Page 1

National University of Tainan College of Management Department of Business and Management Master Program of Technology Management

Master Thesis

The Intention towards Implementation of Smart Meters in Taiwan

Student: Wei-Yi Tu Advisor: Dr Fan-Chuan Tseng

November 2016


The Intention towards Implementation of Smart Meters in Taiwan

by

Wei-Yi Tu

A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for Master of Business Administration in Technology Management, National University of Tainan, Taiwan

Advisor: Prof Fan-Chuan Tseng

September 2016


國立臺南大學碩士學位論文考試審定書 經營與管理學系科技管理碩士班 研究生:凃偉義 論文題目:The Intention towards Implementation of Smart Meters in Taiwan 經本委員會審查,符合碩士學位論文標準。 學位考試委員會 召

集 人 __許瓊文______簽章

員 __蕭詠璋______ __許瓊文______ __曾繁絹______ ___________

指 導 教 授__曾繁絹______簽章 系 主 任

__劉子歆______簽章

中華民國 105 年 7

i

14 日


The Intention towards Implementation of Smart Meters in Taiwan Student: Wei-Yi Tu

Advisor: Dr Fan-Chuan Tseng

Master Program of Technology Management Department of Business and Management College of Management National University of Tainan

ABSTRACT Prior experimental studies emphasise the sophistication of smart meters, yet empirical work is deficient in people’s intention behind the adoption. In order to address the willingness towards implementation of smart meters for residents in Taiwan, the designated questionnaire investigated for two months in 2016, being analysed by SPSS (version 18.0) as well as SmartPLS (version 3.2.4) for the formal test. Respondents (N = 223) and valid data (n = 182) demonstrate that householders' intention ( x = 0.9) is strongly significant for the utilisation of smart meters. Specific information are provided by anonymous experts to elabourate in contexts. Findings have important implications for the price consciousness.

Keywords: Diffusion of Innovations (DOI), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), personal innovativeness, price consciousness, perceived risk

ii


Acknowledgements1 Irgendwie in der Hand hätten wir nicht nur die Erfindung sondern die Erkundung. Irgendwo im Nirgendwo würden wir fast auf jeden Fall spielen. Irgendwann wäre eingestellt, überspielt sowieso gespeichert. Verstehen wir, was wir damit sagen? Das Modell der Schaufensterscheiben, das wir nach verlangen, ist auf diese Weise,

Die Wahlfächer am Aufbaustudium, die Studierende fleißig lernen, sind unsere unerlässliche Bestandteile

wenn es Möglichkeit gäbe.

wegen der voraussichtlichen Berufe.

Der Reiz der Stratosphärensprüngen, der wir etwas erwarten, ist auf gut Glück, was man richtig braucht.

Die Schwierigkeit der Einfachheit, die wir dafür geradestehen, gefällt uns etwa nicht, obwohl es unwahrscheinlich wäre.

Hemmungslose sondern anspruchsvolle Ameisentätowierer, die wir uns dogmatisch ausgelassen, (würden) perfektionistisch mit unerschütterlicher Entschlossenheit, wenngleich auffällig ohne Stoffe (wäre). Die Leistungszwang unserer Schulbildung, die wir gemeinschaftlich arbeiten, wird reich als Ergebnis, was Menschen zuletzt schauen.

Der Heiligenschein unseres Traums, der wir Unmögliches verlangen, wird mehr denn je, wo man wirklich wünscht.

Die Bücher fürs Durchhaltevermögen, die wir uns erfreuen, macht uns keine Sorgen, nichtdestotrotz noch konkurrenzfähig bleiben!

Das Engagement dem Management, das wir uns aneignen, wird in der Nähe, wo Menschen anschließend führen.

Was für alles, wie immer ist jeden Tag im Leben vorbei. Was für Unsinn, wie bisher machten wir denn Quatsch und Spaß. Was für ´n Blick, wie sicher wären wir Hochschulabsolventen in Zukunft! Was für ´ne Szene, wie tatsächlich würde regelmäßiger Schönheitschlaf jedes Mal! 1

The author desires to express special thanks in German (Danksagungen). iii


Table of Contents ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................ii Acknowledgements ...................................................................................................... iii List of Tables ................................................................................................................. vi List of Figures ............................................................................................................... vi I.

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................. 1 1.1 Background .......................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Motivation ............................................................................................................ 1 1.3 Questions.............................................................................................................. 2 1.4 Purpose................................................................................................................. 3 1.5 Significance.......................................................................................................... 3 1.6 Overview .............................................................................................................. 3

II.

LITERATURE REVIEW ....................................................................................... 5 2.1 Smart City ............................................................................................................ 5 2.1.1 Smart Grid ..................................................................................................... 6 2.1.2 Smart Meter .................................................................................................. 8 2.2 Home Energy Management System (HEMS) .................................................... 10 2.3 Electricity in Taiwan .......................................................................................... 11 2.4 Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) ......................................................................... 12 2.5 Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) ................................................................. 14 2.6 Other Conception ............................................................................................... 17 2.6.1 Personal Innovativeness ............................................................................. 17 2.6.2 Price Consciousness ................................................................................... 18 2.6.3 Perceived Risk ............................................................................................. 18

III. RESEARCH METHOD....................................................................................... 20 3.1 Hypotheses ......................................................................................................... 20 3.2 Framework ......................................................................................................... 23 3.3 Questionnaire Design ......................................................................................... 25

iv


3.4 Content Validity ................................................................................................. 29 IV. ANALYSES ......................................................................................................... 32 4.1 Measurement ...................................................................................................... 32 4.2 Data Collection .................................................................................................. 34 V.

RESULTS............................................................................................................. 36 4.1 Descriptive Analysis .......................................................................................... 36 4.2 Reliability........................................................................................................... 39 4.3 Validity ............................................................................................................... 39 4.3.1 Convergent Validity ..................................................................................... 39 4.3.2 Discriminant Validity .................................................................................. 41 4.4 Structural Model Analysis.................................................................................. 42 4.5 Discussion .......................................................................................................... 45

VI. CONCLUSION .................................................................................................... 47 6.1 Contribution ....................................................................................................... 48 6.2 Implication ......................................................................................................... 48 6.2.1 Theoretical Implication ............................................................................... 48 6.2.2 Managerial Implication .............................................................................. 49 6.3 Limitation ........................................................................................................... 49 6.4 Suggestion .......................................................................................................... 50 6.4.1 Theoretical Suggestion ................................................................................ 50 6.4.2 Managerial Suggestion ............................................................................... 50 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................ 52 Appendix ...................................................................................................................... 57 Questionnaire (English Version) .............................................................................. 57 Questionnaire (Traditional Chinese Version)........................................................... 62

v


List of Tables Table 1 the Measurement of Variables ......................................................................... 24 Table 2 Items of Compatibility <C> with Reference ............................................. 25 Table 3 Items of Relative Advantage <RA> with Reference ................................. 26 Table 4 Items of Personal Innovativeness <PI> with Reference ............................ 26 Table 5 Items of Price Consciousness <PC> with Reference................................. 27 Table 6 Items of Perceived Risk <PR> with Reference ......................................... 28 Table 7 Items of Perceived Behavioural Control <PBC> with Reference ............. 28 Table 8 Items of Attitude <A> with Reference ...................................................... 29 Table 9 Items of Intention <I> with Reference ...................................................... 29 Table 18 Interviews towards Expert Validity ............................................................... 30 Table 10 Devision of Reliability .................................................................................. 33 Table 11 Measurement of Applied Statistics................................................................ 34 Table 12 Measurement of p-value with t-value ........................................................... 34 Table 13 Results of Reliability in Pilot Test ................................................................ 35 Table 14 Summary of Basic Information after Data Collection .................................. 38 Table 15 Results of Validity and Reliability in Formal Test ........................................ 41 Table 16 Statistical Results for Discriminant Validity ................................................. 42 Table 17 Summary for Result of Hypothesis Testing .................................................. 44

List of Figures Figure 1 Research Process Flow Diagram ..................................................................... 4 Figure 2 the Model of Smart City .................................................................................. 6 Figure 3 the Process of Power Transmission and Distribution .................................... 10 Figure 4 Conceptual Framework ................................................................................. 23

vi


I. INTRODUCTION This chapter consists of six sections – research background, motivation, questions, purpose, significance and the overview of paper.

1.1 Background In 2010, the Taiwan Smart Grid Industry Association (TSGIA) launched the Smart Meter Implementation Plan. Since 2011, smart meters have been started installing in several communities, mostly in Taipei, Hsinchu and Taichung. However in the mid-May of the year 2015, the plan was unexpectedly discontinued because of insufficient funds from Taiwan Power Company (Taipower). Until the mid-June of 2016, the government of Taiwan will give priority to the nuclear-free homeland in 2025 and that may advance the Time of Use Rates (TOU) as well as demand bidding, according to a preliminary announcement by Administrative Yuan. Specifically for smart meters, there has been a renewal of advanced infrastructure in integrated electricity these days. As the first step in this research, an important concept should be defined – the smart meter. This term has been useful in discussing the contemporary technology that some developed countries eager to establish. Smart meter refers to a digital meter, which is comparatively contrasted with traditional one.

1.2 Motivation Most Taiwanese residents selected experimentally by Taiwan Power Company (Taipower) would not like to replace traditional meters by smart ones at the inception. The hidden truth can be seen in inhabited willingness which the household electricity consumption guided by this state-owned enterprise in Taiwan might depend on. On 1


the one hand, technical problems upon smart meters remained unsettled then; on the other hand, governmental resolutions remained unanswered owing to unceasing amendment of policies. Besides, very few attempts have been made at the role of smart meter in the field of behavioural sciences, specifically for behaviours and psychology from users. This condition and teething problems towards public concerns would be conducted as a comprehensive and formal research project upon psychological expectations towards smart meter in Taiwan. How people feel about the adoption of smart meters could be examined by two major theories: Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), which would be discussed further in chapter II. The first theory proposed by Everett Mitchell Rogers (1962) defines the spread of innovations in the society. Innovation is generally regarded as a process of diffusion, while consumer acceptability could particularly adopt from new products or services (Rogers, 2003). The second theory proposed by Icek Ajzen (1985) examines the connection between beliefs and behaviours as well as the addition of perceived behavioural control (PBC). These theories are applicable for new technologies.

1.3 Questions In order to expand research beyond its traditional boundaries, the research questions which need to be asked arise as follows: 1) Why are residents in Taiwan reluctant to save energy? It may reveal the reasons they felt suspicious and why they were unable to decide the establishment of smart meters. 2) Would householders like to converse their electric utilisation? What they need to do is change their habits of utilising electricity by this new device. 2


3) Is the cost benefit towards common usage by smart meters? Consumers might think carefully on the differentiated charges for power bill.

1.4 Purpose To inspect diverse aspects of smart meters, the purposes of this study are listed below: 1) To identify household perspectives on the implementation of smart meters by Taiwanese government 2) To investigate the impact of residential willingness about installation of smart meters in Taiwan 3) To infer the impact of further development on smart meters in Taiwan

1.5 Significance Given the suspension of smart meters in Taiwan since May 2015, the research questions could hopefully be examined under the Diffusion of Innovation and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The solution to problems will not merely have crucial implications but may shed light on various perspectives which is involved in respective directions.

1.6 Overview This thesis is divided into five chapters. Chapter 1 states an introduction – motivation, purposes and potential contribution of the study are outlined in this part. Chapter 2 is a thorough review of the literature. Chapter 3 describes the methodology – participants, instruments, procedures and data analysis are explained. Chapter 4 provides the results of the research in accordance with the questionnaire. Chapter 5 presents a discussion to provide interpretations of the findings, implications,

3


limitations as well as recommendations for further research in the end. The procedure of study is divided into three major parts – from conceptualisation, planning to empiricism. At the beginning, the topic of research would be set; previous research, papers and study would be accumulated and arranged in order for the proposition of thesis. In the middle of this research, quantitative research would be projected so as to the clarification. At length, the entire analytical results would be examined in order for the corroboration of study. The overall process of thesis is shown in the following figure:

• Identification of Research Topic Conceptual • Literature Review

Stage

Planning Stage

Empirical Stage

• • • •

Establishment of Framework with Hypotheses Questionnaire Design Expert Validity and Pretest Questionnaire Survey and Collection

• Data Analyses • Discussion and Conclusion

Figure 1 Research Process Flow Diagram

4


II. LITERATURE REVIEW The chapter is composed of five sections – smart city, electricity in Taiwan, the diffusion of innovation (DOI), theory of planned behaviour (TPB) as well as other conceptions. Each part would be elaborated as follows; some of them may have more than one subtopic for review.

2.1 Smart City ď ľ Definition With high instrumentation, interconnection and intelligence after urbanisation and digitization, smart city is a combination of digital city, Internet of Things (IOT) as well as cloud computing. Linked by the network, this city can sense through sensors for the acquisition of information, think with intelligence and do during the implementation of strategic decisions (IBM, 2008; IEK, 2010; as cited in Ho & Wen, 2010). It is expected to be a high-efficient system that can balance each requirement in the city and optimise the allocation of every resource. Smart city administrates high-efficiently economy and environment by informatisation in accordance with society. The prevalent situation of smart cities connects big data, Internet of Things with business intelligence (BI) as a result of intelligent application. (Chen, 2012) ď ľ Function From urban development, smart city aims at the advancement of sustainability, economy and living (Ho & Wen, 2010). Urban management is a master plan of smart city. Zhang (2012) indicates the systems of smart city could be installed from capital construction, urban utilisation to operation. The first stage is made up of public infrastructure (e.g. the supply of water, electricity and telecommunication), security, transportation as well as architecture. The next part consists of residence (e.g. education, medical treatment) and industries/business. The last phase is governmental 5


service, including e-government and social security. These three systems complement one another in order for effective urban development.

Operation

Utilisation

Construction utility

residents security public service transit industries architecture Figure 2 the Model of Smart City (Source: Zhang, 2012)  Exemplification Having started by IBM2 in the early 2000s, this firm has devoted to a project entitled ‘Smarter Planet’ that they are eager to be a bellwether in the field. Every year, they select different kinds of cities from plenty of proposals all around the globe. Those cities which are chosen by IBM would acquire practical recommendations from nearly ten experts towards vexed issues respectively. Why IBM plans to do is because they try not only to help each one of cities for urban development, but also to make the world better than before.

2.1.1 Smart Grid  Definition 2

International Business Machines Corporation (IBM): a US company which is well-known for the production of servers inside the hardware of computers. 6


In association with advanced metering infrastructure, information and communications technology as well as smart control, smart grid is system. Generally speaking, smart grid is electric grid with information technology3 (IT). By the information technology, it is aggregation which distributes the generated electric power appropriately based on the demand. (Yamazaki, 2012)  Function Connecting advanced metering infrastructure4 with information and communications technology, smart grid integrates the generation, transmission, distribution as well as utilisation of electric power. Energy storage and saving are two major features for smart grids. Based on the Smart Grid System Report by American Bureau of Energy in July 2009, six principal features are generalised: 1) Notification and Engagement – smart grid can achieve the information for each one of households. On the other hand, people can collaborate with electric operation in action. 2) All-inclusive Electricity – the process of distributed generation would moderate simply towards diverse generation and storage systems which are integrated by smart gird. 3) New Market – suppliers and demanders can trade electric quota as market participation through smart grids. 4) Required Quality – power company can stabilise electric quality and loading through smart grids so that users purchase by different level of price and quality.

3

information technology (IT): a conception in connection with computers belongs to information and communications technology (ICT). 4 advanced metering infrastructure (AMI): the integration of traditional automatic/advanced meter reading (AMR) for two-way communication, i.e. a network of smart meters. 7


5) Optimisation and Efficiency – advanced sensors and sophisticated techniques of communications. 6) Operational Recovery – in case of natural disasters.  Exemplification Derived from the national grid of the US after the financial crisis in 2008, smart grid improves the earlier electric system which has been in a dilapidated condition for decades. That could reduce the waste of energy from old power grid5, maintain and upgrade the equipment, control remotely by information technology (IT) and industrial automation (IA). The key for smart grid is ‘bilateral communication6’. Power Company transmits electricity to users; they could search the information for their utilisation of electricity. Meanwhile, the habit of electric use would be recorded and analysed by the power company. Users can arrange their habit after the analytics. (Kuo, 2013) In a word, smart grid connects each one of smart meters in smart cities. Super grid, which initiated in Europe at first, is an interconnection of smart grids which established by each one of countries. European Union (EU) has meditated the wide area synchronous grid in Eurafrica as a result of the connection towards electric power in 2050. (Nikkei, 2010)

2.1.2 Smart Meter 

Definition

Inclusive of sensors, microcontroller units (MCUs) and ZigBee, smart meter can manage the power consumption not merely at homes but at factories. Smart meters gather together in order to become a network.

5 6

power grid: it distinguishes generally from national grid, private grid and personal grid. bilateral communication: the data can be uploaded and downloaded simultaneously, i.e. power company and users can exchange their electrical information as well as communicate collaboratively on behalf of energy-saving and cost-saving. 8


ZigBee is a wireless communicative device with simple structure. Alike radio frequency identification (RFID), ZigBee applies into a wide range of smart meters. Nowadays, the standardization of ZigBee is regulated by IEEE 802.15.4. ď ľ

Function

Smart meter is a kind of digital meter which can transmit data of electric usage at home instantly to smartphones or computers, so that users can master electric use at any time. Compared with traditional meters, the high automation of smart meters is good for the advancement of electric system. Two leading features of smart meter are listed below: 1) Energy saving: smart meters enhance efficiency of electric use to save electricity and could reduce around 1 trillion tons of greenhouse gas every year. 2) Effective usage: smart meter could know users’ habit on electric use to design reasonable measure of electric management, e.g. improve the efficiency of electric use.

ď ľ

Exemplification

The electricity sector of Taiwan plans to install smart meters in an attempt to improve their facilities between Taiwan Power Company (Taipower) and homes or factories.

9


Taipower Smart Meters Homes / Factories Power generation

1) Sensors 2) MCUs

Power Consumption

3) ZigBee

Figure 3 the Process of Power Transmission and Distribution (Source: Huang, 2010) Taiwanese government started to drive ‘Smart Grid Plan for Public Housing’ (公 共住宅智慧電網計畫) and the electric use is computed by the ‘Time of Use Rates’ (TOU) from April, 2016. Electric bill could be expectantly halved, but some problems should be improved: 1) Inadequate Fund: The government will be bankruptcy if they converse traditional meters from tens of millions of households under the budget with nearly a hundred billion NTD. 2) Reluctant Conversion: It might be inconvenient for users to tie in TOU for energy saving in case of the adoption by smart meters.

2.2 Home Energy Management System (HEMS) Original from Japan since 2009, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) implements the plan for Smart Home. In 2009, the METI launched a household experiment, then aggrandised the promotion for this system (Nikkei, 2010). 10


The so-called smart home is the conception of home automation, which can connect typically with a wide range of home appliances by sensing control device, sensors, computing process as well as home network systems (MIC, 2015). Two prospect features are shown as follows: 1) Practicability of home energy management system (HEMS) In the future, demand response will be a main point in smart energy management system. 2) Potentiality of civic engagement by smart meters How citizen save energy as well as use electricity with efficiency would be a key to reduce the power bill.

2.3 Electricity in Taiwan The Bureau of Energy (BOE), which is delegated from Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) led by Administrative Yuan in Taiwan, takes responsibility for national electricity sector. Further information on electric bill and valuation in Taiwan would be specified as the following parts.

1) Electric Bill Generated officially by Taiwan Power Company (Taipower), the latest capacity of electric supply has approached to 32 million kilowatts (kW)7 by the end of May in 2016. Previously announced by the committee of Taiwan Power Company in the midst of March, the average reduction of electricity tariff has reached to 10 %8 from the first day of April.

2) Electric Valuation 7

The accurate data for capacity of electric supply is 31,668,236.65 kW. (Source: Taipower, as cited in Bureau of Energy, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Administrative Yuan of Taiwan, 2016) 8 The actual figure for modulation of electricity tariff is -9.56%, generally calculated from NT$2.8181 by the second half of 2015 to NT$2.5488 by the first half of the year 2016. (Source: Taipower, report of readjustment for electric bill in the first half of the year, 2016) 11


The simplified formula instituted by Taiwan Power Company (Taipower) is shown below: Average Electricity Tarriff per Degree =

đ??šđ?‘˘đ?‘’đ?‘™ + đ?‘‡đ?‘Žđ?‘Ľ + đ??šđ?‘’đ?‘’ + đ?‘ƒđ?‘&#x;đ?‘œđ?‘“đ?‘–đ?‘Ą + đ??ˇđ?‘’đ?‘?đ?‘&#x;đ?‘’đ?‘?đ?‘–đ?‘Žđ?‘Ąđ?‘–đ?‘œđ?‘› + đ??źđ?‘›đ?‘Ąđ?‘’đ?‘&#x;đ?‘’đ?‘ đ?‘Ą – đ??źđ?‘›đ?‘?đ?‘œđ?‘šđ?‘’ đ??¸đ?‘™đ?‘’đ?‘?đ?‘Ąđ?‘&#x;đ?‘–đ?‘? đ?‘†đ?‘Žđ?‘™đ?‘’đ?‘ 

Among this formula, profit is stressed as reasonable profit for Taiwan Power Company (Taipower). Income is demarcated into green power and the others – the former one is the aggregation of original electric pricing and additional tariff, for what people with eco-friendly mind would be willing to pay; the latter one comes from operational rentals, governmental subsidies and other residual products typically for Taipower. Most people may concern themselves with the electric charging as any fluctuation of the pricing might interest them to take a look.

2.4 Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) As early as 1962, Everett M. Rogers asserted this theory displays a certain appearance that new concepts or something creative would be disseminated once they are accepted in public. The theory is composed of four key factors: innovation, communication channels, time and social system. There are five major attributes in it – relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability as well as observability – those constructs would be listed under the following paragraphs. Additionally, Rogers classifies adopters into five main groups: innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards. This classification is fit into the technology adoption life cycle, which is initiated by Bohlen, Beal & Rogers (1957), is in relation to Diffusion of Innovations at the primary stage.

1) Compatibility Rogers (1995) defines it as the perceived information according to values, beliefs 12


and requirements from adopters. Innovation lies somewhat at the conception from society and culture, primary knowledge and the needs of human beings.

2) Relative Advantage Rogers (1995) regards that as the superior perceived information by over adoption due to higher adoption, preferable encouragement as well as controllable authorisation. This rests upon status quo and economic factors. That is to say, people prefer to choose something improved by reason of the quality, quantity, price, size and so forth.

3) Complexity Complexity indicates the difficulty in comprehension, learning or adoption towards new items. The harder an innovation is, the more complicated a situation becomes; the lower the probability of innovation is. (Plsek, 2003; as cited in Tsai, 2014)

4) Trialability Trialability is the verification towards new things among limited resources. For instance, samples in the market would be provided for potential consumers to use at home; software might be given free trial term of use in public. That is why the more new stuff materialises, the better the probability of innovation is.

5) Observability Observability denotes that innovative achievements can be seen. The more the observed innovation becomes, the easier other people can notice. That is, the more acceptability becomes, the better the probability of innovation is. Lin states that perceived characteristics of innovation have a positive influence on attitude towards the study. The so-called perceived characteristics of innovation are derived from five fundamental attributes of this theory as well (Lin J.-H. , 2010). Tsai concludes that both the adoption of new technology and the post-adoption of new items could be suitable for use by this theory. He takes three attributes – relative 13


advantage, compatibility and complexity – as perceived characteristics of innovation into his research framework in view of a contingency towards consumer-switching behaviours among diverse web browsers. The results of data analysis showed that a hypothesis of relative advantage is positively related to switching intention. However, a hypothesis of compatibility is not supported in consequence (Tsai, 2011). Another contention is that Tsai takes two constructs – relative advantage and compatibility – as attributions of perception for his conceptual model by reason of the promotion towards smoke detectors in fire control. Both variables resulted in significantly supported hypotheses testing towards perceived usefulness9 (Tsia, 2014). Owing to the issue of this research, people’s intention towards the adoption of smart meters in Taiwan would be appropriate with compatibility and relative advantage. It might be easy for Taiwanese householders to measure their current circumstances by lacking experiences towards smart meters. Other attributes like complexity, trialability as well as observability in Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) may not apply to this situation under that presupposition.

2.5 Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) Sufficient papers on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) have accumulated over the past three decades to permit assessments of what this study can collectively tell us. Numerous publications have conducted researches these days, putting emphasis on trends in theories (Ajzen, 1985; Taylor & Todd, 1995; Conner & Armitage, 1998), empirical findings (Wu, 2010; Liu, 2012), implications for behavioural intention (Chuang, 2014; Li, 2013), new technologies for governance (Tsai, 2013; Wang, 2010) and practices on valuation (Wang, 2014). Unfavourably,

9

perceived usefulness (PU): one of constructs in Technology Acceptance Model, which is proposed by Davis in 1989. 14


there are few relevant papers on implications towards the Theory of Planned Behaviour for urban planning; that could be a great niche in application to this Theory. Derived from the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)10, Ajzen (1985) proposes the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) that behaviours are planned by human with three dimensions – attitude towards the behaviour, subjective norm as well as perceived behavioural control (PBC). Three constructs interact with one another while reach the intention by different means. Taylor and Todd (1995) explicate that the adoption of new technology could be fitting through this theory.

1) Subjective Norm (SN) Ajzen & Fishbein (1980) look on it as the self-regulation from socialisation influenced by acquaintances (as cited in Wang, 2014). Subject norm is inappropriate to use for the research for smart meters has not installed thoroughly in Taiwan.

2) Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC) Ajzen (1991) takes it as perceptive control towards required resources and opportunities in personal behaviours. It is related to the control by individual behaviour, which is inclusive not only of motive factors (e.g. willingness) but of non-motive factors (e.g. time, cost, techniques, policy). This concept is divided into self-efficacy and outer resources.

3) Attitude The so-called attitude towards the behaviour is “the degree to which performance of behaviour is positively or negatively valued (Ajzen, 1975).” It could be thought of as the level of expression by the action. Another way of explanation is the effect upon an 10

Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA): proposed previously by Fishbein and Azjen (1985), the theory illustrates that human act with rationalisation. 15


action is or is not important. Doob (1947) regards attitude as the sum of feelings/emotions towards specific concepts/items (as cited in Dong, 2012). Refer to two major constructs – Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use – in Technology Acceptance Model proposed by Davis (1989), Taylor and Todd (1995) consider that the compatibility from Diffusion of Innovations is the third variable to impact the attitude (Wu, 2010).

4) Intention Ajzen (1975) expresses that behavioural intention is “the indication of a person’s readiness to perform a given behaviour.” He also emphasizes that the intention is a predisposition to behave in a specific way. Stoel & Lee (2003) look on intention as the degree of individual behaviour and symbol for future use (as cited in Dong, 2012). On the contrary, actual behaviour is human act in reality. This is not the same as the behavioural intention. Wu (2010) expresses that perceived characteristics of innovation – compatibility and relative advantage – have a positive influence on attitude as well as impact behavioural intention towards the purchase of cosmetics.

5) Behaviour Ajzen (1991) define it as the action after intention. Beside, actual behavioural control (ABC) is the degree of willingness as well as behaviour by skills, resources and others (Ajzen, 2002; as cited in Wang, 2014). Ajzen (2002) thinks further that there is no need to distinguish actual behavioural control from behaviour owing to similar (even the same) notions, so the concept of viewing the situation in TPB would not be changed without actual behavioural control.

16


Given that subjective norm and behaviour are not applicable currently11 for the progression of smart meters in Taiwan, attitude, perceived behavioural control (PBC) as well as intention would be employed into the framework of this study in the case of this theory.

2.6 Other Conception Formulated research framework only by Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) and Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) might be not enough. Three variables – personal innovativeness, perceived risk and price consciousness – are also listed relatively in conceptual framework, which would be presented in chapter III.

2.6.1 Personal Innovativeness Innovativeness could divide into personal innovativeness and consumer innovativeness – the former concept is from R. A. Bauer (1960); the latter concept is from Goldsmith & Hofacker (1991). In this contingency, personal innovativeness is more appropriate than consumer innovativeness. Nevertheless, these two types of constructs could be integrated for this current condition in Taiwan to a certain extent. Personal innovativeness could test participants whether they are innovative or not. Another concept e.g. ‘innovativeness’ – the degree to which an individual is relatively earlier in adopting an innovation than other members of that social system – which is defined by Rogers (2005) as well, is relevant to personal innovativeness. Lin (2010, b) considers that innovativeness has a moderating effect, setting it as a moderator into her conceptual framework of the research. Yet in order that the research framework should combine at least two constructs, personal innovativeness is more pertinent than innovativeness.

11

The statement is based on the entire circumstances in Taiwan as of 2016. 17


2.6.2 Price Consciousness Lichtenstein (1993) defines it as “the degree to which consumers tend to pay low prices.” Kuo takes price consciousness as the preference for customers by lower prices while purchasing items (Kuo, 2010). Sinha and Batra (1999) regard it as the purchase of private label brands (PLBs).This concept could combine with the electricity in Taiwan, including electric bill and valuation. A lot of researches show that price consciousness is a moderator, while it might be complicated for this thesis to set price consciousness as a moderating variable. Another concept e.g. price sensitivity – the acceptance towards new products and profit from brands in the market (Ferrell & Hartline, 2005) – is relevant with price consciousness. Lin even selects price sensitivity as a moderating variable (Lin W.-C. , 2010). Nonetheless, price consciousness is more suitable, neutral and applicable for smart meters than price sensitivity.

2.6.3 Perceived Risk R. A. Bauer (1960) defines it as the unfavourable results might be met by consumers when purchasing. Kaplan et al. (1972) divided this concept into five parts: performance risk, financial risk, social risk, physical risk and psychological risk. This may lead to the loss of time, hazard, ego or money (Roselius, 1971). Furthermore, Stone and Grønhaug (1993) categorise seven dimensions of perceived risk – the overall, social, time, financial, physical, performance and psychological risk. Zhang et al. (2011) even synopsize social, economic, privacy, time, quality, health, delivery as well as after-sale risk – eight kinds of risk totally into their paper. Social, time, financial, physical, performance and psychological risk are good for the purpose of research design which would be shown in chapter III. Meanwhile, the overall risk might only be a little bit of distinguished from those six types of risk. Hsu (2010) delivers that the perceived risk of online shopping has a significantly 18


negative influence on consumers’ purchasing intention, i.e. the lower risks exist, the higher consumers would buy commodities. She mentions that the privacy of personal information is the most critical for customers to shop online.

19


III. RESEARCH METHOD The chapter is divided into four sections – research design, participants and instruments, procedure in data collection as well as data analysis. A total of seven hypotheses were established as the following part, then the conceptual framework would be demonstrated.

3.1 Hypotheses The framework is made up of seven research hypotheses which are listed below in this part of study. From chapter II, the following research hypotheses are proposed: 

Compatibility and Attitude On the basis of Taylor & Todd (1995), the influence between compatibility and

attitude is positive for application of this hypothesis. Taylor and Todd (1995) mention that compatibility is a positive concept which can impact on the attitude when using new technology. For the adoption of smart meters in Taiwan, people may think that new facilities could be helpful for their living even if they have never seen or heard about smart meters before. Above the discussion, the hypothesis between compatibility and attitude could be established as below. H1: Compatibility of smart meters has a positive and direct influence on people’s attitude.

Relative Advantage and Attitude According to Teo & Pok (2003), the influence between relative advantage and

attitude is positive for application of the hypothesis. Teo and Pok (2003) express that relative advantages on new items may interest people to adopt and that can impact on the attitude. In the case of this study, residents would think that smart meters may have more strengths than traditional ones. This could lead to the following hypothesis. 20


H2: Relative advantage of smart meters has a positive and direct influence on people’s attitude.

Personal Innovativeness and Attitude In accordance with Agarwal & Prasad (1998), the influence between personal

innovativeness and attitude is positive to apply for the hypothesis. Agarwal and Prasad (1998) demonstrate that a person with innovation tends to use new things and that would cause her/his attitude on new stuff. With the situation of this research, householders in Taiwan would probably think that smart meters would bring them to a brand-new life. H3: Personal innovativeness has a positive and direct influence on people’s attitude.

Price Consciousness and Attitude According to Sinha & Batra (1999), the influence between price consciousness

and attitude is negative for application of the hypothesis. Sinha and Batra (1999) stress that price consciousness is a key factor which can examine respondents if they feel anxious on the fluctuation of pricing and impact on people’s attitude as well. On account of price consciousness, users in Taiwan might deliberate with the electric pricing to decide whether they would like to adopt smart meters or not. That leads to a hypothesis as follows. H4: People’s price consciousness has a negative and direct influence on people’s attitude.

Perceived Risk and Attitude Based on Stone & Grønhaug (1993), the influence between perceived risk and 21


attitude is negative to apply for this hypothesis. Stone and Grønhaug (1993) emphasize that perceived risk is a critical point for respondents to evaluate their thoughts on particular occasions. This concept also impact on people’s attitude. With the current occasion in Taiwan, people may contemplate that the risk towards the adoption of smart meters could cause potential loss to a certain degree. Then a hypothesis could be set up as below to test by the questionnaire. H5: Perceived risk of smart meters has a negative and direct influence on people’s attitude.

Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC) and Intention In terms of Taylor & Todd (1995), the influence between perceived behavioural

control and intention is positive for application of the hypothesis. Taylor and Todd (1995) also use perceived behavioural control to ensure facilitating conditions12. By the same circumstances, how easily people can dominate their willingness to use smart meters is one of important concepts to test respondents. The influence from perceived behavioural control to the intention can be built as a hypothesis. H6: People’s perceived behavioural control (PBC) has a positive and direct influence on people’s intention.

Attitude and Intention Based on the research by Molinari et al. (2008), the influence between attitude

and intention is positive to apply for this hypothesis. Molinari et al. (2008) state that people’s attitude can impact on their intention. On the strength of adoption towards 12

facilitating condition: information technology in a computer centre (CRC). The concept dived into resource as well as technology. Resource facilitating condition is related to time and cost-related; technology facilitating condition is a compatibility for techniques on equipment (e.g. computers, printers, disks), including hardware and software. 22


smart meters in Taiwan, it relies somehow on civic willing and acceptability. A hypothesis could be founded below. H7: Residents’ attitude has a positive and direct influence on residents’ intention.

3.2 Framework This study employed a quantitative approach to gain a general and holistic understanding of householders’ perspectives in Taiwan. In keeping with a tradition in quantitative research, I aimed for brief descriptions of designated questionnaire. The study recorded the subjects’ thoughts and feelings about the adoption of smart meters in the near future. There are eight variables in framework of the research:

Figure 4 Conceptual Framework Compared identical definitions of each construct with former researches, specific explanations in this study are listed below: Variables

I.

Compatibility < C >

Conceptual Definition “the degree to which an innovation is perceived as being consistent with the existing values, past

Operational Definition

Supportive Reference

Number of Items

the degree to which smart meters is perceived as being in accord with foreseeable values and

Taylor & Todd (1995); Agarwal & Prasad

5

23


II.

Relative Advantage <RA>

III. Personal Innovativeness <PI>

IV. Price Consciousness <PC>

V.

Perceived Risk <PR>

experiences and needs of

requirements for

(1998);

potential adopters” (Rogers, 2003)

householders

Teo & Pok (2003); Sonnenwald et al. (2001)

“the degree to which it is perceived as better than the idea it supersedes” (Rogers, 2003) “the willingness of an individual to try out any new information technology” (Agarwal et al., 1998) “the degree to which consumers tend to pay low prices” (Lichtenstein, 1993) uncertainty and pleasantness in consumer behaviour (R. A. Bauer, 1960)

potential strength of smart meters more than traditional ones

Teo & Pok (2003); Sonnenwald et al. (2001)

5

Agarwal & Prasad the acceptability of smart meters for early adoption

(1998); Goldsmith & Hofacker (1991)

favourable electric bill and valuation for householders

Sinha & Batra (1999); as cited in Huang (2007)

the misgivings towards potential loss of smart

Stone & Grønhaug

meters

(1993)

4

6

6

VI. Perceived Behavioural Control < PBC >

“people’s perceptions of their ability to perform a given behaviour” (Ajzen, 1991)

perceived ease of performance on specific behaviours

Pavlo (2003); Taylor & Todd (1995)

2

VII. Attitude < A >

“the degree to which performance of the behaviour is positively or negatively valued” (Ajzen, 1975)

the degree to which action results in good or bad condition

Taylor & Todd (1995)

4

VIII. Intention < I >

the consideration on smart “an indication of a meters inclusive of person’s readiness to willingness and perform a given acceptability before behaviour” (Ajzen, 1975) behaviour

Molinari et al. (2008); Moon & Kim (2001)

3

Table 1 the Measurement of Variables 24


3.3 Questionnaire Design In order for the dissemination of questionnaire, there are eight variables with more than one item to survey the situation nowadays in Taiwan. The references towards eight constructs from the conceptual framework were separately employed to items of the questionnaire as below: I.

Compatibility <C> In accordance with the research by Rogers (2003), compatibility is the perception

of information on the basis of values, experiences requirements of adoption. The items of this variable refer to the questionnaire which designated specifically by Taylor & Todd (1995), Agarwal & Prasad (1998), Teo & Pok (2003) as well as Sonnenwald et al. (2001). Item

Reference

C1→ Using the smart meter will fit well with my living.

Taylor & Todd (1995);

C2→ Using smart meters is trendier than traditional ones.

Agarwal & Prasad

C3→ Smart meter could adjust my electric use.

(1998);

C4→ Electric data by smart meters could be my source to

Teo & Pok (2003);

save electricity.

Sonnenwald et al.

C5→ Smart meter gives me a new experience.

(2001)

Table 2 Items of Compatibility <C> with Reference II. Relative Advantage <RA> Based on the study from Rogers (2003), relative advantage is strength of adoption. The items of this variable refer to the questionnaire designed by Teo & Pok (2003) as well as Sonnenwald et al. (2001). The more strengths on smart meters for householders to realise, the better situation for government to advance the infrastructure.

25


Item

Reference

RA1→ Using smart meter helps me to manage electric use. RA2→ Smart meter meets my needs of living. RA3→ Smart meter provides personalised services (like electric

Teo & Pok

use search).

(2003);

RA4→ Using smart meter gives me real-time usage information

Sonnenwald

and services.

et al. (2001)

RA5→ Smart meter is an ideal facility for real-time usage information. Table 3 Items of Relative Advantage <RA> with Reference III. Personal Innovativeness <PI> On the basis of the paper written by Agarwal et al. (1998), personal innovativeness is the intention of exploration. The items of this variable refer to the questionnaire formed by Agarwal & Prasad (1998) as well as Goldsmith & Hofacker (1991). Item

Reference

PI1→ I like something new. Agarwal & Prasad PI2→ I am mostly the first to try out new things. (1998); PI3→ I am nearly the LAST among my peers to follow Goldsmith & Hofacker the trend. (1991) PI4→ I do NOT use new products earlier than others. Table 4 Items of Personal Innovativeness <PI> with Reference IV. Price Consciousness <PC> According to the research written by Lichtenstein (1993), price consciousness is the awareness about money. The items of this variable refer to the questionnaire

26


formed by Sinha & Batra (1999) as well as Huang (2007). Item

Reference

PC1→ I might take notice of the electric charge if using smart meter. PC2→ I may keep an eye on electricity bill by government after the installation of smart meter. Sinha & Batra (1999); PC3→ Saving electricity by smart meters is worthy. as cited in Huang PC4→ I do NOT want to reduce the waste of electricity. (2007) PC5→ I would pay attention to electricity bill by smart meters. PC6→ I may think whether I should pay for the smart meter installed. Table 5 Items of Price Consciousness <PC> with Reference V.

Perceived Risk <PR> According to the research from R. A. Bauer (1960), perceived risk is an

unpredictable action with risk. The items of this variable refer to the questionnaire established by Stone & Grønhaug (1993). The operational definition of my study is set as the misgivings towards potential loss of smart meters. The classification of perceived risk which is itemised by Stone & Grønhaug (1993) is taken items of questionnaire into account since it is more precise than other categorisations. With the exception of overall risk, the other six types (social, time, financial, physical, performance, psychological) are drawn respectively. Item

Reference

PR1→ I worry about the unfavourable charge by smart meter. PR2→ I would be mad if smart meter could not reduce electricity bill.

27

Stone & Grønhaug


PR3→ I worry that electric use might be watched when adopting

(1993)

smart meter. PR4→ I concern that smart meter performs unstably due to the initial stage. PR5→ I might spend much time to adapt smart meter. PR6→ I am afraid I may be different from others if using smart meter. Table 6 Items of Perceived Risk <PR> with Reference VI. Perceived Behavioural Control <PBC> In the light of the research proposed by Ajzen (1975), perceived behavioural control is the perception of human capability for an action. The items of this variable refer to the questionnaire individually designed by Pavlo (2003) as well as Taylor & Todd (1995). Item

Reference

PBC1→ I can gather relevant information on smart meter.

Pavlo (2003);

PBC2→ I could use smart meter without help.

Taylor & Todd (1995)

Table 7 Items of Perceived Behavioural Control <PBC> with Reference In fact, there are three key items of this construct. Due to the low degree of Cronbach’s α which was conducted after the pilot test, the original third item (I can decide whether I could use smart meter) was eliminated with advice. VII. Attitude <A> Based on the study of Ajzen (1975), attitude is the impact to which an action is good or bad. The items of this variable refer to the questionnaire built by Taylor & Todd (1995). Item

Reference

A1→ Using smart meters is good.

Taylor & Todd (1995)

28


A2→ Using smart meters is right. A3→ Smart meters could advance the future living. A4→ Smart meters could improve energy problems. Table 8 Items of Attitude <A> with Reference Intention <I>

VIII.

Based on the paper proposed by Ajzen (1975), intention is the willingness for an action. The items of this variable refer to the questionnaire designed by Molinari et al. (2008) as well as Moon & Kim (2001). Item

Reference

I1→ I hope I could use smart meters in the future. Molinari et al. (2008) I2→ I am willing to use smart meters in the future. I3→ I would recommend smart meters to others.

Moon & Kim (2001)

Table 9 Items of Intention <I> with Reference

3.4 Content Validity With the help of experts – including advisor, researcher, professors and peers – the designated questionnaire is highly recommended for preferable wording before the pilot test. The correlativity between smart meters and smart grids should be exploited more in detail. Interviewee13

A

B

Duration 2.5 hours (14.00-16.30,

Place Southern Taiwan University of

Affiliation

Assistant

Acquisition indication towards smart

Friday 11.03.2016.)

Science and Technology (STUST)

Professor

grid with smart meters

1 hour

National

Postdoctoral

exploitation of

13

The author appreciates interviews with each one of expert for their domain knowledge, professional expertise and precious time. 29


C

D

(13.00-14.00,

Cheng Kung

Tuesday 15.03.2016.)

University (NCKU)

1.5 hours (15.00-16.30, Tuesday 15.03.2016.)

National Cheng Kung University (NCKU)

3 hours (14.00-17.00, Wednesday

Southern Taiwan University of Science and

16.03.2016.)

Researcher

the overall smart system

Doctoral Student

Associate Professor

Technology (STUST)

introduction to techniques of smart meter

clarification between smart grid and smart meter

Table 18 Interviews towards Expert Validity Smart grid should be given precedence over all other electric infrastructure, based on an interview with D. Take the US government as an example, smart grid have implemented throughout the states since 2008 while not many smart meters have been installed so far. What Taiwan Power Company should do next is complete the smart grid all around the country so as to decentralise and accumulate the electricity. if they would like to reduce financial loss as well as electric loss. The overall implementation of smart meters in Taiwan would cost Taiwan Power Company (Taipower) much more than the entire subsidies for dispatchers or their employees to record each one of houses and factories. This factor is the most interesting part of an interview with D and that would be probably surprising for those who dedicate to the research on smart meters. Interviewed with C by expert validity, he even prefabricates that ZigBee might be replaced by LoRa, a brand-new microelectronic device of the next generation for smart meters. An eliminated variable existed in the research framework before â&#x20AC;&#x201C; complexity, which is also a construct in Diffusion of Innovations (DOI). Experts explained that it is impossible as the majority in Taiwan would have heard about 30


smart meters.

31


IV.

ANALYSES

4.1 Measurement Subjects, material and methods for further statistical analyses are set up as the following part:  Participants The respondents were set as householders in Taiwan. Both Taiwanese and foreigners were encouraged to fill out the questionnaire so that the overall situation in Taiwan could expectantly be predicted.  Instrument The questionnaire consisted of two sections – the first one asked respondents to rate their degree of similarity with statistical terms; the second of which was attempted to elicit basic information on them. Most important of all, the classification of this information is conditionally enumerated in Taiwan. Each item of construct is translated into Chinese for Taiwanese residents to respond conveniently. All items are measured on a five-point Likert scale in which 1 is ‘strongly disagree’, 2 means ‘moderately disagree’, 3 stands for ‘neutral’, 4 indicates ‘moderately agree’ as well as 5 represents ‘strongly agree’.  Methods Reliability and validity are two fundamental statistical analyses which would be undertaken; structural equation modelling (SEM) is used as the final analysis for this research. Three methods are demonstrated: 1) Reliability is performed to investigate the consistency and stability of variables. It can be marked off as the following three intervals. LEVEL

SCALE

32


Cronbachâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s đ?&#x203A;ź â&#x2030;Ľ 0.7

High reliability Medium reliability

0.7 > Cronbachâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s đ?&#x203A;ź â&#x2030;Ľ 0.4

Low reliability

0.4 > Cronbachâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s đ?&#x203A;ź Table 10 Devision of Reliability

2) Validity is calculated to test the correctness of variables. This concept could be divided into two sections â&#x20AC;&#x201C; convergent validity and discriminant validity. The former part represents the relevance of acquirement among various assessments; the latter part shows the degree of differentiation between variables. Besides, convergent validity can be subdivided into the indices â&#x20AC;&#x201C; factor loading, composite reliability (CR) as well as average variance extracted (AVE). INSPECTION Reliability

INDICATOR(S)

CRITERION

Cronbachâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Îą

â&#x2030;Ľ 0.7

factor loading

> 0.5

composite

SOFTWARE SPSS

> 0.7

Convergent reliability (CR) Validity average variance Validity

> 0.5

extracted (AVE) Discriminant â&#x2C6;&#x161;đ??´đ?&#x2018;&#x2030;đ??¸ and Validity

â&#x2C6;&#x161;đ??´đ?&#x2018;&#x2030;đ??¸ > other

correlation coefficients coefficient

Path Coefficient (β)

> 1.645

t-value

0~1 Model Forecast

R2

[The favourable condition is above

33

SmartPLS


0.5. The bigger a figure is, the better an explanation is.] Table 11 Measurement of Applied Statistics (sorted by Huang, 2016) 3) Structural equation modelling (SEM) is to test hypotheses for partial least squares (PLS) by bootstrapping after the confirmation of reliability and validity. After path analysis, p-value represents the significance of hypothesis testing. The smaller the figure is, the more significant the hypothesis would be. ASTERISK(S)

CRITERION

INDICATION

***

p < 0.001

strongly significant

**

p < 0.01

*

p < 0.5

significant

n.a.

p > 0.5

insignificant

moderately significant

Table 12 Measurement of p-value with t-value

4.2 Data Collection Arranged for pre-test and formal test, the questionnaire in this research was set as an online version for respondents to answer with ease. Prior test was applied only by reliability; formal test was employed by three analytical methods (reliability, validity and structural equation modelling).

ď ľ Pilot Test In order to confirm the reliability of questionnaire in this research for the formal survey by SPSS14 (version 18.0), a pre-test was conducted with a primary questionnaire in two days (from Thursday 24th March to Saturday 26th March, 2016). Validity testing would be analysed for formal survey after the revision of questionnaire. The result is listed as the following table: 14

Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS): a.k.a. PASW; analytical software generally for social sciences by IBM. 34


NUMBER OF ITEMS15

VARIABLE

CRONBACHâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S Îą

Compatibility

5 [1. ~ 5.]

0.642 â&#x2020;&#x2019; n.a.

II. Relative Advantage

5 [6. ~ 10.]

0.815

4 [11. ~ 14.]

0.734

IV. Price Consciousness

6 [15. ~ 20.]

0.619 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 0.802

V.

6 [21. ~ 26.]

0.664 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 0.734

3 [27. ~ 29.]

0.439 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 0.657

VII. Attitude

4 [30. ~ 33.]

0.815

VIII.

3 [34. ~ 36.]

0.811

36 [1. ~ 36.]

0.773

I.

III. Personal Innovativeness

Perceived Risk

VI. Perceived Behavioural Control

Intention

TOTAL VARIABLES

Table 13 Results of Reliability in Pilot Test Four constructs â&#x20AC;&#x201C; compatibility, price consciousness, perceived risk and perceived behavioural control â&#x20AC;&#x201C; are in the medium level of reliability (0.7 > Cronbachâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s đ?&#x203A;ź â&#x2030;Ľ 0.4). After the elimination of insignificant items from these variables, price consciousness and perceived risk could approach to the standard level (Cronbachâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Îą

> 0.7) while the rest of observed constructs still remained. Perceived

behavioural control could only approximate to the moderate threshold on the middle level. By the same token, the Cronbachâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Alpha of compatibility could do nothing for the deletion of unqualified items in reliability testing. The wording of items and small-scale pre-test might be two chief reasons.

15

For specific items of constructs, please refer to the questionnaire on Appendix c (p. 54). 35


V. RESULTS This chapter demonstrates facts and figures which were analysed after the collection of questionnaires for the formal test. Demographic data and items of variables were specified individually with two methods. On the threshold of collection, the questionnaire was posted on the Internet in order for investigation. The duration of survey was set approximately for six weeks, from 20th April 2016 to 31st May 2016. Then the data from respondents was collected as well as started to analyse by SPSS (version 18.0) for reliability and SmartPLS (version 3) for validity. After the collection of data, 250 questionnaires were received. Nevertheless, the valid response rate is 72.8 %. 68 of them were eliminated due to irrational responses. 182 of them were valid for further analyses.

4.1 Descriptive Analysis Personal information is conducted for descriptive analysis. The following items for demographic research are set in this survey. Each part of questions would be explained and shown percentage after the summary. Percentage ITEM

OPTION

Frequency (%)

1) Sex

2) Age

female

90

49.45

male

92

50.55

transgender

-

-

under 20 years old

9

4.95

20 ~ 40 years old

160

87.91

40 ~ 60 years old

6

3.30

36


3) Education

over 60 years old

7

3.85

(below) high school

9

4.95

112

61.54

61

33.52

9

4.95

40

21.98

undergraduate postgraduate NPO [incl. legal entity, NGO] public service [duty, contract, intern, etc.] farming [forestry, fishery]

-

4) Occupation

Industry

22

12.09

commerce [service, sales, etc.]

25

13.74

freelance [piecework, part-time, etc.]

20

10.99

Student

65

35.71

Others

1

0.55

Island (Lienchiang, Kinmen)

2

1.10

Eastern (Hualien, Taitung)

4

2.20

109

59.89

20

10.99

47

26

separate house16

98

54

flats with lift(s)

58

32

flats without lift

24

13

Southern (Penghu, Chiayi, Tainan, 5) Residential Kaohsiung, Pingdung) Area in Central (Miaoli, Taichung, Changhua, Taiwan Nantou, Yunlin) Northern (Yilan, Keelung, Taipei, New Taipei, Taoyuan, Hsinchu)

6) Housing Type

16

separate house/single-family residence (SFR): a house used for one family. 37


Others

2

1.10

26

15

2 ~ 4 people

106

58

5 ~7 people

46

25

4

2.20

1 person 7) Number of Occupants

over 8 people Table 14 Summary of Basic Information after Data Collection 1) Explanation of each part of question(s) 1) Sex: Male respondents are considerably the same as female respondents.

2) Age: Compared with other age brackets, an age group from 20 to 40 years old is the majority. 3) Education: Undergraduate students are more than others. 4) Occupation: [Five essential points are elucidated below] a> Public servants are comprised of doctors in military hospitals and teachers in cram schools. b> Industrial works are ranged from high technology, research, building as well as engineering. c> Commercial works contain banking and stationary. d> Freelance is comprised of house-makers, lawyers, the unemployed and people in retirement. e> Other works mean that respondents answered incoherently. 5) Residential Area in Taiwan: Most respondents live in the southern Taiwan. 6) Housing Type [Three major problems are elaborated as follows] a> Separate house contains bungalow (one-storey house). b> The circumstances of flats with lifts includes dormitories.

38


c> Other housing types mean that respondents still could not clarify what kind of rooms they have in reality. 7) Number of Occupants: Among these, respondents with one to three occupants are in the majority.

4.2 Reliability The items of questionnaire are analysed for reliability17 by SPSS (edition 18.0). compatibility, relative advantage, personal innovativeness as well as price consciousness are in Perceived risk and perceived behavioural control are in the middle class of reliability (0.7 > Cronbachâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s đ?&#x203A;ź â&#x2030;Ľ 0.4). Unfortunately, both variables could not approach to the standard interval. Moreover, only two items of perceived behavioural control could not be conversed ever even though one of items was chosen to delete.

4.3 Validity In the latter part of data analysis, the validity of items from the questionnaire would be examined by SmartPLS (version 3).

4.3.1 Convergent Validity Factor loading, composite reliability and average variance extracted (AVE) are three substantial items to examine the relevance of acquirement among various variables. With the exception of qualified items, unqualified items should be deleted.

Construct

1)

C

17 18

18

Item

C1

Standard

Factor

Deviation

Loading

0.034

0.811

Mean 0.811

CR

AVE

Cronbachâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Îą

0.892

0.623

0.847

The results of reliability for formal test are listed in Table 15. For specific items of constructs, please refer to the questionnaire on Appendix c (p. 54). 39


2)

3)

4)

5)

RA

C2

0.782

0.030

0.778

C3

0.832

0.022

0.831

C4

0.838

0.024

0.839

C5

0.670

0.056

0.677

RA 1

0.775

0.048

0.774

RA 2

0.765

0.034

0.769

RA 3

0.794

0.036

0.799

RA 4

0.786

0.038

0.790

RA 5

0.819

0.029

0.817

PI 1

0.847

0.030

0.851

PI 2

0.877

0.024

0.880

PI PI 3

0.706

0.066

0.715

PI 4

0.696

0.065

0.698

PC 1

0.667

0.071

0.679

PC 2

0.777

0.044

0.780

PC 3

0.813

0.023

0.807

PC 4

0.643

0.051

0.639

PC 5

0.793

0.033

0.790

PC 6

0.302

0.042

0.306

PR 1

0.301

0.053

0.300

PR 2

0.147

0.064

0.144

PR 3

0.579

0.141

0.601

PR 4

0.288

0.079

0.283

PR 5

0.843

0.066

0.848

PR 6

0.703

0.087

0.707

PC

0.892

0.624

0.847

0.892

0.624

0.800

0.835

0.474

0.763

0.666 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 0.663

PR

40

0.295 0.668


PBC 1 6)

7)

8)

0.890

0.028

0.904

PBC PBC 2

0.835

0.048

0.821

A1

0.886

0.016

0.883

A2

0.899

0.016

0.897

A

I

A3

0.798

0.071

0.810

A4

0.673

0.068

0.680

I1

0.908

0.017

0.910

I2

0.918

0.018

0.920

I3

0.874

0.026

0.874

0.854

0.746

0.662 â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x20AC;&#x201C;

0.892

0.676

0.830

0.812

0.928

0.881

Total 35

0.899

Variables Table 15 Results of Validity and Reliability in Formal Test As the measurement of convergent validity and discriminant validity have been mentioned in Chapter III, the standard of composite reliability should be more than 0.7; the criterion of average variance extracted (AVE) need to be over 0.5. As a result, four items are not qualified for the standard of factor loading, including PC 6, PR 1, PR 2 and PR 4.

4.3.2 Discriminant Validity After the examination of reliability and validity, a few of insignificant items should be eliminated. A

C

I

PBC

PR

A

0.822

C

0.704

0.789

I

0.768

0.71

0.901

PBC

0.489

0.463

0.488

0.863

PR

-0.322

-0.34

-0.32

-0.326

0.73

PI

0.389

0.423

0.476

0.368

-0.435

41

PI

0.79

PC

RA


PC

0.605

0.614

0.67

0.421

-0.288

0.373

0.742

RA

0.64

0.826

0.689

0.417

-0.374

0.402

0.608

0.79

Table 16 Statistical Results for Discriminant Validity A figure between compatibility and relative advantage is not qualified, as the square root of average variance extracted (â&#x2C6;&#x161;đ??´đ?&#x2018;&#x2030;đ??¸) for compatibility is smaller than other coefficients. In practical use, the criteria of discriminant validity once most square roots of average variance extracted (â&#x2C6;&#x161;đ??´đ?&#x2018;&#x2030;đ??¸) reached to the criteria for discriminant validity in a broad sense. Hence, the overall discriminant validity approximated to meet the needs.

4.4 Structural Model Analysis By means of bootstrapping with Smart PLS after the evaluation of reliability and validity, path coefficients as well as the coefficients of determination should be concerned for the next step. The results of structural model analysis were demonstrated as the following framework:

Figure 5 Result of Hypothesis Testing Notes:

42


1) The figures above are path coefficients. 2) For the one-tail testing19, * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001. The result of hypothesis testing is summarised as below – three of them were unsupported; the rest of them could be established as research hypotheses:

Hypothesis

Path

R2

t

(%)

-value

β

p-value

Result

Compatibility → H1

0.446

4.420 0.000***

supported

0.082

0.942 0.194

unsupported

0.656 0.175

unsupported

Attitude Relative Advantage H2 → Attitude Personal H3

Innovativeness →

0.056 55.3

Attitude Price H4

Consciousness →

0.247

3.076 0.000***

supported

Attitude Perceived Risk → 0.352 0.242

-0.047

H5

unsupported

Attitude Perceived Behavioural 0.147

H6 Control →

1.995 0.020*

supported

21.190 0.000***

supported

60.6

Intention H7

Attitude →

0.696

19

One-tailed test: one of significance tests for p-value of hypotheses. [One-tail testing is appropriate occasionally for this contingency, whereas two-tailed test is difficult to fulfil criteria in applied statistics.] 43


Intention Table 17 Summary for Result of Hypothesis Testing The following statements represent each result of specific construct after testing. H1: Compatibility of smart meters has a positive and direct influence on people’s attitude. Compatibility of smart meters has a strong significant influence on people’s attitude (β = 0.446; p < 0.001), then H1 is strongly supported in this paper.

H2: Relative advantage of smart meters has no positive or direct influence on people’s attitude. Relative advantage of smart meters has an insignificant influence on people attitude (β = 0.942; p > 0.05), then H2 is unsupported in this study.

H3: Personal innovativeness has no positive or direct influence on people’s attitude. Personal innovativeness has an insignificant influence on people’s attitude (β = 0.656; p > 0.05),then H3 is unsupported in the study.

H4: People’s price consciousness has a positive and direct influence on people’s attitude. People’s price consciousness has a strong significant influence on people’s attitude (β = 0.247; p < 0.001), then H4 is strongly supported in this study.

H5: Perceived risk of smart meters has no positive or direct influence on people’s attitude. Perceived risk of smart meters has an insignificant influence on people’s attitude (β = -0.047; p > 0.05), then H5 is unsupported in the study. In addition, the path coefficient 44


from perceived risk to attitude is a negative number for it means that items of perceived risk were designated not very well.

H6: People’s perceived behavioural control (PBC) has a positive and direct influence on people’s intention. People’s perceived behavioural control (PBC) has a significant influence on people’s intention (β = 0.147; p < 0.05), then H6 is moderately supported in the research.

H7: Residents’ attitude has a positive and direct influence on residents’ intention. Residents’ attitude has a strong significant influence on residents’ intention (β = 0.696; p < 0.001), then H7 is strongly supported in this research.

4.5 Discussion Reflected upon objectives of the thesis in Chapter I and research findings in Chapter V, the present study is preliminary research on the managerial in connection with technological knowledge. Compared with seven path coefficients [H1~H7] contributed by two dependent variables [attitude and intention], the issues are listed: 1) Four significant contributions [H1, H4; H6, H7] For participants’ intention towards smart meters in Taiwan, the path coefficient from attitude to intention [H7] is the most significant (β = 0.696). Respectively for residents’ attitude, the path coefficient from compatibility to attitude [H1] is the most significant (β = 0.446). H4 [PC→A] and H6 [PBC→I] meet the criterion of path analysis as well. 2) Three insignificant contributions [H2, H3, H5] For participants’ intention towards smart meters in Taiwan, the path coefficient from perceived risk to intention [H5] is the least significant (β = -0.047). Neither 45


H2 [RAâ&#x2020;&#x2019;A] nor H3 [PIâ&#x2020;&#x2019;A] satisfy the criterion of path analysis for the intention towards implementation of smart meters. ď ľ Potential reasons for insignificance The linkage between perceived behavioural control and intention remained weakness after analyses for the formal test, but the statistical results of data collection were better than those of the pre-test. Householders in Taiwan may contemplate directly on electric bill and valuation. The advancement of infrastructure like meters may be risky for people to adopt.

46


VI. CONCLUSION From what have been discussed in chapter V, a substantial finding is that the development of smart meters in Taiwan can be foreseeing. Smart meters would be implemented in the near future, for Taiwanese government desire to follow the global trend as well as connect the technology with neighbouring countries. It could be possible to solve the problems even if there are contestable questions for peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s concerns. The thesis concludes the following statements by research findings: 1) Importance for compatibility (C) Smart meters might be adopted by householders in Taiwan as well as applied to smart home. 2) Awareness of price consciousness (PC) People think highly on the electric charging no matter what the Power Company strive for difficult installation, deficit spending or other unrevealed reasons. Residents would possibly think twice on the utilisation of smart meters rashly on account of the initiation in Taiwan. 3) Optimism for the adoption of smart meters in Taiwan Participantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; intention showed the highest mean ( x = 0.896â&#x20AC;Ś) of the questionnaire after data analysis, representing high degree of willingness towards the adoption of smart meters. All in all, most constructs after analyses in this study are considerately valuable for practical use.

This chapter is divided into four sections for the overall encapsulation: contribution, implication, limitation as well as suggestion. Meanwhile, the implication and suggestion are distinguished between theoretical and practical facets.

47


6.1 Contribution Academic contributions of the thesis are listed below: 1) Support of previous researches Whereas the verification of hypothesis testing exhibited nearly half of supported results, several papers have been proved for this thesis and fitted in with empirical research. 2) Application for social sciences A considerable number of papers related to smart meters have been applied to sciences and specified in the domain of electric engineering over the last eight years, yet what seems to be lacking is that smart meters were issued for social sciences. The thesis could establish as a model for future works.

6.2 Implication This section would be distinguished practical operations of smart meters as well as smart grids in business not merely for contractors but for the government from academic elaborations:

6.2.1 Theoretical Implication Compared to seven p-values [H1~H7], these imply academically for the following connotations: 1) Four significant p-values [H1, H4; H6, H7] For participants’ attitude towards smart meters in Taiwan, the p-values of H1 [C →A] and H4 [PC→A] strongly show significance (p < 0.001). For the intention towards implementation of smart meters, H7 [A→I] also illustrate the strong significance while H6 [PBC→I] demonstrates moderate significance (p < 0.5). 2) Three insignificant p-values [H2, H3, H5]

48


For participants’ attitude towards smart meters in Taiwan, the p-values of H2 [RA →A], H3 [PI→A] and H5 [PR→A] concurrently present insignificance (p > 0.5) after the reliability analysis.  Potential reasons for insignificance Reversed questions into two constructs [personal innovativeness and perceived risk] of the questionnaire may be the crucial points substantially for questionnaire design. Unusually, one construct [relative advantage (p = 0.194 > 0.5)] remained unresolved to clarify why p-value was not significant although there are no reversed question.

6.2.2 Managerial Implication An elucidation deduced practically from the overall research as below: Useful for smart meters Many people are willing to adopt smart meters to a certain extent, according to the data analyses. However, the electricity usage is the crux of the problem. Taiwanese householders should think how to change their ways of electric usage and reduce the amount of electricity more directly at the high peak of electric consumption.

6.3 Limitation There are two chief restrictions of this research: 1) Modification of questionnaire design A small number of participants reflected that few items of questionnaire revealed ambiguity. The clarification of information on smart meters as well as disambiguation of items was highly recommended for future work. 2) Accidental sampling20 20

accidental sampling: (aka opportunity sampling) a way of data collection by chance or convenience 49


The questionnaire was spread only on the Internet. For those who rarely get online or even cannot use computers / smart phones may not be investigated.

6.4 Suggestion Future works for researchers are as follows:

6.4.1 Theoretical Suggestion 1) Questionnaire redesign A few of items in the questionnaire need to be excogitated further due to several suggestions from participants towards the specification of questionnaire. For instance, smart meters for business/residential use could be redesigned to speculate upon purposes by the infrastructure for personal information of the questionnaire. 2) Deliberation of social cost-benefit analysis21 (SCBA) Economic aspect of smart meters in Taiwan has rarely conducted in research although the user balanced pricing issued by Industry & Technology Intelligence Services (ITIS) has been analysed the prospect of smart meters in Taiwan since 2008 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; approximately for ten years. That research might be out-of-date owing to changed policies, diverse techniques or other factors. Compared the benefit for implementation of smart meters with the cost, the governmental situation should be up-to-date as well as measured contemporaneously in order to foresee whether the benefit would be bigger than the cost or not.

6.4.2 Managerial Suggestion 1) Potential progress of smart meters in Taiwan

â&#x20AC;&#x201C; practical for pilot tests but partially good for formal tests. 21 social cost-benefit analysis (SCBA): a measurement between cost and benefit for society usually regarding governmental projects. 50


Taiwanese government do not popularise smart meters very well even though they have already given publicity to the installation of smart meters for residents. The installation of smart meters in Taiwan might be restarted. Pay close attention to policies in connection with smart meters every now and then. 2) Interviews with key companies Qualitative research in this kind of circumstances may be good for future work in Taiwan. Taiwan Power Company (Taipower) and Tatung Company could be two key objects of study. 3) Comparison with the enlarged scope of smart meters The development of smart meters could be linked with the global trend. It would be prospective for Taiwanese government to make great efforts on the deployment nationwide between smart grids and smart meters.

51


REFERENCES22 English Resource 1) JOURNALS Agarwal, R., & Prasad, J. (1998). A Conceptual and Operational Definition of Personal Innovativeness in the Domain of Information Technology. Information Systems Research, 9(2), 204-215. Ajzen, I. (1991). The Theory of Planned Behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215. Goldsmith, R.E., & Hofacker, C.F. (1991). Measuring Consumer Innovativeness. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science (JAMS), Vol 19 No 3 209 – 221. Moon, Ji-Won, & Kim, Young-Gul. (2001). Extending the TAM for a World-Wide-Web context. Information & Management, Vol. 38 pp. 217 – 230. Pavlou, Paul A. (2003). Consumer Acceptance of Electronic Commerce: Integrating Trust and Risk with the Technology Acceptance Model, International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 7:3, 101-134 [link → http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10864415.2003.11044275] Plsek, P. (2003). Complexity and the Adoption of Innovation in Health Care. Washington, DC: National Institute for Healthcare Management Foundation and National Committee for Quality Health Care. Stone, R.N., & Grønhaug, K. (1993),"Perceived Risk: Further Considerations for the Marketing Discipline", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 27 Iss 3 pp. 39 – 50 [link → http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03090569310026637] Taylor, S., & Todd, P. A. (1995). Understanding Inofrmation Technology Usage: A Test of Competing Models. Information Systems Research, 6(2), 144-176. Teo, T.S.H., & Pok, S.H. (2003). Adoption of WAP-enabled mobile phones among Internet users. The International Journal of Marketing Science, Omega 31 pp. 483 – 498. Warford, M.K. (2005). Testing a Diffusion of Innovations in Education Model (DIEM). The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal, Vol. 10(3), article 7. 2) THESES Tsai, Jiun-Feng. (2011). Post-Adoption Switching Behavior of Technological Products: Diffusion-of-Innovation Perspective. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. 22

The following are sorted by relevance. 52


Jain, Hsiou-Ting. (2010). The Effect of Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology and Innovation Diffusion Theory on Online Shopping – Familiarity and Perceived Risk as Mediators. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. Lin, Jou-Hsuan. (2010). A Study of Teachers Willingness of Using an e-Learning – Perspectives from Perceived Characteristics of Innovation and Self-determination Theory. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. Lin, Chia-Lin. (2010). The Influential Factors on Individual Innovative Performance in Technology Industry. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. Kuo, Kai-Hsiang. (2010). The Determinants of Joining Coalition Loyalty Program – Price Consciousness as a Moderator. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. Lin, Wan-Chen. (2010). Consumer Price Sensitivity – The Antecedence of Website Quality and Product Usability. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. 3) BOOKS Rogers, Everett. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations, Fourth Edition. US. Hughes, Thomas. “The Electrification of America: The System-Builders.” Technology and Culture 20:1(1979), 125-161. © Society for the History of Technology. Reprinted with Permission of the Johns Hopkins University Press. 4) TECHNICAL REPORTS Maxim Smart Grid Solutions. Smart Meters Overview. 3 – 12. 5) INTERNET PUBLICATION Pollock, Rufus. (Social) Cost-Benefit Analysis in a Nutshell. University of Cambridge. United Kingdom.

Chinese Resource 1) JOURNALS Wu, Hue-Lin, et al. (2014). Economic Outlook Bimonthly, Number 151. Chung-Hua Institution for Economic Research, Taiwan. 2) THESES Chen, Chih-Wei. (2015). A Study on the Usage Intention for Internet of Vehicles. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. Chen, Shu-Fen. (2012). A Study of the Influences of Bank Industry Workers on the Job Involvement – TPB Theory Perspective. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. Chen, Ya-Fen. (2012). An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Examine Determinants of Cross-country Consumers’ has On-line Purchase Intention toward MIT Bedding Products. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. Chu, Li-Fang. (2010). Exploring the Factors Influence Intention to Use of e-Book – 53


Perspective of Theory of Planned Behaviour and Technology Acceptance Model. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. Chuang, Cheng-Chiang. (2014). Applying Theory of Planned Behavior of Reasoned Action to Explore the Antecedents of Supply Chain Cooperation Intention. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. Dong, Ling-Zhi. (2012). Relationship between motivational factors and behavioral intention: the case of Smartphone. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. Huang, Jyun-Jie. (2016). To Explore Users Posting Photos about Shopping Experience Posting in Social Network: A Case Study of Taiwan College Students Using Facebook. National University of Tainan, Taiwan. Hsu, Yu-Ting. (2010). An Empirical Study of the Perceived Risk, Perceived Credibility, Trust, Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness on On-Line Auction Consumers Purchase Intention. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. Kuo, Ting-An. (2015). A Study on the Usage Intention of Tablet PC User for Smart Phone. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. Li, Ya-Wen. (2013). The Key Effecting Research for the Intention of Joining Family Business – from Theory of Planned Behaviour. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. Liao, Kuei-Shu. (2012). Utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior to Study Consumer Behavior of Healthy Drink Purchase – Instant Gran and Nut Drinks as an Example. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. Lin, Hsien-Chin. (2011). A Study of the Relationships among Brand Image, Perceived Risk, Perceived Value, Customer Satisfaction on Customer Loyalty – An Example of Franklin Fund. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. Liu, Hsien-Ta. (2012). An Empirical Study of the Impact of TMX & LMX on the Knowledge Sharing Behavior – A Perspective of TPB. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. Lu, Chien-Liang. (2012). The Study of Purchase Intention and Its Influencing Factors for Energy Conserving and Carbon Emissions Reducing Building Materials. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. Tsai, Cheng-Yu. (2014). The Public Policy Promotion and Innovation Diffusion of Fire Department – Taking the Smoke Detector Fire Department of Tainan City Government Promote As Example. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. Tsai, Po-Chin. (2012). The Study of Cosumers Purchase Behavior via Cell Phone based on Innovation Diffusion Theory and Theory of Acceptance Model. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. Tsai, Ying-Tzu. (2013). An Empirical Study of Individual Income Tax Online 54


Reporting Behavior – Theory of Planned Behavior Perspective. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. Wang, Chao-Ting. (2010). Applying Planned Behavior Theory to Examine Effect of Innovation Behavior in Top Managers. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. Wang, Chien-Hsing. (2014). Exploring the Marketing Intentions and Behavior of Channel by Utilizing Theory of Planned Behavior and PZB Service Quality Model. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. Wu, Shu-Ting. (2010). An Empirical Study of the Purchase Intention of Cosmeceutical – A Perspective of the Diffusion of Innovation Model and Planned Behavior Theory. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. Yeh, Ching-Jou. (2015). The Impact of Perceived Risk, Perceived Price, and Perceived Value on Purchase Intention – A Case of “Adipose-Derived Stem Cells stored”. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. 3) BOOKS Bureau of Energy, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taiwan. (2014). Energy-Saving. Kelly III, John E. and Hamm, S. (2014). Smart Machines: IBM’s Watson and the Era of Cognitive Computing. Commonwealth Publishing Co., Ltd., US. pp.146-149. Chen, Yung-Chen, et al.. (2013). Innovating a Better Future. Commercial Culture. Taipei City, Taiwan. pp. 254-261. Kuo, T. (2013). Illustrated Science and Technology ○ 5 : Smart Grid. Shu-Chuan Publishing House. Taiwan. Chen, A. (2012). Smart City: Global Experiences shared by IBM to Improve Competitiveness of Cities in Taiwan. Dr Master Press Co., Ltd, Taiwan. Saadat, H. (2011). Power System Analysis, 3e. McGraw-Hill International Enterprises LLC., Taiwan Branch. US. 4) TECHNICAL REPORTS Yeutien, et al. (2014). Taiwan Economic Forecast and Policy. Volume 45, Number 1. Taipei, Academia Sinica, Taiwan. Guan-Chung, et al. (2008). Benefit and Cost Analysis for Installing Smart Meters & Creative Dynamic Electricity Pricing: User Balanced Pricing. ITIS, Taiwan. 5) INTERNET PUBLICATION Taiwan Power Company (Taipower). Do You Know the Coming of POWER SHORTAGE?. 15 pages.

Japanese Resource 1) BOOKS Nikkei Electronics, Nikkei Business and Nikkei Ecology. (2009). Smart Energy. 55


Nikkei Business Publications, Inc. Japan. Nikkei Electronics, Nikkei Business and Nikkei Ecology. (2010). Smart Energy 3. Nikkei Business Publications, Inc. Japan. Yamazaki Kozo; Koyama Tetsutaro. (2011). Hayawakari Zukai Korekara No Denki No Tsukurikata. Sogotosho Publishing Co., Ltd. Japan.

56


Appendix Questionnaire23 (English Version)24 The Opinions of ‘Smart Meters’ in Taiwan URL →

Dear all, This is a survey entitled ‘The Intention towards the Implementation of Smart Meters in Taiwan’ from Master Program of Technology Management, National University of Tainan (NUTN). The survey aims at understanding how people think about the upcoming smart meters. You could provide your precious perspective in order for practical development.

Thank you for your help with this research! The survey takes you only 5 ~ 7 minutes. There is no standard answer; you can choose proper answers by current conditions. All is ANONYMOUS and CONFIDENTIAL, so feel free to answer the questions.

Sincerely yours, Wei-Yi Tu (凃偉義) Student from Master Program of Technology Management, NUTN E-mail Address: m10325001@gm2.nutn.edu.tw Mobile phone: +886 911 569 716 Advisor: Dr Fan-Chuan Tseng (曾繁絹)

23 24

For German/Simplified Chinese version, please freely contact the author by e-mail. Partial differentiation of the wording may exist in various languages. 57


Smart Meter Please read the following information before answering: Introduction 1) Smart meter is a kind of digital meter which can transmit data of electric usage at home instantly to smartphones or computers, so that users can master electric use at any time. 2) Compared with traditional meters, the high automation of smart meters is good for the advancement of electric system. Figure (Source: Tatung Company, Taiwan) Features 1) Energy saving: smart meters enhance efficiency of electric use to save electricity and could reduce around 1 trillion tons of greenhouse gas every year. 2) Effective usage: smart meter could know users’ habit on electric use to design reasonable measure of electric management, e.g. improve the efficiency of electric use. Challenges Taiwanese government will drive ‘Smart Grid Plan for Public Housing’ (公共住宅智 慧電網計畫) and the electric use is computed by the ‘Time of Use Rates’ (TOU) from April, 2016. Electric bill could be expectantly halved, but some problems should be improved: 1) Inadequate Fund: The government will be bankruptcy if they converse traditional meters from tens of millions of households under the budget with nearly a hundred billion NTD. 2) Reluctant Conversion: It might be inconvenient for users to tie in TOU for energy saving in case of the adoption by smart meters.

58


Questionnaire REMARKS: ① → strongly disagree ② → (moderately) disagree ③ → neutral / undecided ④ → (moderately) agree ⑤ → strongly agree I.

Compatibility

< C>

1. Using the smart meter will fit well with my living.

①②③④⑤

2. Using smart meters is trendier than traditional ones.

①②③④⑤

3. Smart meter could adjust my electric use.

①②③④⑤

4. Electric data by smart meters could be my source to save energy.

①②③④⑤

5. Smart meter gives me a new experience.

①②③④⑤

II.

Relative Advantage

<RA>

6. Using smart meter helps me to manage electric use.

①②③④⑤

7. Smart meter meets my needs of living.

①②③④⑤

8. Smart meter provides personalised service (like electric use search).

①②③④⑤

9. Using smart meter gives me real-time usage information and service.

①②③④⑤

10. Smart meter is an ideal facility for real-time usage information.

①②③④⑤

III. Personal Innovativeness <PI> 11. I like something new.

①②③④⑤

12. I am mostly the first to try out new things.

①②③④⑤

13. I am nearly the LAST among my peers to follow the trend.

①②③④⑤

14. I do NOT use new products earlier than others.

①②③④⑤

IV. Price Consciousness

<PC>

15. I might take notice of the electric charge if using smart meter.

①②③④⑤

16. I may keep an eye on electricity bill by government after the installation of smart meter.

①②③④⑤

59


17. Saving electricity by smart meters is worthy.

①②③④⑤

18. I do NOT want to reduce the waste of electricity.

①②③④⑤

19. I would pay attention to electricity bill by smart meters.

①②③④⑤

20. I may think whether I should pay for the smart meter installed.

①②③④⑤

V.

Perceived Risk

< PR>

21. I worry about the unfavourable charge by smart meter.

①②③④⑤

22. I would be mad if smart meter could not reduce electricity bill.

①②③④⑤

23. I worry that electric use might be watched after adopting smart meter.

①②③④⑤

24. I concern that smart meter performs unstably due to the initial stage.

①②③④⑤

25. I might spend much time to adapt smart meter.

①②③④⑤

26. I am afraid I may be different from others if using smart meter.

①②③④⑤

VI. Perceived Behavioural Control <PBC> 27. I can gather relevant information on smart meter.

①②③④⑤

28. I could use smart meter without help.

①②③④⑤

VII. Attitude

<A>

29. Using smart meters is good.

①②③④⑤

30. Using smart meters is right.

①②③④⑤

31. Smart meters could advance the future living.

①②③④⑤

32. Smart meters could improve energy problems.

①②③④⑤

VIII.

Intention

<I>

33. I hope I could use smart meters in the future.

①②③④⑤

34. I am willing to use smart meters in the future.

①②③④⑤

35. I would recommend smart meters to others.

①②③④⑤

60


Basic Information 1) Sex: Female / Male / Transgender 2) Age: Under 20 years old / 20 ~40 years old / 40 ~60 years old / Over 60 Years old 3) Education: (Below) High School / Undergraduate / Postgraduate 4) Occupation: NPO [incl. legal entity, NGO] Public Service [duty, contract, intern, etc.] Farming [forestry, fishery, etc.] Industry Commerce [service, sales, etc.] Freelance [piecework, part-time, etc.] Student Others __________________________ 5) Residential Area in Taiwan: Islands (Lienchiang, Kinmen) Eastern (Hualien, Taitung) Southern (Penghu, Chiayi, Tainan, Kaohsiung, Pingdung) Central (Miaoli, Taichung, Changhua, Nantou, Yunlin) Northern (Yilan, Keelung, Taipei, New Taipei, Taoyuan, Hsinchu) 6) Housing Type: Separate House / Flats with Lift(s) / Flats without Lift / Others ______ 7) Number of Occupants: 1 person / 2 ~4 people / 4 ~ 7 people / Over 8 people 8) Freely leave your e-mail if you need the analytical result: ____________________ 9) Any comment is welcome:

The End Thank You Very Much for Your Time & Help!

61


Questionnaire (Traditional Chinese Version) 臺灣住戶對《智慧電表》的看法 URL → goo.gl/Azmv6Z 您好: 這是【台灣住戶對智慧電表建置看法】的研究調查,為了解民眾對政府改裝智慧 電表的意向。 希望能提供寶貴意見,以利學術發展。 很高興能協助此次研究。 問卷只要 5 ~ 7 分鐘,無標準答案,依現狀選合適答案;

均為匿名、嚴格保密,請放心作答。 謹祝

平安

國立臺南大學 科技管理碩士班 學生:凃偉義 電子信箱:m10325001@gm2.nutn.edu.tw 手機號碼:+886 911 569 716 指導老師:曾繁絹

62


智慧電表 填答前,請讀以下資訊: 簡介 1) 智慧電表是一種數位電表,家中用電能即時傳到住戶手機、電腦,方便用戶 隨時掌握用電狀況。 2) 相較於傳統電表,智慧電表高度自動化對電力系統有許多實質效益。 圖示(來源:臺灣 大同公司)

特點 1) 節能減碳:智慧電表提高用電效率,節省電力,每年可降低約 1 億噸的溫室 氣體。 2) 有效用電:智慧電表能了解住戶用電習慣,設計合適的電能管理措施,如增 加用電效能。 現況 2016 年 4 月政府要推「公共住宅智慧電網計畫」、依『時間電價』計算,電費 可望減半。但有些問題要改善: 1) 政府經費不足:新台幣近千億元預算下,政府要改裝全國上千萬住戶電表, 財政恐破產。 2) 住戶意願不高:政府若改裝智慧電表,用戶要配合『時間電價』才能省電費, 覺得麻煩。

63


問卷 非 常 不 同 意

不 同 意

沒 意 見

同 意

同 意

1. 使用智慧電表,很符合我目前的生活型態 2. 比起傳統電表,使用智慧電表更接近現在趨勢

□ □

□ □

□ □

□ □

□ □

3. 智慧電表可調整我用電習慣 4. 智慧電表用電資訊,能作為我節電依據 5. 智慧電表能帶來不一樣的使用體驗

□ □ □

□ □ □

□ □ □

□ □ □

□ □ □

□ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □

I.

相容性

II. 相對優勢 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

11. 12. 13. 14.

< Relative Advantage, RA >

< Personal Innovativeness, PI >

我喜歡新的人、事、物 我通常最先接觸新事物 在朋友中,我通常是【最晚】了解現在趨勢 我【不會】比其他人還要早使用新產品/服務

IV. 價格意識 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

< Compatibility, C >

使用智慧電表,有助我用電上管理 智慧電表能符合我的生活需求 智慧電表提供「用電查詢」等個人化服務 使用智慧電表,能立即掌握用電資訊 隨時得到用電數據,智慧電表可說是理想的設施

III. 個人創新

非 常

□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □

< Price Consciousness, PC >

電表如果改成智慧型,我很在意計價方式 智慧電表改裝後,我會注意政府計費方式 利用智慧電表省電,是很值得 我【不想】花心思來減少用電 智慧電表計算的電費,我會特別留意 我會考量,智慧電表是否自費安裝

64

□ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □


常 不 同 意

常 不 同 意

意 見

同 意

同 意

我擔心,智慧電表計費不划算 智慧電表省不到電,我會很生氣 採用智慧電表後,我怕用電狀況被監控 智慧電表才剛出現,我會擔心性能不穩

□ □ □ □

□ □ □ □

□ □ □ □

□ □ □ □

□ □ □ □

31. 我可能要花很多時間 - 適應智慧電表 32. 改裝智慧電表,讓我顯得跟別人不一樣

□ □

□ □

□ □

□ □

□ □

V. 認知風險 27. 28. 29. 30.

< Perceived Risk, PR >

VI. 認知行為控制 < Perceived Behavioural Control, PBC > 21. 我能蒐集智慧電表相關資訊 22. 沒人幫忙的話,我也會使用智慧電表

□ □

□ □

□ □

□ □

□ □

23. 我認為,使用智慧電表是好的

24. 我認為,裝設智慧電表是對的 25. 智慧電表能改善未來生活 26. 智慧電表能改善能源問題

□ □ □

□ □ □

□ □ □

□ □ □

□ □ □

□ □ □

□ □ □

□ □ □

□ □ □

□ □ □

VII.

VIII.

態度

意願

< Attitude, A >

< Intention, I >

33. 未來,我希望可以用到智慧電表 34. 未來,我非常願意用到智慧電表 35. 我會推薦其他人用智慧電表

65


基本資料 1) 2) 3) 4)

性別:女、男、跨性別 年齡:20 歲以下、21 ~ 40 歲、41 ~ 60 歲、61 歲以上 教育:高中職、大專校院、研究所 職業:非營利事業[法人、非政府組織]、 軍公教[服役、約聘、實習 …]、 農林漁牧業、 工業、 商業[服務業、零售 …]、 自由業[接案、兼職 …]、 學生、 其他 ________

5) 居住地區:外島[金門、連江]; 東部[花蓮、台東]; 南部[澎湖、嘉義、台南、高雄、屏東]; 中部[苗栗、台中、彰化、南投、雲林]; 北部[宜蘭、基隆、台北、新北、桃園、新竹] 6) 居住類型:透天厝、電梯大樓、無電梯公寓、其他 ________ 7) 居住人數:1 人、2 ~ 4 人、5 ~ 7 人、8 人以上 8) 如需【分析結果】,歡迎留下電子信箱:______________________________ 9) 任何疑問,歡迎反應:

問卷結束。 非常謝謝你的幫忙!

66

MBA  
New
Advertisement