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Design Design Studio-Air Studio-Air Haotian Haotian Li(Anna) Li(Anna)

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JOURNAL

-CONTENTS


Week One: Architecture as a discourse a discourse urse

Building the Inspiring Space

“I think my best skill as an architect is the achievement of hand-to-eye coordination; I am able to transfer a sketch into a model into the building” — Frank Gehry

Guggenheim Museum

Marques de Piscal

The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is a pinnacle in Gehry’s outstanding architectural career as well as in the field of museum design. It remains unsurpassed in its integration of art and architecture, maintaining an aesthetic and programmatic unity. This building is very unique and pushes many architectural boundaries, which has made it one of the most famous contemporary structures in the world. It was built in 1997 and is considered to be an important part of architecture history. When designing the building the architect was inspired by the location, which is overlooking the port of the Nervion River. The designs incorporate some natural features, for example; the building “ is intended to resemble a ship. Its brilliantly reflective titanium panels resemble fish scales, echoing the other organic life (and, in particular, fish-like) forms that recur commonly in Gehry’s designs.” The contours and shapes used to construct this building are out of the norm and require experience and efficient plans to create successfully. Some materials used were; clad in glass, titanium and lime stone. “Computer simulations of the building’s structure made it feasible to build shapes that architects of earlier eras would have found nearly impossible to construct.”

Frank Gehry’ s buildings displayed a penchant for whimsy and playfulness previously unknown in serious architecture. Most distinctive of all was his ability to explode familiar geometric volumes and reassemble them in original new forms of unprecedented complexity, a practice the critics dubbed “deconstructivism.” Gehry’s use of cutting-edge computer-aided design technology enabled him to translate poetic forms into reality. The resulting architecture is sculptural and expressionistic, with spaces unlike any others for the presentation of art. While buildings with curves were not new, going back to the Pantheon in Rome, major buildings with many very complex curves were not and Bilbao established Gehry as the world’s leading architect and master of high-tech, computer-aided design and pronounced the decline of the merely rectilinear.


Gateway Project Walt Disiney Concert Hall Relate to the Gateway Project, the brief encourage to develop a proposal that inspires and enriched the municipality, the installation on the side of freeway needs to enhance the physical environment through the introduction of a visual arts components. What Mr Gehry has done for the Guggenheim Museum in terms of design inspired by the location and incorporating natural feature are really helpful idea when we approach to the project. We can see from most of Gehry’s work of his strong intention to break the lines between art and architecture. His works are commonly integrated with art as well as maintaining an aesthetic and programmatic unity. Back to the gateway project, from study of Gehry’s design scheme, I realize that there should not be any restriction in the form, with an assistance of software we can think of any unusual shapes as long as it fulfill our design intent. We should put our self in the box and most importantly, the brief is ask for most like a sculpture like installation, this is the best opportunity for us to capture a more abstract aspirational intent without worrying too much about the functionality.

Lou Ruvo Center

Gehry has demonstrated that the computer and new materials have opened the way for new architectural wonders.Gehry first envisioned its form, like all his works, through a simple freestyle hand sketch, but breakthroughs in computer software had enabled him to build in increasingly eccentric shapes, sweeping irregular curves that were the antithesis of the severely rectilinear International Style. Traditional modernists criticized the work as arbitrary, or gratuitously eccentric, but distinguished former exponents of the International Style, such as the late Philip Johnson championed his work, and Gehry became the most visible of an elite cohort of highly publicized “starchitects.”

Weisman Art Museum

Weisman Art Museum

http://www.thecityreview.com/gehgug.html

Walt Disiney Concert Hall

http://www.guggenheim.org/bilbao http://www.arcspace.com/architects/gehry/Guggenheim_Museum/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guggenheim_Museum_Bilbao


The prototype of ‘Vector Wall’ is a celebration of intimacy, an exploration of sensuality and its affects. It is a boudoir object comprised of a complex, lace-like pattern laser-cut into a steel sheet then stretched and hand tuned to develop the wall’s unique form and personality. In mass production the concept allows a single pattern to develop almost limitless subtle variations of form and effects, depending upon how the forces of manufacture are applied to the sheet.

“Parametric Design calls for the rejection of fixed solutions and for an exploration of infinitely variable possibilities.”

- Kolarevic

Week Two: Computation in Architecture Computational Design seeks to understand design and to use computers to do so. In regard to practice it is not just the specific use made of technological innovations that is fundamental. It is rather that technology has provided the models in terms of which these innovations are to be understood, and, just as significantly, the computer has become a device that is inseparable from the design process itself. The developments of complex surfaces, the shifts in how topology operates have become the work of animation and computer generation.

The architects Jesse Reiser and Nanako Umemoto in their project vector wall imagined ways that a simple laser cutter can perforate a rigid or semirigid material with multidirectional patterning, reinterpreting the common domestic partition wall and trancending a simple definition of space to become spatial in itself. Once cut, a flat steel sheet can transform into a volumetric, scalable, diaphanous scrim collapsing structure, volume, and enclosure all within the same system.


Such complex, lace-like pattern laser-cut could be achieved by Rhino-Grasshopper Program; grasshopper definition allows creating a pattern to be controlled in the length and direction of vectors with start points on a rectangular grid. The first parameter was dependent on the distance from the start point of the vector to the closest point of a curve, which was playing a role of an attractor. The direction of the vectors was defined by the tangent of the attractor curve at the closest point.

http://www.iaacblogbackup.com/20082009/term03/s6/?cat=7 http://karrahv.blogspot.com. au/2009/01/reiser-umemoto-by-allieshabouk-jazmin.html

The shapes that are formed in computeraided design are the result of decisions made using parameters. Numerical data which describe characteristics of the virtual design environment such as temperature, gravity, and other forces have an impact on the form. For example, dynamic modeling systems are based on the interaction of multiple parameter statements calculated sequentially rather than in an instant. Numerical parameters can be key framed and dynamically linked through expressions to alter the shape of objects. In addition to mere changes in shape, these parameters control gradient characteristics of fields such as directional forces, gravities, warps, and particles. Gradient parameters of decay, wave behavior, attraction, and density affect objects as numerical fields of force rather than as object transformations.

Week Three: -Parametricism as Style Week:

Con

Temporary avant-garde architecture is addressing the demand for an increased level of articulated complexity by means of retooling its methods on the basis of parametric design systems. The contemporary architectural style that has achieved pervasive hegemony within the contemporary architectural avant-garde can be best understood as a research programme based upon the parametric paradigma. Avant-garde architecture produces manifestos: paradigmatic expositions of a new style’s unique potential, not buildings that are balanced to function in all respects. There can be neither verification, nor final refutation merely on the basis of its built results.

The current stage of advancement within parametricism relates as much to the continuous advancement of the attendant computational dresign technologies as it is due to the designer’s realization of the unique. formal and organizational opportunities that are afforded. Parametricism can only exist via sophisticated parametric techniques. Finally, computationally advanced design techniques like scripting (in Mel-script or Rhinoscript) and parametric modeling (with tools like GC or DP) are becoming a pervasive reality. Today it is impossible to compete within the contemporary avant-garde scene without mastering these techniques. Parametricism emerges from the creative exploitation of parametric design systems in view of articulating increasingly complex social processes and institutions. The parametric design tools by themselves cannot account for this drastic stylistic shift from modernism to parametricism. This is evidenced by the fact that late modernist architects are employing parametric tools in ways which result in the maintenance of a modernist aesthetics, i.e. using parametric modelling to inconspicuously absorb complexity


SCRIPTEDBYPURPOSE

Tooling

swells: highrising fields

Tooling

genware: scripting network

Tooling Tooling Crystal_Baskets_Twigs

biot(h)ing is a research-design laboratory whose structure derives from particular linkages between various disciplinary and technological nodes, promoting intra-specific creative relationships which in turn serve as a transformative tissue for the design process itself. An algorithmic articulation of the relation between the corporeal and incorporeal i s biot(h)ing’s attempt to engage with complexity. Away from individuations as subject or form, design is understood as genetic inscription. Parallel reality of the invisible code is a common ground for multiple actualizations. What is encoded is not the form of organization, but the process of autopoesis through intricate entanglements of discreet agents. Computational patterns are understood as deep in its potential to produce expressions on various scales. Biot(h)ing’s projects range from the scale of fashion accessories and product design to large scale structural and urban fields.

endless knot Tooling is about what rules exist within this hypothetical “pre-material” state that influence its movement into the realm of the material. Like Bentley’s snowflakes, the source of wonder behind one crystal is not the storm it came from but rather the elusive internal logic that remains resolute and unmoving through all crystals. Tooling is broken down into seven algorithmic techniques: spiraling, packing, weaving, blending, cracking, flocking, and tiling. While each of these algorithms can be used to describe and simulate certain natural phenomena in the world— such as the way a spiraling rule can simulate a hurricane—this book is invested in turning these rules into logics for construction. The term algorithm simply means a series of steps. Today, as modeling, representation, and fabrication technologies shift from manual to automated processes, this issue of algorithm is pressing precisely because it confronts the design of procedures themselves.

Baskets


To illustrate this, all algorithmic techniques in Tooling are presented alongside 1) a recipe, 2) shapes made by that recipe, 3) a project that uses that recipe within an architectural context, and finally, 4) programmatic computer code (www.arandalasch.com/tooling) making these recipes available to the widest possible audience.
The recipe is vital to understand the basic steps in each algorithm. The maxim, “a problem well put is a problem half-solved,” is no less true in the formulation of architectural techniques. In fact, only when these steps are clearly stated can they really become an algorithm, a powerful packaging of logic that allows this procedural thinking to migrate inside and through various syntaxes, including software.

Input: Arbitrary Points Associate: Image Samper Output: Extrusion

Input: overlapping

ARANDA/LASCH As evidence of this transmissible character, the tailor-made computer code for each of the recipes and sketches can be utilized within the major 3D modeling software platforms being used by architects today. The intent in sharing these algorithms is to encourage diversity, allowing others to import, model, and evolve more critical and insightful tools. Algorithms also offer a non-technological implication in architecture. They break down the elusive and sometimes problematic phenomena of shape. Shapes are never unwilled figures. Deep within them is astruggle between the predilections of the architect and the inherent properties of the geometries encountered. The algorithm mediates these two, acting as a kind of solvent to liquefy them and create the potential for crystallization. Tooling traces the movement between this state of potential and manifest architecture. This movement, or movements, occurs in a dynamic space of interchange where the algorithms and the evolving diversity of figures that crystallize from them are in constant communication and formation with external pressures. The objective of Tooling is to both articulate this resonant field and show that one of the biggest challenges of algorithmic architecture lies in establishing very coherent, pre-material rules that can be used with mathematics and geometry to control this field. Once this field is defined as a flexible and open space, the job of designing begins.”

Output: extrusion

Input: Boolean Pattern Association: Image Samper Output: Data Driven Extrusion

Input: Boolean Pattern Association: Math Function Output: Extrusion

Week Four: Develop -Grasshopper Matrix Extrusion is a very useful tool to turn 2D lines into 3D model, it extrudes lines vertically so circles become cylinders, and triangles become triangular columns.


Input:Boolean Pattern Association: Math Function

Association: math function

Output: Data Driven Rotation

Output: rotation

Rotation is another mostly used tool in Grasshopper, it allows orderly ranged components to twist, sometime when we need to create curving shapes or making models more interesting in a dynamic forms, rotation help us save a lot of time. Input: Curve Intersection Association:Image Sampler

Input: surface grid

Output: Date Driven Rotaton

Association: Multiple Math Functions Output: Rotation

Input: Surface Grid Association: Image Output: Rotation

This is the most complex forms that being produced by combing three grasshopper definitions: Surface grid, Multiple Math function and Rotation. The surface grid allows producing a number of circles along rows and columns, Multiple Math Functions enables groups of circle at rows and columns weaves under certain amplitudes and finally the rotation output parameter allows to rotate columned circles in any direction to form any of the shape we want.

This is the most complex forms that being produced by combing three grasshopper definitions: Surface grid, Multiple Math function and Rotation. The surface grid allows producing a number of circles along rows and columns, Multiple Math Functions enables groups of circle at rows and columns weaves under certain amplitudes and finally the rotation output parameter allows to rotate columned circles in any direction to form any of the shape we want.


Name: Gantenbein Vineyard Façade Complete: 2006 Location: Switzerland Architects: Gramazio & Kohler

Week Five: -Research Project: Develop

Input: Arbitrary Point Association: Using Set Output: Shader

Shader: Just as its name implies, it provides shade effect, which can also change the angles and direction of shading in order to obtain different results.

Input: Arbitrary point

The design proposed a simple concreteShadow skeleton filled with bricks, – Play withthe sunlight masonry acts as a temperature buffer, as well filtering the sunlight for the fermentation room behind it. The bricks are offset so that daylight penetrates the hall through the gaps between the bricks.

Association: image sampler Output; Shader

On the exterior, by laying each one of the bricks at the desired angle and intervals allows to create a pattern that covers the entire building façade. According to the angle at which they are set, the individual bricks each reflect light differently and this takes on different degree of light. In the interior, the daylight that penetrates creates a mild, yet luminous atmosphere. Looking towards the light, the design becomes manifest in its modulation through the open gaps. It is superimposed on the image of the landscape that glimmers through at different levels of definition according to the perceived contrast. http://www. gramaziokohler. com/web/e/ projekte/52. html

This case shows how unpredictable architecture design could be, it interacts with a force that is a variable in every environment but the variations in sunlight give us different outcome. The concept of playing sunlight can be used in the gateway project because the site is very open and exposed under the sun; the design could be made to engage with the sunlight as the site got easy access to nature lights. There are many lighting effects for us to experiment such as Pinhole Imaging, Light Reflection and Refraction, each of them can create stunning effects, which may be useful for us in terms of generate ideas.


Reverse engineer: The tex-

tural effect has been created by simply rotating each brick based on a brightness input from Image Samper.


http://archrecord.construction.com/projects/interiors/archives/0509_4aoba-1.asp

Aoba-tei Restaurant Week Six: Develop -Case Study 2 “Aoba Tei places Abe at the forefront of a conversation taking place in architecture about the use of 3d modeling to create complex surfaces” ----- Barron

The architect wanted to relate the restaurant directly to the street—a six-lane commercial artery lined with gracefully shading Zelkova trees—but did not have permission to alter the existing curtain-wall facade. His solution was to distill an image of the trees into an abstract pattern of dots, and then punch them into a steel screen.

Architect: Naomi Pollock Location: Sendai, Japan

3d rendering of zelkova trees outside Aoba Tei

The making of this effect is just as interesting. The tree Emerging culture into design images were made from digital photos taken inside the zelkova canopy. The photos were then pixellated and applied to a surface designed to wrap the interior of restaurant, a process known in 3d game development as texture mapping. The difference is that Abe has brought this technique to life, drilling holes of varying sizes in sheets of steel, which were then shaped by marine welders to match the 3d model. When backlit, the trees render as pixellated outlines of limbs and leaves, enveloping the diners in a variation of shadows much as the zelkovas do the pedestrians outside.


Steel shape with pixelated trees punched out The capsule could not be pure in its geometry or symmetry because the restaurant’s two floor plates are sectionally out of alignment to accommodate the building’s entrance, at grade, and an emergency exit, upstairs, so the architect devised the S-shaped inner skin.

Prefabrication: Internal View During Construction https://ksamedia.osu.edu/media/27024 Judit Bellostes, http://blog.bellostes. com/?p=3664

Abe designed the perforated steel surfaces as a single continuous inner “skin”. This runs in an S-shape to contain both the reception area on the restaurant’s lower floor and the upper 30-seat dining area. Once the dot template was ready, it went to a steel fabricator, a shipbuilder-turnedarchitectural-supplier, who had the technical skills to bore the outlined holes into 0.09-inch-thick metal sheets, and then assemble the perforated-steel components with the precision Abe required. And the precast steel panel was delivered to the site and put together onsite.

What can be implied in your EOI? This example shows a very interesting way of emerging culture content directly into the design; it interacts with surface decoration by distilling an image of the trees into an abstract pattern of dots, and then punches them into a steel screen. The effect is one of uniformly muted illumination, recalling daylight filtering through the Zelkova trees along the street front. It simulates visual experience and cause people to think and question the complexity and intricacy of nature. For the gateway project, the installation on the freeway is not only a visual art component but also a landscape response. In order to balance of the two, the solution of restaurant Aoba-tei is really something we could learn from.

final street scene outside restaurant

Our design will also adopt precast factory design method; building components will be produced in factory and install on site. This will be taken into consider when designing the structure and material to ensure the possibility of factory production and site installation.


Week Seven : Fabricate

Reverse Engineer: Grasshoper: Image Samper

The architects Jesse Reiser and Nanako Umemoto in their project vector wall imagined ways that a simple laser cutter can perforate a rigid or semi-rigid material with multidirectional patterning, reinterpreting the common domestic partition wall and transcending a simple definition of space to become spatial in itself. Once cut, a flat steel sheet can transform into a volumetric, scalable, diaphanous scrim collapsing structure, volume, and enclosure all within the same system. Being inspired by this investigation I started my own research on the phenomenon of changing properties of material by perforating it with various laser cut patterns.


And what is also interesting is how this cut holes can engage with the light, through the previous case study, each individual element on the surface can reflect light differently when takes on different degree of light. So I begin with set the light in different angles as well as reshape the laser cutter in different forms in order to test its light effect and try to Then I start to make model in 3D rather than a flatterned surface, I founnd it interesting to combine geometric shape with perforated wall. The light penerates the wall through the hole to create visual effects and simutanously the geometic shape can perform a 3 dimentional artistic effect on the surface.


Week Eight : Fabricate -Folding Architecture “The outside is not a fixed limit but a moving matter animated by peristaltic movements, folds and foldings that together make up an inside: they are not something other than the outside, but precisely the inside of the outside.” Deleuze – Foucault p.96-97

Physical models used folding method to practice building geometry and constructability; these practices were collected at the instant before they would be completely transformed by the computer.

Frank Gehry used Digital Project to rationalize the fabrication and construction process.

Frank Gehry, Interactive Corp’s Headquarters, New York, USA

An early sketch of the building drawn by architect Frank Gehry in 2004.

Folding is a relatively new trend in architecture. It is very playful way of designing, which offers free rein to spontaneity and surprise during the design process. It is important to be willing to accept Deleuze’s theory of the fold to fully realize its potential in an architectural discourse.

Design continue to develop by using folding method to explain its morphology without taking recourse to digital visualization and mapping as an explanation for its form.

The task of Folding as a morphogenetic process in architecture design is to explore transformations of a single paper surface into a volume, with one constraint only, maintaining the continuity the continuity of the material. In the Folding performances, we can regard the paperfold as a diagram, which providing opportunities for refining and testing with the concept. We can appreciate the function of folding as a design generator by phase transitions.


Basic Technique

2.Diagonal Pattern Basis of this pattern is a parallelogram folded in its diagonal, out of a parallel position the edges are turned up diagonally.

Paper folding gives a very direct and intuitive perception and comprehension of geometry and rigidity of folded plate structures. By folding and manipulating paper, hands and eyes elaborate in a dialog a spontaneous understanding for the potential of such forms.

Reverse fold

Folding Pattern 1.Yoshimura Pattern (Diamond Pattern) This pattern can be obtained by mirroring a reverse fold at its inflection point K and on the base point of its side creases S. The curve of the folded pattern is designed by the shape of the diamonds, the result is a hexagonal pattern formed by symmetrical trapezoids.

3.Miura Ori Pattern (Herringbone Pattern) As the diamond pattern, this pattern can be obtained by a repetition of reverse folds. Instead of mirroring the reverse folds they are repeated in line so that the main crease describes a zigzag line. The pattern is composed of symmetric trapezoids that form a herringbone tessellation.


Generating Complex Folding Patterns

Basic elements

Typical profiles of parallel corrugation

Generating polygonal line and external angle

Variations of folded patterns generated by a section profile and a corrugation line Geometrical analysis showed that the folded patterns can be generated by two polygonal lines. This allows representing rapidly complex folded plate structures in space as well as unfolded. A great variety of forms can be generated. For the moment the type of form is limited to simple curved surfaces. In paper folding some patterns can easily be deformed to double curved surfaces with radial or spherical form.

Three pairs of connected basic elements

Edge line parallel to the form generating line

Perspective of the generated fold

Assembling of the prototype


AMMAR ELOUEINI, DIGIT-ALL STUDIOS. California

Rehearsal at the MCA in Rehearsal at the MCA in Chicago September 2003. Chicago September 2003.

Rehearsal in New York, October 2003.

Digital Fabrications

Digital Modeling and Fabrication is a process that joins architecture with the construction industry through the use of 3D modeling software and CNC machines. These tools allow designers to produce digital materiality, which is something greater than an image on screen, and actually tests the accuracy of the software and computer lines.

As opposed to creating a back-drop or immobile form for the stage, the set was designed as a morphing structure that allowed the dancers to engage directly with the piece.

The set in its travel 4x4 box

Assembling the set.

computer modelling and fabrication integrate the computer assisted designs with that of the construction industry. In this process, the sequence of operations becomes the critical characteristic in procedure. Architects can propose complex surfaces, where the properties of materials should push the design.

“Fluid on-screen forms in a complexly bent plane of translucent white polycarbonate panels, joined with plastic zip ties and suspended on cables just above the stage floor.” ---- Eloueini

Unfolded geometry.

Jasperse describes the set as “architecture of expectation.” Eloueini, like so many adherents of digital architecture, struggles with the unfamiliarity of his adopted tongue. Wittingly or not, Eloueini has have assumed the burden of the historic avant-garde, exploring the potentials and limitations of a new design tool before colleagues, contractors, clients, or the publicat-large have had the time to adjust. The design was modelled from a complex computer generatedgeometric surface. Using a basic fabric pattern layout, the design was unfoldinto individual segments that could work as individual pieces that togetherformed the surface. The primary material is polycarbonate that maintainstranslucency and reflectivity so the piece absorbs and diffuses light. Zip-tiessecure the pieces allowing for flexibility and ease of construction. This setcan be created in hours, and broken dowm and packed into boxes to be recreatedelsewhere.


Issey Miyake Pleats Please Berlin

The Pleats Please space in Berlin designed by Eloueini intends to give to the space a unique environment that reflects Miyake’s personality and his approach to fashion. All of the design components relied on the use of Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machines and then being fabricated in Chicago then shipped and assembled in Berlin. There are two materials used within the space: aluminium and polycarbonate. The aluminium serves as the structure supporting the wall polycarbonate panels, the racking system and table structure. Polycarbonate is used to create the organic surface and table top. The surface is modelled on the computer, unfolded using 3D software. The lightweight polycarbonate material and zip tie fastening creates a system that is both easy to transport and quick to assemble.

For our gateway project, it is very important for the installation to be easily transport and quick to assemble, we should consider these aspects as main design strategy. In order to service dynamic and structure function, digital fabrication seems to be the right answer for it. Under the help of CNC all the design components would be able to unfold and break into pieces and so much so being fabricated and deliver to the site to assemble. Folding architecture provide us the technique to create a dynamic surface that can be modelled in 3D software and also be able to perform unfold for later fabricate.


Modelling


Contents

Part II Design Proposal Inspiration:

Folding architecture

Site Analysis: Speed, Centrifugal Agriculture Concept and Ideas: Exaggerate driving experience Development: Design variation Sketch model Refining:

Fabrication Material Detail connection

Modeling Visual communication

Part III learning Objectives and Outcomes Learning outcomes Plans for future learning


Folding Architecture Key Words: Geometry, Tessellation, Paper Folding, Crease Pattern, Foldability, Deployability

“Folding turns a flat surface into a three-dimensional one”

The Japanese craft of “origami” has proved itself as being a valuable tool to develop various engineering and design applications in numerous fields. We are interesting in embrace this new technique into architecture, as an interface to gain cognitive experience on spatial transformations, computational design, form finding etc.

‘La Fabrique Sonore’ Exhibition The development of origami diagram in 2D, and understanding the mathematical relations constructing these diagrams provide an invaluable medium to explore solid modeling in computational media. Revising origami as a medium to inquire computational design processes as well, providing both a prototype and computational design algorithm. Sometimes is very hard to picture 2D pattern into 3D model especially with folding architecture it is difficult to know whether a 2D script is foldable or not unless we tested. The use of computational medium offers us a great extent of freedom in exploring new form and predicting the outcome.

Starting with a piece of paper and just by folding, it will end up with diverse range of forms and pattern. However, contemporary use of origami is not only a craft but a very rich medium allowing several different and complex design applications.

Reference:

3D polygonal model and the crease pattern (Mitani,2009)

Computational Design by Origami (Aalborg 2007)

http://www.designfun.net/designfun/node/22192 access: 23/05/2012 http://jfa.arch.metu.edu.tr/archive/0258-5316/2009/ cilt26/sayi_2/235-247.pdf access: 23/05/2012 http://www.designfun.net/designfun/node/22192 access: 23/05/2012


What mattes as the concept of structure in competition phase were to make the structure by folding the steel plate. At the competition phase, we called it as cardboard structure, which was based on the same idea to the realized fold plate structure. We can see here such folding structure make the space not only stunning without any extra ornamentation but structurally stable. Hence it is possible to claim that the idea of origami helps structural engineers and architects to extend the present “vocabulary� of structural elements. Yokohama International Port Terminal FOA

United States air force academy cadet chapel

In the practice of architecture it is not surprising to see the impact of origami as a medium to generate different shell forms. In this context, Yokohama Port Terminal by FOA Architects and Colorado Springs Air Force Academy Chapel by SOM are a well Know examples of shell buildings in which the diagrams and structural relations of origami can be traced easily.

Referencw http://www.flickr.com/photos/evandagan/5093243460/ http://computrina.tumblr.com/post/3388936938/architecturemas-yokohama-international-port http://jfa.arch.metu.edu.tr/archive/0258-5316/2009/cilt26/ sayi_2/235-247.pdf http://flickrhivemind.net/User/paigeh/Interesting http://www.donatellobruno.com/archives/819 access on 23/05/2012


Origami-Inspired Folding Bamboo House

In today’s architecture, conventional static space is no longer adequate to describe the “contemporary space” and more efforts has been spent to provide “flexibility” in order to achieve responsiveness and thus the idea of “intelligence”. Moreover, structures should be lighter and “transformable”. “Flexibility” and “Transformable” is going to be two key aspects for the proposal of Gateway project, since the brief is asking the installation to be easily assembled and minimizing maintenance so folding architecture will be our solution to it. Ming Tang’s beautiful origami-inspired Folded Bamboo Houses are intended to be used as temporary shelters in the aftermath of an earthquake. Brilliant in their simplicity, the geometric shelters are constructed from renewable materials and can be folded into a variety of structurally sound shapes. The geometry of these forms provides each structure’s integrity, allowing a range of lightweight modular structures to be quickly assembled in factories and transported to their destination. It is easily experienced that any origami structure can be folded or unfolded regardless the complexity of the form without any plastic deformation or “locking” which avoids deployment. Thus the networks provided in these origami diagrams also provide the schema of the “mechanism” with proper proportions among “links” which are crease patterns of the whole configuration.

http://solarenergydream.com/blog/the-origami-inspired-folding-bamboo-house/ access on 23/ 05/2012 http://inhabitat.com/origami-inspired-folding-bamboohouse-by-ming-trang/attachment/15578/ access on 23/05/2012 http://jfa.arch.metu.edu.tr/archive/0258-5316/2009/cilt26/ sayi_2/235-247.pdf


Part II Design Proposal Site Analysis

Site Characteristics The design brief offers us three choices of location: site A, B and C, site A is wrapped around by two-way traffic lanes which are the main Princes Freeway. Both south-bond and north-bound traffic are at a constant speed of 100km/hr. Site B is the verge between north-bound traffic along the Princes Freeway and the freeway off-ramp onto the Geelong Road. Speed limits on the Geelong Road decreases from 100km/hr to 60km/hr, which means when cars are experiencing decelerate they will have different visual effect with those driving at constant speed. Site C is a narrowband located to the west of the freeway off-ramp onto the princes Highway, this portion of the site is adjacent to a service station and was a intersection of wests road and the beginning of Geelong road. However, site C is too short to interact with the speed change on the Geelong road.


The south of the Princes Freeway mainly rural area contains industry and intensive agriculture and a substantial increase in industrial and warehouse has occurred in recent years. Considering material selection and industrial fabrication, the site close to agriculture and industrial division allows minimizing the cost and the waste of delivering time. Wheat board is made of agricultural waste products left overs, which is extremely sustainable and most importantly it has easy access just next to the site.

Change in speed as driving experience The most important connection between site and its stakeholder is the driving experience, and most likely it was the only possible way to have drivers physically engage with the surroundings on the freeway. When travelling at a constant speed we can’t feel as much the difference as when we are experiencing deceleration or acceleration. So if the aiming is to get the audience to be affected by the change of speed Geelong Road provides a great opportunity for us to further explore driving experience and how it can be applied to the design. Centrifigual force as driving experience There three traffic lanes enter the site both side of Princes Freeway and Geelong Road Exit. Apart from the speed change on Geelong Road Exit, the west side of Princes Freeway cars is moving along an arc instead of traveling in a straight line as the other two lanes. Drivers might experience a centrifugal force and the feeling gets greater when car reaches the highest point of the arc then it gradually back to normal when car finishes the turn. This is a different driving experience with change of speed.

Reference: http://woodburydb.wordpress.com/tag/wheat/ access on: 20/05/2012 https://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/bbcswebdav/pid-3474008-dt-content-rid-10327484_2/courses/ ABPL30048_2012_SM1/Project/Project%20Document%20-%20COMMENTED.pdf Melbourne University, Lms, Design Studio Air, Gateway Project Brief


Concept: Exaggeration of driving experience through manipulation of reference. The virtical grid lines on left are representation of reference. which are folding vaults in our case. In highway, people gain their sense of speed by comparing to reference aside the road.

Part II Design Proposal Concept & Ideas

At constent speed, driver/passenger pass the same number of lines every second. When decelerating, lines passed per second decreases. If we make reference denser, driver/ passenger feel they are faster, otherwise, they feel slower. In our design, we make dense area even denser and loose area even looser, so that when they decelerate, they feel even slower, when accelerate, they feel even faster. Hense, our virtual grids for folding is fomated. Shown by dots on left.


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Driving experience

Floding characteristcs

When a car decelerate from 100km/h to 60 km/h in 11 seconds, The distance it pass at each second decreases Geometry of the Fold Extrusion of a zigzag line to parallel corrugation

The visible horizon for the driver increases

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When a car is experiencing deceleration from 100km/h to 60km/h, drivers’ vision horizon is change, too. When they travelling fast, comparing to reference aside the road, everything is passing by so quickly drivers might not be able to have a good look at them but they will gain a sense of speed. Then car starts PRODUCED AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT to decelerate reference objectsBYpassing by slower and vision become clearer. If a person is travelling at a constant speed he will see things at certain angle but due to the change of speed, obviously he the angle will alter. Assuming the design allows driver to drive pass by in 11 seconds, car travelling 100km/h to 60km/h we could roughly know the angle at which drive’s vision. At this stage we are now have a simple basic folding pattern that follows rules of driving experience.

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Our challenge now became that of turning the rule we already found into a design which would also be able to apply folding techniques into it. First of all we take the result with the vision angel in 11 seconds and repeat them in y axis in order to form a grid. Then we start to alter the vertical grid by giving them a desired interval. The hills of folds are still guided by vertical straight lines and the valleys changed their coordinates on the x axis which located on the vertical zigzag lines. If hiding all the grid line, what can see in the square is some inclined zigzag line, however when it showed with all the grid line we can see those lines are not incline but straight. It is a visual illusion that seems random but only it follows certain rules. This experiment only to show we are going to explore the connection between the site and fold architecture in order to generate a design outcome, whereas we are unsure whether this pattern could be folded. PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

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The most basic folding is a corrugation of parallel mountain and valley folds. It can be described as an extrusion of a zigzag line along a straight line. The zigzag line (plane yz) is characterized by the extension and the amplitude of its segments. The projection of the corrugation to the vertical plane xz shows a series of parallel lines defined by the amplitude of the segments whereas in the horizontal plane xy the extensions of the segments define a series of parallel lines. By apply the basic folding technique into the grid line the we produced before that shows the rule of driving experience, we can be sure that this pattern is absolutely foldable. The basic folding is too simple to create complexity and richness pattern. So we begin to rationalize patterns by mirroring, repeating and offsetting the zigzag corrugation. However, the complexity must not obey the folding logic and has to be repeated by modules considering the fabrication that the design can be fabricated in small modules and assembled on site. The repetition of pattern in each module is to ensure the outcome not being too abstract and minimize the fabrication difficulties.


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Geometic Algorithm - Centrifugal Force

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After each rotation, a part of the edge of square cut through the original square and the rest of them extend outside the parent square. At this point our approach was to repeat the same geometric subdivision rule to the second square and then again then again to the third etc. At the end when the square had turned 90 degree which is 5 times, the subdivision algorithm is producing a spiral of truncated squares. At this all the lines are extended forming an infinite pattern.

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These lines fall in to the parent forming random interacted lacer-like pattern, which we think will be amazing to put on the design as skin. When car is passing by at a high speed, drivers may not feel the centrifugal force physically strong enough but we intent to create it visually for them. This diagram progressively showed how it works and the final results are presented after the extension part is trimmed. We also make a test run with triangular shape, the result of that isn’t so satisfying. Because triangle only has three sides it has to be rotated at least 270 in order to form a complete circle and it will become too complicated.

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According to the site topography, drivers might experience centrifugal force when drive along west lane of princes freeway. After a serious research and analysis we realize that site is so big that make the turn really gentle can’t even feel it that much. Then the question arises: How can we apply centrifugal force into the design in order to make the driver to feel it stronger or in a different way? In the end we discovered the emergence of a completely new and unexpected aesthetic. We set off on our research by taking the square plan of then each modular and apply the centrifugal rule by rotating it 15 degree each time.


Design Variations

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Geometry of the Fold Extrusion of a zigzag line to parallel corrugation

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Origami Moving Cubes

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For the first set of trail models we use the basic simple folding techniques, which are drawn from our virtual grids following the rule of exaggerated driving experience. We used red color to enhance the visual attraction and the folds will automatically stand out instead of fade into the background. On the other hand, we want to intensify the sense of speed change. To achieve that we attached smaller pieces of segment on each module which looks like many errors pointing at one direction. These skin finishes use different color and material so that they are clear and distinctive, and most importantly they not only highlight the dramatic folding form but also help the design to attain its ultimate goalto exaggerate driving experience.

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Testing models

We have come out our design concept and set up the goal and also had enough knowledge of how to fold, the real question now how to connect them together and make it work in the reality. As we know, in the real world we are almost impossible to make a giant piece of mass into folding, despite of material quality, it most likely most of the installations in such folding form are assembled by breaking modules not as a whole. So we have to think about how to join each of the components together that could makes whole structure deployable as well as be able to connect the whole structure without falling apart. Origami moving cubes is an interesting experiment, each cube is connecting with each other by just a corner. What make it amazing is the nine cubes could work together start to moving at whichever direction we want it to. In other words, each cubes still is an individual unit, they are not fixed with each other completely and meanwhile the nine of them can also be considered as a whole and serve both personal and group function. This inspired us with the joinery of our own design; each component do not has to be entirely welded with each other but to connect with a kinetic joints so our design will be foldable.


The development of origami diagram in 2D, and understanding the mathematical relations constructing these diagrams provide an invaluable medium to explore solid modeling in computational media.

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With folding architecture it is difficult to know whether a 2D script is PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT foldable or not unless we tested. The use of computational medium offers us a great extent of freedom in exploring new form and predicting the outcome. Here we used Rhino and Grasshopper in order to help us DECELERATING + EXAGGERATION explore the form of what the final design might be and whether it can serve its folding function. We end up found that a tunnel will be a great idea that will totally meet our design purpose. If cars are not justing driving pass by tunnel effect which will make the driver feel much stonger with what we have create for them. Since Drivers are trvelling in a closure space, they can see nothing but what the inside of tunnel. Therefore they will be more concentrate and we can also creat some shadow and light effects to further reinforce the driving experiences.

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Material 1. WHEAT BOARD:

2. STEEL:

Part II Design Proposal Refining 3. PLYWOOD

4. ALUMINUM

Advantages: •Recycled Content (90% post-industrial recycled material) •Rapidly Renewable Materials (environmentally friendly) •Low weight •Strong screw holding power Disadvantages: •Store flat with adequate support (site not flattened, no guarantee for suitable support) •Store in a dry place (exposed at the side of the freeway, no weathering protection) Advantages: •Durability, Flexibility and Strength offer efficiency of a product application •High strength material (good at supporting tensile load) •Resistance to corrosion (stainless steel) •Low weight •Ability to recycle it effectively Disadvantages: •Steel is ductile, better to work with other materials as reinforcement •Relatively expensive Advantages: •Stable under changes of temperature and moisture •high strength •Low cost •Strength flexibility and stiffness qualities in all directions •Less likely to expand or shrink based on moisture in the environment Advantages •Lightweight- one-third the weight of steel •withstand heavy loads and pressure •against the corrosive influences of water, salt and other influences •Resilience/Flexibility •Ductility - Aluminium is easy to cold work and fabricate. (Robo fold) •Ideal for extruding into formed, intricate shapes with ledges, grooves, hinges, screw holes and interlocking parts. This allows the creation of single components, whereas other metals must be manufactured into pieces that must then be assembled to create a final product.


Construction material is another essential decision we have to make for the proposal, chooses of material need to be correspond to the site condition as well as the design criteria.

Detial Connetion

Durability & high strength

Exising site condition is a quite open and exposure area, so the material we choose require some sort of water resistance quality and also have high strength so they can stand for any villainous weather. From the brief the material selection is important from longevity and maintenance perspective, therefore durability is another key aspect needs to be taken into consideration.

Low weight & sustainability

In terms of conservation issue, we expect the material being used allow fast installation and transportation and so the ideal selection will be some kind of low weight prefabricated material. On the other hand, as response to the environmental issue, whether the material is sustainable and recyclable can be a necessary determine point.

Flexibility

According to our design proposal - folding architecture, material that we choose has to own the ability to extrude into forms in order to follow the design intention. So much so, it seems that prefabrication is the only option for the installation to assemble on the site.

Minimum reflection

Public safety is the minimum require the design need to be achieve, it is the most important constrains above all. Diver will be distracted by the reflect light then it might cause car accident especially when they are moving at high speed. The bottom line is not to contain high reflexible material such as aluminum or PVC.

Low Weight

Durability

Wheat Board

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Steel

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Plywood Aluminum

High

Flexibility

Cost efficiency

Sustainable

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Strength

Reflection

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We evaluate each of the material and give them a grade according to the quality they have for each category. It end up with both wheat board and steel are most suitable material to use for the project as well as the site. Wheat board is highly sustainable and minimum transportation and production is required, however it needs a waterproof finish to protect it and it isn’t a sufficient load bearing material. Steel is a high strength material, good at supporting tensile load. However it is ductile and better work with other material. So, combinations of steel and wheat board seem to be a great solution for the design.

As it has discussed above, joints need to be able to hold each of the components together as well as makes whole structure deployable. So we thought about the hinge joints for doors, which makes door fix up to the frame but also allows it to turn. So we break whole structure into small modules and connect each triangular component together. After all every pieces joint together we will then start to fold the whole.


Model 1

Part II Design Proposal

Model 2

Modelling

Model 3


Model 1 Process

The first model was just testing whether the proposal works. This most difficult part is to find suitable joints, we have thought about the hinge in real life but we need to find something replace it for the model but work as much as hinge. So we come out with aluminum and staples. Aluminum is ideal for extruding into formed, intricate shapes with ledges, grooves, hinges, screw holes and interlocking parts. However, the results weren’t so satisfied, it did approve that our proposal is workable but the staple and massive aluminum pieces appear to be ugly. The outcome was pretty good but is the presentation that is not what we wanted.


Model 2 Folding Process


DAY

The second model was much successful, it was desired to show what the skin finishes would be. The red structure will be made of steel in order to hold up a frame and it will also paint by luminescent material to enhance visual attraction. Black triangles are wheat board with water proof finishing paint in black. The black and red form a strong contrast so the red bits will stand out and eye catching even from far away. And at night when cars are passing by at a high speed the driver will see a exposure effect that the red lines are like moving lights.

We realize this pure black and red contrast is already outstanding, if we apply what we discovered before the centrifugal force pattern it will be too complicated. So we ditched idea with the centrifugal force and just to concentrate on the speed change and its effect to the driver.

NIGHT

Model 1 Process

We decided to create a tunnel on site and the use of hinge connection is actually a wise decision because it allows a small portion of gap between each component, so the light can get through and create some beautiful shadows and light effects inside the tunnel. In the day time, natural light shines through the gap produce pinhole image into the tunnel. At night when the lights are on inside the tunnel it will also go through the gap to the exterior make the whole structure stunning and looks like it’s glowing.


Model 3 Process


For model three we apply the detail model with hinge connection on to the whole structure, what is really challenge us is to precisely locate hole on panel for screws. If one hole was locate wrong it may cause the rest parts unassembled because one the laser cut is done it is un reversible. On the other hand, valley and hill are folded at different angles; some are folded inwards and some outwards therefore the size of hinges must be altered according to the folding performances. For those that are inwards we used bigger hinge and leave small gapes between the two components before folding. And for those outwards we used smaller one and leave no gaps.

Model three is an improvement for mode1 one, model one wasn’t successful because the aluminum pieces and staples didn’t make a good presentation. Model 2 was meant to show the appearance and finishes, Model one and three reveal the structure and connection of the design.


Part II Design Proposal Visual Communication


Part III learning Objectives and Outcomes


Reflection L

earning outcomes

At the beginning of this semester I didn’t expect ADS 3 studio to be any different with other studios I have taken in the past. Until the term ‘parametric design’ comes up and I have no single clue what it means and how it is make the design any different with the one I have done before. My previous design is considering more about philosophical, social and professional ream, it did not have a theory to support or rely on any computer programming. While I was still wondering we stated to be introduced with Rhino and Grasshopper, and I have to say Grasshopper is literary the most distinctive design program I have ever seen. This is when I realized that this subject is going to ask us think differently. However, what is this new way and how does it work weren’t so clear to me even my tutor tried so hard to explain what we are asked to do in this subject again and again. It is hard to believe how one just can’t get the idea even she has been told so many times. It is not until the mid semester submission that I begin to turn back on track. This happened after the presentation and the result of that was very unsatisfactory. Our group was lost every since the beginning of the semester and kept our ‘traditional’ design strategy that focusing on philosophical and social concept and fail to find logic behind it. Due to lack of knowledge of parametric design and supporting evidence our design was superficial and didn’t meet the criteria. After the feedback from my tutor we discussed that most important thing to do is to decide on what is that we want to express and the find logic for the design.

The final design outcome is a big improve from the mid semester submission. Before we intent to produce a folding pattern but only because such form looks great, however, we didn’t have a theory to support it. After research we find that such folding technique has been recognized by many disciplines in various different studies and has proved itself as being a valuable tool to develop various design applications. By then we got folding architecture but it is just a tool to generate forms, we need a close connection between the form and the design logic. Thus, we start to do some serious site analysis and it appears to us that driving experience might be related closely to the topic. So the final design intent to exaggerate the driving experience in a folding form. (Detail please refer to Part II Design Proposal: Concept & Ideas)

It bears a strange resemblance to the method of scripting in programs like grasshopper. By mix and match different input, association and output, the function of definition can be remembered and some unexpected results were found. With the support of parametric design for the project such as layering, image mapping and perforation, it can generate lots of options in short time. By comparing those options, the most suitable one can be selected. In other words, it accelerates design process and leads a deeper analysis for out design.


Future learning

Through the course, the various advantage of computational design is understood. Construction of very complex form, as information can be extracted, exchanged, and utilized with far greater facility and speed. Through the researches on precedent of computational design, we understand the capability of computational design and its development in the future. The use of digital media is profoundly challenging the traditional processes of design and construction. Parametric design is one of the digital technologies, parametric can provide for powerful conception of architectural form by describing a range of possibilities, replacing in a processing stable with variable, singularity with multiplicity. Architecture design studio is like an introduction to parametric design and digital scripting, but a 3 months study won’t make us any good at it. There is still some confusion and it is a difficult process for designer who care used to the traditional method design. In the future, I am will to learn and practice more about the computational design in order to adjust the fast development of digital world. We cannot use the old, same method forever parametric design is the new architecture evolution.

Final Journal  

Journal, parametric design, EOI, gateway project

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