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1600 YRM 1360

General

General This section has the description and repair procedures for the steering axle. The steering axle assembly includes an axle frame, steering cylinder, two spindle assemblies, and two hub assemblies. The steering axle is articulated and is connected to the frame by center pivot mounts. The center pivot mounts permit the steering axle to move in the frame mount when the lift truck travels over rough surfaces. See Figure 1.

The end caps of the steering cylinder also serve as the axle mounts for the cylinder. The piston rod extends from both ends of the cylinder and is connected to the tie rods which are connected to the spindle assemblies.

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General

1600 YRM 1360

NOTE: MOUNTS AND TIRES MAY BE DIFFERENT BETWEEN TRUCK MODELS. A. CUSHION TRUCKS ONLY

B. PNEUMATIC TRUCKS ONLY

1. AXLE FRAME 2. STEERING DIRECTION SENSOR CABLE BRACKET 3. STEERING DIRECTION SENSOR 4. MOUNT 5. MOUNT BRACKET

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

STEERING CYLINDER TIE ROD SPINDLE ASSEMBLY MOUNT CUSHION TIRE WHEEL ASSEMBLY PNEUMATIC HUB ASSEMBLY

Figure 1. Steering Axle

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1600 YRM 1360

Steering Axle Assembly Repair

Steering Axle Assembly Repair REMOVE ERC22-35VG (ERC045-070VG) (A968), ERC16-20VA (ERC030-040VA) (A969) AND ERC40-55VH, ERC50VHS (ERC80-120VH, ERC100VHS) (A938) WARNING PUTTING THE LIFT TRUCK ON BLOCKS The lift truck must be put on blocks for some types of maintenance and repair. The removal of the mast, drive axle, battery, or counterweight assemblies will cause large changes in the center of gravity. When the lift truck is put on blocks, put additional blocks in the following positions: • If the mast and drive axle are removed, put blocks under the counterweight so the lift truck cannot fall backward. • If the counterweight is removed, put blocks under the mast so that the lift truck cannot fall forward.

2. Slide floor jack under steering axle. Raise floor jack until it holds the weight of the axle assembly. NOTE: Tag hydraulic lines prior to disconnecting from steering cylinder to aid in the correct connection of hydraulic lines during installation. 3. Disconnect hydraulic hoses at steering cylinder. Install plug fittings in cylinder and put caps on hydraulic hoses. Plug fittings will prevent spindles from turning as axle is removed from under the lift truck. 4. Remove four capscrews that fasten the mount brackets under the rubber mounts. See Figure 2 for lift truck models • ERC22-35VG (ERC045-070VG) (A968) See Figure 3 for lift truck models • ERC16-20VA (ERC030-040VA) (A969) See Figure 4 for lift truck models • ERC40-55VH, ERC50VHS (ERC80-120VH, ERC100VHS) (A938)

Put the lift truck on blocks on a solid, even, and level surface. Verify the blocks or stands have enough capacity to hold the lift truck. Use additional blocks next to the tires as necessary to prevent movement of the lift truck. Verify the lifting devices used during repairs can lift the weight of the parts and assemblies. See the Operating Manual or Periodic Maintenance section for your lift truck model, for the procedures to put the lift truck on blocks. The steering axle can be removed without removing the counterweight. 1. Place the lift trucks on blocks. The procedure for placing the lift truck on blocks may be found in the Operating Manual or in one of the following service manuals: Periodic Maintenance 8000 YRM 1364 for lift truck models • ERC22-35VG (ERC045-070VG) (A968) Periodic Maintenance 8000 YRM 1442 for lift truck models • ERC16-20VA (ERC030-040VA) (A969) Periodic Maintenance 8000 YRM 1577 for lift truck models • ERC40-55VH, ERC50VHS (ERC80-120VH, ERC100VHS) (A938)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

CAPSCREW WASHER NUT REAR MOUNT BRACKET STEER AXLE FRONT MOUNT BRACKET

Figure 2. Steer Axle Removal ERC22-35VG (ERC045-070VG) (A968)

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Steering Axle Assembly Repair

1600 YRM 1360 NOTE: The steering direction sensor is an optional feature on ERC22-35VG (ERC045-070VG) (A968), ERC16-20VA (ERC030-040VA) (A969) and ERC40-55VH, ERC50VHS (ERC80-120VH, ERC100VHS) (A938) lift trucks. 5. Carefully lower the floor jack enough to disconnect, if installed, steering direction sensor cable from the main wiring harness. See Figure 5 for lift truck models • ERC22-35VG (ERC045-070VG) (A968) See Figure 6 for lift truck models • ERC16-20VA (ERC030-040VA) (A969)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

CAPSCREW WASHER NUT REAR MOUNT BRACKET STEER AXLE FRONT MOUNT BRACKET

Figure 3. Steer Axle Removal ERC16-20VA (ERC030-040VA) (A969)

See Figure 7 for lift truck models • ERC40-55VH, ERC50VHS (ERC80-120VH, ERC100VHS) (A938) 6. Remove the steer axle from the under the lift truck.

DISASSEMBLE ERC22-35VG (ERC045-070VG) (A968), ERC16-20VA (ERC030-040VA) (A969) AND ERC40-55VH, ERC50VHS (ERC80-120VH, ERC100VHS) (A938) 1. Place steering axle on blocks so the wheels just touch the floor. 2. Remove hub cap, cotter pin, castle nut, and washer. Discard cotter pin. See Figure 5 for lift truck models • ERC22-35VG (ERC045-070VG) (A968) See Figure 6 for lift truck models • ERC16-20VA (ERC030-040VA) (A969)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

CAPSCREW WASHER NUT REAR MOUNT BRACKET STEER AXLE FRONT MOUNT BRACKET

Figure 4. Steer Axle Removal ERC40-55VH, ERC50VHS (ERC80-120VH, ERC100VHS) (A938)

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See Figure 7 for lift truck models • ERC40-55VH, ERC50VHS (ERC80-120VH, ERC100VHS) (A938)


1600 YRM 1360

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Steering Axle Assembly Repair

HUB CAP CASTLE NUT COTTER PIN WASHER OUTER BEARING CONE OUTER BEARING CUP SOLID TIRE WHEEL INNER BEARING CUP INNER BEARING CONE WEAR RING

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

OIL SEAL AXLE ASSEMBLY MOUNT CAPSCREW BRACKET WASHER LOCKNUT STEERING DIRECTION SENSOR STEERING DIRECTION SENSOR CABLE BRACKET

Figure 5. Steering Axle Assembly for ERC22-35VG (ERC045-070VG) (A968)

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Steering Axle Assembly Repair

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

HUB CAP CASTLE NUT COTTER PIN WASHER OUTER BEARING CONE OUTER BEARING CUP SOLID TIRE WHEEL INNER BEARING CUP

1600 YRM 1360

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

INNER BEARING CONE OIL SEAL AXLE ASSEMBLY MOUNT CAPSCREW BRACKET WASHER LOCKNUT

Figure 6. Steering Axle Assembly for ERC16-20VA (ERC030-040VA) (A969)

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1600 YRM 1360

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

HUB CAP CASTLE NUT COTTER PIN WASHER OUTER BEARING CONE OUTER BEARING CUP SOLID TIRE WHEEL INNER BEARING CUP INNER BEARING CONE WEAR RING

Steering Axle Assembly Repair

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

OIL SEAL AXLE ASSEMBLY MOUNT CAPSCREW BRACKET WASHER LOCKNUT STEERING DIRECTION SENSOR STEERING DIRECTION SENSOR CABLE BRACKET

Figure 7. Steering Axle Assembly for Lift Trucks ERC40-55VH, ERC50VHS (ERC80-120VH, ERC100VHS) (A938)

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Steering Axle Assembly Repair NOTE: Identify and tag the outer and inner bearing cones so they can be reassembled in their original locations. 3. Remove outer bearing cone from the wheel. 4. Remove wheel from spindle. NOTE: For correct orientation during installation, note the position of the oil seal during removal. NOTE: The wear ring may not be present on all steering axles. 5. Remove inner bearing cone, wear ring (if present) and oil seal from spindle. See Figure 5 for lift truck models • ERC22-35VG (ERC045-070VG) (A968)

1600 YRM 1360

WARNING Compressed air is used for cleaning or drying purposes, or for clearing restrictions. Wear protective clothing (goggles/shield, gloves, etc.) to avoid injury to personnel. 1. Clean bearing cones by placing them in a wire basket and immersing in a container of fresh solvent. Agitate the bearing cones in the solvent to remove all traces of old lubricant. 2. Clean all remaining components, except the oil seals and mounts, with solvent. 3. Clean the oil seals and rubber mounts in warm soapy water. Rinse with clean warm water and allow to air dry.

See Figure 6 for lift truck models • ERC16-20VA (ERC030-040VA) (A969)

4. After cleaning, dry bearing cones with compressed air. Take care to prevent spinning the bearing cones when using a compressed air jet.

See Figure 7 for lift truck models • ERC40-55VH, ERC50VHS (ERC80-120VH, ERC100VHS) (A938)

5. Immediately wrap bearing cones in a lint-free cloth to protect them from dust and other foreign matter.

6. Remove the mounts from the axle assembly.

INSPECT

NOTE: Bearing cones are to be replaced as sets. If one bearing cone has been determined to be unserviceable, then both must be replaced.

1. Inspect bearing cones for burned or damaged rollers. If either condition exists, replace both sets of bearing cones and bearing cups.

7. If the bearing cones are to be replaced, remove the inner and outer bearing cups from the wheel using a brass drift pin.

2. Inspect bearing cups for signs of overheating or scoring. If either condition exists, replace both sets of bearing cones and bearing cups.

8. Repeat Step 1 through Step 7 for the other wheel.

3. Inspect the rubber mounts for signs of damage or cracking. Replace, if necessary.

CLEAN WARNING Cleaning solvents can be flammable and toxic and can cause skin irritation. When using cleaning solvents, always follow the solvent manufacturer’s recommended safety procedures.

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4. Inspect the oils seals and wear rings for any damage. Replace, if damaged. 5. Inspect spindle assemblies and tie rods for signs of damage. Replace, if necessary, in accordance with Spindles, Bearings and Tie Rods Repair. 6. Inspect the remainder of the axle assembly for damage, and repair or replace as necessary.


1600 YRM 1360

Steering Axle Assembly Repair

ASSEMBLE ERC22-35VG (ERC045-070VG) (A968), ERC16-20VA (ERC030-040VA) (A969) AND ERC40-55VH, ERC50VHS (ERC80-120VH, ERC100VHS) (A938)

b. Tighten castle nut to 68 N•m (50 lbf ft) while rotating the wheel in both directions to properly seat the bearings.

1. If bearing cups have been removed, use a press to install new bearing cups in wheel. See Figure 8.

d. Tighten nut to 3 N•m (27 lbf in).

2. For specified lubricant see Periodic Maintenance 8000 YRM 1364 for lift truck model • ERC22-35VG (ERC045-070VG) (A968) Periodic Maintenance 8000 YRM 1442 for lift truck model • ERC16-20VA (ERC030-040VA) (A969) Periodic Maintenance 8000 YRM 1577 for lift truck models • ERC40-55VH, ERC50VHS (ERC80-120VH, ERC100VHS) (A938)

c. Loosen the castle nut 1/4 turn.

e. Pull on the wheel assembly to ensure that there is no end play. If there is excessive end play, reassemble washer and repeat Step a through Step c. 6. Install new cotter pin in castle nut. If cotter pin cannot be installed, tighten castle nut to the first alignment position where the cotter pin can be installed. 7. Install hub cap. 8. Repeat Step 1 through Step 7 for other wheel. NOTE: Ensure that the washer is seated properly against the bearing cone and not against the shaft shoulder before tightening the castle nut.

Verify bearings are filled with grease. 3. Install oil seal, as noted during removal, wear ring (if removed), and inner bearing cone on spindle.

NOTE: Perform Step 9 through Step 12 for lift truck models ERC16-20VA (ERC030-040VA) (A969). 9. Install the castle nut as follows:

CAUTION DO NOT damage the seals during installation. 4. Carefully slide wheel onto spindle. Install outer bearing cone and install washer. NOTE: Ensure that the washer is seated properly against the bearing cone and not against the shaft shoulder before tightening the castle nut. NOTE: Perform Step 5 through Step 8 for lift truck models ERC22-35VG (ERC045-070VG) (A968). 5. Install the castle nut as follows:

a. Install and tighten the castle nut to seat the bearing, and back off completely. b. Tighten castle nut to 200 N•m (148 lbf ft) while rotating the wheel in both directions to properly seat the bearings. c. Loosen the castle nut 1/4 turn. d. Tighten nut to 12 N•m (106 lbf in). e. Pull on the wheel assembly to ensure that there is no end play. If there is excessive end play, reassemble washer and repeat Step a through Step c.

a. Install and tighten the castle nut to seat the bearing, and back off completely.

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Steering Axle Assembly Repair 10. Install new cotter pin in castle nut. If cotter pin cannot be installed, tighten castle nut to the first alignment position where the cotter pin can be installed. 11. Install hub cap. 12. Repeat Step 1 through Step 4 and Step 9 through Step 11 for other wheel. NOTE: Perform Step 13 through Step 15 for lift truck models • ERC40-55VH, ERC50VHS (ERC80-120VH, ERC100VHS) (A938) 13. Install the castle nut as follows: a. Install castle nut and tighten to 203 N•m (150 lbf ft) while rotating the wheel in both directions to properly seat the bearings. b. Back off castle nut until wheel turns freely with no end play. Torque should be less than 27 N•m (238 lbf in). c. If there is excessive end play, reassemble washer and repeat Step a and Step b. d. Re-torque castle nut to 34 N•m (25 lbf ft) and lock in place at first alignment position which occurs at or above 34 N•m (25 lbf ft). e. Install new cotter pin and bend one prong over castle nut. Bend other prong over spindle and cut flush with end of spindle. 14. Install hub cap. 15. Perform Step 1 through Step 4 and Step 13 and Step 14 for other wheel.

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1600 YRM 1360

INSTALL ERC22-35VG (ERC045-070VG) (A968) 1. Install rubber mounts and top mount(s) on axle. Verify that the face of rubber mount with the word "TOP" and the arrow (pointing up) is facing away from the steer axle. See Figure 9. 2. Apply lubricant (that is approved for use with rubber) to rubber mount. The lubricant is used to ease assembly of the rubber mounts into lift truck frame and mount brackets. 3. Using a floor jack, position the steering axle under the frame. 4. If the lift truck is equipped with the steering direction sensor option, connect steering direction sensor cable to the main wiring harness. See Figure 5. 5. Lift the steer axle into position on the lift truck frame, and install the rear and front mount brackets, four washers, four capscrews, and four nuts. Tighten capscrews to 90 N•m (66 lbf ft). See Figure 10. 6. Remove plugs and caps and connect hydraulic lines to steering cylinder as noted during removal. 7. Remove the floor jack from under the lift truck, and remove the lift truck from the blocks. 8. Operate steering system to remove air from system. Turn steering wheel several times from one stop to the other. Check for hydraulic leaks.


1600 YRM 1360

Steering Axle Assembly Repair

1. RUBBER MOUNT 2. TOP MOUNT

3. STEER AXLE

Figure 9. Mount Installation for Lift truck Model ERC22-35VG (ERC045-070VG) (A968)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

WASHER HUB CAP COTTER PIN CASTLE NUT BEARING CONE BEARING CUP SPINDLE WEAR RING OIL SEAL

Figure 8. Bearing Arrangement for Lift Truck Models ERC22-35VG (ERC045-070VG) (A968), ERC16-20VA (ERC030-040VA) (A969) and ERC40-55VH, ERC50VHS (ERC80-120VH, ERC100VHS) (A938) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

CAPSCREW WASHER NUT REAR MOUNT BRACKET STEER AXLE FRONT MOUNT BRACKET

Figure 10. Steer Axle Installation for Lift Truck Model ERC22-35VG (ERC045-070VG) (A968)

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Steering Axle Assembly Repair

1600 YRM 1360

INSTALL ERC16-20VA (ERC030-040VA) (A969) 1. Install rubber mounts and top mount(s) on axle. Verify that the face of rubber mount with the word "TOP" and the arrow (pointing up) is facing away from the steer axle. See Figure 11. 2. Apply lubricant (that is approved for use with rubber), to rubber mount. The lubricant is used to ease assembly of the rubber mounts into lift truck frame and mount brackets. 3. Using a floor jack, position the steering axle under the frame. 4. If the lift truck is equipped with the steering direction sensor option, connect steering direction sensor cable to the main wiring harness. See Figure 6. 5. Lift the steer axle into position on the lift truck frame, and install the rear and front mount brackets, four washers, four capscrews, and four nuts. Tighten capscrews to 41 to 49 N•m (30.2 to 36.1 lbf ft). See Figure 12.

1. RUBBER MOUNT 2. TOP MOUNT

3. STEER AXLE

Figure 11. Mount Installation for Lift Truck Model ERC16-20VA (ERC030-040VA) (A969)

6. Remove plugs and caps and connect hydraulic lines to steering cylinder as noted during removal. 7. Remove the floor jack from under the lift truck, and remove the lift truck from the blocks. 8. Operate steering system to remove air from system. Turn steering wheel several times from one stop to the other. Check for hydraulic leaks.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

CAPSCREW WASHER NUT REAR MOUNT BRACKET STEER AXLE FRONT MOUNT BRACKET

Figure 12. Steer Axle Installation for Lift Truck Model ERC16-20VA (ERC030-040VA) (A969)

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1600 YRM 1360

Steering Axle Assembly Repair

INSTALL ERC40-55VH, ERC50VHS (ERC80-120VH, ERC100VHS) (A938) 1. Install rubber mounts and top mount(s) on axle. Verify that the face of rubber mount with the word "TOP" and the arrow (pointing up) is facing away from the steer axle. See Figure 13. 2. Apply lubricant (that is approved for use with rubber) to rubber mount. The lubricant is used to ease assembly of the rubber mounts into lift truck frame and mount brackets. 3. Using a floor jack, position the steering axle under the frame. 4. If the lift truck is equipped with the steering direction sensor option, connect steering direction sensor cable to the main wiring harness. See Figure 7. 5. Lift the steer axle into position on the lift truck frame, and install the rear and front mount brackets, eight washers, four capscrews, and four nuts. Tighten capscrews to 225 to 280 N•m (166 to 207 lbf ft). See Figure 14.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

RUBBER MOUNT TOP MOUNTS REAR MOUNT BRACKET STEER AXLE WASHER NUT FRONT MOUNT BRACKET CAPSCREW

Figure 13. Mount Installation, Lift Trucks ERC40-55VH, ERC50VHS (ERC80-120VH, ERC100VHS) (A938)

6. Remove plugs and caps and connect hydraulic lines to steering cylinder as noted during removal. 7. Remove the floor jack from under the lift truck, and remove the lift truck from the blocks. 8. Operate steering system to remove air from system. Turn steering wheel several times from one stop to the other. Check for hydraulic leaks.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

CAPSCREW WASHER NUT REAR MOUNT BRACKET STEER AXLE FRONT MOUNT BRACKET

Figure 14. Steer Axle Installation, Lift Trucks ERC40-55VH, ERC50VHS (ERC80-120VH, ERC100VHS) (A938)

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Steering Axle Assembly Repair

REMOVE ERP22-35VL (ERP045-070VL) (A976) AND ERP40-50VM (ERP080-100VM) (A985)

1600 YRM 1360 2. Place the lift trucks on blocks. The procedure for placing the lift truck on blocks may be found in the Operating Manual or in one of the following service manuals:

WARNING

Periodic Maintenance 8000 YRM 1372 for lift truck models • ERP22-35VL (ERP045-070VL) (A976)

PUTTING THE LIFT TRUCK ON BLOCKS The lift truck must be put on blocks for some types of maintenance and repair. The removal of the mast, drive axle, battery, or counterweight assemblies will cause large changes in the center of gravity. When the lift truck is put on blocks, put additional blocks in the following positions: • If the mast and drive axle are removed, put blocks under the counterweight so the lift truck cannot fall backward. • If the counterweight is removed, put blocks under the mast so that the lift truck cannot fall forward. Put the lift truck on blocks on a solid, even, and level surface. Verify the blocks or stands have enough capacity to hold the lift truck. Use additional blocks next to the tires as necessary to prevent movement of the lift truck. Verify the lifting devices used during repairs can lift the weight of the parts and assemblies. See the Operating Manual or Periodic Maintenance section for your lift truck model, for the procedures to put the lift truck on blocks.

Periodic Maintenance 8000 YRM 1541 for lift truck models • ERP40-50VM (ERP080-100VM) (A985) 3. Slide floor jack under steering axle. Raise lifting device until it holds the weight of the axle assembly. NOTE: Tag hydraulic lines prior to disconnecting from steering cylinder to aid in the correct connection of the hydraulic lines during installation. 4. Disconnect hydraulic lines at steering cylinder. Install plug fittings in cylinder and put caps on hydraulic lines. Plug fittings will prevent spindles from turning as axle is removed from under the lift truck. NOTE: Perform Step 5 and Step 6 for lift truck model ERP22-35VL (ERP045-070VL) (A976) only. 5. Remove two lower nuts, capscrews, and washers from the battery box and front mount bracket. See Figure 15.

The steering axle can be removed without removing the counterweight. 1. Remove the battery from the lift truck. The procedure for removing the battery may be found in the Operating Manual or in one of the following service manuals: Periodic Maintenance 8000 YRM 1372 for lift truck models • ERP22-35VL (ERP045-070VL) (A976) Periodic Maintenance 8000 YRM 1541 for lift truck models • ERP40-50VM (ERP080-100VM) (A985)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

CAPSCREW WASHER BATTERY COMPARTMENT FRONT MOUNT BRACKET NUT

Figure 15. Steer Axle Replacement ERP22-35VL (ERP045-070VL) (A976)

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1600 YRM 1360

Steering Axle Assembly Repair

6. Remove the top capscrew and washer from the battery box and front mount bracket. See Figure 15.

See Figure 16 for lift truck models • ERP22-35VL (ERP045-070VL) (A976)

7. Remove two capscrews, washers, and rear mount bracket.

See Figure 17 for lift truck models • ERP40-50VM (ERP080-100VM) (A985)

See Figure 16 for lift truck model • ERP22-35VL (ERP045-070VL) (A976) See Figure 17 for lift truck model • ERP40-50VM (ERP080-100VM) (A985) NOTE: The front mount bracket may not be able to be removed until the steering axle is lowered during Step 9. 8. Remove two capscrews, washers, hydraulic hose mounting brackets, and front mount bracket from the counterweight.

1. 2. 3. 4.

WASHER CAPSCREW REAR MOUNT BRACKET FRONT MOUNT BRACKET

NOTE: The steering direction sensor is standard on ERP22-35VL (ERP045-070VL) (A976) and ERP40-50VM (ERP080-100VM) (A985) lift trucks. 9. Carefully lower the floor jack enough to remove capscrew and cover to disconnect steering direction sensor cable from the main wiring harness, and remove the main wiring harness from the conduit clip located on the steering axle. See Figure 18. Install cover and capscrew. Move the steer axle clear of the lift truck.

5. STEER AXLE 6. PNEUMATIC HUB 7. RUBBER MOUNTS

Figure 16. Steer Axle Removal ERP22-35VL (ERP045-070VL) (A976)

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