25-1 30 identifi es a typical bolt . wh ich wou ld indicate tha t the bolt has a nomin al diameter of8 mm, the distan ce between thread crests is 1.25 111m an d bolt length is 130 mm .

1I;¡IRNING Do no t install sc reu-'s or bolts with a lower strength grade classifica tion than installed originally by the manufacturer. Doing so may calise engine or equ ipment failure and possible inj ury.

Grade mar king

The best way to te ll if two fast ener s' threads match is to turn the nut on the bolt (or the bo lt into the threaded hole in a piece of equipme nt) with fingers onl y. Be sure both pieces are clean. If ex cessive force is required, check the thread condition on each fastener. If the thread condi tion is good but the fastene rs jam, the thread s are not compatible. A thread pitch gauge can be used to de termi ne pitch . Polaris vehicles arc manufactured with ISO (Inte rnational Organization for Standardization) metric as we ll as Ame rican fasteners. Th e threads are cu t di fferent ly than those of American faste ner s. All engi ne fasteners are metr ic threa ds while the frame component s are secured with America n thread s

The mea surem ent acro ss two fl ats on the head of the bolt indi cates the prop er wrench size to use. Flgnrc 4 Sh O\\o'5 how to determine bolt diameter. Wh en buying a boll from a dealer or part s store, it is important to know how to spec ify bolt length . The correct way 10 measur e bolt length is by measuring the len gth starting from undernea th the bolt head to the end of the bolt. Always measure bolt length in this mann er to avoi d buy ing bolt s that are of the wrong length.

Mo st threads are cut so that the fasten er must be turned clockw ise to tighten it Th ese arc called right-hand threads. Some fasteners have left-hand threads; they must be turn ed co untercloc kw ise to be tightened. Left-hand thre ad s are used in locat ions where normal rotation of the equipment would tend to loosen a right-hand threaded fastener.

There are man y different types of machin e screws . Th e screw head s arc also designed to pro trud e above the metal (round) or slightly rece ssed in the me tal (flat) . See Figure 6.

IS O Metric Screw T hre ads (Bolls, Nu ts and Screws)

Nuts are manu factured in a variety o f type s and sizes. Most are hexagonal (6-sided) and fit on bo lts, screws an d studs with the same diamete r and pitch, Th e common nut is ge nerally used with a lock washer. Se lf-locking nuts have a nylon insert tha t prevents the nu t fro m loosenin g; no lockwasher is requi red . Wing nut s are designed for fast removal by hand . Wing nuts are used for co nvenience in non -critica l locations.

ISO (International Organization for Sta nda rdization) metri c threads come in three standa rd thread sizes: coarse, fine and constant pitch. The ISO coarse pitch is used for almost all common fastener applications. The fine pitch thread is used on certain preci sion tools and instrum ents. T he co nstant pitch thread is used mainly on mac hine parts and not for faste ners . The constant pitch thread, however, is used on all metric thread spark plugs. Met ric screws and bolts are classifie d by len gth (L, Figure 5), nominal diameter (D ) and distance between thread crests (T). The numbe rs 8 x

Machine Screws


To indicate the size of a metric nut. man ufac turers speci fy the d iameter of the ope ning a nd the thread pitch. Thi s is sim ilar to bolt spec ifications. but with ou t the length dimen sion. The measu rem ent acro ss two flats on the nut indicates the proper wrench size to be used .









Se lf-Locking Fasteners Severa l types of bolts, sc rews an d nuts incorpo-

rate a system that develops interference between the bo lt, screw, and nut or lapped hole threads. Interfer-

ence is achieved in various ways: by distort ing threads, coating threads with dry adhesive or nylon, distorting the top of an all-metal nut, using a nylon insert in the center or at the top of a nut. Self-locking fa sten ers off er grea ter ho ldin g strength and better vibrati on resistance. Th e se lf-locking fasteners used on the Po laris ATV cannot be reused. Others, like the nylon insert nut , form an initial lock ing condition when Lite nut is first insta lled; the nylon forms c lose ly 10 the bolt thread pattern, thus reducing any tendency for the nut to loosen . A lways disca rd and replace selfClock ing fasteners after removal.

Was hers Th ere arc two basic type s of wa shers: Ilat was hers and lockwas hers. Flat washers are simple discs with a hole to fit a screw or bolt. Lockwashers are designed to prevent a fastener fro m working loose due to vibration. expansion and contraction. \Vashers can be used in the fo llow ing functions:

I. As spacers.


As much care should be g iven to the se lection and purchas e of washers as that gi ven to bolts, nuts and other/asteners. Beware of washe rs that are made 0/ thin and weak materials. These will deform and crush tile firs t lime they are used in a high-to rque application. Cotte r Pins

In certain applications. a fastener must be secured so it cannot possibly loosen. The rear hub on an ATV is one of' these applications. Forthis purpose, a cotterpin and slo tted orcastellated nul is often used. To use a cotter pin. first make sure the pin fits snugly, but not too light. Th en align the slot in the fastener wi th thc hole in the bah or axlc. Insert the cotter pin thro ugh the nul and bolt or axle and bend the ends over to secure the cotter pin tightly. If the holes do not align. tighten the nut j ust enough to obtain the proper alignment. Unless specifically instructed to do so. never loosen the fastcner 10 a lign thc slo t and the hole. Because the cotter pin is weakened after installation and removal, never reuse a cott er pin. Cotter pins are available in several styles. lengths and diameters . Measur e the cott er pin length fro m the bottom of its head to the lip of thc sho rtes t pron g.

2. To prevent galling or damage of the equipment

by the fastener. 3. To help distribute fastener load during tightening. 4 . As seals.

Note that flat washers arc often used between a lockwasher and a fastener to provide a smooth bearing surface. This a llows the fastener to be turned eas ily with a tool.

C irclips Cir clips can be internal or external in design. They are used to retain items on shafts (external type ) o r wit hin lub es (interna l type). In so me app lications. circlips o f varying thicknesses are used to control the end play of assemblies. These are often

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2001 Polaris Sportsman 400, 500, Xplorer 500 4×4 Service Repair Manual  

2001 Polaris Sportsman 400, 500, Xplorer 500 4×4 Service Repair Manual  

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