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A Dissertation / Architectural Project (Part I) Report on

HOW IS MODERN ARCHITECTURE INFLUENCED BY TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE

Submitted to the Sabarmati Phule Pune University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the 4th Year B.Arch (2008) course

By

ANSHU AGARWAL

Under the Guidance of

Ar. Anil Kulkarni

Aayojan School of Architecture and Design, Pune Savitribai Phule Pune University

April 2017


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my deepest gratitude towards the people whose help and timely guidance made this project a success. I would like to thank Ar. Anil Kulkarni for his valuable assistance and insights leading to the writing of this paper. I would also like to thank Ar. Parag Bokil for his unwavering guidance and faith in me. My sincere thanks goes to the other peer member of the group who helped me through the process of Dissertation.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS ....................................................................................................... i I. LIST OF FIGURES ...................................................................... vi II. LIST OF IMAGES…………………………………………………………..viii III. BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................................................ xi ABSTRACT ........................................................................................ 1 IV. INTRODUCTION ........................................................................ 2 A.

AIM ..................................................................................... 2

B.

OBJECTIVES ...................................................................... 2

C.

SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS .................................................. 2

V. METHODOLOGY…………………………………………………………….3 VI. LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................... 4 A.

RAJ REWAL – INDIAN ARCHITECT, DESIGN

CONSULTANT,

URBAN PLANNER ........................................................................ 4 B.

VISUAL ARTS INSTITUTIONAL CAMPUS IN ROHTAK

BY

RAJ REWAL ASSOCIATES ........................................................... 5 C.

ENGINEER BEHIND ICONIC HALL OF NATIONS AND NEHRU

PAVILLION CAMPAIGNS AGAINST ‘DISASTROUS’ MOVE TO DEMOLISH THEM ....................................................................... 6 D.

‘THE OFFICE COMPLEX IN NEW DELHI BY RAJ REWAL

APPEARS AS A FORTRESS IN THE LANDSCAPE’ ......................... 7 E.

SYMBOL & STRUCTURE ..................................................... 8

F.

TRADITION AND CHANGE .................................................. 9

VII. INTRODUCTION TO RAJ REWAL ..................... ………………… 10 A.

EARLY LIFE ...................................................................... 10 iv


B.

CAREER & WORK ............................................................. 11

C.

AWARDS ........................................................................... 12

D.

PHYLOSOPHY…………………………………………………………12

VIII. CASE STUDIES ..................................................................... 13 A.

ASIAN GAMES VILLAGE .................................................... 13

B.

HALL OF NATIONS AND HALL OF INDUSTRIES ................ 25

C.

WORLD BANK REGIONAL MISSION .................................. 38

D.

PARLIAMENT LIBRARY ..................................................... 52

E.

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF IMMUNOLOGY ......................... 79

VIII. CONCLUSION ....................................................................... 92 IX. APPENDICES…………………………………………………………….93

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ABSTRACT The project involves analyzing traditional architecture based on architecture by Ar. Raj Rewal and learning about the use of traditional architecture and see how it can blend in with modern lifestyles to make the design prominent. The research involves the study of 5 projects viz. – 1 housing, 1 office, 1 education & research, 1 public and 1 exhibition. The goal is to learn the use of traditional architecture as a concept and use the knowledge thus gained, to implement that theory into a sustainable design. The research was done by conducting a comprehensive exploration on traditional elements of architecture and how it can be used with the modern norms, complemented by an in-depth analysis of the aforementioned projects which helped in the understanding of architectural design with respect to traditional architecture and modernism. Upon the study of this research, it becomes clear how Ar. Raj Rewal connected and fused the past with his design, how he frames each of his project based on a single concept and derives the design with respect to it. Raj Rewal’s past experiences correlated to his professional practice has resulted in his own design philosophy which reflects in his designs both nationally and internationally. This research highlights the influence of traditional architecture in modern times and derives conclusions based on the customary architecture and its blend with modernism.

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IV. INTRODUCTION A. AIM To Analyze the Influence of Traditional Architecture in Raj Rewal’s architectural expression.

B. OBJECTIVES 1. To generally understand Design Philosophy and the Architecture of Raj Rewal. 2. To study and analyze representative projects from diverse typologies. 3. To study and understand the expression of the Architectural Philosophy in his words.

C. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS To study 5 projects in particular and analyze them individually with respect to the traditional architecture.

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V.

METHODOLOGY

Primary data

Secondary data

collection

collection

Literature Study

Case Study

Internet Documents Articles/magazines

Library

Analyzing

RAJ REWAL To analyze the influence of Traditional Architecture

Inference Inference of each Case Study Conclusion

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VI. LITERATURE REVIEW A. RAJ REWAL – INDIAN ARCHITECT, DESIGN CONSULTANT, URBAN PLANNER - By Messi George Sunde This article is taken from ‘www.scribd.com’. This article primarily talks about Raj Rewal’s philosophy, his certain works and how he infuses emotion in a building. The1st half of the article talks about Raj Rewal’s history, his architecture, influences on work, architectural ideology and characteristic elements. It emphasis on characteristic elements, such as Cluster Housing, Visual Imagery, Courtyards, Streets, Roof Terraces, Gateways, Textures and Materials. These characteristic elements are explained briefly by certain examples. The 2nd half of the article briefly explains Raj Rewal’s certain projects. It not only takes about his design but also talks about how the building was characterized and why certain spaces were formed. Different examples show how Raj Rewal’s designs are influenced by the typology of traditional buildings and his humanist approach to architecture. The article precisely explains who Raj Rewal is and how he perceives Architecture. It is explained in such simple words that a common man can understand and relate to, this is also what makes the article interesting.

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B. VISUAL ARTS INSTITUTIONAL CAMPUS IN ROHTAK BY RAJ REWAL ASSOCIATES - By Suparna Rajguru, Britt Eversole This article talks about integrating mixture of ideas into a building with respect to Visual Arts Institutional Campus, Rohtak.

It first talks about how Raj Rewal used a traditional approach to integrate linking the individuality of all four institutes (Architecture, Fashion, Film & television and Fine Arts) into a single setting using various examples. It emphasis the concept of distinguished yet unified. Next it describes the concept and design of each of four quadrangles, including a foliage in all courtyards, the main principle being to encourage pedestrian movement and interactive exchanges in each. With reference to older Asian examples the central communal activity area, main circular building, library and amphitheater has been explained. The environmental aspect of the project has been delineated, right from climate suitable materials to green – buffers.

The article focuses on Raj Rewal’s ideology behind the design of the institutional campus which is integration of architecture, urbanism and landscape into one ensemble. The elaborate explanation for every design keeps the article interesting and easy to understand.

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C. ENGINEER BEHIND ICONIC HALL OF NATIONS AND NEHRU PAVILLION CAMPAIGNS AGAINST ‘DISASTROUS’ MOVE TO DEMOLISH THEM - By Adila Matra This article has been written by Adila Matra and published on 16th March, 2016. This article describes the opposition by Raj Rewal to Trade Promotion Organization’s (TPO) discussion to demolish Delhi’s iconic Hall of Nation’s and Nehru Pavilion which he crested along with structural engineer Mahendra Raj. The article begins by Raj Rewal calling the proposal for demolition an act of ‘disgrace’. He talks about the buildings being a reflection of India in 1970’s; then moves on to describe how the buildings were made and attempt to include them in as heritage sites. The article then moves on to describe the futile PIL filed to the High Court to stop the process of demolition. It then puts forward MR’s take on the situation, where he compares these buildings to the Rashtrapati Bhavan and calls them Delhi’s identity. The article ends by Raj Rewal acknowledging that they are fighting a losing battle and comparing this incident to that of tearing down of New York’s Penn Station. This article clearly depicts the fight for preservation of two buildings. It states the facts in a way that it is easy to understand.

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D. ‘THE OFFICE COMPLEX IN NEW DELHI BY RAJ REWAL APPEARS AS A FORTRESS IN THE LANDSCAPE’

This article was originally published in Architectural Review 1995 and has extracts from Architectural Review Aug’ 88. The article talks about how Raj Rewal has fused both modern technology and traditional forms striking a balance between Indian structures and modern colonization. It specifically talks about a newly redeveloped office zone for government organizations on the outskirts of South Delhi. The site offers a splendid view of the nearby monuments which is like an icing on the top of exemplary work of Ar. Rewal. The interiors are state of the art modernized however the exterior are specially designed to complement the surrounding forts. This complex is a modern architectural marvel which integrates sculptural articulation to combat the harsh weather extremities. The office floors, cafeteria, galleries and common areas are intricately designed which promise a work-life balance. The entire ensemble exhibits all the density of a traditional city yet features the most contemporary work of architecture.

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E. SYMBOL & STRUCTURE - By Brian Brace Taylor

This article is based on extracts from the book titled ‘Raj Rewal’ which was published in 1992. The article begins with the description of how convoluted and gratifying, the study of Indian architecture (viz. second half of 20th century) can be, simply due to divergent cultures and religions prevalent in India. As the article progresses, it talks about modernization which paved the way for many international architects to partake projects in India which furthermore shaped young professional architects. The rest of the article talks about ‘Raj Rewal’ and how his overseas experiences and education molded his notions to integrate modernization and the traditional sense of history, both Indian and Western. Rewal’s first housing project was for the French Embassy staff which was resiliently associated with Western traditions. The article parleys other projects such as Sheikh Sarai (Western-town planning), Asian games village, hall of nations and hall of industries, state trading corporation building, national institute of immunology, etc. by Ar. Raj Rewal. The article highlights that Raj Rewal has reformed his aesthetic articulation in the latter part of his career which is the time where his career throve in terms of aggregate volume and scale of projects. Exposed, reinforced concrete and brick, and subsequently the grey stone grit finishes, which were largely used in the former part of Rewal’s career were later abandoned by him and were replaced by Sandstone.

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F. TRADITION AND CHANGE - By Romila Thapar

This article by Romila Thapar talks about the diversity of architectural past in India for it encompasses every form of major significance nurtured within India or introduced from outside: courtyard houses of early Indus settlements, Buddhist sites surrounded by sculpted railings, stone temples, royal palaces with arches & pillared halls. The Domes of central Asia and Persia, the neo classicism of British; the Greco-Roman revival of Europe, Gothic frontages & Baroque churches. It says that a building serves dual purpose, one has to do with function & is concerned with the effect of climate, terrain and the paly of sun and shade. The other is concerned with building as a statement of resources, political power and of religious identity. The article throws light on the varied forms of architecture found by archaeologist during excavation of Mohenjo-daro, Harrapa & Taxila. The expertise of Raj Rewal merges both past architectural forms with their present function with a touch of mastery. Talking about the Asian games village, its spaces & how Ar. Rewal has designed in a way that arch forms provide a reinvigorating notion of a sense of community. Royal palaces form a major part of domestic architecture through their tendency to incorporate many facets of different styles. Ar. Rewal’s work is inspiring and evoke a sense of royalty and sense of purpose and function.

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VII. INTRODUCTION TO RAJ REWAL Raj Rewal is an Indian architect who is very popular for his designing abilities of traditional architectural way with the modern ones. Rewal is a graduate of New Delhi school of architecture. From 1934-1951 he lived in Delhi and Shimla. Rewal did his schooling from Harcourt Butler higher secondary school. He was very creative from his childhood. This creativity can be seen clearly in his projects.

A. EARLY LIFE Raj Rewal moved to London after his post-graduation. He attended architectural association In London for one year. He pursued his professional training later at Brixton School of building, London. He served as an assistant stage for Avante grade theatre productions in London. There he learnt that each dramatic work has a character which has a particular essence. He applied this theory to his works by giving an essence to every project. During his stay at London, Raj became an associate of the Royal institute of British Architects, London which gave him exposure to world architectural methods and its applications. He worked at Michel Ecochards’s office in Paris. Working at Michel Ecochards’s office proved to be a great learning experience for Raj. He learned the important principals of urban design and planning over there. He got married in France in 1962 to Helene. Raj then started his practice in New Delhi. He joined the School of planning and architecture, New Delhi as a teacher. Teaching kept him indulged in architectural field and also proved to be beneficial for his deep and thorough knowledge of the subject. He taught there from 1963-1972.

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The concepts of modern architecture that he learned during his course in Paris proved to be very beneficial to him. He designed many modern structures. It was not only his work in modern architecture which made him special and popular but the fact that he adapted ancient and rare techniques to solve modern problems. Many of his projects are based on a theme, concept and have an essence of something different which gives the structure a unique look.

B. CAREER & WORK In 1974, Raj Rewal spread his reach to next level by opening an office outside India. He decided to open his another office in Tehran, Iran in 1974. From this office he could now manage his works smoothly in Iran. Next year, in 1985 he laid the foundation architectural research cell with Ram Sharma as an associate. When he was in Paris he became the curator of the exhibition for the festival “traditional architecture in India�. Rewal was offered a big project of museum in Kuwait, and he designed this space frame structure very well. His built works comprise a wide range of building types, including the Nehru Pavilion, the Scope office complex, the Central Institute of Educational Technology, the World Bank building, the National Institute of Immunology, the Parliament Library, and the Asian Games Village, all located in New Delhi He has also designed the exhibition pavilions at Praghati Maidan, New Delhi. Rewal did a splendid job in designing Parliament library in New Delhi. The grace and the special majestic qualities that he has shown in the project is commendable. Rewal did a unique job in designing the domes and structure in this project. But to execute his design he had to convince the European consultants to go for a design which is unusual. He used this unusual structural system in 11


Ismaili centre. He also had to convince Central Public Works Department to manage the construction of stone columns and Ferro cement domes for the Parliament library. Rewal is constantly exploring ways to merge the traditional art of designing with modern art. He was sad to see the slow death of old form of traditional craftsmanship. He wanted to revive these arts and techniques so he introduced these traditional craftsman to new tools and techniques which helped them a lot. He further gained attention from all over the world for using these arts in his various projects. He did not stop there. He further designed his big projects on the concept of mixing regionalism with modern typology.

C. AWARDS • Chevalier des Arts des Lettres award, 2005 by the French Government • Gold Medal 1989 by the Indian Institute of Architects • Golden Architect Award 2003 by A+D and Spectrum Foundation • Lifetime achievement award 2001 by the Institution of Engineers (India)

D. HIS PHILOSOPHY Tradition should not be approached for its underlying order, not for its superficial effects, it should be rethought in terms that are right for the possibilities and limitations of the present social order. There seems to be a Devotion for gracefully Integrating Traditional and Vernacular Principles of Indian Architecture with Modern Ideologies visible by the very Sensible Harmony.

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VIII. CASE STUDIES A. ASIAN GAMES VILLAGE 1. Location: Siri Fort area, near Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India.

Fig. 1 – Asian Games Village Location (Map) demarcating the site

2. Year: 1982 3. Building Type: Housing 4. Area of the Site: 35 acres 5. Construction System: Concrete; plastered by Delhi quartzite stone. 6. Introduction: Of the approximately 700 housing units, 200 are individual town houses and 500 are apartments in two-to-four-story structures with a density of 28 units per acre. There are eleven or twelve different types of cluster. The average size of the flats is about 1,200 square feet. Some are only 900; some go up to 1,700 or 1,800 square feet. 13


7. Concept: The concept Raj Rewal used for Asian Olympic Games Village (New Delhi) is based on the urban context of Jaisalmer and Udaipur. A sequence of open spaces interlinked with narrow pedestrian streets, shaded are kept alive through a careful mix with recreational and commercial areas broken into comprehensible units and often defined by gateways. The sense of both, of enclosure and of continuity of movement is maintained throughout this scheme.

8. Various aspects of design: 8.1.

Cluster Housing:

All the houses are clustered together to form enclosures, semipublic spaces common both in India and elsewhere, where one meets people on the doorstep, not inside the house. The use of color on doors defines the individual houses on the street- one is orange, the next green, the next white, and so on. The individual unit is a simple design with a small basement. One single desert cooler can cool the entire house. A small court in the basement acts as a light and air shaft.

Img. 1 – Asian Games Village

Img. 2 – Jaisalmer

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Fig. 2 – Plan of a Unit in Asian Games Village

Fig. 3 – Plan of a Unit in Asian Games Village

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8.2.

Interlocking Courtyards:

Courtyard walls surround adjoining houses. The front, communal courtyard is formed by joining cantilevered toilet areas on the first floors. These spaces belong solely to the surrounding inhabitants so they willingly look after them. In the apartment clusters, there is a central space with a gateway, courtyards at various levels, roof terraces, and balconies - all overlooking the internal space with which they are aligned.

Img. 3 – Asian Games Village

Img. 4 – Jaisalmer

Img. 5

Fig. 4

The central squares form a community space for the housing units.

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8.3.

Streets:

In the Village a peripheral road leads to cul-de-sac parking areas, leaving the central spine free of traffic. Cars are forbidden in the public spaces of the project. They provided garages for most of the units and deliberately put an element in the middle of any path broad enough to accommodate a car to keep people from driving through it; about 75 percent of them are attached to the buildings; the rest are in two parking areas. No parking space is more than a few minutes’ walk from the house unit.

Img. 6 - Cul-de-sac Parking

On the pedestrian street there are no overhead wires; all utilities are buried underground. The pedestrian movement areas interlink from one end to the other. Some of the narrow streets end unexpectedly in a large square, both to emphasize the closeness and to change the scale or vista and lend an element of surprise.

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Fig. 5 – Plan of Vehicular Movement in Asian Games Village

A narrow pedestrian street no more than six or seven feet wide encourages sociability and provides shelter from the heat. In places they added circular spaces to grow trees and discourage vehicular traffic. They raised the green spaces eighteen inches above ground level to discourage people from riding or walking on the grass. Landscaping was otherwise kept comparatively simple.

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Fig. 6 – Plan indicating Green spaces in Asian Games Village

Fig. 7 – Plan of Pedestrian Movement in Asian Games Village

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Img. 7 – Asian Games Village

Img. 8 – Jaisalmer

Narrow Pedestrian Street 8.4.

Roof Terraces:

The individual houses are linked together, sometimes as terrace housing and sometimes in clusters. The larger units were designed vertically, with roof terraces at various levels and courtyards in both the front and rear. They used very simple elements, slits, etc. on roof parapets to provide air movement and still retain privacy between adjacent units.

Img. 9 – Asian Games Village

Img. 10 – Jaisalmer

The terraces formed on the upper storeys provide for a semi- private space.

Fig. 8

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Img. 11 – Silts on Roof Parapets

8.5.

Gateways:

Gateways reveal another kind of space further into the square. The Development Authority, advised them not to put the toilets on top of the living room or the kitchen because they were bound to leak. They suggested that they cantilever them out over the street so that breakdowns would be immediately noticeable and accessible. This trick also provided the gateways.

Img. 12 – Asian Games Village

Img. 13 – Udaipur

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8.6.

Material:

A brief word about finishing materials: crushed Delhi quartzite stone was applied to the surfaces of the buildings as a kind of plaster. They respected the structural beams and columns; in case of building movement, cracks would appear only around the joints. 8.7.

Other:

The central feature of the plan is a dining hall which has been converted into a commercial and recreational complex. Where four streets join to form a quadrangle, a major elementeither shops or a recreational facility - is placed to give a focus. In one he covered an electric substation with steps to make a space for sitting or playing around.

Fig. 9 – Dining hall converted into a commercial and recreational complex.

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Img. 14 – Electric Substation covered with steps

9. Inferences : 9.1.

Ar. Raj Rewal tried to avoid repetition as far as possible by interlinking units in various ways.

9.2.

In the Asian games village housing project, the peripheral roads are connected to parking squares which restricts the traffic to center of the site.

9.3.

The central spine of the layout is reserved for narrow, shaded, pedestrian pathways. The layout plans follow traditional methods of creating shade and cross ventilation which helps in the protection from extreme temperatures.

9.4.

The houses are clustered in such a way that it forms enclosures and semipublic spaces due to which people can meet outside the house.

9.5.

Though each individual unit or block might be the same, the elements are linked in different ways to create different kinds of spatial enclosures which defines vehicular and pedestrian movement. 23


9.6.

The creation of the traditional narrow street, linking all the housing units, provides for intimate encounters between people and a sense of belonging to the neighborhood square thus increasing interactions.

9.7.

The plan consists of a central court and other courtyards at various levels which steps to make a space for sitting, playing around or social gatherings.

9.8.

Formal geometry allows in one system all the major elements of design - central space, private courtyards, roof terrace, and a gateway- and both semi-public and private spaces.

9.9.

Parapet on the roof terraces were added with elements, such as silts, to provide air movement and still retain privacy.

9.10. Where four streets joined to form a quadrangle – a major element was placed to give focus and it formed a space for social gatherings or play grounds, etc.

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B. HALL OF NATIONS AND HALL OF INDUSTRIES 1. Location: Pragati Medan, New Delhi, India.

Fig. 10 – Hall of nations and hall of industries (Map) Demarcating the Entire site

2. Year: 1972 3. Building Type: Exhibition 4. Area of the site: 130 acres 5. Construction System: Reinforced Concrete Space-Frame 6. Introduction: A limited competition was held in 1970 for the design of permanent exhibition spaces for the International Trade Fair 2 years later, & Raj Rewal’s proposal was selected.

Hall of Nations (Permanent Exhibition Complex) is designed to form the focus of 130 acres of Exhibition ground designed by Raj Rewal in New Delhi. The design was evolved to meet the constraints of time, availability of materials and labor. Besides the 15 giant exhibition halls, there is 10,000 square meters of open area for trade related exhibitions. The Hall of Industries on the other hand is a combination of 4 smaller pavilions by ramps enclosing a central area for open air exhibits, utilities, toilets, and other services are located under the 25


ramps. Each of the halls was initially conceived as a full pyramid the truncated form was adopted in order to avoid unnecessary constructions. The entire complex was analyzed, designed and built in a period of fifteen months.

7. Concept: As stated by Raj Rewal, the Concept for this Exhibition Complex has been derived from Humayun’s Tomb, an Attempt to Interpret as to how the Statement might have been translated into the Master Plan.

Img. 15 – Hall of Nations

-

Img. 16 – Humayun’s Tomb

The plan of Hall of Nations was influenced by the plan of Humayun’s tomb in the combination of diagonals and orthogonals.

Differentiating singular major space from the cluster such that their access points that are linked through pathways may envelope a common space for community.

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Site plan of Hall of Nations and Hall of Industries

Raj Rewal has tried to interpret Humayun Tomb’s statement into the Master Plan.

Fig. 11 – Site Plan of Hall of Nations and Hall of Industries

8. Description: The main pavilion of the Hall of Nations has a clear span of 78 meters and a height varying from 3 meters to 21 meters, thereby providing a vast capacity for items to be exhibited, from books to bulldozers.

Fig. 12 – Hall of Nations and Hall of Industries

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Sections

Structure itself as Jali

Fig. 14 – Structure itself as Jali

Img. 17 – Hall of Nations

-

Img. 18 – Humayun’s Tomb

2:1 ratio is followed between the plan and the elevation.

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Img. 19 – Hall of Nations

-

Fig. 15 – Humayun’s Tomb

The plan of Humayun’s Tomb as well as Hall of Nations & Hall of Industries; encourages movement from the center.

-

The plan of Hall of Nations/Hall of Industries and Humayun’s Tomb; both are irregular octagons with four long sides and four short sides.

Whereas Hall of Industries has a span of 44 meters and a height of 16.8 meters. Free standing coffered mezzanine floors cantilevering out of cylindrical shafts provide additional exhibition area in each hall. It is supported on 8 hollow circular shaft like columns of 3.4m diameter placed at the vertices of an unequal but symmetrical octagon.

Img. 20 – Hall of Industries

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Img. 21- Mezzanine floors inside Hall of Nations/Hall of Industries.

Each pavilion is a three dimensional space frame of cast-in-situ reinforced cement concrete parts resembling a truncated pyramid, whose sloping walls contain triangular apertures, creating changing patterns of light and shade on the surface and inside the building. Octahedral measuring 5 meters from joint to joint were employed as the basic three-dimensional unit of the space frame which rests on 8-points around the essentially square plan and allows 11 meters wide opening between the supports.

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Img. 22 - View of the roof from inside

Img. 23

Img. 24

Img. 25

Structural System

The depth of the structural system was utilized as a Sun breaker and conceived of in terms of the traditional 'jali', a geometrical pattern of perforation that serves to obstruct directs rays of the harsh Sun while permitting air circulation.

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Img. 26 - Octahedrons with Jali

Img. 27 - Mughal Pavilion Jali

Mughal Pavilion - Jali Hall of Nations – octahedrons with Jali

Img. 28 - Octahedrons with Jali

-

The delicate web perhaps recalled the thin screens with polygonal geometries of Mughal pavilions, but restated in terms of a twentieth-century technology. A special 9 membered joint was evolved for pre-cast

construction. The joint was modified to suit the adopted technique. The Hall of Nations is supported on pile foundations tied together with post tensioned plinth beams, and the Hall of Industries rests on spread footings tied together with high tensile steel bars.

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Solid triangular panels at regular intervals provides sunscreen resembling traditional jail.

Hall of Nations and Hall of Industries

Fig. 16 - Hall of Nations and Hall of Industries Plan Demarcation

Humayun’s Tomb

Fig. 17 - Humayun’s Tomb Plan Demarcation

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Img. 29 - Entrance to Hall of Nations

Img. 30 - Hall No. 6 (Hall of Nations)

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Img. 31 - Hall No. 2,3,4,5 (Hall of Industries)

Img. 32 - Hall of Industries (Services under the Ramp)

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9. Inferences: 9.1.

Rewal decided on a concrete structure that could be realized because of low-cost labor.

9.2.

Weight was brought down to two points along each side of the square plan liberating the middle of each side and the corners for entrances.

9.3.

The structure was 5 meters in depth between inner and outer struts, and by placing shelves into the octahedrons it was possible to create sun-shading devices.

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C. WORLD BANK REGIONAL MISSION 1. Location: Lodhi Estate, New Delhi 2. Year: 1994 3. Building Type: Offices 4. Area of the site: 0.7 acres 5. Construction System: Beige Sandstone cladding with supporting Pink sandstone 6. Introduction:

Fig. 18 – World Bank (Map)

The brief of the World Bank building in New Delhi asked for offices for approximately 90 persons based on a space programme in an area of 44,000 square feet. The design was to incorporate all state38


of-art-technology in communication, HVAC, water treatment and security, required by the bank. However, essential to the design was the reflection of Indian culture and sensitive complementing of the location overlooking the Lodhi Tombs and Gardens. The aim was to synthesize the technological innovations and traditional stone craftsmanship in a Contemporary Design language. The expression of balconies, sun shades, jalis and display craftsman’s skills in conjunction with epoxy- based adhesives. Abstract Islamic patterns are an important feature of the design. 7. Concept: The unique location has provided the basis for a design concept. The concept of the World Bank building is based on harmonizing the new structure with its surroundings and exploiting to advantage its sensitive location for a modern functional office. The reference to the classic symmetry of Lodhi monuments enveloping a forecourt finds an echo in the design of the World Bank building enclosing a sunken garden. 8. Description: The plan reflects the classical symmetry of Lodhi architecture and revolves around a central axis. A striking feature of the plan is the central courtyard, a traditional Indian architectural device that ensures natural light and ventilation for all the rooms while cutting out the extreme heat and glare of the long summer months.

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Lodhi Monument

Revolves around

Plan

the central axis Img. 33 – Lodhi Monument Plan

The building mass encloses the central court, providing diffused light and ventilation. The scale of court creates a zone of building under shade, thereby reducing the air conditioning load. It acts as an open area with a controlled microclimate and provided relief to the building users.

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Ground Floor Plan The plan of World Bank Regional Mission is derived from the plan of Lodhi Monuments; which follows the central axis and follows symmetry. Fig. 19 – Ground Floor Plan

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Upper Floor Plan

Fig. 20 – Upper Floor Plan

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First Floor Plan

Toilets Services Offices The central courtyard acts as a central axis. Fig. 21 – First Floor Plan

Conference Room Computers

Second Floor Plan

Fig. 22 – Second Floor Plan

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All the office including secretary workstations have external views or look inward into the courtyard. It provides the visual and aesthetic advantage of an enclosed private garden from where a glass elevator rises to the two upper floors. It also functions as an open spill out of the lobby and exhibition area and is utilized as an arena for multipurpose use.

Fig. 23 – The cafeteria in the upper basement faces the Sunken Garden.

The public entrance of the building is on the eastern side, facing the existing complex and providing visitors easy access to the parking in the common plaza. The western façade flanked by the sunken garden with its carefully preserved old trees, overlooks the Lodhi Gardens offering superb views of the tombs and greenery from the offices, conference rooms and lounge-dining room.

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Img. 34 - Sunken Garden connecting to the Lodhi Gardens

The barrel vaults on the roof accentuate the conference rooms beneath and also serve to emphasize the axis and complement the curves of the domes of the tombs nearby.

Fig. 24 – Domes of World Bank

Img. 35 - Lodhi Gardens

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Taking full advantage of the neighbouring Gardens, the off-site green spaces have been drawn in, and with the central courtyard lighting up the inner spaces, the entire building gains a transparency that makes for a comfortable working environment. The area between the Lodhi Gardens and the building periphery has been scooped out to create a Sunken Garden that functions as a stage for multi-purpose public activity as an extension of public area on the lower garden floor. The Sunken Garden provides an aesthetic view as well as an abundance of natural light into the lower ground level dining room. It also creates a private outdoor space for staff recreation. The graceful fall of water over the rough stone wall enhances the beauty of the setting and echoes the concept of running water, an important element in traditional Mughal Architecture. A series of steps in the form of an amphitheater enclose it on three sides, connecting the court at the lower level to the Lodhi Gardens.

Sunken Garden connecting to the Lodhi Gardens; also serves as an amphitheater.

Img. 36 – Sunken Garden

The offices have been designed to effectively utilize natural light, and to supplement it with sophisticated, energy efficient artificial lighting systems. Concealed lighting tracks focus light precisely where 46


it is needed while high-tech fixtures provide maximum illumination with minimum energy consumption. A central control system, linked by computer with all functional systems – mechanical, security, water, fire detection and communications – monitors the building for complete, safe, continuous and energy efficient functioning. Solar reflecting glass used throughout the building minimizes solar heat gain. The stone cladding is part of the structural system, not only taking its own load but adding strength to the masonry structure. The pink bands of Dholpur stone lie in horizontal slabs, showing only the edge of the stone in facade. These horizontal stones support the vertical panels, locking them in place as in traditional stone construction. The exterior walls are made of locally cut biscuit-colored limestone from Dholpur, with a ribbon of Pale Pink Agra Stone. The effect is a rich but mellow echoing of the colors found in the nearby Lodhi Tombs. Granite quarried in India provides the flooring for the public areas. Local artisans played a major role in the development of the building particularly in the stone masonry, handsomely carved jalis, balcony railings and a carefully modulated fenestration.

Img. 37

Img. 38

Use of Materials

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Img. 39 - World Bank Regional Mission Logo used as railing for the balconies; facing the courtyard.

Img. 40 – Sunken Garden

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The courtyard, also expressed modularly, produces a completely different effect. Here the panels are recessed within a grided coffer arrangement. This buff Dholpur stone grid creates a screen-like facade, alternatingly filled in with vertical panels, left open or glazed a sort of home-grown brie soliel with dramatic effect. During the day the paneled alcoves create a play of surfaces and deep shadows. At night with the rooms around the courtyard illuminated, another layer is introduced into the courtyard. A curtain-wall like effect is created behind the grided stone tapestry, unparalleled in traditional architecture though within a space imbibed with traditional scale and proportion.

Img. 41

Img. 42 Stone tracery for balconies

The stone tracery for certain balcony railings in geometric designs have narrow pieces of cut stone fixed in polygonal shapes to produce a tracery that appears as if carved from single sheets. The Bank logo in the courtyard is carved from a single slab and so are the relief panels over the entrance door. The focus of the courtyard and the overall composition of the plan is a fountain-bowl carved painstakingly from a single monolithic block of red sandstone. 49


The near tripartite division of the facade refers to the nearby Lodhi Tombs in the relatively solid base, an upper level with balconies and stone tracery crowned by the vault.

9. Inferences: 9.1.

The unique location has provided the basis for a total design concept: the creation of a high-tech, modern office building with a pleasant and functional working ambience, set in a graceful garden setting, using natural, indigenous building materials, and employing to its advantage the still available traditional Indian craftsmanship.

9.2.

The innovative design of Raj Rewal Associates, the local firm of architects selected through a Bank committee, has resulted in an artistic expression appropriate to its function, time and place, blending with great sensitivity its medieval and modern surroundings.

9.3.

The beige sandstone cladding offset with supporting pink sandstone reflects, in a different manner, the cladding and surface treatment of Delhi’s Monuments.

9.4.

The graceful fall of water over the rough stone wall enhances the beauty of the setting and echoes the concept of running water, an important element in traditional Mughal Architecture.

9.5.

The building is not just aesthetically pleasing, it incorporates the latest in functional technologies as well.

9.6.

It is environment friendly and energy efficient. And its communications are electronically linked, both domestically and worldwide, to every workstation within the building via satellite. The computer controlled, zoned air-conditioning – 50


sensitive to both inside and outside temperatures for maximum energy efficiency – greatly reduces the operational cost. 9.7.

The color and texture of red sandstone, while presenting a restrained palette of colors, conveys a traditional monumental scale.

9.8.

Here again the construction method is customized to allow the necessary character. Simple methods of stone construction such as stone cladding to masonary or stone slabs resting on vertical slabs to create a grided balcony parapet, has allowed an architecture of visual coherence.

9.9.

Architectural vision is tempered by the available limitations of stone and at the same time traditional techniques have been rendered into a more contemporary genre. Within this somewhat modular but innovative construction technology lie traces of traditional craft skills.

9.10. This dialogue between the rough and the smooth, the economic use of modular stone to customized fountains, between the flame-finished strips within the polished granite floor of the lobby, etc., is what gives a tactile character to the building. It produces an architecture that is intrinsically Indian.

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D. PARLIAMENT LIBRARY 1. Location: Gokul Nagar, Central Secretariat, New Delhi

Fig 25: Parliament Library Location Map demarcating the site

2. Year: 2003 3. Building Type: Public building 4. Area of the site: 10 acres with 50,000 sq.m built up area 5. Construction System: R.C.C frame system with coffered concrete slabs; Red and Beige Sandstone cladding and Glass and Steel for roofs. 6. Introduction: The Parliament Library of India is located at the heart of Lutyens’ urban design for New Delhi, to the northwest of Baker’s Parliament House. The Library was expected to be ‘apt for the 21st 52


century’ while also complementing the majestic heritage from the British colonial period. Responding to the Parliament’s giant colonnade, the Library features a meticulously ordered cluster of circular forms, organized cross-axially, and configuring an incomplete square. Inspirations from ancient temples and palaces have been distilled into a contemporary vocabulary that is shaped and textured by the memory of places and the geometry of latticework. The building contains basic library functions, parliamentary services and related facilities over four floors, two of them below ground. All public spaces on the upper floors are covered by structural lattices of different patterns, surmounted by shallow bubble domes that create a sculptural landscape on the roof. Courtyards form an important feature of the design vocabulary, keeping in mind Delhi's extreme climate. They help in creating a dust free atmosphere and in reducing the summer heat. The height of the building is restricted to the podium level of the Parliament House. 7. Concept: The central function of the complex is the Parliament Library, a house of knowledge, symbolically a place of enlightenment. The design concept with its connotations of an inward looking building shows a specific preference for subtle spatial enclosures rather than forms of grandeur. The building has been designed with an aim to achieve a low key architectural expression signifying sagacity, even spiritual elegance rather than to compete with the power of the Parliament House. The library building in the form of a square, symmetrical yantra on a triangular plot with the planning ideals from Taj Mahal and Datia only complements the circular Parliament House. Both visually and symbolically the central hall of the existing Parliament denoting people’s power, consensus and democracy, is linked to the core of the new complex, symbolizing knowledge, on a 53


central axis, through a sequence of spaces culminating in a new auditorium of 1067 persons capacity. The building has been conceived as a formal structure within the Indian Tradition, but built in a contemporary idiom to capture the essence without mimicking past historical styles. 8. Description: 8.1.

Building Plans:

The building was conceived by Architect with three basements and two floors above ground. The areas in the building were demarcated for serving different functions and so the building was divided into the following blocks named after the functional uses to which these pertain: 

Library Block

BPST (Bureau of Parliamentary Studies & Trdining) Block

VIP Block

Auditorium Block.

Museum Block.

Services Block (housing services like A/C Plant room, Substation, Canteen etc.)

Hall of National Achievement.

MP’s Redding Block.

LARRDIS (Library Administration, Research, Reference, Documentation Information Services).

Archives Block

Banquet & Dining Block.

Parking

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Img 43: Functional Zones Demarcation

Img 44: Layout Plan

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The library building in the form of a square, symmetrical yantra on a triangular plot with the planning ideals from Taj Mahal.

Img 45: Taj Mahal Plan

The same planning concept has been followed in Parliament Library.

Fig. 26: Taj Mahal Circulation Plan

The plan of the building is inspired by precolonial Indian architecture such as the magnificent Taj Mahal, with its square base and symmetrical composition.

Taj Mahal’s core is an octagon. The same principal has been followed for the Parliament Libraries’ Core.

Img 46: Taj Mahal Plan

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Img 47: First Floor Plan

Core of Parliament Library – similar to that of Taj Mahal

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Img 48: Ground Floor Plan

58


Img 49: First Basement – Plan

59


Img 50: Second Basement – Plan

60


Img 51: Terrace Plan

61


Img 52: Typical Parking Plan – First and Second Level

62


Img 53: Parking – Third Level

63


Digital Library/ Museum

Focal Center

Scholars Library

Img 55: Sections of Parliament Library

The concept of the Parliament Library is derived from Taj Mahal. Deriving the underground construction of Taj Mahal; half the Parliament Library is constructed two levels below ground.

Img 56: Section of Taj Mahal

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Img 57: Parliament Library

8.2.

Img 58: Adinath Temple

Urban Context:

Lutyen’s and Baker’s plan for New Delhi follows largely “Beaux Arts", central-line-axis planning criteria. It is based on classical western ideals of symmetry and balanced composition. The Parliament House Building by Baker, circular in Plan, has three axes meeting in the central dome. One of these axes has been taken as an axis of Library building layout plan, with VIP Entry on one end (near PM’s Gate) & Auditorium on the other end, focal area being the central point. A perpendicular axis through the focal center aligns the Library Hall and the Museum.

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Img 59: Central Axis of Parliament House and Library Building

The design complements but does not imitate the Parliament House. The height of the building has been restricted to the podium level of Parliament House in deference to the Urban-context of the site. Only architectural features of glazed crystalline forms or “domes� protrude above the podium level, here again keeping the height of domes as low as possible, and in any case well below the roof of the Parliament House. 8.3.

Urban Form and Landscape Elements:

There are three courtyards symmetrically placed around the central built form, which not only serve as functional extensions to the adjoining areas of the Library building but also symbolize certain basic tenets of the Constitution of India. The unifying elements include finishes (red and beige sandstone) and primary trees placed at regular intervals synchronizing with the architectural rhythm of openings and columns of the corridors.

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The first courtyard is built adjoining the MP’s reading room & BPST committee room which has an atmosphere of tranquility around a “sunken court” with a small amphitheater which is symbolic of LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship. Grassjointed paving helps to soften the hard surface. The second courtyard having a big tree symbolizes, Social, Economic and Political JUSTICE and is surrounded by the Committee Rooms, Banquet Hall etc. tress and other small planter, apart from serving the functional requirements of breaking the scale and softening the hard surfaces explore the mental faculties through perspective senses of touch, smell, vision, thereby adding dimension to the quality of environment inside the building.

Img. 60: South-west courtyard with amphitheater, surfaces clad in red and white sandstone.

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Img 61: South-East courtyard with plantation

The third courtyard is surrounded by the Museum and Auditorium and its space can be utilized for out-door exhibitions around a water pool with black granite cladding gives a dramatic reflection of the surrounding building. Water, which always maintains level, represents EQUALITY of status and opportunity.

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Img 62: North-east courtyard with pool, closer view of hand carved screens (jali) combined with machine-turned column cladding in red sandstone.

Another reason which has influenced the inward looking urban form is an attempt to create a sensitive relationship with the existing trees on the site. The layout plan defers to a magnificent cluster of trees and allows them to interrupt what would have otherwise been a geometrical plan of square Yantra. Most of the trees on the Parliament end and periphery have been kept intact. The shrubs and turfed grass have been provided on the terrace for developing a terrace garden which is visible from Parliament House Corridor. The external lawn areas have been developed in harmony with Parliament House Complex.

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Img 63: Terrace Garden

Img. 64: Terrace Garden

Img. 65: Terrace Garden

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8.4.

Zone Demarcation and Movement Area:

8.4.1. The complex is divided into three zones for easy accessibility and utility for VIPs, Scholars and general public. This zoning ensures privacy and security for the VIPs and segregates the Scholars area of BPST from public activity areas of the Museum and the Auditorium. All specific functions of the building have been clearly defined and instead of creating one omnibus space, separate inter connected blocks have been made for each main function of the complex. The functional relationship of various areas is discussed as below. 

VIP entrance hall is just opposite to gate No.5 of the Parliament House Building and gives immediate access to the central core of the Library Building complex. This central area housing library activities, is covered with a fully glazed stainless steel dome and around it are located MPs reading room, LARRDIS, Banquet Hall and Archives. Further radiating from this space are the main arteries to Library, Museum and Auditorium. There is a separate entry for MP5 from Audio-Visual Block and functional areas are easily approachable by MPs through this entry. MPs reading room adjoins the Library & LARRDIS block at the ground level and provides easy access for VIPs for reference and other facilities.



BPST is a self-contained unit and is approachable directly from the VIP reception and also has a separate entry for scholars from Pt. Pant Marg. It is directly connected to the Library 71


reading room for easy access by visiting scholars and administrators. 

The Museum, Auditorium & Canteen can be independently approached by the general public from yet another entrance at Service Block and these are further inter-related to other areas by peripheral and arterial corridors. 8.4.2. The public spaces and administrative areas have been located generally at ground and first Floor, whereas basements have been utilized for stacking of books, storage and infrastructural service requirements. 8.4.3. Books and periodicals which are to be moved into the building in bulk consignments have a separate book entry between Library & LARRDIS. 8.4.4. Kitchen material is received through a separate entry from gate No. 3.

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Img 66: Zones Demarcation Plan

8.5.

Architectural Expression and Materials:

Columns are mostly concrete, except for the detached steel columns around the building’s periphery. The basic infill materials are brick and glass brick. Red sand stone cladding has been provided on the external surface of the library building to match the adjoining Parliament House. Internally however, The Library Building is finished with a variety of materials or combination of materials - be it the floors or the walls or the ceilings.

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Img 67: Glass Brick for natural light in the Basement

Handcrafted stone Jaalis are used for Acoustic considerations

Img 68: View of the Stone Jaalis

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Img 69: The Parliament Library echoes the materials of the existing complex but in a different language

The Terrace is covered with twelve domes of various shapes and sizes, some of which are opaque and some partly opaque & party glazed. The central focal dome is fully glazed to provide diffused light into the basement levels. The crystalline forms of glass & steel present an attractive feature during the day and night. Light wells with glass block panels have been provided along the building periphery and periphery of the courtyards to provide diffused light in the basements. Stainless steel and carbon steel frame work for the domes is exposed (not covered by false ceiling) when viewed from within the building, which accentuates the feeling of openness in the mind of the viewer beneath the dome. This feeling is further strengthened by the glass-block glazing on along the periphery of the domes.

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Img 70: Dome at the Core

Img 71: Bubble Dome

The Bubble domes are finished externally either in polished sandstone or in granite roof tiles. Interior surfaces are finished with acoustic paneling in terracotta or wood, in the form of tiles or battens.

9. Inferences: 9.1.

The design concept with its connotations of an inward looking building shows a specific preference for subtle spatial enclosures rather than forms of grandeur.

9.2.

The building has been designed with an aim to achieve a low key architectural expression signifying sagacity, even spiritual elegance rather than to compete with the power of the Parliament House.

9.3.

The height of the building is restricted to podium level so as to not compete with the design of the Parliament House.

9.4.

The concept and thought behind the Parliament Library not only follows the Historical Tradition but it is also linked with the purpose of the Parliament therefore it captures the essence without mimicking past historical styles. 76


9.5.

By allowing exterior and interior to communicate like this (the three courtyards), Rewal is trying to derive his design directly from the historical context of India’s most important buildings such as Taj Mahal, Datia Palace and the Adinath Temple.

9.6.

An important element of the planning was that large areas were to remain free, so that the width and magnificence of the axes should not be impaired.

9.7.

Rewal transfers the parliament’s monumental gesture only in the form of a strictly axial quality running through both centre points and creating the first main link. He further chooses the square as a basic geometry, which equals the circle as an archaic element, and also contains its concentricity, with the diagonal of the library square corresponding to the diameter of the parliament’s circle. The figures of both buildings draw life from this centre, where the most important things happen.

9.8.

The library design emancipates itself completely from the predominance of the parliament and retains its own identity.

9.9.

Rewal is following an entirely modern structural idea of axiality, symmetry and the disturbance of symmetry as a component of our thinking today.

9.10. Courtyards are created between centre and ring, also a classically Indian motif from a hot climate, offering protection from heat, dust and noise, but also making spiritualisation and concentration possible. This produces charged, changing spatial sequences as one moves through the building: halls as centres of sectional areas with vertical connections, corridors 77


with adjacent horizontal outer spaces that open up, and introverted zones for reading and work. 9.11. He contrasts massive piers with slender columns, articulates the exterior walls with a decorative structure and grades the building in transitions from circle to square to create deep areas of shadow. And yet concrete and other modern materials remain visible everywhere, and the honesty of the structure adds to its enduring presence. But the architect goes further, stepping up his structural design elements in an unusual way. Its form symbolizes an implicit and diverse democracy, integrating the spiritual dimension that is rooted so deeply in the Indian soul and thus showing the neighbouring government buildings from a different era in a new light: the government quarter has become truly Indian.

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E. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF IMMUNOLOGY 1. Location: Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi

Fig. 27: Location Map of National Institute of Immunology

2. Year: 1990 3. Building Type: Education and Research 4. Area of the site: acres 5. Construction System: Reinforced Concrete with Red Sandstone as aggregate; Brick Infill walls are rendered in Beige Sandstone – cement mix in panels 6. Introduction: The primary function of the institute is biotechnological scientific research. The programme contains laboratories, study rooms, a library, auditorium, a director's house and lodgings for professors with families, married assistants, un-married researchers, 79


permanent and visiting scientists. It was conceived for a hilltop site on the campus of Jawaharlal Nehru University in southern New Delhi. Raj Rewal conceived the ensemble as an analogue of a traditional town with courts, galleries, level changes and a uniform use of materials and colors. It is also a landscape conception (the open parkland alongside has been preserved in its natural state). To the west of the research laboratories of the National Institute of Immunology is located Phase II of the housing. The programme called for a scholar’s hostel and about fifty oneto three-bedroom apartments. A slow pace of development facilitated the organic growth of the housing to meet the demands of incoming societies and the availability of funds over the last three years.

7. Concept: With its primary and secondary axes, its routes, its fine proportions and its formal themes of stratification and ‘outdoor rooms’, The National Institute of Immunology constitutes a modern reinterpretation of Fatehpur Sikri, a princely palace/city constructed for a new technological elite. The central principle is the protected and well-ventilated court, with different levels and views over the landscape. The vocabulary of design carries through the Phase I development of individual clusters around single courtyards to a multiple of interlinked courtyards, providing both a change and continuity in a huge scheme.

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7 5

3

3 3

6 3

4

3

3

3

3

8

3

3

3

2 1

9 3

3

Fig 28: Site Plan

1. Senior Staff Housing 2. Junior Staff Housing 3. Research Scholar Housing 4. Lecture Hall Complex

Its primary and secondary axes, its routes, its fine

5. Institute building

proportions and its formal

6. Housing

themes of stratification and

7. Essential Staff Housing

‘outdoor rooms’ is a modern

8. Main Square

reinterpretation of Fatehpur

9. Water Tank

Sikri.

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Img 72: Master Plan of Fatehpur Sikri

8. Description: The housing is built on two sloping sides of the highest level of the site, and is designed around a series of interlocking pedestrian courtyards of varying scales. The edge of the housing forms large landscaped enclosures with the existing research laboratories at one end. On the other side the external road skirts around the housing to accommodate parking. Access to apartments is through interconnected pedestrian enclosures. Each of these dwellings is in its own cluster close to the entrance of the site. The central building also acts as a gateway and its axis corresponds with the main spine of the scheme. The route climbs towards the laboratories which occupy the highest points of the site. The complex contains five residential blocks situated around two sides of a kind of central quadrangle (much like English colleges), with a lecture hall on a third side and the fourth side left open. The ancient sites of Delhi and the Qutab Minar are Visible on the distant horizon.

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Img 73: Fatehpur Sikri

The concept of central courtyard is reinterpreted.

Img 74: National Institute of Immunology

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Housing for senior scientists and their families was the first thing to be constructed. Eight ample apartments, (120 square meters) stand in two-storey duplexes. The units, each of which have their own terrace, are disposed around a central courtyard which offers a focus for community interaction. Moreover, the upper duplex apartments are reached by diagonally-placed open staircases along facades, contributing to a sense of individual access but also to social Visibility.

Housing for Senior Citizen Img 75: View of the Senior Citizen Housing

Img 76: View of the Senior Citizen Housing

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Img 77: View of the Senior Housing


Fig 29: Housing for senior citizens – Plan

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Fig 30: Housing for senior citizens - Section

The hostel for unmarried scholars comprises individual rooms around an octagonal court, envisaged as a small amphitheater following the contours of the site. The plan is symmetrical on both axes and follows an orderly solution for providing roof terraces on successive upper storeys.

Scholars Housing – amphitheater following the contours of the site

Img 78: Amphitheater

Img. 79: Amphitheater

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Plan of Scholars house showing the amphitheater built with contours of the site.

Fig 31: Plan of Scholars House

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Essential staff housing is arranged along a single axis, with a series of courtyards between opposite units that are stepped downwards from the hill-top quadrangle.

Fig 32: Junior Staff Housing – Plan

The sequence of courtyards and their varying scale on an undulating site is an important element of design. The intimate scale of the courtyards is successful in diffusing the harsh sunlight and providing community space. The points of linkage between courtyards contain stairwells which also act as gateways. 88


All the buildings have a slightly theatrical quality with their galleries, terraces and stages. Human scale is maintained by the balconies pierced with Jaali’s and by grooves made in the wall surfaces.

Narrow Pathways in some areas indicating the change of scale and proportion. R.C.C rendered with Red Sandstone

Img 80: View between Clusters

The reinforced concrete frame structure is rendered with red sandstone aggregate for protection against the heavy monsoon showers. The brick infill walls are rendered in beige sandstone – cement mix in panels, applied directly like terrazo, and washed after one day to expose the stone-grit surface. The ground floor patio walls are screened with quartzite from the site. Upper level terraces are enclosed with richly patterned perforations. The balconies provide shade for large openings and are made private by small jaali's of red sandstone panels. Unity is achieved by the use of a grit finish consisting of red and beige sandstone pebbles on the exterior. 89


A central auditorium building is multifunctional, and has numerous terraces on the roof where residents of the institute can congregate, relax, and View performances. This building, which is neither residential nor a laboratory, forms a focal point in the institute’s design. The Whole effect is of a coherent, interrelated cluster of structures. The patterns of pedestrian movement through the complex, the changing visual impressions that are created by perspectives through courts and buildings, can offer a model for future urban development.

Img 80 & 81: Central Auditorium Building – NII – Scale and Proportion as well as open Court reinterpreted

Img 82 &83: Fatehpur Sikri

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9. Analysis: 9.1.

It has been endowed with a distinctive, almost urban identity on what is otherwise relatively open terrain. This has been achieved through a tight clustering of the numerous buildings by relating them to the contours of the site, through architectural massing and detailing, and by linking the blocks ingeniously together with footpaths, courtyards and passageways

9.2.

The colors recall those of monumental buildings in the Delhi region from the Mogul and British colonial periods. The architecture contains the idea of a ‘city of ideas’, a place for the study and contemplation of nature. Beyond banal practicalities.

9.3.

Rewal has succeeded in touching upon a deeper level of meaning in the institution. The vocabulary of the institute touches on the common ground between traditional trabeation and the modem concrete skeleton.

9.4.

Rewal has conceived the ensemble as an analogue of a traditional town with courts, galleries, level changes and a uniform use of materials and colors. It is also a Landscape conception (the open parkland alongside has been preserved in its natural state).

9.5.

Use of material (red sandstone) is also a reinterpretation of Fatehpur Sikri.

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IX. CONCLUSION Rewal has tried to express a new sense of vocabulary that fuses urbanism and architecture. He has tried to define a grammar based on twentieth century technology that will achieve the richness, variety, climatic sensitivity, scale and geometrical discipline that he has perceived in great urban complexes of the past such as Jaisalmer and Jaipur. His synthesis blends old and new, international and regional, but does not lapse into pasctiche. Particular attention has been paid to ways in which the building forms can temper the unremitting harshness of the climate. On the external perimeter, the upper floors overhang to create deep shadows. Throughout, windows are deeply recessed to shield the interior from the sun glare and give the building an almost sculptural articulation. Most of his buildings are contemporary buildings expressing a liveliness, a boldness and technical research whose real material is neither steel, nor stone nor concrete, but light and history. A secular light, which has been much worked on, but without transforming it into something sacred. He Master-fully takes advantage of the irregularities of the site, the dwellings, with walkways, courtyards and terraces offer a harmonious physical entity for living and working. He not only relates the building to its immediate very difficult physical and historical context, but to deeper strains of Indian culture and history. According to him a functional design should be involved with a specific emotional flavor or poetic mood. This he referred to as the ‘rasa’ of the building. His buildings gives the perception of traditional morphology into a contemporary equivalent. He emphasized on structural masses and natural material. He brings structural, functional and conceptual aspect into focus through the manner in which he links his work to past architectural forms and in his perception of their present functions. His humanist approach to 92


architecture responds to the complexities of rapid urbanization, the demands of climate, cultural traditions, and building crafts and technologies. Discovering the past, and reinventing the future. The fusion of both that’s where he fits into.

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Raj Rewal - How is Modern Architecture Influenced by Traditional Architecture  
Raj Rewal - How is Modern Architecture Influenced by Traditional Architecture  
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