QUICK REFERENCE DATA . . . . . . . . • . . . • . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . IX CHAPTER ONE . GENERAL INFORMATION Manual organization Notes, cautions and warnings Safety first Cleaning parts Handling gasoline safely Service hints Torqu e sped fica tion s Fas teners Lubrica nts
Threadlocking compound RTV gasket sealant
.. .. .. . 1
Expendable supplies Serial numbers Warning and information labels Basic hand tools Precision measuring tools Spec ial tools Fabricat ing tools Mechanic's tips Beari ng rep lacement
CHAPTER TWO . . . . . TROUBLESHOOTING Operatin g requirement s
Fue l sys tem
Troubleshooting instruments Starting the engine
Engine overheating Engine
Start ing diffi culties
Eng ine no ises Cy linder leak dow n test Power tra in Stee ring
Engine is difficult to start Engine starting system Charging system Ignition system Electroni c throttle control
Frame noise Brakes
CHAPTER THREE . .. . . . . .. .. • . •.. . LUBRICATION, MAINTENA NCE AND TUNE-UP Pre- ride chec k list Tire s and whee ls Battery Batt ery elec trica l cabl e co nnectors Pe rio dic lubrication
. . . . .. 53 Perio dic main tenance Unsc hed uled inspection and ma intenance Eng ine tune-up
.. .. .. . . . . . . 94
CHAPTER FOUR . ENGINE TOP END Eng ine prin cip les Eng ine cooling Eng ine lubrication Ser vicing the engine in the frame Exha ust syst em Cy linder head co ver Rocker ann assembl y
Cy linde r head Valves and va lve components Cy linder block Piston and piston rings Ca msha ft chai n and s proc kets Brea k-in pro cedure
CHAPTE R FIVE . . • . ENGINE LOWER END Engine Flywheel and stato r plate Recoi l starte r Cra nkcase Crankshaft inspec tion Balancer shaft inspe ction
. . . 137 Sha n end float measurement and shim select ion Oil pumr O il system on e- wa y c hec k valve Break -in pro cedure
CHAPTER SIX • . . . . FUEL SYSTEM Ca rburetor op eration Carburetor Carburetor cleaning and inspection Carburetor tests and adj ustments Throttle cable replacemen t
175 Stalling enr ichment (c hoke) cab le Fue l tank Fuel shutoff va lve A ir fi lter air box Fu ~ l pllm p
. . . . 19 8
CHAPTE R SEVEN. . . . . . . . . • COOLING SYSTE MS Po laris va riabl e transmission (PVT) a ir cooli ng system Eng ine cooling sys tem Safety precauti ons Hoses and hose clamps Engin e ga skets/sea ls
Coo ling sys te m inspect ion Radiato r Coo ling fan Coo lant pump Th erm ostat Temp erature se nso rs
. .. .. .. . . . . 213
CHAPTER EIGHT . CL UTCH/DRIVE BELT SYSTEM
Drive unit Drive pulley Specia l tools Driven pulley Drive belt
Drive pulle y Driven pulley Clutch outer and inner cover (all models)
. . 249
CHAPTER NINE . TRANSMISSION
Transmission Transmission inspection Shift shafts Front output shaft
Transmission gearcase oil seal inspection and replacement Shift selector linkage
. . . . . . . . . 290
CHAPTER TEN . . . . . . . FRONT DRIVE SYSTEM Front hub and Hillard clutch Front drive axle, boots and CV (constant velocity) j oints
Front dr ive shaft Front drive unit
.. .. . 303
CHAPTER ELEVEN . . ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Basic informat ion Negative battery term inal Charging system Alternator stator Voltage regulator/rectificr Capacitor discharge ignition Ignition coil Ignition stator coils CHAPTER TWELVE . FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING Front wheel Front hub Front strut cartridge and spring Front strut/spindle Control arm
Electric starting syste m
Starter drive gears Starter solenoid Lighting system Electrical components Sw itches
. Handlebar Tie rods Steerin g shaft Tires and wheels
CHAPTER THIRTEEN . REAR SUSPENSION Rear wheels Tire changing and tire repairs Shock absorber
Rear hub and bearing carrier
Rear axles Upper control arm
Lower control arm Upper and lower control arm inspection Stabilizer linkage
CHAP TER FOURTEEN . BRAKES Disc brakes Front brake pad replacement Fro nt cal iper Ou tput sha ft brake pad replacement (1996-1997 mode ls) O utput sha ll brake cal iper ( ]996- 1997 mode ls) Outpu t sha ll brake pad repl acement ( I998- on models) Output shaft brake caliper (I 998 -on mode ls)
.. . .. . . 382 Front master cylinder Rear master cylinder Brak e hose replace ment
Rear brake peda l Rem brake lever ( 1996 -1997 Sweden mod els) Foot brak e (199 8-on Sw eden model s) Brake d isc Bleeding the sys te m
. . . .. .. .. . 425
CHAPTER FIFTEEN BODY Seat
Front rack and grille
Side panels Front fender Fro nt bum per (models so eq uipped )
SUPPLEMENT . 2001-2003 SERVICE INFORMATION Starting the engine
Ignition system Periodic maintenance Engine tUIl C- Up Cy linde r block
Piston and piston rings Engine Flywhee l and stator plate Carburetor (Sportsman 500 H.G. models)
Cleaning and inspection Carburetor tests and adjustments Drive belt Driv en pulley (200 3 mod els bui lt afte r 07/08102)
WIRING DIAGRAMS .
Footv..'ells Rear bump er (mode ls so eq uipped)
. . . . . . . . . . . 437 Transmission Lighting system Electrical components Stee ring sha ll (2002-on mode ls) Rear hub and bearing carrier (200 3 mode ls) Rear brake pad replacement (2003 models) Rear ca lipers (200 3 mod els)
Front master cylinder Rear master cylinder (2003 models) Rea r brake disc (200 3 mode ls) Brak e hose replace men t (2003 models)
QUICK REFERENCE DATA ATV INFORMATION MODEL:
ENGINE SERIAL NUMBER :
CARBURETOR SERIAL NUMBER OR 1.0. MARK:
TIRE INFLATION PRESSURE (COLD)' Model
Front wheels Rear wheels
"Tlre pressure for original equipment tires. Aftermarket tires may require different Inflation pressure.
RECOMMENDED LUBRICANTS, FLUIDS AND CAPACITIES Item
Lubricant or fluid type
Polaris Premium 4 Synthetic 10W/4Q or 10W/40 motor all Polaris synthetic gear case 011 (part No. 2871478) Polaris front gearcase lube (part No. 2871653), or API GL5 80·90 gear lube Polaris demand drive hub fluid (part No. 2871654), or ATF Type F. DOT 3 brake fluid 50:50 mixture ethylene glycol·based coolant compounded for aluminum radiators and engines Polaris all season grease, or equivalent
Front gear case Front hubs Brake fluid Coolant
Engine all Transmission all Front gear case (all years) Front hubs Coolant
1.89 L (2 U.S. qts.) 946.3 cc (32 U.S. oz.} 96 cc (3.25 U.S. oz.) 75 cc (2.5 U.S. oz.) Approx. 2.16 L (2.25 U.S. qts.)
MAINTENANCE AND TUN E·UP T ORQ UE SPECIFICATIONS
Crankcase oil drain plug Cylinder head cover screws Front gear case drain plug
19 8.2 9.4 13·17 19 20 6-7
Handlebar up per holder bol ts Oi l tank drain plug
0 11 tank screen and fitting Valve adjuster locknuts
ft.· lb. 14
72 83 115-150 14 15 53-62
MAINTENANCE AND TUNE·UP SPEC IF IC AT IO NS
Spec ific at ion
Disc brake pad thickness wear limit 2003 Sportsman 500 & 500 H.O.
Rear brake All other models and years Front and rear brakes Valve clearance (cold) Intake and ex haust Spark plug
4.6 mm (0.180 In.) 3.8 1 mm (0.150 In. ) 0.15 mm (0.006 In .)
400 cc Heat range Gap 500 ee Heat range 1996-1997 1998-200 1 2002·on Gap 1996 · 1998 1999-2000 200 1·on Idle sp eed 1996-1988 , 2001-on 1997·2000 Carburetor pilot air screw (34 mm) 1996 1997·1998 1999-2000 2001-on (400 ee) Carburetor pilot air screw (40 mm ) 2001 2002-on
NG K BKR 5E 0.9 mm (0.036 in.)
NGK BKR5ES NGK BKR5E NGK BKR6E 0.6-0.7 mm (0.02 4-0.028 in . 0.7 mm (0.028 In.) 0.9 m m (0.036 in.) 1100-1300 rpm 1000-1400 rpm
1 1/2 turns ou t 2 turns out 2 5/8 turns out 23/4 turns out
2 1/2 turns out 2 turns out REPLACE MENT BULBS
Spec ificati on
Headlights Grill mounted lights 1996 1997 1998-on Taillight Brake light Indicator lights 1996 1997-on
12 volt , 60/60 watt Halogen
12 12 12 12 12
volt , 37.5 watt (2) volt, 35 watt (2) volt, 27 watt volt, 8.26 watt volt , 6 .9 watt
12 volt , 1.25 wa tt 12 volt,l.0 watt
This detailed. comprehensive manual covers the Po laris Sportsman 400 , 500 and Xp lorer 500 4 x 4 from I 996-on. Keep this book hand y in the toolbox. Readin g and using it will help to better unde rstand how the ve hicle runs, lower repair cos ts and g enerally improve personal satisfaction w ith the vehicle. The following tables are incl uded at the end of this chapter: Tahle 1 lists mode l year and number. Tahle 2 lists general dimensions . Ta ble 3 lists vehicle weight (dry) .
Ta ble 8 lists metric tap and drill sizes.
Ta bles 1-8 are at the end of this chapter.
M ANU AL OR GANIZATlO:'ll All dimensions and capacities are expresse d in
English units familiar to U.S. mechanics. as well as in metric uni ts.
Table 4 lists decimal and metric equivalents.
This chapter provides general informatio n and discusses equipment and too ls useful both for preventive maintenance and troubleshooting.
Tab le 5 lists general torque specificatio ns. Tab le 6 lists conversio n tables . Ta b le 7 lists technical abbrev iations.
for the quick and accurate diagnosis and repair of problems. Troubleshooting procedures discuss typ-
Chapter Two provides methods and suggestions
ical sy mptoms and logi cal method s to pinpoin t the trouble.
rul es ca n inj ure so meo ne wor king on the ve h icle. o r dam age the AT V.
C ha pter Th ree ex p lains all pe rio di c lubrication and rou tine maint enan ce necessary to keep the vehicle funn ing wel l. Cha pter Three also incl udes reco mm en ded t UIl C-Up procedu res , el imina ting the need to co nst ant ly co nsu lt chapte rs o n the variou s ass emb lies . Subsequent chapters describe s pecific sys te ms suc h as the engi ne , clutch/drive belt sy stem, tran s-
I. Never lise gaso line o r any type o f low flash po int so lve nt to clean pa rts, Se c Cleaning Parts and Handling Gasoline Safet y in this chapter for add itional informat ion on parts c lea ning, ga so line usc and safety.
missio n, exhaust, coo ling, suspens ion and brakes. Each chapter pro vid es d isas sembly, repair an d assem bly p rocedures in a simp le s tep- by-step form . Ifa repair is impract ica l for a ho me mechanic. it is
so indicated. It is usuall y faster ami less expensive to take such repairs to a dealer or com petent repair shop. Spec ifications conc ern ing a particul ar system arc included at the end of th e app ro priate chap ter. So me of the proced ures in thi s manual spec ify special too ls. In most cases, the too l is illustrated eith er in actua l use or alone . We ll-e q uipped mec hanic s m ay find they ca n subs titute sim ilar too ls already on ha nd or ca n fabricate thei r own.
The flash point is the lowest temperalure a t which the vaporsfrom a co mbustible liquid will ign ite when in open ail: A lowjlash po int solve nt will ignite at a lower temperature than a higlzjlash point solvent. 2. Never smo ke or usc a to rch in the vici nity o f flammable liquids in ope n co ntai ners, suc h as gasoline or clean ing so lve nt.
3. lf wc lding o r bra zin g is req uir ed on the vehicle. re move the fue l rank , carburetor, and fron t and rea r shoc ks to a safe d istance at leas t 50 feet ( 15 m) awa y. 4. Use the pro per s ized wre nc hes to avo id damage to fa steners.
NOTES, CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS T he terms NOT E, CA UT IO N an d WARNING have specific mean ings in this ma nual. A NOTE pro vides add itio na l in form ation to make a step or procedure eas ie r o r clearer. Disregardi ng a NOTE could cause incon venien ce, bu t wou ld not ca use eq uipment damage or personal injury. A CAUTION empha s ize, areas w here eq uipme nt da mage co uld result. Disregard ing a CA UT ION co uld cause permanent mechanica l damage ; hO\\Iever, p ersonal inju ry is unli kely. A WARN ING emp hasi ze s area s where pe rsonal injury or eve n death co uld resu lt fro m ne glige nce. M ec ha n ica l da m age may also occur. WARNI NG S are fa be take n serio usly. In some cases , serious inj ut)' or death has resu lted from d isregarding s imilar w arn ings .
SA rETY FIRST Pro fessional mechan ics can wo rk for ye ars and never sustain a se rio us inj ury. I f a few rul es o f co mmon sense and safe ty arc ob served. many safe hours can be enjoye d serv ic ing the ATY. Ign or ing these
5. Wh en loose ning a tight or stuck nut , be gui de d by wha t wou ld happen if th e wrench slips. 6. W he n rep lacing a fa sten er, mak e su re to usc one wi th the sa me measu rem ents and streng th as the o ld one. Inco rrect or m ism atch ed fasteners can result in da mage to th e ve hicle and possibl e personal inj ury. Beware of faste ne r kits that are fill ed w ith chea p and poorly mad e nut s. bolt s, washe rs and co tte r pins. Refer to Faste ne rs in thi s ch apt er for add ition al inform ation. 7. Keep all hand and po wer tool s in go od condition. W ipe greas y and o ily too ls after us ing the m. Dirty too ls arc d iffi c ult to ho ld and can cause injury. Replace o r repair worn or damaged tools. 8. Kee p the work area c lea n and uncl uttered. 9 . Wear safety g ogg lcs during all operations invo lving drilling , g r ind ing. th e use o f a co ld chisel, usin g che m ica ls, c lea ning parts, wh en using co mpressed air or anytim e the sa fe ty o f eyes is invo lved. 10 . Mak e su re to we ar th e correct typ e of clothes for th e job. Long hair should be tied u p or covered wit h a ca p so thai it canno t be caug ht by a pie ce of mo vin g eq uipme nt or too l.
G ENE RAL INFO RMATION 11. Keep an approved fire extinguisher nearby. Be sure it is rated fur gasoline (C lass B) and electrical (Cla ss C) fires. 12. When drying bearings or ot her rotat ing paris
with compressed air, never allow the air jet to rotate the bearing or pari. The air jet is capab le of rotating them at speeds ta r in exce ss o f those for which they were designed . The bearin g or rotating part is very likely to disintegrate and cause serious injury and dam age . To prevent bearing dam age whe n using com pressed air, hold the inner bearing race by hand.
WARNING The improper use ofcompressed air is velJ' dangerous. Using compressed air to tlUSI off clothes, the ATV or workbench can cause jly ing particles to be blown into eyes or skill. Neve r direct or blow compressed air in/a skin or through any body openin g (including cuts) as this can cause se vere injury or death. Compressed air must be used care/idly; never allow children to lise or play with a ll)' compressed air equipment or hoses. 13. Never work on the uppe r part of the ve hicle while someone is worki ng underneath it. 14. When putting the vehicle on a stand, mak e sure the vehicle is secure before wa lking away from it. 15. Never carry shar p tools in clothing pockets. 16. There is alway s a right and wrong way to use tools. Learn to use the m the right way. 17. Do not start and run the ATV in a n encl osed area , The exha ust gases conta in carbon mo nox ide, a co lorless, odorless, poisonous gas. Carbon monoxide levels build quick ly in a small closed area and can cause unconscio usness and death in a short time. When it is necessary to start and run the vehicle during a service proc edur e, always do so outside, or in a serv ice area equip ped with a ventilating sys tem. CLEANING PARTS Cleaning parts is one of the more ted ious and difficu lt serv ice jo bs performed in the home ga rage . While there are a nnmber of chemica l cleaner s and solvents availa ble for home and shop lise, most arc poiso nous and extremely flam mable. To preve nt chem ical overexposure, vapor build up, tire and sc-
rious inju ry. obse rve all man ufact urer 's direct ions and warn ings while notin g the following, I. Read the entire product label befor e using the chem ica l. O bserve the precautions and warnings on the labe l. Always know what type ofchem ica l is being used . 2. If the chem ica l product m ust be mixed, measure the proper amount according to the dire ction s. 3. Alway s pro vide sufficient ventilation when working with solvents or othe r chem ica ls. If a chemica l can be sme lled, there is some vapor in the air. The stronger the smell, the stro nge r the vapor con cent ration . 4. If a prod uct is listed as combustib le, flammable or an extremely flammable Iiquid, the danger offi re increases as the vapor collects and bui lds up in the shop. 5. lf a produ ct is listed as a poison, the vapor is poisonous as well as the liquid. o. To prevent skin exposure, wear protective gloves when cleaning parts. Select a pair of chemical-resistan t gloves suitable for the type of che rnicals that w ill be used. Replace the glove s whcn they become thi n, damaged, cha nge COIOf, or swe ll. 7. Wear safety gog gles when using chem icals and cleani ng par ts. 8. Do not lise more than one typ e of clean ing solvent at a lime. 9. If a pan must be heated to remove a bearing, clean it thoroughly to remove all oil , grease and cleaner residue. Then wash with soapy water and rinse w ith clear water, 10. Wear a respirator if the instruction label says to do so. II . Keep che mica l produc ts out of reac h of children and pets. 12. To prevent spa rks, usc a nylon bristle brush when clea ning paris. 13. When using a commerc ial paris washer, read and follow the manufacturer 's instructions lo r selecting the type of so lvent to usc. Parts washers must be equ ipped with a fusible link designed to melt and drop the cover in the event of fire. 14. Wash both hands and arms thoro ughly after cleaning parts, HANDLING GASOLINE SAFE LY Gasoline, a vola tile flamm able liquid, is one of the most dan gerou s items in the shop, However, be-
cause gasoline is used so often, many people forget that it is a da ngerous prod uct. Gasoline sho uld be
used only as fuel for internal-combustion engines. Never usc gas oline to clean parts, tools or to wa sh hands. When working on an ATV. motorcycle or any other type of gasoline engine. gasoline will al-
ways be present in tbe fuel tank, fue l line and carbu-
retor. To avoid a disastrous accident when working around gasoline or on the fuel system, carefully observe the following precautions: I. Never usc gasoline to clean parts. See Cleaning Part s in this chapter for additional information on pans cleaning and sa fety. 2. Wh en working on the fuel sys tem, work outside or in a well-ven tilated area. 3. Do not add fuel to the fuel tank or serv ice the fue l system while the ATV is in the vic inity o f open flames, sparksor where someoneissmoking. Gasoline vapors arc actually more dangerous than liquid
gasoline. Because these vapors are heavier than air. they collect in low areas and are easily ignited. 4 . Allow the engine to cool completel y before working on any fuel system component. 5. When drai ning the car bure tor, ca tch the gaso line
in a plastic container and then pour it into a safety-approved gas can. 6. Do not store gasoline in any type of glass container. If the glass shoold break . a serious explos ion
or fire could occur. 7. Wipe up spilled gasoline immediately with dry rags. Store the rags in a metal container with a lid on til they can be properly disposed of. o r put them outside in a safe place to dry. 8. Do not pour water onto a gasoline tire. Water spreads the lire and makes it more difficult to put oot. Use a C lass B. BC . or AIlC fire extingu isher to smother the names and put the fire out. 9. Always tum the engine off before refu elin g. Usc a wide-mouth funnel to prevent spilling gasoline onto the engine. exhaust pipe or muffler. Do not overfill the fuel tank. Leave anairspace at the topof the fue l tank to preven t fue l from spi lling o ut when insta lling the ca p. 10. A lways refue l the ATV wh ile it is parked outside and away from all open flames and sparks. II . When transporting the ATV in anoth er vehi cle. keep it upright with the fue l valve turned oiT. 12. Do not perform a spark test (as described in Chapter Two ) if there is any gasoline leaking from the fuel tank, fuel line or carburetor.
SERVICE HINTS ~..Iost of the service procedures covered are straightfo rward and can be performed by anyone reasonably handy wi th too ls. It is suggested. howeve r. that the personal capabilities be carefully eon sidercd before attemp ting any operation involving
major disassembly of the engine. Take time and do the job right. Do not forget that a newly rebuilt engine must be broken in the same wayas a new one. Refer to the Engine Break-In proccdure listed in Chapter Four and Chapter Five . J. Front, as used in this manual, refers to the front
o f the vehicle; the front ofany component is the end closest to the front of the vehicle. Th e left and right sides refer to the position afth e parts as viewed by a rider sitting 011 the seat rac ing forward. For example, the throttle control is on the right side. These rules aresimple. but confusion can cause a major inconvenience during service. Sec Figure 1. 2. Whenever servicing an engine or suspension
component, secure the vehicle in a safe manner. 3. Tag all similar internal parts for location and mark all mating parts fo r position. Record number
GE NERAL INFO RM AnON
and thickness of any shims as they are removed. Small parts such as bolts can be identi fied by placing them in plastic sandw ich bags (F igu r e 2). Seal and label them with maskin g tape . 4 . Tag disconnected wires and con nectors wit h mas king tape and a markin g pen . Again, do not rely on memory alone. 5. Pro tect finished surfaces from physical damage or corrosion. Keep gaso line and other chem icals off pain ted surfaces. 6. Use penetrating oil on frozen or tight bolts, then strike the bolt head a few times with a ha mme r and punch (use a screwdriver on screws). Avo id using heat where possible, as it can warp, melt or affe ct the temper of parts. Heat also ruins finishes, especia lly paint and plastics. 7. When a part is a press fit or requires a specia l tool to remove it, the necessary informat ion or type of too l is ca lled ou t in the text. O therw ise, if a part is diffic ult to remove or install, lind out why before proceedi ng. S. To prevent small obj ects and ab rasive dust from falling into the engine, cover all openings afte r exposing them. 9. Read each pro ced ure comp lete ly while looking at the actual parts before starting a j ob. Make sure the procedu ral steps are fully understood, the n follow the proce dure step by step. 10. Recommendations are occas ionally made to refer service or maintenance to a Polaris dealership or a spec ialist in a particular field. In these cases, the work will be done more quickly and economica lly than by the home mechanic. 11. In procedural steps, the term repla ce means to disc ard a defective part and replace it with a new or rebui lt unit. Overhaul means to remove, disassem -
ble, inspect, measure, repair and/or replace parts as require d. 12 . Some operations require the usc of a hydraulic press . If a press is not availab le, it is wiser to have these ope ratio ns performed by a shop equipped for such wo rk, rather than to try to do the job yourself with makeshift equipment that may damage the machine. 13. Repai rs go much fa ster and easier if the veh icle is clean be fore starting on the jo b. There are many spec ial clean ers on the mar ket, like Bel-Ray Degrca scr, for wash ing the engine and related parts. Follow the manufacturer's direc tions on the contai ner for the best res ult s. C lean all o ily or greasy parts with cleani ng so lvent as they are removed. WARN ING
Never use gasolin e to clean parts or tools. 11 presents all extreme fire hazani. Be sure 10 work in a well-ventilated area when using cleaning solvent. Keep a fire extinguisher rated f or gasoline fires near by in any case . CAUTION
If a car wash is used to clean tile Arv, do 1I0t direct tire high-pressure water hose at steering hearings. carburetor hoses, suspe nsion components, wheel bearings, or electri cal components. The water wtllflusb grease out of the bearings or damage the seals. 14. Muc h of the labor charges for repai rs made by dealerships are fo r the time involved during the removal, disassembly, as sembly, and reinsta llation of othe r part s in order to reac h the defe ctive part. Wh en poss ible, perform the prel iminary operations and take the defective unit to the dealer for repair at considerable savings. 15. When special too ls are required, ma ke arrangcmcnts to get the m before starting on the job. It is frus trating and time-consuming to get partly into a job and the n be unable to com plete it. When special too ls are requ ired, they will be described (in cluding part number) at the beginning of a procedur e. 16. Make diag rams wherever similar-appearing parts arc fo und. For instance, crankcase bolts arc often not the same length . Do not rely on memory
CHA PT ER ON E
a lone to rep lace part s in their proper location. There is also the possibi lity of being side tracked and not able to re turn to wo rk fo r days or even wee ks, during whic h time the carefully la id out parts may be-
17. Wh en assembling part s, make sure all shims and wa shers are rein s talled exac tly as they cam e out. 18. Whenever a rotating part co ntacts a stationary pa rt, loo k for a shim or wash er. Usc new gas kets if ther e is any doubt abou t the cond ition of the o ld ones. A thin coating of o il on non-pressure typ e gas kets may hel p them sca l morc effe ctive ly. 19. Some co mpo nents are he ld in p lace with se lf-loc king nut s. The locking ability of these nu ts is lessened every time the y ar e insta lled or remo ved . It is recommended that they be replaced every tim e
they are removed. 20. Use co ld heavy greas e to ho ld sma ll part s in place ifthcy tend to fa ll out during assembly. How-
ever, keep grease and oil away from electrical and brake components.
TORQUE SPECIF ICAT IONS
The materials used in the manufacture of the Pola ris may be s ubj ected to uneven stresses if the fasten ers that ho ld the sub-a ssemblies are no t install ed and tightened co rrectly. Loose or m issing fasteners can ca use the cy linde r head to warp. cra nkcase leaks, and premature bearing and seal failure and sus pens ion failure from loose or m issing fa steners. Therefore, usc an accurat e torque wrench (described in this chapter) together w ith the torqu e specifica tions listed at the end of mo st chapters. To rque spec ifications throu gho ut this manu a l nrc given in Ne wton-mete rs (Ns m). foot-po und s (f't.- lb.) and, where applicable, in inch- pounds ( in.-Ib.). Existin g to rqu e wre nches calibrate d in me ter kilogra ms can be used . Move the deci mal po int one plac e to the right; for exampl e, 3.5 m kg = 35 Nsm. T he exact mathemati ca l convers ion is 3.5 mkg = 34.3 Nsm. To math emati cally co nv ert foo t-po unds to Newton meters mu ltiply the foot pounds spec ific atio n by 1.3558 to achieve a Nsrn equiva le nt. For ex am ple 150 ft.- lb. x 1.3558 = 203 Nsrn . Refer to Table 5 for ge neral tor que spec ific ati ons fo r vario us size sc rews, bolt s and nuts not listed in
the resp ect ive chapter tables . To determine the size of the bolt o r ca liper and measure the insid e threads of the nul (F ig ur e 3) and for a bolt (F igure 4).
usc the tab le, first nut. U se a vern ier di men sion of the across the threads
FAST ENERS T he mat er ials and design s ofthe various fasteners use d on the Polaris are each desig ned fe r a spec ific purpose. Fas tene r des ign detennines: the ty pe oft oo l requ ired to wo rk w ith the fastener. Fas te ner mat erial is carefu lly selec ted to decrea se the po ssibilit y of physical failure. N uts, bo lts and sc rews are manu fa ctured in a w ide ran ge of thr ead pattern s. To join a nu t and bo lt, th e d iameter of the bolt and the di am eter of the ho le in the nut mu st be the same. It is j ust as important that the threads on both be pro perly matched.
GENERAL INFO RMATION
1.25-1 30 identifi es a typical bolt . wh ich wou ld indicate tha t the bolt has a nomin al diameter of8 mm, the distan ce between thread crests is 1.25 111m an d bolt length is 130 mm .
1I;ÂˇIRNING Do no t install sc reu-'s or bolts with a lower strength grade classifica tion than installed originally by the manufacturer. Doing so may calise engine or equ ipment failure and possible inj ury.
Grade mar king
The best way to te ll if two fast ener s' threads match is to turn the nut on the bolt (or the bo lt into the threaded hole in a piece of equipme nt) with fingers onl y. Be sure both pieces are clean. If ex cessive force is required, check the thread condition on each fastener. If the thread condi tion is good but the fastene rs jam, the thread s are not compatible. A thread pitch gauge can be used to de termi ne pitch . Polaris vehicles arc manufactured with ISO (Inte rnational Organization for Standardization) metric as we ll as Ame rican fasteners. Th e threads are cu t di fferent ly than those of American faste ner s. All engi ne fasteners are metr ic threa ds while the frame component s are secured with America n thread s
The mea surem ent acro ss two fl ats on the head of the bolt indi cates the prop er wrench size to use. Flgnrc 4 Sh O\\o'5 how to determine bolt diameter. Wh en buying a boll from a dealer or part s store, it is important to know how to spec ify bolt length . The correct way 10 measur e bolt length is by measuring the len gth starting from undernea th the bolt head to the end of the bolt. Always measure bolt length in this mann er to avoi d buy ing bolt s that are of the wrong length.
Mo st threads are cut so that the fasten er must be turned clockw ise to tighten it Th ese arc called right-hand threads. Some fasteners have left-hand threads; they must be turn ed co untercloc kw ise to be tightened. Left-hand thre ad s are used in locat ions where normal rotation of the equipment would tend to loosen a right-hand threaded fastener.
There are man y different types of machin e screws . Th e screw head s arc also designed to pro trud e above the metal (round) or slightly rece ssed in the me tal (flat) . See Figure 6.
IS O Metric Screw T hre ads (Bolls, Nu ts and Screws)
Nuts are manu factured in a variety o f type s and sizes. Most are hexagonal (6-sided) and fit on bo lts, screws an d studs with the same diamete r and pitch, Th e common nut is ge nerally used with a lock washer. Se lf-locking nuts have a nylon insert tha t prevents the nu t fro m loosenin g; no lockwasher is requi red . Wing nut s are designed for fast removal by hand . Wing nuts are used for co nvenience in non -critica l locations.
ISO (International Organization for Sta nda rdization) metri c threads come in three standa rd thread sizes: coarse, fine and constant pitch. The ISO coarse pitch is used for almost all common fastener applications. The fine pitch thread is used on certain preci sion tools and instrum ents. T he co nstant pitch thread is used mainly on mac hine parts and not for faste ners . The constant pitch thread, however, is used on all metric thread spark plugs. Met ric screws and bolts are classifie d by len gth (L, Figure 5), nominal diameter (D ) and distance between thread crests (T). The numbe rs 8 x
To indicate the size of a metric nut. man ufac turers speci fy the d iameter of the ope ning a nd the thread pitch. Thi s is sim ilar to bolt spec ifications. but with ou t the length dimen sion. The measu rem ent acro ss two flats on the nut indicates the proper wrench size to be used .
CHAPTER ON E
Se lf-Locking Fasteners Severa l types of bolts, sc rews an d nuts incorpo-
rate a system that develops interference between the bo lt, screw, and nut or lapped hole threads. Interfer-
ence is achieved in various ways: by distort ing threads, coating threads with dry adhesive or nylon, distorting the top of an all-metal nut, using a nylon insert in the center or at the top of a nut. Self-locking fa sten ers off er grea ter ho ldin g strength and better vibrati on resistance. Th e se lf-locking fasteners used on the Po laris ATV cannot be reused. Others, like the nylon insert nut , form an initial lock ing condition when Lite nut is first insta lled; the nylon forms c lose ly 10 the bolt thread pattern, thus reducing any tendency for the nut to loosen . A lways disca rd and replace selfClock ing fasteners after removal.
Was hers Th ere arc two basic type s of wa shers: Ilat was hers and lockwas hers. Flat washers are simple discs with a hole to fit a screw or bolt. Lockwashers are designed to prevent a fastener fro m working loose due to vibration. expansion and contraction. \Vashers can be used in the fo llow ing functions:
I. As spacers.
As much care should be g iven to the se lection and purchas e of washers as that gi ven to bolts, nuts and other/asteners. Beware of washe rs that are made 0/ thin and weak materials. These will deform and crush tile firs t lime they are used in a high-to rque application. Cotte r Pins
In certain applications. a fastener must be secured so it cannot possibly loosen. The rear hub on an ATV is one of' these applications. Forthis purpose, a cotterpin and slo tted orcastellated nul is often used. To use a cotter pin. first make sure the pin fits snugly, but not too light. Th en align the slot in the fastener wi th thc hole in the bah or axlc. Insert the cotter pin thro ugh the nul and bolt or axle and bend the ends over to secure the cotter pin tightly. If the holes do not align. tighten the nut j ust enough to obtain the proper alignment. Unless specifically instructed to do so. never loosen the fastcner 10 a lign thc slo t and the hole. Because the cotter pin is weakened after installation and removal, never reuse a cott er pin. Cotter pins are available in several styles. lengths and diameters . Measur e the cott er pin length fro m the bottom of its head to the lip of thc sho rtes t pron g.
2. To prevent galling or damage of the equipment
by the fastener. 3. To help distribute fastener load during tightening. 4 . As seals.
Note that flat washers arc often used between a lockwasher and a fastener to provide a smooth bearing surface. This a llows the fastener to be turned eas ily with a tool.
C irclips Cir clips can be internal or external in design. They are used to retain items on shafts (external type ) o r wit hin lub es (interna l type). In so me app lications. circlips o f varying thicknesses are used to control the end play of assemblies. These are often
GENE RA L II\'FO RMATION
Periodi c lub rication assures lon g Iifc for any type of equipme nt. Th e type of lubricant used is just as
'~~=;1;'7T sareas upport I"
important as the lubrication service itself, although in an emergency the wrong type of lubricant is beller than non e at all. The followin g para graphs describe the type s of lubricants most often used for
ATVs. Be sure to follow the manufacturer's recommendations for lubricant types.
_ .... j1..tf111h ~'\
Genera lly a ll liquid lubricants are ca lled oil. Th ey may be mineral-based (includi ng petroleum bases) , natural-based (vege table and animal bas es). syn thetic-based or emu lsio ns (mix tures ). G rease is oil to which a thickening base has been add ed so that the end prod uct is se mi-solid. Grease is often classified by the type ofthiekcner added; lithium soa p is commonly used , Rounded edges Sharp edges
callcd selective circlips. Circl ips sho uld bc rep laced
during installation. as removal weakens and deforms them . Two basic styles ofcirclips are ava ilable: mac hined and stamped circlips. Machined circlips (F igure 7) can be installed in either direction (shaft or housing)
because both faces are machined. thus creating two sharp edges. Stamped eircl ips (Figure 8 ) are manu-
factured with one sharp edge and one rounded edge. When installing stamped circlips in a thrust situation as on transmission shafts. the sharp edge must face away from the part producing the thrust. When installing circlips, observe the followin g:
I. Co mpress or expand circli ps only eno ug h to in-
Engine Oil Engi ne oi l is classifi ed by two standards: the
American Petroleum Institute (API) service classification and the Society of Au tomotive Eng ineers (SA E) viscos ity rating. Th is informat ion is on the oil co ntainer label. Two leiters indica te the A PI service c lassification. The number or sequence of numbers and leiter ( IOW-4 0 for exa mple} is the oil's
viscosity rating. The API service classification and the SAE viscosity index are not indications of oil qu ality. Th e service classification indicates that the oil meets specific lubri cation standards. The first leiter in the c lassification S indicates that the oil is for ga solin e eng ines . The sec o nd leiter indicates the stan dard the oil satisfies . Th e classifi cat ion started with the leite r A a nd is current ly at the lette r 1. Always lise an oil wit h a classification recom-
mended by the manufacturer. Using an oil with a classification different than that recommended can cause engine damage. Viscos ity is an indication of the oil's thickness. Thin oils ha ve a lower number whil e thick oils have
a higher number. Engine oils fall into the 5- to
sta ll them .
50- we ight range for sing le-g rade oils.
2. After the circlip is installed, make sure it is completely seated within its groove. 3. Transmission circlips become W Ont with lise anti
Most manufacturers recommend multigrade oil. These oils perform efficiently across a wide range
increase side play. Forthis reason. always install new circlips whenever a transmission is reassembled.
of operating conditions. Multigrade oil s are identified by a IV after the first number, whic h indicates the low -temperature viscosity.
C HA PTE R ONE
Engine oils an: 1110 St commonly mineral (petroleum) based; however synthetic and semi-synthetic types are used more frequently. When selecting en-
gine oil, follow the manufacturer's recommendation for type, classifica tion and viscosity. Grease The
National Lubricating Grease
(N LG I) grades greases . Grea se s arc grad ed by numberaccording to the consistency of the grease; these
range from No. 000 to No. 6, with No. 6 being the mo st solid. Typica l multipurpose grease is NLG I No.2. For specifi c applicatio ns, eq uipme nt manu-
whe n using RTV . RT V has a she lf life of approxi-
facturers may require grease with an additive such
mately one yearand will not cureproperly when the
as mo lybd enum disulfide.
she lf life ha s expired. Check the expirat ion date on
T H R EA Il LOC KI :'oIG C O M POU:'oIIl
the RTV tube prior to purchasing a new tube and on using the sealant. Keep partially used tubes tightly scaled and discard them after the expiration date.
A thread loc king co mpo und sho uld be used to
help secure many of the fasteners used 0 11 the vehi-
A(lIJlying RT V Sea la nt
cle . A threadl ock co mpo und will lock fasteners
against vibration loosening and seal against leaks. Th e followin g thread lockin g compounds are recommended for many threadlock requirements de-
Clca n all o ld gask et residu e from all mating surface s. Remov e all RTV gas ket material fro m blind
threaded holes; it can cause a hydraulic lock and af-
scribed in this manual.
fect bolt torque. leading to the bo ll not be ing tight-
\. T hrcelson d TB1342 (b lue): low -stren gth , fre-
ened to the correct torque specifi cation. Finally, spray the mating surfaces with an aeroso l parts cleaner and wipe with a lint-free cloth. Apply RTV sealant in a continuous bead 2-3 ITIm
quent repair. 2. Loctit e No. 242 (b lue): low- stren gth , frequent
repair. 3. ThreeBond T B13 60 (green) : mediu m-str ength, high temp erat ure. 4 . Threels ond No . 1333 B (red) : medi um-strength, bearing and stud lock . 5. Th ree Bond TB1303 (orange) : high -strength , in-
(0 .08-0 .12 in.) thick . Circle all mounting holes unless o therwi se spec ified. Do not all ow an y sea lan t to
enter these holes. Assemble and tighten the fasteners to the specified torque within 10 minutes after application.
frequent repair. 6. Locti te No. 27 1 (red): high- stren gth, infrequent
repair. There are other quality thrcadlock brands on the market. RTV GASKET SEA LANT Room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) sealant is used on some preformed gaskets and to seal some
components. RTV is a silicone gel supplied in tubes and is available at motorcycle and automotive supplies stores and major hardware stores. Moisture in the air causes the RTV to cure. Always place the cap on the tube as soon as possible
EX P EN Il A BLE SU PP LIES
Certa in expendable supplies are required during maintenance and repair work . These include grease, oil. and gasket cement, wiping rags and cleaning solvent. Ask the dealership for the special locking compounds. silicone lubricants and other products, which make vehicle maintenance simpler and easier. Cleaning solvent or kerosene is available at some service stat ions, paint or hardware stores. Be sure to follow the manufacturer's instructions and warn ings listed on the label of the product being used , Some cleaning supplies arc very caustic and are dangerous ifn ot used properly.
WARNI NG Ha ring a stack ofclean shop rags Oil hand is imp ortant when pel/arming engine and suspens ion service work. Ho we ver. a pile of solvent-soaked rags presents a f ire hazard. Store them in a sealed met al container /lI1til they ca n be washed or p roperly
disca rded. NO TE 70 p revent so lvent and other chemicals fro m bei ng absorbed into the skin. Il'ear a pair of petroleum-resistant g loves when cleaning pa rts. These can be purchased through industrial supply houses 01' well-equipped hardware stores.
S ER IAL NUMIlERS
Polaris makes frequent changes during a model year- some minor, some relatively maj or. When orderin g parts from the dealership or other parts distributor, always order by VIN and engine serial
numbers. The serial number locations arc as follows:
I. Model and YIN number (Figu re 9) is stamped on the left lower frame rail near the rear portion of
the front A-arm mount. On some models. a decal with the YIN number is located on the front fender cover (Figu re 10). 2. Engi ne serial number (Figu re II) is stamped on
a pad on the center top of thecrankcase beneath the cylinder coolant elbo w,
3. The transmission serial numberis located on top of the transmission case below the shin bell crank and on a label on the right side (Figu re 12). 4. The carburetor serial number (Figu re 13) is loca ted on the left side of the ca rburetor body.
Enter these numbers on the chart in the Quick Refe rence Data table at the front of this boo k and keep them for reference . Co mpare new parts to the
old ones before huying them. If they are not alike, have the parts manager exp lain the difference. Table 1 lists the model numbers for the mode ls co v-
ered in this manual.
WAR;;ING AND INFORMATION LABE LS A number of warning labels (F igure 14) arc attach cd to the Polaris. These labels conta in in formation that is important to personal safety when operating. transporting and storing the vehicle. A lso refer to the inform ative labels fastened to the various co mponents on the vehicle. as this information is very useful. Refer to the own er 's manual for a de-
scription and location of each label. If a label is missing, order a replacement label from a Polaris dea lership. BASI C llANO TOOLS
shape. Use a small screwdriver forsmall screws and Many o f the procedures in this manual can be carried out with simple hand tools and test equipment familiar to the home mechanic. Keep all tools clean and in a toolbox. Keep them organi zed with the sockets and related drive s together, the open-end combination wrenches together, etc. Aft er using a tool, wipe off dirt andgrease with a clean cloth and return the tool to its correct place.
Top qua lity tools are esse ntial; they are also more economical in the long run . Ifju st starting tobuild a
tool collection, stay away from the advertised specials featured at some parts houses, discount stores and chain drug stores. These are usually poor grade tools that arc made of inferior material. and arc thick , heavy and clumsy to use. Th eir rough finish make s them difficult to clean and they usuall y do not last very long. The wrenches do not fit the heads of bolts and nuts correctly and may dama ge the fa stener. Quality tools arc made of alloy stee l and arc heat-treated for greater strength. Th ey are lighter and better balanced than infer ior one s. Their surface is smooth. making them a pleasure to workwith and easy to clean. The initial cost of good quality tools may be more, but they are more economical in the long run. Do not try to buy everything in all sizes in the beginning: buy a few at a time until all the necessary tools arc on hand. Screwd rivers The screwdriver is a very basic too l, but if used improperly it will do more damage than good. The s lot on a screw has a definite dimension and shape. A screwdriver must be selected to conform to that
a large one for large screws, or the screw head w ill
be damaged. Two basic types of screwdrivers are required: common (flatblade) screwdrivers and Phillips screwdrivers. Screwdrivers arc available in sets that oft en include an assortment ofcommon and Phillips blades. If purchased individually, buy at least the following: I. Common sc rewdriver- 5!16 x 6 in. blade. 2. Common screwdrive r-3/8 x 12 in. blade . 3. Phillips screwdriver-size 2 tip, 6 in. blade. 4. Phillips screwdriver-s ize 3 tip, 6 and 10 in. blade.
Use screwdrivers only for driving screws. Never usc a screwdriver for prying o r chiseling metal. Do not try to remove a Phillips or Allen head screw with a common screwdriver (unless the screw has a co mbination head that will accept either type); if the head is dam aged, the proper tool will be unable to remove it. Keep screwdrivers in the prop er condition and they will last longer and perform better. Always keep the tip ofa common screwdriverin good condition. Pliers Pliers come in a wid e range of type s and s izes. Pliers are useful for cutt ing, bend ing and crimping. Do not usc them to cut hardened objects or to tum bolts or nuts. Each type of pliers has a speciali zed function. Slip-joint pliers are general purpose pliers and are used mainly for holding things and for bending.
GENE RAL INF ORM ATIO N
s K: ~...~~~
Need lcnosc pliers are used to ho ld or bend sma ll obj ects. Water pum p pliers can be adjusted to hold various sizes of objects; the j aw s rema in pa rallel to grip arou nd objects such as p ipe or tubing. The re arc many more type s of pliers. The ones described here are most suitable for vehicle repairs.
Lo cking Pliers Locking pliers are used to hold objec ts very tightly like a vise. But avoid using them unless necessary since their sharp j aws will perm anently scar any objects that are held. Lock ing pliers are available in many types for more specifi c tasks.
Circlip Pliers Circ lip pliers (Fig u re 15) are made for removing and installing circ lips. Externa l pliers (spreading) are used to remove circlips that fit on the outs ide of a shaft. Internal pliers (squeezing) are used to remove circlips which fit inside a gear or housing.
Becau se circlips call sometimes slip amifly of]when removing and installing them. always wear safety glasses when using them.
Box, O pen-End and Com bination Wrenches Open-e nd, box-end and co mbination wrenches are ava ilable in set s or separately in a variety of sizes . On open and box end wrench es, the number stamped near the end refers to the distance between two para llel flats on the hex head bo lt or nut. On combination wren ches, the number is stamped near the center. Open-end wrenches (A, Figure 16) are speedy and wor k best in areas with limited overh ead access. Their wide, flat j aws make them unstable for situations where the bolt or nut is located in a bore or close to the edge of a casting. These wrenches grip only two flats of a fasten er; if either the fastener head or the wrenc h jaws are wor n, the wrench may slip ofT. Bo x-end wrench es (B , Figu re 16) require clea r overhead acce ss to the fastener but can work we ll in situations where the fastener head is close to another pa rt. Th ey grip on all six edges of a fastene r for a very secure grip. They are avai lable in either 6-p oint or 12-po int. The 6-po int gives superior holding flower and durab ility but requires a greater swinging radiu s. The 12-po int works better in situations where the sw inging rad ius is limited. Comb ination wrenches (C. Figur e J6) have open-end on one s ide and box-end on the other with both ends being the same size. Professional mechanics favor these wre nches because of thei r versatility.
Adjustab le Wrenches An adjustab le wrenc h (sometimes ca lled crescent wrenc h) ca n be adju sted to fit nearly any nut or bolt head that has clear access around its entire perim eter. Adj ustable wrenches are best used as a backup wrench to keep a large nut or bolt from turning whi le the oth er end is being loosencd or tightened with a box -end or socket wre nch, Adjustab le wrenches have on ly two gripp ing surfaces which make them more subject to slipping ofT the fastener and damaging the part and possibly
CHA PT ER ONE
causing injury . The fact that one jaw is adju stabl e only aggra vates this shortcoming. These wre nches are directional: the so lid j aw must be the one transmitt ing the force. If the adju stable jaw is used (0 transmit the force. it wi ll loosen and possibly slip o tT.
Socket Wre nc hes
A This type of wrenc h is undoub tedly the fastest, safes t and most convenient to use. Sockets. which attac h to a ratchet handle. are avai lable with 6- point (A, Figure 17) or 12-point (B, Figure 17) openings and 1/4, 3/8. 1/2 and 3/4 in. drives. The drive size indica tes the size of the square ho le wh ich mates with the ratchet handle.
Alle n Wrenc hes Allen wre nches are ava ilable in sets or se parately in a variety of sizes. These sets come in SAE and me tric sizes . A llen bolts arc sometimes called socket bolts. Sometimes the bo lts are diffic ult to
reach and it is suggested that a variety
wrenches be purchased, such as the socke t driven. T-hand le and extension type.
Torq ue Wrench A torq ue \...Tench is used with a socket to measure how tight ly a nut or bolt is insta lled . They come with either 1/4.318 or 1/2 in. square dri ve (F igure 18). Th e drive size indicates the size of the square drive that mates with the socket.
Hamme rs The correct hammer is necessary for certain repairs. A hammer with a face (or head) of rubber or plastic or a so ft-faced type tilled with bucksho t is sometimes necessary in engine disassem bly. Neve r usc a metal-fa ced hammer on engine or suspension parts. as severe damage will result in most cases . Th e same amo unt of force can be produced with a so ft-faced hammer. The shock of a metal -faced hammer, however, is required for using a hand impact driver or cold chisel.
I mpact Driver
Su ppo rt Jacks This tool might have been designed with the ATV mechanic in mind. This tool makes removal of fasteners easy and eliminates damage to bolts a nd screw slots. Impact drivers (Figure 19) and interchangeable bits are avai lable at most large hardware , vehicle or auto parts stores. Sockets can also be used wi th a hand impac t drive r; however, make sure that the socket is designed for use with an impact driver or air tool. Do not use regu lar hand sockets, as they 1113y shatter during use.
The correct type of support jack is necessary for many routine service or major component replace-
ment procedures on the vehicle . The centerstand scissor ja ck is suitable for most service procedures on this serie s of vehicles. It is adjustable and is very stable for usc wit h the frame configurat ion of this vehic le. Also, the standard floor jack may be used for some applications, To protect all engine and frame
G ENE RA L INFORM AT IO N
of these spec iali zed too ls. The follow ing is a description o ft he measuring tools required to perform the service procedures described in the various chapters in this manual.
Feeler GauJ.:c Feeler gauges come in assorted sets and types (Fig ure 20 ). The feeler gauge is mad e of e ither a piece ofa nat or round hardened steel ofa spec ified thickness. Wire gauges are used to measure spark plug gap. Flat gauges arc used for other measurements. Feeler gauges are also designed for specialized uses. For example. the end of a gauge can be small and angled to facilitate check ing valve cle arances on models requiring adjustment. Ver nier C alipe r, Dia l C a liper and Digital Electro nic C aliper
surfaces, always place a piece of woo d betwe en the jack pad and the supported co mpon ent.
PREC ISIO N l\IEAS URl:O;G TOOLS
Measurement is an important part of engine and suspension service. When per formi ng many of the service procedures in this manual, a number of measurements are required. These include basic checks such as engine compression and spark plug gap. As shop ex perie nce progresses into engine
disassembly and service. many measurements arc required to determine the size and condition of the piston and cylinderbore and crankshaft runout and other co mplex measurement s. When making these measurements, the degree of accurac y wi ll dictate which tool is required. Precision measuring tools arc expensive. If this is the first experience at engine or suspension service, it may be more wo rth whi le to have the checks and measurements performed by a Polaris dealership. a co mpetent independent vehicle repair shop or a machine shop. However, as skills and enthusiasm increase for doing service work, it may be desirab le 10 buy some
These arc valuable tools for reading inside, outside and depth measurements. Although this type of tool is not as prec ise as a micrometer. it allows reasonable, non-close tole rance measurements, typically to w ithin 0.025 mrn (0.00 1 in.). Common uses of a vern ier caliper arc measuring the length of the cl utch springs, the thickness of clutch plates. shims and thrust washers, brake pad or lining thickness or the dcpth of a bearing borc. The jaws of the ca liper must be c1can and frcc of burrs at all times to obtain an accurate measurement. There are several types of vernier calipers available. The standard vernier ca liper has a highly accurate graduated scale on the handl e (Figure 21) in which the measurements must be calc ulated, follow ing the manufacturer's instructions. Th e dial indicator ca liper is equipped with a small dia l and needle that indicates the measurement reading; the digital electronic type has an LCD display that shows thc measurement Oil thc small display screen. Some vern iercalipers must be calibrated prior to making a measurement to ensure accuracy. Refer to the manufacturer's instructions for this procedure.
Outside l\l icrometcrs An outside micrometer is a precision tool used to accurately measure parts using the decimal divisio ns of the inch or meter (Figu re 22). Wh ile there are many types and styles of micrometers. this sec-
lion describes how to usc th e ou ts ide mi crometer. The o utside m icrometer is the mos t com mo n typ e o f
micro meter used to service a veh icle, The outside micrometer is also used to measure the dimension tak en by a sm all hole gauge o r a tele scopi ng ga uge describ ed later in this se ction. Other types o f m icrometers include the d epth m i-
crometer and screw thread micrometer. Figure 23 illu strates the vario us pari s of the out sid e mi crometer with its pa rt nam es and markings identified .
METRIC VERNIER CALIPER ~ Fl xed scale
' \10 mm
\ :-----"ie f----"==l-) o
A micrometer 's size indicates the minimum and maximum size of a part that it can measure. The usual sizes are : 0- 1 in.(0 -25 m m) , 1-2 in.(25-50 m m), 2-3 in. (50- 75 mm) and 3-4 (75-100 mm ). T hese mi crometer s lise fixed anv ils. So me m icrometers use th e same frame with intercha ngeable anvil s of di fferent leng ths. Thi s allows the inst allation of the correct lengt h an vi l tor a particular j o b. For ex ample, a 0-4 in. inter ch ange ab le micrometer is equipped w ith four d ifferen t len gth anvi ls. While purchasing one o r tw o microm eters to cover a ra nge from 0-4 in, or 0-6 inches is less expensiv e, its overa ll frame size makes it less conve nien t to usc.
How To Read a Micrometer W hen read ing a m icrometer, number s are taken from di ffere nt scales and add ed togeth er. Th e following sections desc ribe how to read th e standard inch m ic rom eter, the ve rnie r inch mi crom eter, the standard metr ic mi cro met er and the m etr ic ve rn ier m icrometer.
Sta ndard inch micrometer The sta nda rd inch micro meter is uccuratc to one- tho usa ndth o f an inch (0 .00 1 in.) . T he heart of the mi crometer is its spi nd le screw with 40 thread s per inch . Eve ry tu m of the thi m ble will move th e spindle 1/40 of an inch o r 0.025 inch. Before lea rn ing how 10 read a m icrom eter, study the marki ngs and part nam es in Figure 23. Tum the mi crometer thimbl e until its zero mark alig ns wi th the ze ro mark on th e sleeve line. Now tum the thim ble cou nterclockwise and a lign the next thimble mark w ith the slee ve line. The mi crometer now
â€˘ , .\
l\lic romcter Range
Movable sc:',e 0.50 mm
1. Reading on fixed scale: 10.00 mm 2. Read ing on movable sca le: +0. 50 rom Total reading : 10.50 mm
rea ds 0.001 in. (o ne one-thousandth) o f an inch. Thus, eac h thi mb le mark is equal to 0.001 in. Every fift h thimble mark is numbered to help with reading : 0, 5. 15 and 20. Reset the mi crometer so that the th imbl e and s leeve lin e zero mark s align . T hen tum the thimble co unterc loc kwise one complete re vo lution and alig n the thimbl e ze ro ma rk with the fir st line in the sleeve line. T he mi crometer now rea ds 0.025 in. (twenty- five thou sand s) of an inc h. T hus, cach s leeve line represents 0.025 inch. Now tum the thimbl e co unterclockwi se while co unting th e s leeve linc mark s. Every fourth mark on the sleeve line is marked with a number ranging from one throu gh n ine. Manufacturers usuall y m ark the last mark on th e sleeve wit h a O. Thi s indi cat es the end of the micro me ter 's measuring ran ge. Each s leeve num ber rep rese nts 0.1 in. For exa mple, the numbe r I represents 0.1 in. and the number 9 represents 0.9 inc h. W hen read ing a sta ndard m icrometer. tak e th e followi ng three m ea surements de scribed and add the m togeth er. Th e sum of the th ree rea d ing s will g ive the measurem ent in a thousandth of an inch (0.00 1 in.). To read a m icro me ter. perform the following steps and refer to th e exam ple in Figure 24.
@r--------==:::...:...=:=.::...=-=--------, DECIMAL PLACE VALUES'
0.01 0 0.001
Indicates 1110(one tenth of an inch or millimeter) Indicates 11100(one one-hundreth of an Inch or millimeter) Indicates 111,000 (one one-th ousandth of an inch or millimeter)
*Thls chart represents the values of figures placed to the right of the decimal point. Use it when reading dec ima ls from one-tenth to one one-thousandth of an Inch or millimeter. It Is not a conversion chart (for example: 0.001 in . Is not equal to 0.001 mm).
STANDARD INCH MICROMETER Locknut Sleeve line Thimble marks
1. Largest number visible on the sleeve line
0.200 In. 2. Number on sleeve marks visible between the numbered sleeve mark and the th imble edge 0.025 in. 3. Thimble mark that aligns with
VERNIER INCH MICROMETER Vern ier sca le
Vern ier sca le
o --"t'" - "tO>
,, _ _ r-
o> - - .r-
1. Larges t num ber visi ble on sleeve lin e 2. Num ber of sleeve marks vi sible between the nu mbe red sleeve mark and the thimble edge 3. Thimble Is between O.D1S and 0.019 in. on th e sleeve line 4. Vernier line coinciding with thimble line
", _ _-r-- O
Total readi ng :
0.018 In. 0.0003 In.
0 --"""'--_ 20
I. Read the sleeve line to find the largest numher visib le-each sleeve number mark equals 0.100 inch.
2. Count the number of sleeve marks visible between the num bered sleeve ma rk and the thimble edge -each sleeve ma rk equa ls 0.025 inch. If there is no visible sleeve marks. continue to Step 3.
3. Read the thimble mark that lines up with the sleeve line-each thimble mark equ als 0.00 I inch.
NOTE If a thimble mark does not line up eractl y with the sleeve line but fa lls between two lilies. estimate the fra ction a/decimal amount between the lines.
STANDARD METRIC MICROMETER
Locknut Sleeve line
4 . Add ing the m icrom eter read ing s in S teps
ten-t hou sa ndt hs of an inch to add to the in itia l read-
and 3 gives the actual measurement,
ing taken in Step I.
Vernier inch micrometer
A vernier micrometer can acc urately meas ure in ten -tho usa ndths ofan inc h (0 .00 01 in.). W hi le it has
dard inch micrometer. The differences are the grad-
the same markings as the standard inch micrometer.
uations on the thimble and sleeve as shown in
a ve rnie r scale sc ribe d on the s leeve (Figure 25) makes it unique. The vernier scale consists of eleven eq ually space d I ines marked 0-9 w ith a 0 on each end . Th ese lines run para lle l on the to p of th e sleeve where each line is eq ua l to 0.0001 inch.
Figure 27 .
Thus. the vern ier scale divides a thousandth of 3 11 inch (0 .001 in.) into ten-thousandths of an inch (0.000 1 in.).
To read the vernier micrometer, perform the follow ing steps and refer to the ex ample in Fjuure 26 : I. Read the micrometer in the same way as on the
standard inch micrometer. This is the initial reading. 2. If a th imb le ma rk lines up exactly w ith th e sleeve
line. reading the vernier scale is not necessary. Ifa thimble mark does not line exactly with the sleeve line. read the vernier scale in Step 3. 3. Read the vernier scale to find which vernier mark lines up with the one thimble mark. The number of that vernier mark is the number of
TIle metric micrometer is very similarto the stan-
The standard metric micrometer is accurate to o ne one-h und red th o f an millimeter (0 .0 I mm ). On the metric micrometer. the spindle screw is ground wi th a threa d pi tch o f on e-ha lf milli m eter (0.5 mm). Thus, eve ry tum of the thimble w ill move the spindle 0.5 111111 . Th e sleeve line is gra dua ted in millim eters and hal f mill imeter s. The marks on the upper side of the sleeve line arc equal to 1.00 mru . Every fif th mark
above the sleeve line is marked with a number. The actual numbers depend on the size of the micrometer. For example, on a 0-25 mm micrometer. the sleev e ma rks are numbered 0, 5, 10,15.20 and 25.
On a 25-50 nun micrometer. the sleeve marks are numbered 25 , 30, 35, 40 , 45 and 50 . Th is numbering
sequence continues with larger micrometers (50-75 and 75- IOO). Each mark o n the low er side of the sleeve line is equal to 0.5 mm.
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