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THEME EUROPAN 12

A D A P TA B L E CITY inserting the urban rhythms

LA VILLE A D A P TA B L E insĂŠrer les rythmes urbains


THEME EUROPAN 12 THEME EUROPAN 12: ADAPTABLE CITY 3

Adaptable city

SYNTHESIS OF LECTURES OF THE FORUM OF CITIES AND JURIES OSLO 4/5.11.2011 ON THE TOPIC OF ര“ THE ADAPTABLE CITY ”ര

17

Reference 2 dĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJĂŶĚĂĚĂƉƟŶŐƐƉĂĐĞƐ VESTA NELE ZAREH, architect, researcher LIA, Berlin (DE)

INTRODUCTION 9

Malleable city

Reference 3

LUC GWIAZDZINSKI, geographer

Resilience of an estate

urban planner, Grenoble (FR)

SEBASTIÀ JORNET, architect,

URBAN RHYTHMS AND ADAPTATION OF SPACES : 5 EXAMPLES 13

21

urban planner, Barcelona (ES) 25

^ŚƌŝŶŬŝŶŐƚŽďĞƩĞƌĚĞǀĞůŽƉ HELMUT RESCH, architect,

Reference 1

head of planning, Selb (DE)

WƵďůŝĐƐƉĂĐĞƐƚŚƌŽƵŐŚƚŚĞƉƌŝƐŵŽĨƟŵĞ LIZA FIOR, architect, muf architects, London (UK)

Reference 4

29

Reference 5 dĞŵƉŽƌĂůŝƟĞƐŽĨƚŚĞƵƌďĂŶƉƌŽũĞĐƚ MICHEL SIKORSKI, architect, XDGA yĂǀĞĞƌĞ'ĞLJƚĞƌƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƐ͕ƌƵƐƐĞůƐ;Ϳ

2


THEME EUROPAN 12 : LA VILLE ADAPTABLE 4

La ville adaptable

SYNTHESE DES CONFERENCES DU FORUM DES VILLES ET JURYS OSLO 4/5.11.2011 SUR LE THEME DE «LA VILLE ADAPTABLE»

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Référence 2 Espaces temporaires et adaptables VESTA NELE ZAREH, architecte, chercheur LIA, Berlin (DE)

INTRODUCTION 10

La ville malléable

Référence 3

LUC GWIAZDZINSKI, géographe

Résilience d’un grand ensemble

urbaniste, Grenoble (FR)

SEBASTIÀ JORNET, architecte,

RYTHMES URBAINS ET ADAPTATION DES ESPACES : 5 EXEMPLES 14

22

urbaniste, Barcelone (ES) 26

ZĠƚƌĠĐŝƌƉŽƵƌŵŝĞƵdžƐĞĚĠǀĞůŽƉƉĞƌ HELMUT RESCH, architecte,

Référence 1

responsable urbanisme, Selb (DE)

Espaces publics au prisme du temps LIZA FIOR, architecte, muf architects, Londres (GB)

Référence 4

30

Référence 5 dĞŵƉŽƌĂůŝƚĠƐĚƵƉƌŽũĞƚƵƌďĂŝŶ MICHEL SIKORSKI, architecte, y'yĂǀĞĞƌĞ'ĞLJƚĞƌƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƐ͕ Bruxelles (BE)

3


THEME EUROPAN 12 ADAPTABLE CITY 1- CITIES ON THE MOVE

ƒٛݮ½®›ÄãƒÄ—ƒ—ƒÖバ½›‘®ãù

ƵƌŽƉĞ͛ƐĐŝƟĞƐĂƌĞĞŶŐĂŐĞĚŝŶĂƌĂĚŝĐĂůƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ͗ƚŚĞLJŶĞĞĚ ƵƌŐĞŶƚůLJƚŽƌĞĚƵĐĞƚŚĞŝƌĞĐŽůŽŐŝĐĂůĨŽŽƚƉƌŝŶƚƚŽŚĞůƉƌĞƐŽůǀĞƚŚĞ ĞŶĞƌŐLJĐƌŝƐŝƐ͕ĐŽŵďĂƚƚŚĞŐƌĞĞŶŚŽƵƐĞĞīĞĐƚĂŶĚƉƌĞƐĞƌǀĞŶŽŶͲ ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ͘dŚŝƐƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶĂƉƉůŝĞƐďŽƚŚƚŽƚŚĞŝƌ morphology (form) and their metabolism (including all energy ĞdžƉĞŶĚŝƚƵƌĞͿ͕ĂŶĚŝƐŚŝŐŚůLJĚĞƉĞŶĚĞŶƚŽŶƚŚĞǁĂLJƐŽĨůŝǀŝŶŐƚŚĞLJ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ͘ dŽ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞ ƚŚŝƐ͕ Ăůů ƚŚĞƐĞ ĐŚĂŶŐĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ƚŽ ďĞ ƚŚŽƵŐŚƚ out quickly, and that is why Europan 12 proposes to explore the ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶŽĨƟŵĞǁŝƚŚĂǀŝĞǁƚŽŵĂŬŝŶŐƚŚĞĐŝƚLJŵŽƌĞĂĚĂƉƚĂďůĞ͘

dŚĞƐƉĞĐŝĮĐƉƌŝŽƌŝƚLJŽĨƚŚŝƐƐĞƐƐŝŽŶ͕ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ͕ŝŶƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐŽĨĂŶ ƵƌďĂŶͲĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĂů ƐĐĂůĞ͕ ŝƐ ƚŽ ĞdžƉůŽƌĞ ƟŵĞ ŝŶ ŝƚƐ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶ ƚŽ space by making the city resilient and adaptable.

Ù«ùã«Ã݃ė½®¥›‘ù‘½›ÝÊ¥çِƒÄÝփ‘›Ý dŚŝƐĞŶƚĂŝůƐ͕ĨŽƌĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ƉƌŽǀŝĚŝŶŐŶĞǁǁĂLJƐŽĨƐŚĂƌŝŶŐĐŽůůĞĐƟǀĞ ƐƉĂĐĞĂŶĚŵĞƚŚŽĚƐŽĨŐŽǀĞƌŶĂŶĐĞ͘dŚŝƐƌĞƋƵŝƌĞƐĂĐŚƌŽŶŽƚLJƉŝĐĂů ĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚ͕ďůĞŶĚŝŶŐƚŚĞƐƉĂƟĂůĂŶĚƚĞŵƉŽƌĂůĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶƐĂŶĚ͕ĨŽƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ ĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚŝŶŐ ƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐ ĨŽƌ ƐƉĂĐĞƐ͘ dŚŝƐ ĂůƐŽ ŵĞĂŶƐ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ Ă ƐĞŶƐŝƟǀĞ ĨŽƌŵ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ͕ ǁŚĞƌĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ƉůĂĐĞƐ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ƵƐĞĚ Ăƚ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ƟŵĞƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƌĞƚŚŝŶŬŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐƉĂĐĞƐ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĂƚ ƉĞƌƐƉĞĐƟǀĞ͘ dŚŝƐ ƌĂŝƐĞƐ ƚŚĞ ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ͞ŚŽƐƉŝƚĂůŝƚLJ͟ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶ ƐƉĂĐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞŝƌ transparency for users of the city. It is also important to think ĂďŽƵƚ ŝŶƚĞŶƐŝǀĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐ͕ƚŽ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚ ƚŚĞŵďĞƩĞƌ ǁŝƚŚƚŚĞƌĞĂůŝƟĞƐŽĨƚŽĚĂLJ͛ƐĐŝƚLJ͘/ƚŝƐĂůƐŽĂďŽƵƚĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌŝŶŐƚŚĞ ŵƵůƟƉůĞƵƐĞƐƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͕ĂŶĚŝŶƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌƚŚĞƋƵĞƐƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞƐŚĂƌŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ƌĞĐLJĐůŝŶŐ ŽĨ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ͕ ƚŽ ĂǀŽŝĚ ĞdžĐĞƐƐŝǀĞ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƐƉĂĐĞ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞƌĞďLJ ƚŽ ƉƌŽŵŽƚĞ Ă ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞ ĐŝƚLJ ďLJ ĞdžƉůŽŝƟŶŐ ƟŵĞŝŶŝƚƐĨƵůůƌĂŶŐĞ͘ /Ŷ ĨĂĐƚ͕ ƚŽĚĂLJ ŝƚ ƐĞĞŵƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ůĂŶĚ͕ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ŽĨ ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞ ŶĞĞĚƐ ƚŽ ďĞ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚ ŝŶ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƟŵĞĨƌĂŵĞƐ ŽĨ ƵƐĞ ĂŶĚ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ͘ /ŶĐŽƌƉŽƌĂƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶŽĨƟŵĞŝŶƚŽƵƌďĂŶƉŽůŝĐLJŝƐĂĨĂĐƚŽƌƚŚĂƚŶĞĞĚƐƚŽďĞ ǁŽƌŬĞĚ ŽŶ͕ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ŝƚ ĂīĞĐƚƐ ƚŚĞ Ϯ ƉƌŝŶĐŝƉĂů ĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞĐŽŶƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJĐŝƚLJ͗ƐƉƌĂǁůĂŶĚĨƌĂŐŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶ͘ dŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ŶŽǁ ƐƉƌĞĂĚƐ ŶŽƚ ŽŶůLJ ŝŶ ƐƉĂĐĞ ďƵƚ ŝŶ ƟŵĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ emerging feature of the modern city is that of one that is ĐŽŶƟŶƵŽƵƐůLJĂĐƟǀĞ͕Ϯϰͬϳ͘hƌďĂŶƐƉƌĂǁů͕ĨŽƌŝƚƐƉĂƌƚ͕ĂīĞĐƚƐŽƵƌ ĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞŽĨƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͕ǁŚŝĐŚĐĂŶĂůƐŽďĞƉĞƌĐĞŝǀĞĚŝŶƚĞƌŵƐŽĨ ƐĞŐƌĞŐĂƟŽŶ͘dŝŵĞƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞƌĞŇĞĐƚƐƚŚĞƌĞĂůŝƚLJŽĨƚŚĞĨƌĂŐŵĞŶƚĞĚ ĐŝƚLJ͕ĂƉŽůLJĐŚƌŽŶŝĐĐŝƚLJƚŚĂƚŽƉĞƌĂƚĞƐƚŽĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƟŵĞĨƌĂŵĞƐ͘ ^Ž ĨŽƌ ƵƌŽƉĂŶ ϭϮ͕ ƚŚĞ ĞŵƉŚĂƐŝƐ ŝƐ ŽŶ ƌĞŇĞĐƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƌŚLJƚŚŵƐ and life cycles of urban spaces so that they can adapt to change, ǁŝƚŚŽƵƚůŽƐŝŶŐƚŚĞŝƌŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ͕ĐĂŶƐůŽǁĚŽǁŶĂŶĚƐƉĞĞĚƵƉ͕ĂĚũƵƐƚ ƚŽ ĐLJĐůĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶƚĞdžƚ ŽĨ ĂŶ ƵŶĐĞƌƚĂŝŶ ĨƵƚƵƌĞ͘ ^Ž ŝƚ ŝƐ ĂďŽƵƚ ĂŶƟĐŝƉĂƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ŝŶĞǀŝƚĂďůĞ ŝŵƉĂĐƚƐ ŽĨ change, allowing a plurality of uses, but also being capable ŽĨ ŵĂŬŝŶŐ ĐƌĞĂƟǀĞ ƵƐĞ ŽĨ ǁŚĂƚ ĂůƌĞĂĚLJ ĞdžŝƐƚƐ͘ ŶĚ ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ĂĚũƵƐƟŶŐƚŽǁŚĂƚŝƐĂůƌĞĂĚLJƚŚĞƌĞǁŚŝůĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐǀŝƐŝŽŶƐŽĨƚŚĞ ƉŽƐƐŝďůĞƚŚĂƚƚĂŬĞĂĐĐŽƵŶƚŽĨďŽƚŚƉĞƌŵĂŶĞŶĐĞĂŶĚǀĂƌŝĂƟŽŶ͘

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ZĞƐŝůŝĞŶĐĞŝƐƚŚĞĐĂƉĂĐŝƚLJŽĨĂƐƉĂĐĞƚŽƌĞĐŽǀĞƌĂĨƵŶĐƟŽŶŽƌĂ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚĂŌĞƌĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐŝŶŐĂƚƌĂƵŵĂ͘ Adaptability is the quality of a space that can be easily adapted to harmonise with the changes of use that it undergoes or may undergo. dŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ŚĂƐ ƚŽ ƌĞŐĞŶĞƌĂƚĞ ĂŌĞƌ ĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐŝŶŐ ĚŝǀŝƐŝǀĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶƐ Žƌ ĂĐĐĞůĞƌĂƚĞ ƚŽ ĂĚũƵƐƚ ƚŽ ƌĂƉŝĚ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ Žƌ ĐŽŶǀĞƌƐĞůLJďĞƌĞǀŝƚĂůŝƐĞĚŝŶƚĞƌŵƐŽĨŝƚƵƐĞƐ͘dŽĚŽƚŚŝƐ͕ŚŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐ ŶĞĞĚ ƚŽ ĂĐƋƵŝƌĞ Ă ĐĂƉĂĐŝƚLJ ƚŽ ĂĚĂƉƚ ƚŽ ŶĞǁ ƟŵĞĨƌĂŵĞƐ ŽĨ ƵƐĞ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĂƌĞ ďĞƩĞƌ ĐŽŽƌĚŝŶĂƚĞĚ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞŵƐĞůǀĞƐ͘ dŚĞ ŶŽƟŽŶ ŽĨ ĂŶ ͞ĂĚĂƉƚĂďůĞ ĐŝƚLJ͟ ŝƐ ŽĨ Ă ĐŝƚLJ ƚŚĂƚ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ǁŽƌŬĞĚ ǁŝƚŚŽƵƚ ďƌĞĂŬŝŶŐ͕ ĐĂƉĂďůĞ ŽĨ ĞdžƚĞŶĚŝŶŐ ŝƚƐ ƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƌĞƚƌŝĞǀŝŶŐ ŝƚƐ ĨŽƌŵƐ͕ ŝŶ ƐƉĂĐĞ ĂŶĚ ƟŵĞ͘ /Ŷ ƚŚŝƐ ĐĂƐĞ͕ ƚŚĞ ƵŶĚĞƌůLJŝŶŐƋƵĞƐƟŽŶďĞĐŽŵĞƐ͗ŚŽǁĚŽLJŽƵŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐĞƟŵĞŝŶƚŽ ƵƌďĂŶƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐ͍

ÖÙʦكÃÛݐ›ãó››Ä½›¦ƒ‘ù͕®Äò›Äã®Êăė ٛò›ÙÝ®®½®ãù /Ŷ ƚĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞ͕ ŝƚ ŝƐ ůĞƐƐ Ă ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ŇĞdžŝďŝůŝƚLJ Žƌ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂůŝƚLJƚŚĂŶŽĨƐĐĞŶĂƌŝŽƐĨŽƌĂƉƉƌŽƉƌŝĂƚĞƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶƐ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ůĞŐĂĐLJ ;ƚŚĞ ŚŝƐƚŽƌLJ ŽĨ ƉůĂĐĞƐͿ͕ ŝŶǀĞŶƟŽŶ ;ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐƉĂƟĂů ĂƌƌĂŶŐĞŵĞŶƚƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂĐĐŽŵŵŽĚĂƚĞ Ă ƉůƵƌĂůŝƚLJ ŽĨ ƵƐĞƐͿ ĂŶĚ ƌĞǀĞƌƐŝďŝůŝƚLJ ;ƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐͿ͘ /ƚ ŝƐ ůĞƐƐ ĂďŽƵƚ technology than a method of establishing links between ŶĂƚƵƌĂů ĂŶĚ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚƐ ĂŶĚ ĮŶĚŝŶŐ ĐŽŵƉĞŶƐĂƟŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐ͘ dŚŝƐ ŵĞĂŶƐ͕ ĨŽƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ ƚŚĂƚ ƉůĂŶƐ ĨŽƌ ŶĞǁ buildings need to include measures for nature and landscape ĂŶĚ ŶĞǁ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐ ŶĞĞĚ ƚŽ ďĞ ĐĂƉĂďůĞ ŽĨ ŚĂƌŵŽŶŝƐŝŶŐ ǁŝƚŚ Ă ƐLJƐƚĞŵďLJĂĚĚŝŶŐŵĞĂŶŝŶŐĂŶĚƉƵƌƉŽƐĞ;ƌĞͲĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶͿ͘ dŽĂĐŚŝĞǀĞƚŚĞƐĞŽďũĞĐƟǀĞƐ͕ƟŵĞĂŶĚƚŚĞĞīĞĐƚƐŽĨƟŵĞŶĞĞĚƚŽ ďĞĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚĂŶĚŝŶĐŽƌƉŽƌĂƚĞĚŝŶƚŽĂƌĞƐƉŽŶƐŝďůĞĂŶĚŝŶǀĞŶƟǀĞ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐŽĨƵƌďĂŶƌŚLJƚŚŵƐ͘&ŽƌƚŚŝƐ͕ŽŶĞŶĞĞĚƐƚŽĞǀĂůƵĂƚĞͬĂƐƐĞƐƐ what is already there, and think about the future within an open ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞƚŚĂƚŝŶĐŽƌƉŽƌĂƚĞƐĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƟŵĞƐĐĂůĞƐ͗ĨŽƌĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ƌŚLJƚŚŵƐ ŽĨ ůŝĨĞ͕ ƚŚĞ ƌŚLJƚŚŵƐ ŽĨ ĚĂLJ ĂŶĚ ŶŝŐŚƚ͕ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐĞĂƐŽŶƐĂŶĚŽĨƐƵĐĐĞƐƐŝǀĞŐĞŶĞƌĂƟŽŶƐ͘


LA VILLE ADAPTABLE 1- DES VILLES EN MOUVEMENT >ĞƐ ǀŝůůĞƐ Ě͛ƵƌŽƉĞ ƐŽŶƚ ĞŶŐĂŐĠĞƐ ĚĂŶƐ ƵŶĞ ƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ƌĂĚŝĐĂůĞ ͗ ĞůůĞƐ ĚŽŝǀĞŶƚ ĂƵ ƉůƵƐ ǀŝƚĞ ĚŝŵŝŶƵĞƌ ůĞƵƌ ĞŵƉƌĞŝŶƚĞ ĠĐŽůŽŐŝƋƵĞ ƉŽƵƌ ĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵĞƌ ă ůĂ ƌĠƐŽůƵƟŽŶ ĚĞ ůĂ ĐƌŝƐĞ ĠŶĞƌŐĠƟƋƵĞ͕ăůĂůƵƩĞĐŽŶƚƌĞů͛ĞīĞƚĚĞƐĞƌƌĞ͕ăůĂƐĂƵǀĞŐĂƌĚĞĚĞƐ ƌĞƐƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ŶŽŶ ƌĞŶŽƵǀĞůĂďůĞƐ͘ ĞƩĞ ƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ĐŽŶĐĞƌŶĞ à la fois leur morphologie (forme) et leur métabolisme (entre ĂƵƚƌĞƐů͛ĞŶƐĞŵďůĞĚĞƐĚĠƉĞŶƐĞƐĠŶĞƌŐĠƟƋƵĞƐͿĞƚĞƐƚĨŽƌƚĞŵĞŶƚ ĚĠƉĞŶĚĂŶƚĞĚĞƐŵŽĚĞƐĚĞǀŝĞƋƵ͛ĞůůĞƐƉƌŽƉŽƐĞŶƚ͘WŽƵƌĐĞĨĂŝƌĞ il faut penser rapidement ces changements et c’est pour cela ƋƵ͛ƵƌŽƉĂŶϭϮƉƌŽƉŽƐĞĚĞƌĠŇĠĐŚŝƌăůĂƋƵĞƐƟŽŶĚƵƚĞŵƉƐĂĮŶ ĚĞƌĞŶĚƌĞůĂǀŝůůĞƉůƵƐĂĚĂƉƚĂďůĞ͘

Ùùã«Ã›Ý›ã‘ù‘½›Ý—›ò®›—›Ý›Ýփ‘›Ýçِƒ®ÄÝ ĞůĂ ƐƵƉƉŽƐĞ ƉĂƌ ĞdžĞŵƉůĞ ƉƌŽƉŽƐĞƌ ĚĞ ŶŽƵǀĞůůĞƐ ĨŽƌŵĞƐ ĚĞ ƉĂƌƚĂŐĞ ĚĞ ů͛ĞƐƉĂĐĞ ĐŽůůĞĐƟĨ Ğƚ ĚĞƐ ŵŽĚĂůŝƚĠƐ ĚĞ ŐŽƵǀĞƌŶĂŶĐĞ͘ Cela induit d’adopter une approche chronotopique, qui mêle les ĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶƐƐƉĂƟĂůĞƐĞƚƚĞŵƉŽƌĞůůĞƐĞƚĚ͛ĠƚĂďůŝƌƉĂƌĞdžĞŵƉůĞĚĞƐ ƉůĂŶƐ ƚĞŵƉŽƌĂŝƌĞƐ ĚĞƐ ĞƐƉĂĐĞƐ͘ ĞůĂ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĞ ĂƵƐƐŝ ĚĠǀĞůŽƉƉĞƌ ƵŶ ƵƌďĂŶŝƐŵĞ ƐĞŶƐŝďůĞ ƉĞƌŵĞƩĂŶƚ Ě͛ƵƟůŝƐĞƌ ĚŝīĠƌĞŶƚƐ ůŝĞƵdž ă ĚŝīĠƌĞŶƚƐŵŽŵĞŶƚƐ͕ĞŶƌĞƉĞŶƐĞƌůĂƋƵĂůŝƚĠĚĞĐĞƐĞƐƉĂĐĞƐĚĂŶƐ ĐĞƩĞ ƉĞƌƐƉĞĐƟǀĞ͘ ĞůĂ ŝŶƚĞƌƌŽŐĞ ͞ů͛ŚŽƐƉŝƚĂůŝƚĠ͟ ĚĞƐ ĞƐƉĂĐĞƐ ƵƌďĂŝŶƐĞƚůĞƵƌůŝƐŝďŝůŝƚĠƉŽƵƌůĞƐƵƟůŝƐĂƚĞƵƌƐĚĞůĂǀŝůůĞ͘/ůŝŵƉŽƌƚĞ ĂƵƐƐŝ ĚĞ ƉƌĞŶĚƌĞ ĞŶ ĐŽŵƉƚĞ ůĞƐ ƉƌŽũĞƚƐ Ě͛ĂŵĠŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚƐ ŝŶƚĞŶƐŝĨƐ͕ ƉŽƵƌ ŵŝĞƵdž ůĞƐ ĂƌƟĐƵůĞƌ ĂǀĞĐ ůĞƐ ƌĠĂůŝƚĠƐ ĚĞ ůĂ ǀŝůůĞ Ě͛ĂƵũŽƵƌĚ͛ŚƵŝ͘/ůƐ͛ĂŐŝƚĂƵƐƐŝĚĞƌĠŇĠĐŚŝƌƐƵƌůĞƐŵƵůƟͲƵƐĂŐĞƐĚĞ ůĂǀŝůůĞĞƚŶŽƚĂŵŵĞŶƚƐƵƌůĂƋƵĞƐƟŽŶĚƵƉĂƌƚĂŐĞĞƚĚƵƌĞĐLJĐůĂŐĞ ĚĞƐ ďąƟŵĞŶƚƐ ƋƵŝ ƉĞƌŵĞƩƌĂŝĞŶƚ Ě͛ĠǀŝƚĞƌ ƵŶĞ ƚƌŽƉ ŐƌĂŶĚĞ ĐŽŶƐŽŵŵĂƟŽŶ Ě͛ĞƐƉĂĐĞ Ğƚ ĚŽŶĐ ĚĞ ĨĂǀŽƌŝƐĞƌ ƵŶĞ ǀŝůůĞ ĚƵƌĂďůĞ ĞŶũŽƵĂŶƚƐƵƌƚŽƵƚĞůĂƉĂůĞƩĞĚƵƚĞŵƉƐ͘ /ůƐĞŵďůĞĞŶĞīĞƚŶĠĐĞƐƐĂŝƌĞĂƵũŽƵƌĚ͛ŚƵŝĚ͛ĂďŽƌĚĞƌůĂƋƵĞƐƟŽŶ ĚĞƐ ƚĞƌƌŝƚŽŝƌĞƐ͕ ĚĞ ůĂ ǀŝůůĞ Ğƚ ĚĞ ů͛ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞ ă ƉĂƌƟƌ ĚĞƐ ƚĞŵƉŽƌĂůŝƚĠƐ ĚĞƐ ƵƐĂŐĞƐ Ğƚ ĐĞůůĞƐ ĚƵ ƉƌŽũĞƚ ƵƌďĂŝŶ͘ >Ă ƉƌŝƐĞ ĞŶ ĐŽŵƉƚĞĚƵƚĞŵƉƐĚĂŶƐůĞƐƉŽůŝƟƋƵĞƐƵƌďĂŝŶĞƐĚŽŝƚƐĞĚĠǀĞůŽƉƉĞƌ ĐĂƌ ŝů ĂīĞĐƚĞ ůĞƐ Ϯ ƉƌŝŶĐŝƉĂůĞƐ ĐĂƌĂĐƚĠƌŝƐƟƋƵĞƐ ĚĞ ůĂ ǀŝůůĞ ĐŽŶƚĞŵƉŽƌĂŝŶĞ͗ů͛ĠƚĂůĞŵĞŶƚĞƚů͛ĠĐůĂƚĞŵĞŶƚ;ĨƌĂŐŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶͿ͘ ^ŝůĂǀŝůůĞƐ͛ĠƚĂůĞĚĂŶƐů͛ĞƐƉĂĐĞ͕ĞůůĞůĞĨĂŝƚĂƵƐƐŝĚĂŶƐůĞƚĞŵƉƐĞƚůĂ ĮŐƵƌĞĚĞůĂǀŝůůĞĐŽŶƚĞŵƉŽƌĂŝŶĞƋƵŝƐĞĚĞƐƐŝŶĞĞƐƚůĂǀŝůůĞĂĐƟǀĞ ĞŶ ĐŽŶƟŶƵ͕ ϮϰŚͬϮϰŚ͘ů͛ĠĐůĂƚĞŵĞŶƚ ůƵŝ ĂīĞĐƚĞ ŶŽƚƌĞ ǀĠĐƵ ĚĞ ůĂ ǀŝůůĞ͕ƋƵŝƉĞƵƚġƚƌĞĠŐĂůĞŵĞŶƚůƵƐŽƵƐĨŽƌŵĞĚĞƐĠŐƌĠŐĂƟŽŶ͘>Ğ ƚĞŵƉƐĞƐƚĂůŽƌƐăů͛ŝŵĂŐĞĚĞůĂǀŝůůĞĠĐůĂƚĠĞ͕ǀŝůůĞƉŽůLJĐŚƌŽŶŝƋƵĞ ƋƵŝĨŽŶĐƟŽŶŶĞăĚŝīĠƌĞŶƚƐŚŽƌĂŝƌĞƐ͘ /ůƐ͛ĂŐŝƚĚŽŶĐƉŽƵƌƵƌŽƉĂŶϭϮĚĞŵĞƩƌĞů͛ĂĐĐĞŶƚƐƵƌůĂƉƌŝƐĞĞŶ ĐŽŵƉƚĞ ĚĞƐ ƌLJƚŚŵĞƐ Ğƚ ĚĞƐ ĐLJĐůĞƐ ĚĞ ǀŝĞ ĚĞƐ ĞƐƉĂĐĞƐ ƵƌďĂŝŶƐ ĂĮŶ ƋƵ͛ŝůƐ ƉƵŝƐƐĞŶƚ Ɛ͛ĂĚĂƉƚĞƌ ĂƵ ĐŚĂŶŐĞŵĞŶƚ ƐĂŶƐ ƉĞƌĚƌĞ ůĞƵƌ ƐƉĠĐŝĮĐŝƚĠ͕ ƋƵ͛ŝůƐ ƉƵŝƐƐĞŶƚ ƌĂůĞŶƟƌ Ğƚ ĂĐĐĠůĠƌĞƌ͕ ĂƌƟĐƵůĞƌ ůĞƐ ĐLJĐůĞƐ Ğƚ ůĞƐ ŵƵƚĂƟŽŶƐ ĨĂĐĞ ă ƵŶ ĂǀĞŶŝƌ ŝŶĐĞƌƚĂŝŶ͘ /ů Ɛ͛ĂŐŝƚ ĚŽŶĐ Ě͛ĂŶƟĐŝƉĞƌ ůĞƐ ŝŵƉĂĐƚƐ ŝŶĠǀŝƚĂďůĞƐ ĚĞƐ ĐŚĂŶŐĞŵĞŶƚƐ͕ ĚĞ

ƉĞƌŵĞƩƌĞ ƵŶĞ ƉůƵƌĂůŝƚĠ Ě͛ƵƐĂŐĞƐ ŵĂŝƐ ĂƵƐƐŝ Ě͛ġƚƌĞ ĐĂƉĂďůĞ Ě͛ŚĠƌŝƚĞƌĚĞŵĂŶŝğƌĞĐƌĠĂƟǀĞ͘ƚĚŽŶĐĚĞƐ͛ĂũƵƐƚĞƌăĐĞƋƵŝĞƐƚ ĚĠũăůăƚŽƵƚĞŶĚĠǀĞůŽƉƉĂŶƚĚĞƐǀŝƐŝŽŶƐĚĞƉŽƐƐŝďůĞĂĐĐŽƌĚĂŶƚůĞƐ ƉĞƌŵĂŶĞŶĐĞƐĞƚůĞƐǀĂƌŝĂƟŽŶƐ͘

ò®½½›ٛݮ½®›Ä㛛プƒÖバ½› >͛ĞŶũĞƵ ƐƉĠĐŝĮƋƵĞ ĚĞ ĐĞƩĞ ƐĞƐƐŝŽŶ ĞƐƚ ĚŽŶĐ͕ ĚĂŶƐ ůĞƐ ƉƌŽũĞƚƐ Ě͛ĠĐŚĞůůĞ ƵƌďĂŶŽͲĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĂůĞ͕ Ě͛ĞdžƉůŽƌĞƌ ůĞ ƚĞŵƉƐ ĚĂŶƐ ƐĞƐ ƌĂƉƉŽƌƚƐăů͛ĞƐƉĂĐĞĞŶƌĞŶĚĂŶƚůĂǀŝůůĞƌĠƐŝůŝĞŶƚĞĞƚĂĚĂƉƚĂďůĞ͘ La résilience est la capacité d’un espace à récupérer un ĨŽŶĐƟŽŶŶĞŵĞŶƚ ŽƵ ƵŶ ĚĠǀĞůŽƉƉĞŵĞŶƚ ĂƉƌğƐ ĂǀŽŝƌ ƐƵďŝ ƵŶ ƚƌĂƵŵĂƟƐŵĞ͘ >͛ĂĚĂƉƚĂďŝůŝƚĠ ĞƐƚ ůĂ ƋƵĂůŝƚĠ Ě͛ƵŶ ĞƐƉĂĐĞ ƋƵŝ ƉĞƵƚ ġƚƌĞ ŵŽĚŝĮĠ ĂŝƐĠŵĞŶƚ ĞŶ ŚĂƌŵŽŶŝĞ ĂǀĞĐ ůĞƐ ĐŚĂŶŐĞŵĞŶƚƐ ĂƵdžƋƵĞůƐ ƐŽŶ ƵƟůŝƐĂƟŽŶĞƐƚƐŽƵŵŝƐĞŽƵƉĞƵƚġƚƌĞƐŽƵŵŝƐĞ͘ >ĂǀŝůůĞĚŽŝƚƐĞƌĠŐĠŶĠƌĞƌĂƉƌğƐĂǀŽŝƌĨĂŝƚů͛ŽďũĞƚĚ͛ŝŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ ƵƌďĂŶŝƐƟƋƵĞƐĐůŝǀĂŶƚĞƐ͕ŽƵƐ͛ĂĚĂƉƚĞƌăƵŶĞĂĐĐĠůĠƌĂƟŽŶĚĞƐŽŶ ĚĠǀĞůŽƉƉĞŵĞŶƚŽƵĂƵĐŽŶƚƌĂŝƌĞƐĞƌĞǀŝƚĂůŝƐĞƌůŽƌƐƋƵĞƐĞƐƵƐĂŐĞƐ ƐŽŶƚŽďƐŽůğƚĞƐ͘DĂŝƐƉŽƵƌƌĠĂůŝƐĞƌĐĞƐĞŶũĞƵdž͕ůĞƐƉƌŽũĞƚƐƵƌďĂŝŶƐ ĚŽŝǀĞŶƚ ĂĐƋƵĠƌŝƌ ƵŶĞ ĐĂƉĂĐŝƚĠ Ě͛ĂĚĂƉƚĂƟŽŶ ă ĚĞƐ ŶŽƵǀĞůůĞƐ temporalités d’usages qui soient mieux coordonnées entre elles. DĂŝƐƉŽƵƌĐĞůĂ͕ůĞƐƉƌŽũĞƚƐƵƌďĂŝŶƐĚŽŝǀĞŶƚĂĐƋƵĠƌŝƌƵŶĞĐĂƉĂĐŝƚĠ Ě͛ĂĚĂƉƚĂƟŽŶ ă ĚĞƐ ŶŽƵǀĞůůĞƐ ƚĞŵƉŽƌĂůŝƚĠƐ Ě͛ƵƐĂŐĞƐ ŵŝĞƵdž coordonnées entre elles. ͨ>ĂŶŽƟŽŶĚĞ͞ǀŝůůĞĂĚĂƉƚĂďůĞ͟ĞƐƚĐĞůůĞĚ͛ƵŶĞǀŝůůĞƋƵĞů͛ŽŶƉĞƵƚ façonner sans qu’elle se rompe, capable d’étendre ses possibles et de reprendre ses formes, dans l’espace et le temps. » La ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƐŽƵƐͲũĂĐĞŶƚĞĚĞǀŝĞŶƚĂůŽƌƐ͗ĐŽŵŵĞŶƚŵĞƩƌĞĚƵƚĞŵƉƐ ĚĂŶƐůĞƐƉƌŽũĞƚƐƵƌďĂŝŶƐ͍

—›ÝÖÙʦكÃÛÝ›ÄãٛÛÃʮ͕ٛ®Äò›Äã®ÊÄ ›ãٛò›ÙÝ®®½®ã› ƵŶŝǀĞĂƵĚƵƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞ͕Đ͛ĞƐƚŵŽŝŶƐƵŶĞƋƵĞƐƟŽŶĚĞŇĞdžŝďŝůŝƚĠ ŽƵ ĚĞ ĨŽŶĐƟŽŶŶĂůŝƚĠ ƋƵĞ ĚĞ ƐĐĠŶĂƌŝŽƐ ĚĞ ƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶƐ ĂƉƉƌŽƉƌŝĠĞƐ ĞŶƚƌĞ ŵĠŵŽŝƌĞ ;ŚŝƐƚŽŝƌĞ ĚĞƐ ůŝĞƵdžͿ͕ ŝŶǀĞŶƟŽŶ ;ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶ ĚĞƐ ĚŝƐƉŽƐŝƟĨƐ ƐƉĂƟĂƵdžͿ Ğƚ ƌĠǀĞƌƐŝďŝůŝƚĠ ;ĂŵĠŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚƐ ƚĞŵƉŽƌĂŝƌĞƐͿ͘ ͛ĞƐƚ ŵŽŝŶƐ ƵŶĞ ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶ ĚĞ technologie qu’une méthode pour établir des liens entre les ŵŝůŝĞƵdž ŶĂƚƵƌĞůƐ Ğƚ ĐƵůƚƵƌĞůƐ Ğƚ ƚƌŽƵǀĞƌ ĚĞƐ ĐŽŵƉĞŶƐĂƟŽŶƐ Ğƚ ĞŶĐŚĂŠŶĞŵĞŶƚƐ͘ĞůĂƐŝŐŶŝĮĞƉĂƌĞdžĞŵƉůĞƋƵĞƐŝů͛ŽŶƉƌĠǀŽŝƚĚĞ ŶŽƵǀĞůůĞƐĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶƐ͕ ŝů ĨĂƵƚ ƉƌĠǀŽŝƌ ĂƵƐƐŝ ĚĞƐŵĞƐƵƌĞƐƉŽƵƌ ůĂ ŶĂƚƵƌĞ Ğƚ ůĞ ƉĂLJƐĂŐĞ͕ Ğƚ ůĂ ĐĂƉĂĐŝƚĠ ĚĞƐ ŶŽƵǀĞĂƵdž ƉƌŽũĞƚƐ ă Ɛ͛ŝŶƐĠƌĞƌ ĚĂŶƐ ƵŶ ƐLJƐƚğŵĞ ĞŶ ĂũŽƵƚĂŶƚ ĚƵ ƐĞŶƐ Ğƚ ƵŶĞ ĮŶĂůŝƚĠ (reliance). WŽƵƌƉĂƌǀĞŶŝƌăĐĞƐŽďũĞĐƟĨƐ͕ŝůĨĂƵƚƉƌĞŶĚƌĞůĂŵĞƐƵƌĞĚƵƚĞŵƉƐ Ğƚ ĚĞ ƐĞƐ ĞīĞƚƐ͕ Ğƚ ů͛ŝŶƚĠŐƌĞƌ ĚĂŶƐ ƵŶĞ ĂŶĂůLJƐĞ ĚĞƐ ƌLJƚŚŵĞƐ ƵƌďĂŝŶƐ Ͳ ƌĞƐƉŽŶƐĂďůĞ Ğƚ ŝŶǀĞŶƟǀĞ͘ WŽƵƌ ĐĞůĂ͕ ŝů ĞƐƚ ŶĠĐĞƐƐĂŝƌĞ Ě͛ĠǀĂůƵĞƌͬĂƉƉƌĠĐŝĞƌĐĞƋƵŝĞdžŝƐƚĞĞƚĚĞƉĞŶƐĞƌĂƵĚĞǀĞŶŝƌĚĂŶƐ

5


THEME EUROPAN 12 2- SELECTION CRITERIA FOR EUROPAN 12 SITES ƒ‘‘›½›Ùƒã›—ÊÙʐÝʽ›ã›Ý®ã›Ý dŚŝƐĨƵƚƵƌĞͲĚŝƌĞĐƚĞĚĐƵůƚƵƌĞĞŵƉŚĂƐŝƐĞƐƚŚĞƉƌŽĐĞƐƐĞƐŽĨŵĞƚĂŵŽƌƉŚŽƐŝƐ ĂƚǁŽƌŬŽŶĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƚLJƉĞƐŽĨƐŝƚĞƐĂŶĚĐŽŶƐƟƚƵƚĞƐĂĨƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬǁŝƚŚŝŶ ǁŚŝĐŚƚŽůŽŽŬĨŽƌƐŝƚĞƐĨŽƌƚŚĞƵƌŽƉĂŶϭϮĐŽŵƉĞƟƟŽŶ͗ ͲƐŝƚĞƐƚŚĂƚĂƌĞĞdžƉŽƐĞĚƚŽĂĐĐĞůĞƌĂƟŽŶŽƌƚŚĞŶĞĐĞƐƐŝƚLJŽĨĐŚĂŶŐĞ ĂŶĚĂƌĞƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞƚŚƌĞĂƚĞŶĞĚŽƌƐƟŵƵůĂƚĞĚďLJƚŚŽƐĞĐŚĂŶŐĞƐ͖ ͲƐŝƚĞƐǁŚŽƐĞƵƐĞƐŚĂǀĞďĞĐŽŵĞŽďƐŽůĞƚĞĂŶĚǁŚŽƐĞƉŽƚĞŶƟĂů ŶĞĞĚ ƚŽ ďĞ ƌĞƚŚŽƵŐŚƚ ŝŶ ƚĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ůŝĨĞ ĐLJĐůĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŶĂƚƵƌĂů ĂŶĚ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͕ ĂŶĚ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĂƌĞ ƐĞĞŬŝŶŐ ƚŽ ĞŶŚĂŶĐĞĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐ͖ ͲƐŝƚĞƐƚŚĂƚĂƌĞƚƌĂƵŵĂƟƐĞĚĂƐĂƌĞƐƵůƚŽĨƉƌĞǀŝŽƵƐďĂĚĚĞĐŝƐŝŽŶƐ ƚŚĂƚŚĂǀĞŐĞŶĞƌĂƚĞĚĚŝǀŝƐŝŽŶƐ͕ƐĞŐƌĞŐĂƟŽŶ͕ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ͘

ÖÙʦكÃÛãùÖ›Ý dŚĞŝĚĞĂŝƐƚŽĂƌƟĐƵůĂƚĞƚŚĞƐĞƐŝƚĞĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐǁŝƚŚĂŶĂůLJƟĐĂů ĨƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬƐ ŝŶ ǁŚŝĐŚ ƵƌďĂŶ ĂŶĚ ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĂů ƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐ ĂƌĞ ĐŽŶĐĞŝǀĞĚĂƌŽƵŶĚůŝŶĞƐŽĨĨŽƌĐĞƚŚĂƚĐĂŶŝŶĐŽƌƉŽƌĂƚĞƚŚĞŶŽƟŽŶ ŽĨƟŵĞĂŶĚĞǀŽůƵƟŽŶ͗ ͲƐŽƚŚĂƚƚŚĞƐƉĂĐĞĂĚĂƉƚƐƚŽĐŚĂŶŐĞƐŽĨƵƐĞ͕ƚŽŵŽǀĞƚŽǁĂƌĚƐ ŐƌĞĂƚĞƌƵƌďĂŶŝƚLJ͖ Ͳ ƐŽ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ƐƉĂĐĞ ĐĂŶ ĂĐĐŽŵŵŽĚĂƚĞ ƐĞǀĞƌĂů ƐƵĐĐĞƐƐŝǀĞ ƵƐĞƐ͕ ƚŽ ŵŽǀĞ ƚŽǁĂƌĚƐ ŐƌĞĂƚĞƌ ŝŶƚĞŶƐŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ŵŽƌĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂů ĞŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚŽĨůĂŶĚ͖ ͲƐŽƚŚĂƚƐƉĂĐĞĐĂŶĞǀŽůǀĞŽǀĞƌƟŵĞĂƌŽƵŶĚƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĞƐ͕ ďƵƚǁŝƚŚƚŚĞĐĂƉĂĐŝƚLJƚŽĂĚũƵƐƚƚŽƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐƵŶƉƌĞĚŝĐƚĂďŝůŝƚLJ͘

ݑƒ½›Ý͗Ýãك㛦ù͕®—›ƒÝƒÄ—ÖÙʹ›‘ãÝ dŚĞ ĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ ŝŶŚĞƌĞŶƚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐ͕ ŶŽƚ ƚŽ ƐĂLJ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƐƉĞĐŝĮĐƉƌŽďůĞŵƐŽĨĞĂĐŚƉĂƌƟĐŝƉĂƟŶŐƵƌŽƉĞĂŶĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ͕ŵĞĂŶƐ ƚŚĂƚ ϯ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ƐĐĂůĞƐ ŶĞĞĚ ƚŽ ďĞ ĚŝƐƟŶŐƵŝƐŚĞĚ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ ƐƵƌƌŽƵŶĚŝŶŐĂƌĞĂĂŶĚƚŚĞƐƉĞĐŝĮĐůŽĐĂƟŽŶ͗ ĂͲ global strategic scale (the scale communicated to the ĐŽŵƉĞƟƚŽƌƐͿ͘ dŚĞ ŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ ĂƌĞĂ ;ƐƉĂƟĂů ĐŽŶƵƌďĂƟŽŶ ĐŽŶƐŝƐƟŶŐ ŽĨ autonomous and interlinked urban units) and the city (urban ƐƉĂĐĞŽĨĂĐƟǀŝƚLJĂŶĚŚĂďŝƚĂƚǁŝƚŚĂĚŝǀĞƌƐĞŵŝdžͿ͖ ďͲideas scale;ƐĐĂůĞƵƐĞĚďLJĐŽŵƉĞƟƚŽƌƐƚŽĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚƚŚĞƐĞƚŽĨ ƉƌŽďůĞŵƐĨŽƌƌĞƐŽůƵƟŽŶͿ͘ dŚĞŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌŚŽŽĚ͕ŝƚƐƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌŝĂůĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĂŶƚƐĂŶĚŝƚƐƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐ ǁŝƚŚŝƚƐĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͖ ĐͲ urban and architectural project scale (focus of the design process). dŚĞĞŵĞƌŐŝŶŐƵƌďĂŶĨƌĂŐŵĞŶƚ͖

6

®Ä¥ÊÙÃã®ÊăÊçã㫛Ý®ã›Ý dŚĞƐĞƐĐĂůĞƐĐŽƌƌĞƐƉŽŶĚƚŽƐƉĂĐĞƐŽĨĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƐŝnjĞƐ͕ǁŚŝĐŚǁŝůů ŶĞĞĚƚŽďĞĚĞĮŶĞĚƉƌĞĐŝƐĞůLJĨŽƌĞĂĐŚƐŝƚĞĂŶĚŽŶƚŚĞďĂƐŝƐŽĨƚŚĞ ĐŽŶƚĞdžƚƐƉƌŽǀŝĚĞĚ͘ Each Europan 12 site pack will therefore contain 3 types of ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶĨŽƌĞŶƚƌĂŶƚƐ͕ĐŽƌƌĞƐƉŽŶĚŝŶŐƚŽƚŚĞϯƐĐĂůĞƐ͗ Ͳ ƚŚĞ ƉŽůŝƟĐĂů ƉƌŝŽƌŝƟĞƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJ Žƌ ĐŽŶƵƌďĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ terms of sustainability (economic, social and cultural) together ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ŵĂũŽƌ ƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌŝĂů ĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĂŶƚƐ ;ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐ͕ ƵƐĞƐ͕ density, etc.), whether current or future. ͲƚŚĞƐƉĞĐŝĮĐƐŽĨƚŚĞĂƌĞĂǁŚĞƌĞƚŚĞƐŝƚĞŝƐůŽĐĂƚĞĚĂŶĚƚŚĞŵĂũŽƌ ĨĂĐƚŽƌƐĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶŝŶŐŝƚƐƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ͕ŝŶƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌǁŝƚŚƌĞŐĂƌĚ to its urban rhythms, whether in terms of uses or of staged ƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶŽǀĞƌƟŵĞ͘ ͲƚŚĞĂĐƚƵĂůƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐŝƚĞǁŚĞƌĞŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶƐĂƌĞůŝŬĞůLJƚŽŽĐĐƵƌĂŌĞƌ ƚŚĞĐŽŵƉĞƟƟŽŶ͕ǁŝƚŚĂůůƚŚĞŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶŶĞĞĚĞĚƚŽƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐĂŶĚƚŚĞĚĞƐŝƌĞĚĐŚĂŶŐĞƐ͕ĂŶĚĂƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞ ŚŝŐŚůŝŐŚƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͛Ɛ ƉƌŝŽƌŝƟĞƐ ŝŶ ƚĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƟŵĞĨƌĂŵĞƐ of use.


ƵŶƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞŽƵǀĞƌƚŝŶƚĠŐƌĂŶƚĚŝīĠƌĞŶƚĞƐĠĐŚĞůůĞƐĚĞƚĞŵƉƐ͗ ƉĂƌ ĞdžĞŵƉůĞ͕ ůĞƐ ĚŝīĠƌĞŶƚƐ ƌLJƚŚŵĞƐ ĚĞƐ ŵŽĚĞƐ ĚĞ ǀŝĞ͕ ĚƵ ũŽƵƌ ĞƚĚĞůĂŶƵŝƚ͕ĚĞƐƐĂŝƐŽŶƐĞƚĐĞƵdžĚĞƐŐĠŶĠƌĂƟŽŶƐƋƵŝƐĞƐƵŝǀĞŶƚ͘

ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵŝƌĞƵŶĞƉƌŽďůĠŵĂƟƋƵĞͿ >ĞƋƵĂƌƟĞƌ͕ƐĞƐĚĠƚĞƌŵŝŶĂŶƚƐƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌŝĂƵdžĞƚůĞƐƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐăƐŽŶ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŶĞŵĞŶƚ͖

2- CRITERES POUR LA SELECTION DES SITES D’EUROPAN 12

ĐͲ échelle de projet urbain et architectural ;ĐĞůůĞƋƵŝƌĞůğǀĞĚĞ ůĂĐŽŶĐĞƉƟŽŶͿ Le fragment urbain qui se dessine.

Ý®ã›Ýƒ‘‘›½›½›Ù›Ý͕ʐÝʽ›ã›ÝÊçãكçÃã®Ý›Ý

®Ä¥ÊÙÃã®ÊÄÝçÙ½›ÝÝ®ã›Ý

ĞƩĞ ĐƵůƚƵƌĞ ĚƵ ĚĞǀĞŶŝƌ ŵĞƚ ů͛ĂĐĐĞŶƚ ƐƵƌ ůĞƐ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐƵƐ ĚĞ ŵĠƚĂŵŽƌƉŚŽƐĞĞŶũĞƵĚĂŶƐĚŝīĠƌĞŶƚƐƚLJƉĞƐĚĞƐŝƚĞƐĞƚƵŶĐĂĚƌĞ ƉŽƵƌůĂƌĞĐŚĞƌĐŚĞĚĞƐƐŝƚĞƐĚƵĐŽŶĐŽƵƌƐƵƌŽƉĂŶϭϮ͗

ĞƐ ĠĐŚĞůůĞƐ ĐŽƌƌĞƐƉŽŶĚĞŶƚ ă ĚĞƐ ƚĂŝůůĞƐ ĚŝīĠƌĞŶƚĞƐ Ě͛ĞƐƉĂĐĞƐ͕ ƋƵ͛ŝů ĂƉƉĂƌƟĞŶĚƌĂ ĚĞ ĚĠĮŶŝƌ ƉƌĠĐŝƐĠŵĞŶƚ ƉŽƵƌ ĐŚĂƋƵĞ ƐŝƚĞ Ğƚ ƐƵŝǀĂŶƚůĞƐĐŽŶƚĞdžƚĞƐƉƌŽƉŽƐĠƐ͘

Ͳ ĚĞƐ ƐŝƚĞƐ ƐŽƵŵŝƐ ă ƵŶĞ ĂĐĐĠůĠƌĂƟŽŶ ŽƵ ă ůĂ ŶĠĐĞƐƐŝƚĠ ĚĞ ĐŚĂŶŐĞŵĞŶƚƐĞƚƋƵŝƐĞƚƌŽƵǀĞŶƚĂĐƟǀĠƐƉĂƌĐĞƐĐŚĂŶŐĞŵĞŶƚƐ͖

Chaque dossier de site d’Europan 12 comprendra donc 3 ƚLJƉĞƐ Ě͛ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ƉŽƵƌ ůĞƐ ĐŽŶĐƵƌƌĞŶƚƐ ĐŽƌƌĞƐƉŽŶĚĂŶƚ ĂƵdž ϯ ĠĐŚĞůůĞƐ͗

Ͳ ĚĞƐ ƐŝƚĞƐ ĂƵdž ƵƐĂŐĞƐ ŽďƐŽůğƚĞƐ ĚŽŶƚ ŝů ĨĂƵƚ ƌĞƉĞŶƐĞƌ ůĞƐ ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůŝƚĠƐ ă ƉĂƌƟƌ ĚĞƐ ĚŝīĠƌĞŶƚƐ ĐLJĐůĞƐ ĚĞ ǀŝĞ ĚĞ ů͛ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŶĞŵĞŶƚŶĂƚƵƌĞůĞƚĐƵůƚƵƌĞů͕ĞƚƋƵŝĐŚĞƌĐŚĞŶƚăĂŵĠůŝŽƌĞƌ ůĞƐůŝĞŶƐ͖ Ͳ ĚĞƐ ƐŝƚĞƐ ƚƌĂƵŵĂƟƐĠƐ ĞŶ ƌĂŝƐŽŶ ĚĞ ŵĂƵǀĂŝƐĞƐ ĚĠĐŝƐŝŽŶƐ ƉƌĠĂůĂďůĞƐƋƵŝŽŶƚƉƌŽĚƵŝƚĚĞƐĐůŽŝƐŽŶŶĞŵĞŶƚƐ͕ĚĞƐƐĠŐƌĠŐĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ĚĞƐƉŽůůƵƟŽŶƐ͘

ãù֛Ý—›ÖÙʦكÃÛ /ů Ɛ͛ĂŐŝƚ Ě͛ĂƐƐŽĐŝĞƌ ă ĐĞƐ ĐĂƌĂĐƚĠƌŝƐƟƋƵĞƐ ĚĞ ƐŝƚĞƐ ĚĞƐ ĐĂĚƌĞƐ ƉƌŽďůĠŵĂƟƋƵĞƐ ƋƵŝ ĞdžŝŐĞŶƚ ĚĞ ƉĞŶƐĞƌ ĚĞƐ ƉƌŽũĞƚƐ ƵƌďĂŝŶƐ Ğƚ architecturaux autour de lignes de force dans lesquelles on ƉƵŝƐƐĞŝŶƚĠŐƌĞƌůĂŶŽƟŽŶĚĞƚĞŵƉƐĞƚĚ͛ĠǀŽůƵƟŽŶ͗ ͲƉŽƵƌƋƵĞů͛ĞƐƉĂĐĞƐ͛ĂĚĂƉƚĞĂƵdžĐŚĂŶŐĞŵĞŶƚƐĚ͛ƵƐĂŐĞƐǀĞƌƐƉůƵƐ Ě͛ƵƌďĂŶŝƚĠ͖

ͲůĞƐĞŶũĞƵdžƉŽůŝƟƋƵĞƐĚĞůĂǀŝůůĞŽƵĚĞů͛ĂŐŐůŽŵĠƌĂƟŽŶĞŶƚĞƌŵĞƐ de durabilité (économiques, sociaux et culturels) ainsi que les grands déterminants territoriaux (réseaux, usages, densité etc..) ĞdžŝƐƚĂŶƚƐŽƵăǀĞŶŝƌŽƶƐĞƌŽŶƚƐƉĠĐŝĮĠƐůĞƐŐƌĂŶĚƐĞŶũĞƵdžƐƵƌůĞƐ ŵƵƚĂƟŽŶƐĚ͛ƵƐĂŐĞƐĞƚůĞƵƌƐƚĞŵƉŽƌĂůŝƚĠƐ͖ ͲůĞƐƐƉĠĐŝĮĐŝƚĠƐĚƵƋƵĂƌƟĞƌŽƶƐĞƚƌŽƵǀĞůĞƐŝƚĞĞƚůĞƐŐƌĂŶĚĞƐ ĚĠƚĞƌŵŝŶĂŶƚƐ ĚĞ ƐĂ ŵƵƚĂƟŽŶ ĞŶ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůŝĞƌ ĐŽŶĐĞƌŶĂŶƚ ůĞƐ ƌLJƚŚŵĞƐ ƵƌďĂŝŶƐ ƋƵĞ ĐĞ ƐŽŝƚ ĂƵ ŶŝǀĞĂƵ ĚĞƐ ƵƐĂŐĞƐ ƋƵĞ ĚĞ ůĂ ŵƵƚĂƟŽŶĠĐŚĞůŽŶŶĠĞĚĂŶƐůĞƚĞŵƉƐ͖ ͲůĞƐŝƚĞĚĞƉƌŽũĞƚƉƌŽƉƌĞŵĞŶƚĚŝƚƐƵƐĐĞƉƟďůĞĚ͛ġƚƌĞŽƉĠƌĂƟŽŶŶĞů ă ů͛ŝƐƐƵĞ ĚƵ ĐŽŶĐŽƵƌƐ͕ ĂǀĞĐ ƚŽƵƚĞƐ ůĞƐ ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶƐ ƉĞƌŵĞƩĂŶƚ ĚĞĐŽŵƉƌĞŶĚƌĞů͛ĞdžŝƐƚĂŶƚĞƚůĞƐƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶƐƐŽƵŚĂŝƚĠĞƐĞƚƵŶ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞŵĞƩĂŶƚĞŶĠǀŝĚĞŶĐĞůĞƐĞŶũĞƵdžĚĞƐƚĞŵƉŽƌĂůŝƚĠƐĚĞƐ ƵƐĂŐĞƐĚĂŶƐůĞƉƌŽũĞƚ͘

Ͳ ƉŽƵƌ ƋƵĞ ůĞ ŵġŵĞ ĞƐƉĂĐĞ ƉƵŝƐƐĞ ŝŶƚĠŐƌĞƌ ƉůƵƐŝĞƵƌƐ ƵƐĂŐĞƐ ƋƵŝƉĞƵǀĞŶƚƐĞƐƵĐĐĠĚĞƌǀĞƌƐƉůƵƐĚ͛ŝŶƚĞŶƐŝƚĠĞƚĚ͛ĠĐŽŶŽŵŝĞĚĞ ƚĞƌƌŝƚŽŝƌĞ͖ Ͳ ƉŽƵƌ ƋƵĞ ů͛ĞƐƉĂĐĞ ƉƵŝƐƐĞ ĠǀŽůƵĞƌ ĚĂŶƐ ůĞ ƚĞŵƉƐ ŵĂŝƐ ĞŶ ŝŶƚĠŐƌĂŶƚů͛ĂůĠĂƚŽŝƌĞƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟƋƵĞ

½›Ý›‘«›½½›Ý͗Ýãك㛦®›͕ٛ¥½›ø®ÊÄ›ãÖÙʹ›ã >ĂĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚĠŝŶŚĠƌĞŶƚĞĂƵdžĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐ͕ǀŽŝƌĞĂƵdžƉƌŽďůĠŵĂƟƋƵĞƐ ƉƌŽƉƌĞƐăĐŚĂƋƵĞƉĂLJƐĞƵƌŽƉĠĞŶƉĂƌƟĐŝƉĂŶƚ͕ŽďůŝŐĞăĚŝƐƟŶŐƵĞƌ ĞŶƚƌĞ ϯ ĚŝīĠƌĞŶƚĞƐ ĠĐŚĞůůĞƐ ĞŶƚƌĞ ƚĞƌƌŝƚŽŝƌĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŶĞŵĞŶƚĂů ŝŵƉůŝƋƵĠĞƚůŝĞƵƉƌŽƉƌĞŵĞŶƚĚŝƚ͗ ĂͲ échelle de stratégie globale (celle qui est donnée aux concurrents). >ĂƌĠŐŝŽŶŵĠƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŝŶĞ;ĐŽŶŐůŽŵĠƌĂƚƐƉĂƟĂůĐŽŵƉŽƐĠĚ͛ƵŶŝƚĠƐ ƵƌďĂŝŶĞƐ ĂƵƚŽŶŽŵĞƐ Ğƚ ŝŶƚĞƌͲůŝĠĞƐͿ Ğƚ ůĂ ǀŝůůĞ ;ĞƐƉĂĐĞ ƵƌďĂŝŶ Ě͛ĂĐƟŽŶƐĞƚĚ͛ŚĂďŝƚĂƚĂǀĞĐŵŝdžŝƚĠĚŝǀĞƌƐŝĮĠĞͿ͖ ďͲ ĠĐŚĞůůĞ ĚĞ ƌĠŇĞdžŝŽŶ (celle qui permet aux concurrents de

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>h't//E^</͕ geographer urban planner, Grenoble (FR)

MALLEABLE CITY ‘«ƒÄ¦®Ä¦㫛óƒùó›½ÊÊ»ƒã㫛‘®ãù dŚĞĐŝƚLJŝƐďLJŶĂƚƵƌĞĂƉůĂĐĞƚŚĂƚŵĂdžŝŵŝƐĞƐŝŶƚĞƌĂĐƟŽŶƐďƵƚĂůƐŽ ĂƉůĂĐĞŽĨƐĞƉĂƌĂƟŽŶ͘ŶĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞĐŝƚLJ͕ĂĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐĐŝƚLJ͕ǁŚĞƌĞ ǁĞĨĞĞůŐŽŽĚ͕ŝƐĂŶŽƌŐĂŶŝƐĞĚƐƉĂĐĞǁŚĞƌĞŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƐŵĞĞƚĂŶĚ ĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƚĞ͘dŚĞƋƵĞƐƟŽŶŽĨƵƌďĂŶŝŶƚĞŶƐŝƚLJĂŶĚŽĨĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJ ŝƐĞƐƐĞŶƟĂů͘ĐŝƚLJŝƐŶŽƚĂĐŝƚLJŝĨŽŶĞĐĂŶŶŽƚƐŝƚĚŽǁŶ͕ĚƌŝŶŬĂŶĚ ƵƌŝŶĂƚĞĨƌĞĞůLJ͕ŝŶĚĂLJƟŵĞ͕ďƵƚĂůƐŽĂƚŶŝŐŚƚĂŶĚĂƚƚŚĞǁĞĞŬĞŶĚ͘ dŝŵĞ ŝƐ Ă ĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶ ƚŚĂƚ ŝƐ ƐƟůů ǀĞƌLJ ƌĂƌĞůLJ ƚĂŬĞŶ ŝŶƚŽ ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚ ŝŶ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĚĞƐŝŐŶ͘ ŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ĚĞƐŝŐŶĞĚ͕ ŽƌŐĂŶŝƐĞĚ͕ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚĂƐŝĨƚŚĞLJŽŶůLJƌĂŶϭϲŚŽƵƌƐĂĚĂLJĂŶĚŽŶǁĞĞŬĚĂLJƐ͘ hƉƵŶƟůŶŽǁ͕ƐƉĂĐĞŚĂƐďĞĞŶĂƌƌĂŶŐĞĚƚŽƐĂǀĞƟŵĞʹƚŚŝŶŬĂďŽƵƚ ŽƵƌ d's ŝŶ &ƌĂŶĐĞ͕ ŚŝŐŚͲƐƉĞĞĚ ƚƌĂŝŶƐ ŝŶ ƵƌŽƉĞ ĂŶĚ ĞůƐĞǁŚĞƌĞ ʹďƵƚƟŵĞŚĂƐƌĂƌĞůLJďĞĞŶĂƌƌĂŶŐĞĚƚŽƐĂǀĞƐƉĂĐĞ͘ǀĞƌLJŽŶĞŝƐ looking for ways to build the city on the city, but in fact the city is ĐŽŶƟŶƵŝŶŐŝƚƐĞdžƉĂŶƐŝŽŶŝŶƐƉĂĐĞ͘ KƵƌ ůŝĨĞƐƚLJůĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ĐŚĂŶŐĞĚ͕ ďƵƚ ƚŚĞ ŵĂŬŝŶŐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ͕ ƚŚĞ materiality of the city, has not always adapted to the new ways ƉĞŽƉůĞůŝǀĞĚĂLJͲƚŽͲĚĂLJ͕ŽƌƚŽŶĞǁůŝĨĞͲĐLJĐůĞƐ͘ŶŽƚŚĞƌŽďƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ƚŚĂƚ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ ĂƌĞ ƵƐĞĚ ĂůŵŽƐƚ ŵŽŶŽͲĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂůůLJ ;ƚŚĂƚ ŝƐ ŶŽƚ necessarily true of the one we are in), as are districts and public spaces. dŝŵĞ ŝƐ ĂŶ ĞƐƐĞŶƟĂů ĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶ ĂƐ Ă ŬĞLJ ƚŽ ƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĚLJƐĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ĂƐ Ă ůĞǀĞƌ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶƚĞdžƚ ŽĨ ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͘ dŝŵĞ ĚĞŵĂŶĚƐ ƉĂƌƚŶĞƌƐŚŝƉ͕ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ŝƚ ŝƐ ƐŽŵĞƚŚŝŶŐ ƚŚĂƚ ŶŽ ŽŶĞ ĂŶĚ ĞǀĞƌLJŽŶĞ ŬŶŽǁƐ ĂďŽƵƚ͘ /ƚ ŝƐ ƌĞůĞǀĂŶƚƚŽĂůůŽĨƵƐŝŶŽƵƌĚĂŝůLJůŝǀĞƐ͘dŝŵĞƌĞŇĞĐƚƐƚŚĞĚĞŵĂŶĚƐ ŽĨ ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶƐ ĨŽƌ ƉƌŽdžŝŵŝƚLJ͕ ĨŽƌ ƉĂƌƟĐŝƉĂƟŽŶ͘ dŝŵĞ ĂůƐŽ ƌĞůĂƚĞƐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ĞǀĞƌLJ ŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂů͛Ɛ ƐĞŶƐŽƌLJ ĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶ ĂŶĚ ůĞĂǀĞƐƌŽŽŵĨŽƌĐƌĞĂƟǀŝƚLJ͘tĞŶĞĞĚĂƐLJƐƚĞŵŝĐĂŶĚŵƵůƟͲƐĐĂůĞ ĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚ͘dŽĐŚĂŶŐĞƉĞƌƐƉĞĐƟǀĞ͕ƚŽƐĞĞƚŚĞĐŝƚLJĂƐĂƉƵůƐĞďĞĂƚ͕ ƐƵĐŬŝŶŐŝŶŝŶƚŚĞĚĂLJƟŵĞĂŶĚĞdžƉĞůůŝŶŐĂƚŶŝŐŚƚ͘ ƵƚǁĞƐŚŽƵůĚĂůƐŽƚŚŝŶŬĂďŽƵƚƚŚĞĐŝƚLJĂƐĂƐLJƐƚĞŵŽĨŇŽǁƐĂŶĚ ŶŽƚĂƐLJƐƚĞŵŽĨĐŽŶƚĞŶƚƐ͗ƉĞŽƉůĞĂŶĚƚŚŝŶŐƐĐŽŵĞŝŶ͕ƉĞŽƉůĞĂŶĚ ƚŚŝŶŐƐŐŽŽƵƚ͘dŚĞĐŝƚLJŝƐĂƐLJƐƚĞŵŽĨŇŽǁƐ͘dŚĞĐŝƚLJĂůƐŽŶĞĞĚƐƚŽ ďĞƚŚŽƵŐŚƚŽĨĂƐƐŽŵĞƚŚŝŶŐŝŶŵŽƟŽŶƌĂƚŚĞƌƚŚĂŶĂĮdžĞĚƐƉĂĐĞ͕ ĂŶĚĂƐĂƚŚƌĞĞͲĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶĂůĞŶƟƚLJƌĂƚŚĞƌƚŚĂŶĂŇĂƚƐƵƌĨĂĐĞ͘ The city should also be thought of as a place that is not only used ďLJƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ͘dŚĞĐŝƚLJŝƐŵĂĚĞũƵƐƚĂƐŵƵĐŚĨŽƌƉĞŽƉůĞƉĂƐƐŝŶŐ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚ͗ǁŽƌŬĞƌƐ͕ǀŝƐŝƚŽƌƐ͕ƵƐĞƌƐ͙dŚĞƉĞŽƉůĞǁŚŽƐƉĞŶĚƚŚĞŝƌ ǁĂŬŝŶŐƟŵĞŝŶLJŽƵƌĐŝƚLJĂƌĞŶĞǀĞƌĂƐŬĞĚƚŚĞŝƌŽƉŝŶŝŽŶǁŚĞŶĂ space is designed. dĂŬĞƚŚĞĞdžĂŵƉůĞŽĨĂďĞŶĐŚ͕ǁŚĂƚƐŚŽƵůĚǁĞĚŽǁŝƚŚŝƚ͍^ŚŽƵůĚ ǁĞ ŝŶƐƚĂůů Ă ďĞŶĐŚ͍ ŶĚ ǁŚĞƌĞ͍ ŶĚ ƚŚĞŶ͕ ǁŚŽ ĨŽƌ͍ &Žƌ ŽůĚ ƉĞŽƉůĞ͕LJŽƵŶŐƉĞŽƉůĞ͕ƚƌĂŵƉƐ͙͍tŚŽŝƐĂďĞŶĐŚĨŽƌ͍&ŽƌůŽĐĂů ǀŽƚĞƌƐŽƌƉĞŽƉůĞǁŚŽǀŽƚĞĞůƐĞǁŚĞƌĞ͍

8

㫛‘«ƒÙƒ‘ã›Ù®Ý㮑ÝÊ¥㫛çِƒÄ㮽›͗ ÝÖكó½͕¥Ùƒ¦Ã›Äãƒã®ÊÄ͕çÙ¦›Ä‘ù dŚĞ ŵŽŵĞŶƚ ǁĞ ƐƚĂƌƚ ůŽŽŬŝŶŐ Ăƚ ƵƌďĂŶ ƟŵĞĨƌĂŵĞƐ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚůLJ͕ ǁĞĮŶĚǁĞŶĞĞĚƚŽĂŶĂůLJƐĞĂŶĞǁƐĞƚŽĨĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐ͗ƐƉƌĂǁů͕ ĨƌĂŐŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶĂŶĚƵƌŐĞŶĐLJ͘ The spread of the city in space is what we call urban sprawl. The city spreads regardless of boundaries. But another form of sprawl ŝƐƚŚĞǁĂLJǁŽƌŬƐƉƌĞĂĚƐĂĐƌŽƐƐƟŵĞ͘dŚĞĞĐŽŶŽŵLJŚĂƐŶŝďďůĞĚ ĂǁĂLJĂƚƐŝĞƐƚĂƐ͕ŵĞĂůƟŵĞƐ͕ǁĞĞŬĞŶĚƐĂŶĚŶŝŐŚƚƐ͘/ŶƵƌŽƉĞ͕ϭϴй of today’s employees work at night. Weekends are now working ƟŵĞ͕ŶŽƚũƵƐƚ^ĂƚƵƌĚĂLJƐďƵƚŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐůLJ^ƵŶĚĂLJƐ͘DĞĂůďƌĞĂŬƐ ŚĂǀĞ ŚĂůǀĞĚ ŝŶ ůĞŶŐƚŚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ůĂƐƚ ϮϬ LJĞĂƌƐ͘ &Žƌ ƚŚĞ ŶŐůŝƐŚ͕ ƚŚĞ ŵŝĚĚĂLJŵĞĂůƚĂŬĞƐĂŶĂǀĞƌĂŐĞŽĨϭϮŵŝŶƵƚĞƐ͘/Ŷ&ƌĂŶĐĞ͕ŝƚŝƐƐƟůů ϰϬŵŝŶƵƚĞƐ͕ďƵƚƚŚĂƚŝƐŚĂůĨǁŚĂƚŝƚƵƐĞĚƚŽďĞ͘tĞŐŽƚŽďĞĚĂŶ hour and a half later than our parents. So the picture today is of ĂϮϰͬϳ͕ĐŽŶƟŶƵŽƵƐĐŝƚLJ͘ The city has broken up into spaces where we sleep, spaces where ǁĞ ǁŽƌŬ͕ ƐƉĂĐĞƐ ǁŚĞƌĞ ǁĞ ŚĂǀĞ ĨƵŶ͕ ƐƉĂĐĞƐ ǁŚĞƌĞ ǁĞ ƐŚŽƉ͘ The metaphor for this city of island areas is the archipelago. But ĂůŽŶŐƐŝĚĞƚŚŝƐ͕ƟŵĞŝƐĂůƐŽĨƌĂŐŵĞŶƚĞĚ͘&ŽƌĂůŽŶŐƟŵĞƉĞŽƉůĞ͛Ɛ ůŝǀĞƐǁĞƌĞƌƵůĞĚďLJƚŚĞƌŚLJƚŚŵŽĨƚŚĞƐƵŶ͕ƚŚĞŶďLJƚŚĞƌŚLJƚŚŵŽĨ ƚŚĞďĞůůƐ͕ƚŚĞŶďLJƚŚĞƌŚLJƚŚŵŽĨƚŚĞĨĂĐƚŽƌLJƐŝƌĞŶ;ϴĂŵƚŽŶŽŽŶͬϮ ƉŵƚŽϲƉŵͿ͘EŽǁĂĚĂLJƐ͕ϱϯйŽĨĞŵƉůŽLJĞĞƐǁŽƌŬƵŶƐŽĐŝĂůŚŽƵƌƐ͕ ĂŵĂũŽƌŝƚLJ͘dŚĞƌĞŚĂƐďĞĞŶĂƐŚŝŌĨƌŽŵƚŚĞďŝŐƐŽĐŝĂůƌŚLJƚŚŵƐƚŽ ƚŚĞĚŽŵŝŶĂŶƚƟŵĞŽĨƚŚĞŵŽďŝůĞƉŚŽŶĞ͘ŶĚŚĞƌĞǁĞŚĂǀĞƚŚĞ ŝĚĞĂŽĨĂĐŝƚLJŽĨŵƵůƟƉůĞƟŵĞĨƌĂŵĞƐ͗ƟŵĞŝƐŶŽůŽŶŐĞƌƐŝŶŐƵůĂƌ͕ ƚŚĞƌĞĂƌĞƐĞǀĞƌĂůƟŵĞƐ͘ The 3rd ĨĞĂƚƵƌĞ ŽĨ ĐŽŶƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJ ƵƌďĂŶ ƟŵĞ ŝƐ ĚĞĂĚůŝŶĞƐ͕ ƌĞĂů ƟŵĞ ĚƌŝǀĞŶ ďLJ ƚĞůĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĂƌĞ ĚƌŝǀŝŶŐ Ă ŐůŽďĂů ĂĐĐĞůĞƌĂƟŽŶ͕ƐLJŶĐŚƌŽŶŝƐĞĚŽŶǁŽƌůĚƟŵĞ͘ DŽďŝůŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ƐƉƌĞĂĚŝŶŐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ǁĂLJ͗ ƚŚĞLJ ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĐŽŵĞ fragmented and less and less regular, increasingly peripheral ĂŶĚ ĞǀĞŶƚͲƌĞůĂƚĞĚ͘ DŽďŝůŝƚLJ ŝƐ ŵŽƌĞ ĂŶĚ ŵŽƌĞ ůĞŝƐƵƌĞͲƌĞůĂƚĞĚ͕ ĂŶĚLJĞƚŝƚŝƐƐƟůůƉĞƌĐĞŝǀĞĚĂƐďĞŝŶŐĂůůĂďŽƵƚĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ͕ǁŚŝĐŚ ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚƐĨŽƌŽŶůLJϮϱйŽĨƚƌĂǀĞů͘^ƵĐŚŵŽďŝůŝƟĞƐĂƌĞůĞƐƐĂŶĚůĞƐƐ ƉƌĞĚŝĐƚĂďůĞĂŶĚŵŽƌĞůĂƐƚŵŝŶƵƚĞ͘dƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚĨŽůůŽǁƐnjŝŐnjĂŐƉĂƚŚƐ͕ ƐŽǁŽƌŬŝŶŐŽŶƟŵĞƌĞƋƵŝƌĞƐĂĚũƵƐƚŵĞŶƚƐƚŽƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ͕ ďƵƚĂůƐŽŵĞĂŶƐŵŽǀŝŶŐƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐŶĞĂƌŚŽƵƐŝŶŐĂŶĚƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐŶĞĂƌ businesses. DŝƌƌŽƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐ͕ ŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƐ ĂƌĞ ďĞĐŽŵŝŶŐ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐůLJ ŵŽďŝůĞ͘ dŚĞLJ ĂƌĞ ƉŽůLJͲƚŽƉŝĂŶ͕ ǁŝƚŚ ŵƵůƟƉůĞ ůŽĐĂƟŽŶƐ͘ dŚĞLJ ĂƌĞ ƉŽůLJͲĂĐƟǀĞ͕ ǁŝƚŚ Ă ƉŽƌƞŽůŝŽ ŽĨ ũŽďƐ ƌĂƚŚĞƌ than a single career. They are increasingly unstable, in family life, ŝŶĞŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚ͕ŝŶůŽĐĂƟŽŶ͘dŚĞLJĂƌĞŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐůLJƵŶƉƌĞĚŝĐƚĂďůĞ͕ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐůLJ ŚLJďƌŝĚ͕ ǁŚĞƌĞĂƐ ǁŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ŽīĞƌƐ ďĞĐŽŵĞƐ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐůLJƐƚĂƟĐĂŶĚƌŝŐŝĚ͘ dŚĞ ĐŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶĐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĐŚĂŶŐĞƐ ŝƐ ĮƌƐƚ ŽĨ Ăůů ĂŶ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŝŶ complexity. We are seeing something that is hard to understand, ƚŚĂƚŚĂƐƚŽďĞƚŚŽƵŐŚƚĂďŽƵƚŝŶϯͲĂŶĚŝŶĐůƵĚĞƚŚĞĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶ


>h't//E^</͕ géographe urbaniste, Grenoble (FR)

LA VILLE MALLEABLE ‘«ƒÄ¦›Ù—›ٛ¦ƒÙ—ÝçÙ½ƒò®½½› >Ă ǀŝůůĞ ĞƐƚ ƉĂƌ ŶĂƚƵƌĞ ƵŶ ůŝĞƵ ĚĞ ŵĂdžŝŵŝƐĂƟŽŶ ĚĞƐ ŝŶƚĞƌĂĐƟŽŶƐ ŵĂŝƐĐ͛ĞƐƚĂƵƐƐŝƵŶůŝĞƵĚĞƐĠƉĂƌĂƟŽŶ͘hŶĞǀŝůůĞĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞ͕ƋƵŝ ƐĞ ĚĠǀĞůŽƉƉĞ͕ĞƚŽƶů͛ŽŶƐĞƐĞŶƚďŝĞŶ͕ĞƐƚƵŶƚĞƌƌŝƚŽŝƌĞŽƌŐĂŶŝƐĠŽƶůĞƐ ŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵƐ ƐĞ ƌĞŶĐŽŶƚƌĞŶƚ Ğƚ ĠĐŚĂŶŐĞŶƚ͘ >Ă ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶ ĚĞ ů͛ŝŶƚĞŶƐŝƚĠ ƵƌďĂŝŶĞĞƚĚĞůĂƌĞŶĐŽŶƚƌĞĞƐƚĞƐƐĞŶƟĞůůĞ͘hŶĞǀŝůůĞŶ͛ĞƐƚƉĂƐƵŶĞ ǀŝůůĞƐŝŽŶŶĞƉĞƵƚƉĂƐƐ͛ĂƐƐĞŽŝƌ͕ďŽŝƌĞĞƚƵƌŝŶĞƌŐƌĂƚƵŝƚĞŵĞŶƚ͕ĚĂŶƐůĂ ũŽƵƌŶĠĞ͕ŵĂŝƐĂƵƐƐŝůĂŶƵŝƚĞƚůĞǁĞĞŬͲĞŶĚ͘ Le temps était une dimension qui est encore très peu abordée ĞŶ ĂŵĠŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ Ğƚ ĞŶ ƵƌďĂŶŝƐŵĞ͘ KŶ ƉĞŶƐĞ ůĞƐ ǀŝůůĞƐ͕ ŽŶ ůĞƐ ŽƌŐĂŶŝƐĞ͕ŽŶůĞƐĂŵĠŶĂŐĞĐŽŵŵĞƐŝĞůůĞƐŶĞĨŽŶĐƟŽŶŶĂŝĞŶƚƋƵĞ ϭϲŚͬϮϰĞƚůĂƐĞŵĂŝŶĞƐĞƵůĞŵĞŶƚ͘:ƵƐƋƵ͛ăƉƌĠƐĞŶƚ͕ŽŶĂĂŵĠŶĂŐĠ ů͛ĞƐƉĂĐĞƉŽƵƌŐĂŐŶĞƌĚƵƚĞŵƉƐ͖ũĞƉĞŶƐĞăŶŽƐd'sĞŶ&ƌĂŶĐĞ͕ ĂƵdžĂƵƚƌĞƐƚƌĂŝŶƐăŐƌĂŶĚĞǀŝƚĞƐƐĞĞŶƵƌŽƉĞĞƚĂŝůůĞƵƌƐ͕ŵĂŝƐŽŶ a rarement aménagé le temps pour gagner de l’espace. Tout le ŵŽŶĚĞƐ͛ŝŶƚĞƌƌŽŐĞƐƵƌůĂŵĂŶŝğƌĞĚŽŶƚŽŶƉĞƵƚĐŽŶƐƚƌƵŝƌĞůĂǀŝůůĞ ƐƵƌůĂǀŝůůĞ͕ŵĂŝƐĞŶĨĂŝƚůĂǀŝůůĞƉŽƵƌƐƵŝƚƐŽŶĞdžƚĞŶƐŝŽŶƐƵƌů͛ĞƐƉĂĐĞ͘ EŽƐ ŵŽĚĞƐ ĚĞ ǀŝĞ ŽŶƚ ĐŚĂŶŐĠ ŵĂŝƐ ůĂ ĨĂďƌŝƋƵĞ ĚĞ ůĂ ǀŝůůĞ͕ ůĂ ŵĂƚĠƌŝĂůŝƚĠ͕ŶĞƐ͛ĞƐƚƉĂƐƚŽƵũŽƵƌƐĂĚĂƉƚĠĞĂƵdžŶŽƵǀĞĂƵdžŵŽĚĞƐ ĚĞǀŝĞƋƵŽƟĚŝĞŶƐ͕ŵĂŝƐĂƵƐƐŝĂƵdžŶŽƵǀĞĂƵdžĐLJĐůĞƐĚĞǀŝĞĐŽŵŵĞ ƉĂƌĞdžĞŵƉůĞů͛ĂůůŽŶŐĞŵĞŶƚĚĞůĂĚƵƌĠĞĚĞǀŝĞ͘KŶĐŽŶƐƚĂƚĞĂƵƐƐŝ ƋƵ͛ŝůLJĂƵŶĞƵƟůŝƐĂƟŽŶƋƵĂƐŝŵŽŶŽĨŽŶĐƟŽŶŶĞůůĞĚĞƐďąƟŵĞŶƚƐ ;ĐĞŶ͛ĞƐƚƉĂƐĨŽƌĐĞŵĞŶƚůĞĐĂƐĚĞĐĞůƵŝĚĂŶƐůĞƋƵĞůŽŶƐĞƚƌŽƵǀĞͿ͕ ĚĞƐƋƵĂƌƟĞƌƐŵĂŝƐĂƵƐƐŝĚĞƐĞƐƉĂĐĞƐƉƵďůŝĐƐ͘ >ĞƚĞŵƉƐĞƐƚƵŶĞĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶĞƐƐĞŶƟĞůůĞĐŽŵŵĞĐůĠĚĞůĞĐƚƵƌĞĚĞƐ ĚLJƐĨŽŶĐƟŽŶŶĞŵĞŶƚƐ͕ĐŽŵŵĞůĞǀŝĞƌĞŶƚĞƌŵĞƐĚĞĚĠǀĞůŽƉƉĞŵĞŶƚ ĚƵƌĂďůĞ͘ >Ğ ƚĞŵƉƐ͕ ĕĂ ĐŽŶĐĞƌŶĞ ĚĞ ƚŽƵƚ ůĞ ŵŽŶĚĞ ĚĂŶƐ ůĂ ǀŝĞ ƋƵŽƟĚŝĞŶŶĞ͘ >Ğ ƚĞŵƉƐ ƌĠƉŽŶĚ ă ůĂ ĚĞŵĂŶĚĞ ĚĞƐ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶƐ ĞŶ ƵƌŽƉĞĞŶƚĞƌŵĞƐĚĞƉƌŽdžŝŵŝƚĠ͕ĚĞƉĂƌƟĐŝƉĂƟŽŶ͘>ĞƚĞŵƉƐƌĞŶǀŽŝĞ ĂƵƐƐŝăůĂĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶƐĞŶƐŝďůĞĚĞĐŚĂĐƵŶĞƚůĂŝƐƐĞƉůĂĐĞăůĂĐƌĠĂƟŽŶ͘ KŶ ĚŽŝƚ ĂǀŽŝƌ ƵŶĞ ĂƉƉƌŽĐŚĞ ƐLJƐƚĠŵŝƋƵĞ Ğƚ ŵƵůƟͲƐĐĂůĂŝƌĞ͘ WŽƵƌ ĐŚĂŶŐĞƌĚĞƌĞŐĂƌĚ͕ǀŽŝƌůĂǀŝůůĞĐŽŵŵĞƵŶĞƉƵůƐĂƟŽŶ͗ĞŶũŽƵƌŶĠĞ ĞůůĞĂƫƌĞ͕ůĞƐŽŝƌĞůůĞĞdžƉƵůƐĞ͘DĂŝƐŽŶĚŽŝƚƉĞŶƐĞƌůĂǀŝůůĞĐŽŵŵĞ ƵŶƐLJƐƚğŵĞĚĞŇƵdžĞƚŶŽŶƉĂƐĐŽŵŵĞƵŶƐLJƐƚğŵĞĚĞƐƚŽĐŬƐ͗ŝů y a des gens et des choses qui rentrent, il y a des gens et des ĐŚŽƐĞƐƋƵŝƐŽƌƚĞŶƚ͘>ĂǀŝůůĞĞƐƚƵŶƐLJƐƚğŵĞĚĞŇƵdž͘/ůĨĂƵƚĂƵƐƐŝ ƉĞŶƐĞƌƵŶĞǀŝůůĞĞŶŵŽƵǀĞŵĞŶƚƉůƵƐƋƵ͛ƵŶĞƐƉĂĐĞĮŐĠĞƚƋƵ͛ŝů Ɛ͛ĂŐŝƚĚ͛ƵŶĞĞŶƟƚĠăϯĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶƐĞƚŶŽŶƵŶƉůĂŶ͘ /ů ĨĂƵƚ ĂƵƐƐŝ ƉĞŶƐĞƌ ƋƵĞ ůĂ ǀŝůůĞ ĞƐƚ ƵŶ ĞƐƉĂĐĞ ƋƵŝ Ŷ͛ĞƐƚ ƉĂƐ ƐĞƵůĞŵĞŶƚƵƟůŝƐĠƉĂƌůĞƐƌĠƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ͘>ĂǀŝůůĞĞƐƚĂƵƐƐŝĨĂŝƚĞƉŽƵƌ ĚĞƐ ƵƟůŝƐĂƚĞƵƌƐ ƚĞŵƉŽƌĂŝƌĞƐ ͗ ůĞƐ ƚƌĂǀĂŝůůĞƵƌƐ͕ ůĞƐ ǀŝƐŝƚĞƵƌƐ͕ ůĞƐ ƵƐĂŐĞƌƐ͙ ĐĞůůĞƐ Ğƚ ĐĞƵdž ƋƵŝ ƉĂƐƐĞŶƚ ůĞƵƌ ƚĞŵƉƐ ĠǀĞŝůůĠƐ ĚĂŶƐ ǀŽƚƌĞ ǀŝůůĞ͕ ũĂŵĂŝƐ ŽŶ ŶĞ ůĞƵƌ ĚĞŵĂŶĚĞ ůĞƵƌ ĂǀŝƐ ůŽƌƐƋƵ͛ŽŶ ŽƌŐĂŶŝƐĞ ƵŶ ĞƐƉĂĐĞ͘ >Ğ ďĂŶĐ͕ ƋƵ͛ĞƐƚͲĐĞ ƋƵ͛ŽŶ ĞŶ ĨĂŝƚ ͍ ƐƚͲĐĞ ƋƵ͛ŽŶů͛ŝŶƐƚĂůůĞ͍ƚŽƶ͍ƚĞŶƐƵŝƚĞƉŽƵƌƋƵŝů͛ŝŶƐƚĂůůĞƚͲŽŶ͍WŽƵƌ ůĞƐƉĞƌƐŽŶŶĞƐąŐĠĞƐ͕ƉŽƵƌůĞƐũĞƵŶĞƐ͕ƉŽƵƌůĞƐĐůŽĐŚĂƌĚƐ͙͍WŽƵƌ ƋƵŝŝŶƐƚĂůůĞƚͲŽŶůĞďĂŶĐ͍WŽƵƌĐĞƵdžƋƵŝǀŽƚĞŶƚůĂŽƵƉŽƵƌĐĞƵdž ƋƵŝǀŽƚĞŶƚĂŝůůĞƵƌƐ͍

½›Ý‘ƒÙƒ‘ã›Ù®Ýã®Øç›Ý—çã›ÃÖÝçِƒ®Ä͗ ›ãƒ½›Ã›Äã͕›‘½ƒã›Ã›Äã͕çÙ¦›Ä‘›  ƉĂƌƟƌ ĚƵ ŵŽŵĞŶƚ Žƶ ů͛ŽŶ Ă ĐŚĂŶŐĠ ĚĞ ƌĞŐĂƌĚ ƐƵƌ ůĞƐ ƚĞŵƉŽƌĂůŝƚĠƐ ƵƌďĂŝŶĞƐ͕ ŽŶ ĚŽŝƚ ĂŶĂůLJƐĞƌ ůĞƵƌƐ ĐĂƌĂĐƚĠƌŝƐƟƋƵĞƐ ŶŽƵǀĞůůĞƐ͗ů͛ĠƚĂůĞŵĞŶƚ͕ů͛ĠĐůĂƚĞŵĞŶƚĞƚů͛ƵƌŐĞŶĐĞ͘ >͛ĠƚĂůĞŵĞŶƚĚĞůĂǀŝůůĞƐƵƌů͛ĞƐƉĂĐĞ͕Đ͛ĞƐƚůĂǀŝůůĞĚŝīƵƐĞ͘>ĂǀŝůůĞ Ɛ͛ĠƚĂůĞĞŶŝŐŶŽƌĂŶƚůĞƐĨƌŽŶƟğƌĞƐ͘DĂŝƐů͛ĠƚĂůĞŵĞŶƚĐ͛ĞƐƚĂƵƐƐŝĐĞůƵŝ ĚĞƐĂĐƟǀŝƚĠƐƐƵƌůĞƚĞŵƉƐ͘>͛ĠĐŽŶŽŵŝĞĂŐƌŝŐŶŽƚĠůĞƚĞŵƉƐĚĞůĂ ƐŝĞƐƚĞ͕ůĞƚĞŵƉƐĚƵƌĞƉĂƐ͕ůĞƚĞŵƉƐĚƵǁĞĞŬͲĞŶĚ͕ĞƚůĞƚĞŵƉƐĚĞ ůĂŶƵŝƚ͘ϭϴйĚĞƐƐĂůĂƌŝĠƐĂƵũŽƵƌĚ͛ŚƵŝĞŶƵƌŽƉĞƚƌĂǀĂŝůůĞůĂŶƵŝƚ͘ >ĞǁĞĞŬͲĞŶĚĞƐƚĚĠƐŽƌŵĂŝƐƵŶƚĞŵƉƐĚĞƚƌĂǀĂŝů͕ůĞƐĂŵĞĚŝĂƵƐƐŝ et de plus en plus le dimanche. Le temps des repas a diminué de ŵŽŝƟĠĞŶϮϬĂŶƐ͘WŽƵƌůĞƐĂŶŐůĂŝƐ͕Đ͛ĞƐƚϭϮŵŝŶƵƚĞƐůĞƌĞƉĂƐĚĞ ŵŝĚŝĞŶŵŽLJĞŶŶĞ͘Ŷ&ƌĂŶĐĞ͕ŽŶĞƐƚĞŶĐŽƌĞăϰϬŵŝŶƵƚĞƐŵĂŝƐĕĂ ĂƋƵĂŶĚŵġŵĞĚŝŵŝŶƵĠĚĞŵŽŝƟĠ͘KŶƐĞĐŽƵĐŚĞϭŚϯϬƉůƵƐƚĂƌĚ ƋƵĞŶŽƐƉĂƌĞŶƚƐ͘ŽŶĐůĂĮŐƵƌĞĂĐƚƵĞůůĞ͕Đ͛ĞƐƚůĂǀŝůůĞĐŽŶƟŶƵĞ͕ ϮϰŚͬϮϰĞƚϳũͬϳ͘ >Ă ǀŝůůĞ Ă ĠĐůĂƚĠ ĞŶ ĞƐƉĂĐĞƐ Žƶ ů͛ŽŶ ĚŽƌƚ͕ Žƶ ů͛ŽŶ ƚƌĂǀĂŝůůĞ͕ Žƶ ů͛ŽŶ Ɛ͛ĂŵƵƐĞ͕ ĞŶ ĞƐƉĂĐĞƐ Žƶ ů͛ŽŶ Ɛ͛ĂƉƉƌŽǀŝƐŝŽŶŶĞ͘ >Ă ĮŐƵƌĞ ĚĞ ĐĞƩĞ ǀŝůůĞ ĐŽŵƉŽƐĠĞ ĚĞ njŽŶĞƐ ŝŶƐƵůĂŝƌĞƐ͕ Đ͛ĞƐƚ ůĂ ǀŝůůĞ ĂƌĐŚŝƉĞů͘ DĂŝƐĐŽŶĐŽŵŝƚĂŶƚĞƐƚů͛ĠĐůĂƚĞŵĞŶƚĚĞƐƚĞŵƉƐ͘KŶĂĨŽŶĐƟŽŶŶĠ pendant longtemps au rythme du soleil, puis au rythme des ĐůŽĐŚĞƐ͕ƉƵŝƐĂƵƌLJƚŚŵĞĚĞůĂƐŝƌğŶĞĚĞů͛ƵƐŝŶĞ;ϴŚͲϭϮŚͬϭϰŚͲϭϴŚͿ͘ ƵũŽƵƌĚ͛ŚƵŝ͕ϱϯйĚĞƐƐĂůĂƌŝĠƐƚƌĂǀĂŝůůĞŶƚĞŶŚŽƌĂŝƌĞƐĂƚLJƉŝƋƵĞƐ͘ ŽŶĐƵŶĞŵĂũŽƌŝƚĠĚĞŐĞŶƐƚƌĂǀĂŝůůĞĞŶŚŽƌĂŝƌĞƐĚĠĐĂůĠƐ͘KŶĞƐƚ ƉĂƐƐĠĚĞƐŐƌĂŶĚƐƌLJƚŚŵĞƐƐŽĐŝĂƵdžĂƵƚĞŵƉƐƉŝǀŽƚĚƵƚĠůĠƉŚŽŶĞ ƉŽƌƚĂďůĞ͘ƚĕĂĐ͛ĞƐƚů͛ŝĚĠĞĚ͛ƵŶĞǀŝůůĞăƉůƵƐŝĞƵƌƐƚĞŵƉƐ͗ŽŶŶ͛ĞƐƚ plus dans un seul, on est dans plusieurs temps. La 3ème ĐĂƌĂĐƚĠƌŝƐƟƋƵĞ ĚƵ ƚĞŵƉƐ ƵƌďĂŝŶ ĐŽŶƚĞŵƉŽƌĂŝŶ͕ Đ͛ĞƐƚ ů͛ƵƌŐĞŶĐĞ͕ Ğƚ ĂǀĞĐ ůĞƐ ƚĠůĠĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ ůĞ ƚĞŵƉƐ ƌĠĞů ƋƵŝ ŝŵƉůŝƋƵĞƵŶĞĂĐĐĠůĠƌĂƟŽŶŐĠŶĠƌĂůŝƐĠĞ͕ĂǀĞĐƵŶĞƐLJŶĐŚƌŽŶŝƐĂƟŽŶ mondiale. >ĞƐ ŵŽďŝůŝƚĠƐ Ɛ͛ĠƚĂůĞŶƚ ĚĞ ůĂ ŵġŵĞ ĨĂĕŽŶ ͗ ĞůůĞƐ ĠĐůĂƚĞŶƚ Ğƚ ĚĞǀŝĞŶŶĞŶƚ ĚĞ ŵŽŝŶƐ ĞŶ ŵŽŝŶƐ ƌĠŐƵůŝğƌĞƐ͕ ĚĞ ƉůƵƐ ĞŶ ƉůƵƐ ƉĠƌŝƉŚĠƌŝƋƵĞƐ Ğƚ ĠǀĠŶĞŵĞŶƟĞůůĞƐ͘ Ğ ƐŽŶƚ ĚĞ ƉůƵƐ ĞŶ ƉůƵƐ ĚĞƐ ŵŽďŝůŝƚĠƐ ĚĞ ůŽŝƐŝƌƐ ƋƵĞ ů͛ŽŶ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞ ƉŽƵƌƚĂŶƚ ĚĞ ƌĞŐĂƌĚĞƌ ĐŽŵŵĞƐŝĐ͛ĠƚĂŝƚƚŽƵũŽƵƌƐĚƵĚŽŵŝĐŝůĞͬƚƌĂǀĂŝůƋƵŝŶĞƌĞƉƌĠƐĞŶƚĞ ƋƵĞ Ϯϱй ĚĞƐ ŵŽďŝůŝƚĠƐ͘ ĞƐ ŵŽďŝůŝƚĠƐ ƐŽŶƚ ĚĞ ŵŽŝŶƐ ĞŶ ŵŽŝŶƐ ƉƌĠǀŝƐŝďůĞƐ Ğƚ ƐŽŶƚ ĚĞ ĚĞƌŶŝğƌĞ ŵŝŶƵƚĞ͘ ůůĞƐ ƐŽŶƚ njŝŐnjĂŐĂŶƚĞƐ͕ ĚŽŶĐ ƚƌĂǀĂŝůůĞƌ ƐƵƌ ůĞ ƚĞŵƉƐ͕ ĕĂ ƉĂƐƐĞ ƉĂƌ ĚĞƐ ĂũƵƐƚĞŵĞŶƚƐ ĚĞƐ ƐLJƐƚğŵĞƐ ĚĞ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ŵĂŝƐ ĕĂ ǀĞƵƚ ĚŝƌĞ ĂƵƐƐŝ ƌĞůŽĐĂůŝƐĞƌ ůĞƐ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ ƉƌğƐ ĚĞ ů͛ŚĂďŝƚĂƚ Ğƚ ƌĞůŽĐĂůŝƐĞƌ ůĞƐ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ ƉƌğƐ ĚĞƐ entreprises. WĂƌ ƌĂƉƉŽƌƚ ă ĐĞƐ ĠǀŽůƵƟŽŶƐ ů͛ŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵ ĚĞǀŝĞŶƚ ĚĞ ƉůƵƐ ĞŶ ƉůƵƐ ŵŽďŝůĞ͘/ůĞƐƚƉŽůLJͲƚŽƉŝƋƵĞ͗ŝůĂƉůƵƐŝĞƵƌƐůŝĞƵdž͘/ůĞƐƚƉŽůLJͲĂĐƟĨ͗ŝů ĂƵŶƉŽƌƚĞĨĞƵŝůůĞĚ͛ĂĐƟǀŝƚĠƐƉůƵƐƋƵ͛ƵŶƐĞƵůŵĠƟĞƌ͘/ůĞƐƚĚĞƉůƵƐ ĞŶƉůƵƐŝŶƐƚĂďůĞ͗ĞŶĨĂŵŝůůĞ͕ĂƵƚƌĂǀĂŝů͕ĚĂŶƐƐĂůŽĐĂůŝƐĂƟŽŶ͘/ůĞƐƚ ĚĞƉůƵƐĞŶƉůƵƐŝŵƉƌĠǀŝƐŝďůĞ͕ŝůĚĞǀŝĞŶƚĚĞƉůƵƐĞŶƉůƵƐƵŶŚLJďƌŝĚĞ ĂůŽƌƐƋƵĞů͛ŽīƌĞƵƌďĂŝŶĞĞƐƚƚŽƵũŽƵƌƐƉůƵƐƐƚĂƟƋƵĞĞƚƌŝŐŝĚĞ͘

9


>h't//E^</͕ geographer urban planner, Grenoble (FR)

ŽĨƟŵĞ͗ϯϬйŽĨƵƌŽƉĞĂŶƐƐĂLJƚŚĂƚƟŵĞŝƐŽƵƚŽĨƚŚĞŝƌĐŽŶƚƌŽů͘ dŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ ĂůƐŽ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƐƉĂĐĞ͗ ĞǀĞƌLJ ƟŵĞ ƐŽŵĞŽŶĞ ĐŽŵĞƐ ƵƉ ǁŝƚŚ Ă ŶĞǁ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶ͕ Ă ŶĞǁ ƐƚĂŶĚͲĂůŽŶĞ ŽďũĞĐƚŝƐďƵŝůƚŽŶƚŚĞƉĞƌŝƉŚĞƌLJ͕ƐŽƚŚĞĐŝƚLJŐƌŽǁƐ͘dŚĞƌĞŝƐĂƟŵĞ ůĂŐďĞƚǁĞĞŶǁŽƌŬŝŶŐĂŶĚĨĂŵŝůLJůŝĨĞ͕ĂŶĚĚŝĸĐƵůƟĞƐƌĞĐŽŶĐŝůŝŶŐ ƚŚĞƚǁŽ͘ŶĚƚŚĞŶƉƌŽďĂďůLJĚŝĸĐƵůƟĞƐŝŶŚƵŵĂŶĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJĂƐ it used to be understood. ^Ž ǁŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƐƐŝďůĞ ƌĞƐƉŽŶƐĞƐ͍ &ŝƌƐƚ͕ ƚŚĞƌĞ ĂƌĞ ŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂů ƌĞƐƉŽŶƐĞƐ ƚŽ ƚŚŝƐ ĂĐĐĞůĞƌĂƟŽŶ͗ ƚŚĞ ƌĞͲĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ĐŽŶƚƌŽů ŽǀĞƌ ƟŵĞ͗ ŝĨ / ǁĂŶƚ͕ / ĐĂŶ ƐƚŽƉ͘ ,ĞƌĞ ǁĞ ƐĞĞ ƚŚĞ ĞŵĞƌŐĞŶĐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞĐŽŶĐĞƉƚŽĨƐůŽǁůĞŝƐƵƌĞ͕ƉĞŽƉůĞũƵŵƉŝŶŐŽīƚŚĞďĂŶĚǁĂŐŽŶ͘ ŶĚ ƚŚĞŶ ƚŚĞƌĞ ĂƌĞ ĂůƐŽ ĐŽůůĞĐƟǀĞ ƌĞƐƉŽŶƐĞƐ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚ ĂĐƟǀŝƐƚ ŵŽǀĞŵĞŶƚƐƐƵĐŚĂƐ^ůŽǁ&ŽŽĚŽƌŝƩă^ůŽǁ͕ƚŽǁŶƐƚŚĂƚŽƉĞƌĂƚĞ ŝŶ ƐůŽǁ ŵŽƟŽŶ͘ ŶĚ ƚŚĞŶ ƚŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ ĂůƐŽ ƚŚĞ ƚƌĞŶĚ ŽĨ ƐĞƫŶŐ ƵƉ ĨĞƐƟǀĂůƐ ŝŶ Ăůů ŽƵƌ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ͗ ƚŚĞ ͞ŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌƐ ĨĞƐƟǀĂů͟ ŝŶ &ƌĂŶĐĞ ƚŽ ĐĞŵĞŶƚ ŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌŚŽŽĚƐ͖ ŐĂƌĂŐĞ ƐĂůĞƐ ǁŚĞƌĞ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ŐŽƚŽďƵLJƚŚĞŝƌŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌ͛ƐĂƐŚƚƌĂLJ͖ǁŚŝƚĞŶŝŐŚƚƐ͗ƚŚĞƌĞŚĂƐďĞĞŶ ĂŶĞdžƉůŽƐŝŽŶŽĨĨĞƐƟǀĂůƐŽĨƚŚŝƐŬŝŶĚ͕ƚŽĐĞŵĞŶƚĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƟĞƐĂŶĚ ĐŝƟĞƐ͕ĂŶĚƚŚĞLJǁŽƌŬ͊

ÝÊó«ƒã®Ý㫛ý½›ƒ½›‘®ãù͍ ƵƚƚŚĞƌĞĂƌĞĂůƐŽƌĞƐƉŽŶƐĞƐŝŶǀŽůǀŝŶŐǀĞƌƐĂƟůĞƐƉĂĐĞƐ͕ƌŽƚĂƟŶŐ ĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŚLJďƌŝĚŝƐĂƟŽŶ͘ dŚĂƚ ŝƐ ǁŚĂƚ ǁĞ ŵĞĂŶ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ŵĂůůĞĂďůĞĐŝƚLJ͘ĨĞǁĞdžĂŵƉůĞƐŽĨĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚŬŝŶĚƐ͗ƚŚĞďĂŶŬƐŽĨ ƚŚĞ^ĞŝŶĞďĞĐŽŵĞĂďĞĂĐŚŝŶƐƵŵŵĞƌ͖ƚŚĞƐƋƵĂƌĞŝŶĨƌŽŶƚŽĨƚŚĞ dŽǁŶ,ĂůůŝŶ^ƚƌĂƐďŽƵƌŐďĞĐŽŵĞƐĂƐŬĂƟŶŐƌŝŶŬŝŶǁŝŶƚĞƌ͖ƐĐŚŽŽů ƉƌĞŵŝƐĞƐĂƌĞŽƉĞŶƚŽŽƚŚĞƌĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐŝŶƚŚĞĞǀĞŶŝŶŐƐ͖ĂĞƌŽƉůĂŶĞƐ ĐĂƌƌLJ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ĚƵƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĚĂLJ ĂŶĚ ŵĂŝů Ăƚ ŶŝŐŚƚ͖ Ă ďƵƐ ůĂŶĞ ďĞĐŽŵĞƐĂƉĂƌŬŝŶŐůĂŶĞĂƚŶŝŐŚƚ͖ĂŚŝŐŚͲƐƚƌĞƐƐůŽĐĂƟŽŶďĞĐŽŵĞƐ ĂƐŚŽǁƐƉĂĐĞĨŽƌĂƌƟƐƚƐ͖ĂŶĞŵƉƚLJƐƉĂĐĞŝŶƚŚĞĚĞƐĞƌƚďĞĐŽŵĞƐ Ă ƚŽǁŶ ƚŽ ƐƚĂŐĞ ĂŶ ĞǀĞŶƚ͕ Ă ƐƚƌĞĞƚ ďĞĐŽŵĞƐ Ă ĨŽŽƚďĂůů ƉŝƚĐŚ͕ Ă ďĂƌďĞĐŽŵĞĂǁŽƌŬƉůĂĐĞʹĂŚLJďƌŝĚƐƉĂĐĞʹĂůĂƵŶĚƌLJďĞĐŽŵĞƐĂ ůŝďƌĂƌLJ͕ĂƐƚĂƟŽŶĂƐƵƉĞƌŵĂƌŬĞƚ͘^ŽĨƌŽŵƚŚŝƐƉĞƌƐƉĞĐƟǀĞĂŶĚĂƉĂƌƚ ĨƌŽŵƚŚĞƐŵĂůůͲƐĐĂůĞĞdžƉĞƌŝŵĞŶƚƐƚŚĂƚǁĞƐĞĞŝŶĐŝƟĞƐ͕ƚŚĞŐŽĂůŽĨ the malleable city is to be able to respond to stress by using the key ŽĨƟŵĞ͘ ,Žǁ ĐĂŶ ǁĞ ĂĚĂƉƚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ ŽĨ ĚĞŵĂŶĚ ĂƐ ŝƚ ĐŚĂŶŐĞƐ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚŽƵƚĂůŝĨĞ͕ĂLJĞĂƌ͕ĂĚĂLJ͍ ,Žǁ ĐĂŶ ǁĞ ůŝŵŝƚ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƐƉĂĐĞ ĂŶĚ ŽƉƟŵŝƐĞ ĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞƐƵƌĨĂĐĞĂƌĞĂ͍ ,Žǁ ĐĂŶ ǁĞ ƌĞĚƵĐĞ ĐŽƐƚƐ͍ ŶĚ ĮŶĂůůLJ͕ ŚŽǁ ĐĂŶ ǁĞ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ƵƌďĂŶŝŶƚĞŶƐŝƚLJƚŽŵĂŬĞĂƌĞĂůĐŝƚLJ͍ The malleable city is a city that can be worked without breaking. /ƚ ŝƐ ŶŽƚ ƚŚĞ Ϯϰ ŚŽƵƌͲĂͲĚĂLJ ĐŝƚLJ͕ ŝƚ ŝƐ ŶŽƚ ƚŚĞ ĨƌĂŐŵĞŶƚĞĚ ĐŝƚLJ͕ ďƵƚ ŝƚ ŝƐ Ă ĐŝƚLJ ŐŽǀĞƌŶĞĚ ďLJ ĐŽůůĞĐƟǀĞ ŝŶƚĞůůŝŐĞŶĐĞ ǁŚĞƌĞ ǁĞ ŐŝǀĞŽƵƌƐĞůǀĞƐƚŚĞƌŝŐŚƚƚŽĞdžƉĞƌŝŵĞŶƚĂŶĚƚŽŵĂŬĞĂŶĚĐŽƌƌĞĐƚ ŵŝƐƚĂŬĞƐ͘ŵĂůůĞĂďůĞĐŝƚLJŝƐĂďŽƵƚƚŚĞǀĞƌƐĂƟůĞĂŶĚĂůƚĞƌŶĂƟŶŐ ƵƐĞ ŽĨ ƉƵďůŝĐ ƐƉĂĐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ Ăƚ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ƚĞŵƉŽƌĂů ƐĐĂůĞƐ ʹ LJĞĂƌ͕ ƐĞĂƐŽŶ͕ ĚĂLJ ʹ ĂŶĚ Ăƚ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ƐƉĂƟĂů ƐĐĂůĞƐ ʹ ŚŽƵƐĞ͕ ŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌŚŽŽĚ͕ ƐƚƌĞĞƚ͕ ĐŽŶƵƌďĂƟŽŶ͘ dŚĞ ŵĂůůĞĂďůĞ ĐŝƚLJ ŝƐ ĂůƐŽ ĂďŽƵƚ ǀĞƌƐĂƟůĞ ƉƵďůŝĐ ƐƉĂĐĞƐ͕ ǀĞƌƐĂƟůĞ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ͕ ĂĚĂƉƚĂďůĞ͕

ϭϬ

ŵŽĚƵůĂƌ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŶǀĞƌƟďůĞ ƐƚƌĞĞƚ ĨƵƌŶŝƚƵƌĞ͕ ƌĞĂůͲƟŵĞ ƐŝŐŶĂŐĞ ƚŽ ƌĞŇĞĐƚ ĐŚĂŶŐŝŶŐ ƵƌďĂŶ ƌŽůĞƐ͕ Ă ŶĞǁ ĐŝƚLJ ĚĞƐŝŐŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ĂďŽǀĞ Ăůů ũŽŝŶƚĚĞƐŝŐŶĂƚĞǀĞƌLJƐƚĂŐĞ͘ A malleable city is also about new rules for new uses. Rules for ƐŚĂƌŝŶŐĐŽůůĞĐƟǀĞƐƉĂĐĞ͗ĐŽůůĞĐƟǀĞƐƉĂĐĞŝƐŚĂƌĚĞŶŽƵŐŚƚŽƐŚĂƌĞ ŝŶ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ĐŝƟĞƐ͕ ƐŽ ǁŚĂƚ ĚŽ ǁĞ ĚŽ ǁŚĞŶ ĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ ƐŚĂƌĞ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞƐƉĂĐĞ͕ƚŚĞƐĂŵĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ͍^ŽƌƵůĞƐĂƌĞŶĞĞĚĞĚ͘dŚĞƐƉĂƟĂů ĂŶĚ ƚĞŵƉŽƌĂů ďŽƵŶĚĂƌŝĞƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĂůƚĞƌŶĂƟŶŐ ƵƐĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ƚŽ ďĞ ĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚ͗ǁŚĞŶĂŶĚǁŚĞƌĞĚŽ/ƐƚŽƉ͍dŚĞƌŝŐŚƚŬŝŶĚŽĨƐŝŐŶĂŐĞ ŝƐ ŶĞĞĚĞĚ͕ ĂůŽŶŐ ǁŝƚŚ ŐŽŽĚ ƟŵĞƚĂďůĞ ŵĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ͕ ĂƐ ǁĞůů ĂƐ ĐŚĂƌƚĞƌƐƚŽĂǀŽŝĚĐŽŶŇŝĐƚŝŶƚŚĞƵƐĞŽĨĐŽůůĞĐƟǀĞƐƉĂĐĞ͗ǁĞĐĂŶ begin thinking about these issues by introducing night charters ĂŶĚƐƚƌĞĞƚďĞŚĂǀŝŽƵƌĐŽĚĞƐ͘ /ŶĂĚĚŝƟŽŶ͕ǁĞŽďǀŝŽƵƐůLJŶĞĞĚƐLJƐƚĞŵƐĨŽƌƚŚĞƐƉĂƟŽƚĞŵƉŽƌĂů ŵĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚĂŶĚŽƌŐĂŶŝƐĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͗/ǁŽƵůĚĂĚǀŽĐĂƚĞƚŚĞ ƵƐĞ ŽĨ ƟŵĞ ĂŶĚ ŵŽďŝůŝƚLJ ĂŐĞŶĐŝĞƐ ƚŽ ƐĞƚ ƚŚĞ ƌŝŐŚƚ ƚĞŵƉŽ ĨŽƌ ĐŝƟĞƐ͕ĂƟŵĞĐŽŶƐŝƐƚĞŶĐLJƐĐŚĞŵĞƚŽŵĂŶĂŐĞƟŵĞƚĂďůĞƐ͕ŝŶŽƚŚĞƌ ǁŽƌĚƐƚŚĞŝŶǀĞŶƟŽŶŽĨƵƌďĂŶƟŵĞƉůĂŶŶĞƌƐ͖ĂŶĚƚŚĞŶ͕ŽďůŝŐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞƉĞŽƉůĞŝŶǀŽůǀĞĚŝŶƚŚĞĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶŽƌĚĞƐŝŐŶŽĨďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐŽƌ ƉƵďůŝĐƐƉĂĐĞƐƚŽƚŚŝŶŬĂďŽƵƚƚŚŝƐŶŽƟŽŶŽĨƟŵĞ͕ǁĞǁŽƵůĚŶĞĞĚ ƚŽŝŶĐŽƌƉŽƌĂƚĞĂƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚŽĨ͞ŚŝŐŚƚĞŵƉŽƌĂůƋƵĂůŝƚLJ͘͟^ŝŶĐĞǁĞ ǁĂŶƚƐŽŵĞƚŚŝŶŐŇĞdžŝďůĞĂŶĚĂĚĂƉƚĂďůĞ͕ǁĞǁŝůůŽĨĐŽƵƌƐĞŚĂǀĞƚŽ ĂƐƐĞƌƚƉƌŝŶĐŝƉůĞƐƚŽƉƌĞǀĞŶƚƚŚĞĞŵĞƌŐĞŶĐĞŽĨŶĞǁŝŶĞƋƵĂůŝƟĞƐ ĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚǁŝƚŚŇĞdžŝďŝůŝƚLJ͗ƚŚĞŶŽƟŽŶŽĨĂƌŝŐŚƚƚŽƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͕ƚŚĞ ŶŽƟŽŶŽĨƉĂƌƟĐŝƉĂƟŽŶĂŶĚƚŚĞŶŽƟŽŶŽĨƵƌďĂŶĞƋƵĂůŝƚLJŝŶƐƉĂĐĞ ĂŶĚƟŵĞ͘ tĞ ǁŝůů ďĞ ŽďůŝŐĞĚ ƚŽ ŝŶǀĞŶƚ ŶĞǁ ĐŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ͕ Ă ŶĞǁ ǀŽĐĂďƵůĂƌLJ͗ ͞ƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJ ƵƐĞƌƐ͕͟ ͞ƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJ ŚƵďƐ͕͟ ͞ƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJ ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞ͙͟ tĞ ǁŝůů ƉĞƌŚĂƉƐ ĂůƐŽ ŚĂǀĞ ƚŽ ƚŚŝŶŬ ĂďŽƵƚ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƟnjĞŶĂƐĂƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJĐŝƟnjĞŶ͘dŚĞŵĂůůĞĂďůĞĐŝƚLJĐĂůůƐĨŽƌĂĨŽƌŵ ŽĨŐŽǀĞƌŶĂŶĐĞƚŚĂƚŵĂƚĐŚĞƐŝƚƐƌŚLJƚŚŵƐ͘ /ŶĐŽŶĐůƵƐŝŽŶ͕ƚŚĞďĞŶĞĮƚƐƚŚĞŵĂůůĞĂďůĞĐŝƚLJďƌŝŶŐƐĂƌĞĐƌĞĂƟǀŝƚLJ͕ ĂŶĞƐĐĂƉĞĨƌŽŵƐƉĂĐĞĂŶĚĞŶĞƌŐLJƌĞƐƚƌŝĐƟŽŶƐĂŶĚďŽƵŶĚĂƌŝĞƐ͘/ƚŝƐ ĂďŽƵƚƵƌďĂŶŝƚLJ͕ĂďŽƵƚƚŚĞƐŵĂƌƚƵƐĞŽĨŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĞƐ͕ ĂďŽƵƚŵŽďŝůŝƐŝŶŐĂƌƟƐƚƐƚŽŵĂŬĞƉƵďůŝĐƐƉĂĐĞƐĂŶĚĂĐŝƚLJƚŚĂƚůŽŽŬ ůŝŬĞƐŽŵĞƚŚŝŶŐĂŶĚƉůĂĐĞƐǁŚĞƌĞLJŽƵǁĂŶƚƚŽƐĞƩůĞ͘ŶĚĮŶĂůůLJ͕ ŝƚŝƐƵŶĚŽƵďƚĞĚůLJĂďŽƵƚĂŶĞǁǁĂLJŽĨŝŶŚĂďŝƟŶŐ͘tĞƚĂůŬĂďŽƵƚ ŝŶŚĂďŝƟŶŐƐƉĂĐĞ͕ďƵƚǁĞĐĂŶĂůƐŽƚĂůŬĂďŽƵƚŝŶŚĂďŝƟŶŐƟŵĞ͘


>h't//E^</͕ géographe urbaniste, Grenoble (FR)

>ĞƐ ĐŽŶƐĠƋƵĞŶĐĞƐ ĚĞ ĐĞƐ ĠǀŽůƵƟŽŶƐ͕ Đ͛ĞƐƚ ƚŽƵƚ Ě͛ĂďŽƌĚ ů͛ĂĐĐƌŽŝƐƐĞŵĞŶƚĚĞůĂĐŽŵƉůĞdžŝƚĠ͗ŽŶĞƐƚĨĂĐĞăƋƵĞůƋƵĞĐŚŽƐĞ qu’on a du mal à comprendre, qu’il faut penser en 3 dimensions et LJŝŶƚĠŐƌĞƌůĞƚĞŵƉƐ͗ϯϬйĚĞƐĞƵƌŽƉĠĞŶƐĚŝƐĞŶƚŶĞƉůƵƐŵĂŝƚƌŝƐĞƌ ůĞ ƚĞŵƉƐ͘ ͛ĞƐƚ ĂƵƐƐŝ ƵŶĞ ĐŽŶƐŽŵŵĂƟŽŶ ĂĐĐƌƵĞ Ě͛ĞƐƉĂĐĞƐ ͗ ĐŚĂƋƵĞĨŽŝƐƋƵĞů͛ŽŶƉƌŽĚƵŝƚƵŶĞŶŽƵǀĞůůĞĨŽŶĐƟŽŶ͕ŽŶƉƌŽĚƵŝƚ ƵŶŶŽƵǀĞůŽďũĞƚĐĠůŝďĂƚĂŝƌĞĞŶƉĠƌŝƉŚĠƌŝĞĞƚĚŽŶĐŽŶĂĐĐƌŽŝƚůĂ ǀŝůůĞ͘ ͛ĞƐƚ ƵŶĞ ĚĠƐLJŶĐŚƌŽŶŝƐĂƟŽŶ Ğƚ ĚĞƐ ĚŝĸĐƵůƚĠƐ ă ĐŽŶĐŝůŝĞƌ ůĂǀŝĞƉƌŽĨĞƐƐŝŽŶŶĞůůĞĞƚůĂǀŝĞĨĂŵŝůŝĂůĞ͘ƚƉƵŝƐƐĂŶƐĚŽƵƚĞĚĞƐ ĚŝĸĐƵůƚĠƐăƐĞƌĞŶĐŽŶƚƌĞƌĂƵƐĞŶƐŽƶů͛ŽŶƉŽƵǀĂŝƚůĞĚŝƌĞĂǀĂŶƚ͘

ĞŶ ĂƌƌŝğƌĞ͘ hŶĞ ǀŝůůĞ ŵĂůůĠĂďůĞ͕ Đ͛ĞƐƚ ůĂ ƉŽůLJǀĂůĞŶĐĞ Ğƚ ů͛ƵƐĂŐĞ ĂůƚĞƌŶĠ ĚĞ ů͛ĞƐƉĂĐĞ ƉƵďůŝĐ Ğƚ ĚĞƐ ďąƟŵĞŶƚƐ ĚŽŶĐ ă ĚŝīĠƌĞŶƚĞƐ ĠĐŚĞůůĞƐ ƚĞŵƉŽƌĞůůĞƐ ͗ ĚĞ ů͛ĂŶŶĠĞ ă ůĂ ũŽƵƌŶĠĞ ĞŶ ƉĂƐƐĂŶƚ ƉĂƌ ůĞƐƐĂŝƐŽŶƐ͖ĞƚăĚŝīĠƌĞŶƚĞƐĠĐŚĞůůĞƐƐƉĂƟĂůĞƐ͗ĚĞů͛ŚĂďŝƚĂƟŽŶ ă ů͛ĂŐŐůŽŵĠƌĂƟŽŶ ĞŶ ƉĂƐƐĂŶƚ ƉĂƌ ůĞ ƋƵĂƌƟĞƌ Ğƚ ůĂ ƌƵĞ͘ >Ă ǀŝůůĞ ŵĂůůĠĂďůĞ͕ Đ͛ĞƐƚ ĂƵƐƐŝ ĚĞƐ ĞƐƉĂĐĞƐ ƉƵďůŝĐƐ ƉŽůLJǀĂůĞŶƚƐ ͖ ĚĞƐ ďąƟŵĞŶƚƐ ƉŽůLJǀĂůĞŶƚƐ ͖ ƵŶ ŵŽďŝůŝĞƌ ƵƌďĂŝŶ ƋƵŝ ƐŽŝƚ ĂĚĂƉƚĂďůĞ͕ ŵŽĚƵůĂŝƌĞĞƚĐŽŶǀĞƌƟďůĞ͖ƵŶĞƐŝŐŶĂůĠƟƋƵĞĞŶƚĞŵƉƐƌĠĞůƉƵŝƐƋƵĞ ůĂǀŝůůĞǀĂĐŚĂŶŐĞƌĚ͛ĂīĞĐƚĂƟŽŶĂƵĐŽƵƌƐĚƵƚĞŵƉƐ͖ƵŶŶŽƵǀĞĂƵ ĚĞƐŝŐŶĚĞůĂǀŝůůĞ͖ĞƚƐƵƌƚŽƵƚƵŶĞĐŽͲĐŽŶĐĞƉƟŽŶăĐŚĂƋƵĞĠƚĂƉĞ͘

DĂŝƐ ĂůŽƌƐ ƋƵ͛ĞdžŝƐƚĞͲƚͲŝů ĐŽŵŵĞ ƌĠƉŽŶƐĞƐ͍ ͛ĂďŽƌĚ ŝů LJ Ă ĚĞƐ ƌĠƉŽŶƐĞƐŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĞůůĞƐƉĂƌƌĂƉƉŽƌƚăů͛ĂĐĐĠůĠƌĂƟŽŶ͗ůĂƌĞƉƌŝƐĞĞŶ ŵĂŝŶ ĚĞ ůĂ ŵĂŝƚƌŝƐĞ ĚĞ ƐŽŶ ƚĞŵƉƐ ͗ Ɛŝ ũĞ ǀĞƵdž ũĞ ƉĞƵdž ĂƌƌġƚĞƌ͘ ͛ĞƐƚů͛ĞdžƉůŽƐŝŽŶĚĞƐůŽŝƐŝƌƐůĞŶƚƐ͕Đ͛ĞƐƚůĞůąĐŚĞƌͲƉƌŝƐĞĚ͛ƵŶĐĞƌƚĂŝŶ ŶŽŵďƌĞĚĞƉĞƌƐŽŶŶĞƐ͕ăƵŶŵŽŵĞŶƚĚĞůĂǀŝĞ͘ƚƉƵŝƐŝůLJĂĂƵƐƐŝ ĚĞƐƌĠƉŽŶƐĞƐĐŽůůĞĐƟǀĞƐăƚƌĂǀĞƌƐĚĞƐĐŽƵƌĂŶƚƐŵŝůŝƚĂŶƚƐĐŽŵŵĞ ůĞ ^ůŽǁ &ŽŽĚ ŽƵ ůĂ ŝƩă ^ůŽǁ͕ ĐĞƐ ǀŝůůĞƐ ƋƵŝ ĨŽŶĐƟŽŶŶĞŶƚ ĂƵ ƌĂůĞŶƟ͘DĂŝƐĐ͛ĞƐƚĂƵƐƐŝůĂĐĂƉĂĐŝƚĠƋƵĞů͛ŽŶĂĚ͛ŝŶǀĞŶƚĞƌĚĂŶƐƚŽƵƐ ŶŽƐƚĞƌƌŝƚŽŝƌĞƐĚĞƐĨġƚĞƐ͗ůĂĨġƚĞĚĞƐǀŽŝƐŝŶƐƉŽƵƌĨĂŝƌĞƋƵĂƌƟĞƌ͖ ůĞƐǀŝĚĞƐŐƌĞŶŝĞƌŽƶů͛ŽŶǀĂĂĐŚĞƚĞƌůĞĐĞŶĚƌŝĞƌĚĞƐŽŶǀŽŝƐŝŶ͖ůĞƐ ŶƵŝƚƐďůĂŶĐŚĞƐ͗ŽŶĂǀƵů͛ĞdžƉůŽƐŝŽŶĚĞĐĞƐĨġƚĞƐƋƵŝƉĞƌŵĞƩĞŶƚ ĞŶƐŽŝƌĠĞĚĞĨĂŝƌĞƚĞƌƌŝƚŽŝƌĞĞƚĚĞĨĂŝƌĞǀŝůůĞĞƚĕĂŵĂƌĐŚĞ͊

hŶĞ ǀŝůůĞ ŵĂůůĠĂďůĞ͕ Đ͛ĞƐƚ ĠŐĂůĞŵĞŶƚ ĚĞ ŶŽƵǀĞůůĞƐ ƌğŐůĞƐ ƉŽƵƌ ĚĞƐŶŽƵǀĞĂƵdžƵƐĂŐĞƐ͗ĐĞƐŽŶƚĚĞƐƌğŐůĞƐĚĞƉĂƌƚĂŐĞĚĞů͛ĞƐƉĂĐĞ ĐŽůůĞĐƟĨ͗Đ͛ĞƐƚĚĠũăĚŝĸĐŝůĞůĞƉĂƌƚĂŐĞĚ͛ƵŶĞƐƉĂĐĞĐŽůůĞĐƟĨĚĂŶƐ ůĂ ǀŝůůĞ ĂƵũŽƵƌĚ͛ŚƵŝ ĚŽŶĐ ĐŽŵŵĞŶƚ ĨĂŝƚͲŽŶ ůŽƌƐƋƵĞ ůĞƐ ĂĐƟǀŝƚĠƐ ƚŽƵƌŶĞŶƚ ĚĂŶƐ ƵŶ ŵġŵĞ ĞƐƉĂĐĞ͕ ĚĂŶƐ ƵŶ ŵġŵĞ ďąƟŵĞŶƚ ͍ ŽŶĐ ŝů ĨĂƵƚ ĚĞƐ ƌğŐůĞƐ͘ /ů ĨĂƵƚ ĠƚĂďůŝƌ ĚĞƐ ůŝŵŝƚĞƐ ƐƉĂƟĂůĞƐ Ğƚ ƚĞŵƉŽƌĞůůĞƐ ĚĞ ĐĞƚ ƵƐĂŐĞ ĂůƚĞƌŶĞ ͗ ƋƵĂŶĚ Ğƚ Žƶ ĕĂ Ɛ͛ĂƌƌġƚĞ ͍ /ů ĨĂƵƚƵŶĞƐŝŐŶĂůĠƟƋƵĞĂĚĂƉƚĠĞ͕ƵŶĞŽƌŐĂŶŝƐĂƟŽŶĚĞůĂŐĞƐƟŽŶĚĞ calendriers d’usages, mais aussi des chartes d’usage de l’espace ĐŽůůĞĐƟĨ ĂĮŶ Ě͛ĠǀŝƚĞƌ ůĞƐ ĐŽŶŇŝƚƐ ͗ ŽŶ ĐŽŵŵĞŶĐĞ ă ƚƌĂǀĞƌƐ ĚĞƐ ĐŚĂƌƚĞƐĚĞůĂŶƵŝƚ͕ĚĞƐĐŽĚĞƐĚĞůĂƌƵĞăƉĞŶƐĞƌăĐĞƐƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƐůă͘

½ƒò®½½›ý½›ƒ½›‘ÊÃÛٛÖÊÄݛ͍ DĂŝƐ ŝů LJ Ă ĚĞƐ ƌĠƉŽŶƐĞƐ ĂƵƐƐŝ ĞŶ ƚĞƌŵĞƐ ĚĞ ƉŽůLJǀĂůĞŶĐĞƐ ĚĞƐ ĞƐƉĂĐĞƐ͕ĚĞƌŽƚĂƟŽŶĚ͛ĂĐƟǀŝƚĠƐĞƚĚ͛ŚLJďƌŝĚĂƟŽŶ͛͘ĞƐƚůĂƋƵĞƐƟŽŶ ĚĞůĂǀŝůůĞŵĂůůĠĂďůĞ͘YƵĞůƋƵĞƐĞdžĞŵƉůĞƐăĚŝīĠƌĞŶƚĞƐĠĐŚĞůůĞƐ͗ ůĞƐƋƵĂŝƐĚĞůĂ^ĞŝŶĞĚĞǀŝĞŶŶĞŶƚƵŶĞƉůĂŐĞƉŽƵƌů͛ĠƚĠ͖ůĂƉůĂĐĞĚĞ ůĂŵĂŝƌŝĞĚĞǀŝĞŶƚƵŶĞƉĂƟŶŽŝƌĞĂ^ƚƌĂƐďŽƵƌŐ͖ƵŶĞĠĐŽůĞĂĐĐƵĞŝůůĞ Ě͛ĂƵƚƌĞƐ ĂĐƟǀŝƚĠƐ ůĞ ƐŽŝƌ ͖ ƵŶ ĂǀŝŽŶ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚĞ ĚĞƐ ŚŽŵŵĞƐ ůĂ ũŽƵƌŶĠĞ Ğƚ ĚƵ ĐŽƵƌƌŝĞƌ ůĂ ŶƵŝƚ ͖ ƵŶ ĐŽƵůŽŝƌ ĚĞ ďƵƐ ĚĞǀŝĞŶƚ ƵŶ ƉĂƌŬŝŶŐůĂŶƵŝƚ͖ƵŶĞƐƉĂĐĞĂŶdžŝŽŐğŶĞĚĞǀŝĞŶƚƵŶůŝĞƵĚĞƐƉĞĐƚĂĐůĞ ƉŽƵƌĚĞƐĂƌƟƐƚĞƐ͖ƵŶĞƐƉĂĐĞǀŝĚĞĚĂŶƐůĞĚĠƐĞƌƚĚĞǀŝĞŶƚƵŶĞǀŝůůĞ ůĞ ƚĞŵƉƐ Ě͛ƵŶ ĠǀĠŶĞŵĞŶƚ͕ ƵŶĞ ƌƵĞ ĚĞǀŝĞŶƚ ƵŶ ƚĞƌƌĂŝŶ ĚĞ ĨŽŽƚ ŵĂŝƐĂƵƐƐŝƵŶďĂƌĚĞǀŝĞŶƚƵŶůŝĞƵĚĞƚƌĂǀĂŝů͕ƵŶĞƐƉĂĐĞŚLJďƌŝĚĞ͕ ƵŶĞůĂǀĞƌŝĞĚĞǀŝĞŶƚƵŶĞďŝďůŝŽƚŚğƋƵĞ͕ƵŶĞŐĂƌĞƵŶƐƵƉĞƌŵĂƌĐŚĠ͘ ŽŶĐ ƉĂƌ ƌĂƉƉŽƌƚ ă ĕĂ Ğƚ ĂƵͲĚĞůă ĚĞ ĐĞƐ ƉĞƟƚĞƐ ĞdžƉĠƌŝĞŶĐĞƐ ƋƵĞ ů͛ŽŶ ƉĞƵƚ ĐŽŶƐƚĂƚĞƌ ĚĂŶƐ ůĞƐ ǀŝůůĞƐ͕ ů͛ŽďũĞĐƟĨ ĂƵƚŽƵƌ ĚĞ ůĂ ǀŝůůĞ ŵĂůůĠĂďůĞ Đ͛ĞƐƚ ĚĞ ƉŽƵǀŽŝƌ ƌĠƉŽŶĚƌĞ ă ĚĞƐ ĐŽŶƚƌĂŝŶƚĞƐ ĞŶ ƵƟůŝƐĂŶƚůĂĐůĠĚĞƐƚĞŵƉƐ͘ ŽŵŵĞŶƚƐ͛ĂĚĂƉƚĞƚͲŽŶăůĂĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚĠĚĞůĂĚĞŵĂŶĚĞĂƵůŽŶŐĚĞ ůĂǀŝĞ͕ĚĞů͛ĂŶŶĠĞĞƚĚĞƐũŽƵƌƐ͍ ŽŵŵĞŶƚůŝŵŝƚĞƚͲŽŶůĂĐŽŶƐŽŵŵĂƟŽŶĚ͛ĞƐƉĂĐĞĞƚŽƉƟŵŝƐĞƚͲŽŶ ůĞƐƐƵƌĨĂĐĞƐĚŝƐƉŽŶŝďůĞƐ͍ ŽŵŵĞŶƚƌĠĚƵŝƚͲŽŶůĞƐĐŽƵƚƐ͍ƚĞŶĮŶ͕ĐŽŵŵĞŶƚŐĂŐŶĞƚͲŽŶĞŶ ŝŶƚĞŶƐŝƚĠƵƌďĂŝŶĞƉŽƵƌĨĂŝƌĞǀŝůůĞ͍ >ĂǀŝůůĞŵĂůůĠĂďůĞĐ͛ĞƐƚƵŶĞĐŝƚĠƋƵŝƐĞůĂŝƐƐĞĨĂĕŽŶŶĞƌƐĂŶƐƌŽŵƉƌĞ͘ ĞŶ͛ĞƐƚƉĂƐůĂǀŝůůĞϮϰŚͬϮϰ͕ĐĞŶ͛ĞƐƚƉĂƐůĂǀŝůůĞĠĐůĂƚĠĞŵĂŝƐĐ͛ĞƐƚ ƵŶĞĐŝƚĠƋƵŝĞƐƚĚĂŶƐƵŶĞůŽŐŝƋƵĞĚ͛ŝŶƚĞůůŝŐĞŶĐĞĐŽůůĞĐƟǀĞĞƚŽƶ ŽŶƐĞůĂŝƐƐĞůĞĚƌŽŝƚĚ͛ĞdžƉĠƌŝŵĞŶƚĞƌĞƚĚĞƐĞƚƌŽŵƉĞƌƉŽƵƌƌĞǀĞŶŝƌ

/ů ĨĂƵƚ ĂƵƐƐŝ ďŝĞŶ ĠǀŝĚĞŵŵĞŶƚ ĚĞƐ ŽƵƟůƐ ĚĞ ŐĞƐƟŽŶ Ğƚ Ě͛ĂŵĠŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚƐƉĂƟŽͲƚĞŵƉŽƌĞůƐĚĞůĂǀŝůůĞ͗ũĞŵĞĨĞƌĂŝů͛ĂǀŽĐĂƚ des agences des temps et des mobilités pour essayer de donner ůĞďŽŶƚĞŵƉŽĂƵdžǀŝůůĞƐ͖ƵŶƐĐŚĠŵĂĚĞĐŽŚĠƌĞŶĐĞƚĞŵƉŽƌĞůƉŽƵƌ gérer les agendas, donc des urbanistes du temps ça doit bien ƉŽƵǀŽŝƌƐ͛ŝŶǀĞŶƚĞƌ͖ĞƚƉƵŝƐƉŽƵƌŽďůŝŐĞƌůĞƐŐĞŶƐƋƵŝĐŽŶƐƚƌƵŝƐĞŶƚ ŽƵƚƌĂǀĂŝůůĞŶƚƐƵƌƵŶďąƟŵĞŶƚŽƵƵŶĞƐƉĂĐĞƉƵďůŝĐăƉĞŶƐĞƌĐĞƩĞ ŶŽƟŽŶĚĞƚĞŵƉƐ͕ŝůĨĂƵĚƌĂŝƚƋƵ͛ŽŶŝŶƚğŐƌĞƵŶƉƌŝŶĐŝƉĞĚĞͨŚĂƵƚĞ ƋƵĂůŝƚĠƚĞŵƉŽƌĞůůĞͩ͘WƵŝƐƋƵ͛ŽŶǀĞƵƚġƚƌĞĚĂŶƐƋƵĞůƋƵĞĐŚŽƐĞĚĞ ƐŽƵƉůĞĞƚĚ͛ĂĚĂƉƚĂďůĞ͕ŝůĨĂƵƚƋƵĂŶĚŵġŵĞƋƵĞů͛ŽŶĂĸƌŵĞĚĞƐ ƉƌŝŶĐŝƉĞƐƉŽƵƌĠǀŝƚĞƌů͛ĂƉƉĂƌŝƟŽŶĚĞŶŽƵǀĞůůĞƐŝŶĠŐĂůŝƚĠƐůŝĠĞƐăůĂ ƐŽƵƉůĞƐƐĞĞƚăůĂŇĞdžŝďŝůŝƚĠ͗ůĂŶŽƟŽŶĚĞĚƌŽŝƚăůĂǀŝůůĞ͕ůĂŶŽƟŽŶ ĚĞ ƉĂƌƟĐŝƉĂƟŽŶ Ğƚ ůĂ ŶŽƟŽŶ Ě͛ĠŐĂůŝƚĠ ƵƌďĂŝŶĞ ĚĂŶƐ ů͛ĞƐƉĂĐĞ Ğƚ dans le temps. KŶ ƐĞƌĂ ŽďůŝŐĠ Ě͛ŝŶǀĞŶƚĞƌ ĚĞ ŶŽƵǀĞĂƵdž ĐŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ͕ ƵŶ ŶŽƵǀĞĂƵ ǀŽĐĂďƵůĂŝƌĞ ͗ ͨ ůĞƐ ƵƐĂŐĞƌƐ ƚĞŵƉŽƌĂŝƌĞƐ ͕ͩ ͨ ůĞƐ ĐĞŶƚƌĂůŝƚĠƐ ƚĞŵƉŽƌĂŝƌĞƐ͕ͩͨů͛ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞƚĞŵƉŽƌĂŝƌĞ͙ͩŽŶƐĞƌĂƉĞƵƚͲġƚƌĞ aussi obligé à penser le citoyen comme un citoyen temporaire. La ǀŝůůĞŵĂůůĠĂďůĞĞŶƚƌĂŠŶĞƵŶĞŐŽƵǀĞƌŶĂŶĐĞĂĚĂƉƚĠĞĂƵdžƌLJƚŚŵĞƐ͘ Ŷ ĐŽŶĐůƵƐŝŽŶ͕ ů͛ŝŶƚĠƌġƚ ĚĞ ůĂ ǀŝůůĞ ŵĂůůĠĂďůĞ͕ Đ͛ĞƐƚ ůĂ ĐƌĠĂƟǀŝƚĠ͕ c’est échapper aux contraintes et limites en termes d’espace Ğƚ Ě͛ĠŶĞƌŐŝĞ͘ ͛ĞƐƚ ů͛ƵƌďĂŶŝƚĠ͕ Đ͛ĞƐƚ ƵƟůŝƐĞƌ ůĞƐ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĞƐ ĚĞ ů͛ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ƉŽƵƌ ů͛ŝŶƚĞůůŝŐĞŶĐĞ͕ ĕĂ ƉĞƌŵĞƚ ĚĞ ŵŽďŝůŝƐĞƌ ůĞƐ ĂƌƟƐƚĞƐ ƉŽƵƌ ĨĂďƌŝƋƵĞƌ ĚĞƐ ĞƐƉĂĐĞƐ ƉƵďůŝƋƵĞƐ Ğƚ ƵŶĞ ǀŝůůĞ ƋƵŝ ƌĞƐƐĞŵďůĞăƋƵĞůƋƵĞĐŚŽƐĞĞƚŽƶŽŶĂĞŶǀŝĞĚ͛ĂůůĞƌƐ͛ŝŶƐƚĂůůĞƌ͘ƚ ĞŶĮŶĐ͛ĞƐƚĐĞƌƚĂŝŶĞŵĞŶƚƵŶĞŶŽƵǀĞůůĞĨĂĕŽŶĚ͛ŚĂďŝƚĞƌ͘KŶƉĂƌůĞ d’habiter l’espace mais on peut aussi parler d’habiter le temps.

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>/&/KZ͕ architect, muf architects, London (UK)

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PUBLIC SPACES THROUGH THE PRISM OF TIME ǀĞƌLJƉƌŽũĞĐƚŚĂƐƚŽƐƚĂƌƚǁŝƚŚƚŚĞƉƌĞƉĂƌĂƟŽŶĨŽƌŝƚƐŶĞdžƚůŝĨĞ͕ ĨŽƌǁŚĞŶĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƐĂŶĚĐůŝĞŶƚƐůĞĂǀĞƚŚĞƐŝƚĞ͕ƚŽƐĞĞǁŚĂƚĨŽƌŵŝƚ ǁŝůůƚĂŬĞ͘tŚĂƚŝƐŐŽŽĚĂďŽƵƚĂĐŽŵŵŝƐƐŝŽŶŝƐƚŚĂƚŝƚŐŝǀĞƐLJŽƵĂŶ ŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƚLJƚŽĞŶƚĞƌĂƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶŽƌĂŶŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶĂŶĚŝŶƐŽĚŽŝŶŐ ŝŶĂĐĞƌƚĂŝŶǁĂLJƚŽŝŶŇƵĞŶĐĞƚŚĞĚŝĂůŽŐƵĞĂŶĚŝƚƐƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƟĞƐĨŽƌ ŵĞĂŶŝŶŐ͕ďĞĐĂƵƐĞŵĞĂŶŝŶŐĞǀŽůǀĞƐƚŚƌŽƵŐŚƵƐĞƐ͘ Venice is a good example of some of the new rules on changes in meaning and changes in uses. Venice is a city with no playgrounds ďƵƚƚŚĞƌĞŝƐŶĞǀĞƌƚŚĞůĞƐƐĂŶŝŶǀŝƐŝďůĞƌƵůĞŬƚŚĂƚĂůůŽǁƐLJŽƵƚŽ ĐŚĂŶŐĞ ƚŚĞ ŵĞĂŶŝŶŐ ŽĨ ƐƉĂĐĞƐ ŝŶ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ǁĂLJƐ͘ &Žƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ Ăƚ ǁŚĂƚ ƉŽŝŶƚ ĚŽĞƐ Ă ƉƵĚĚůĞ ďĞĐŽŵĞ Ă ǁĂƚĞƌ ĨĞĂƚƵƌĞ͍ dŚŝƐ ƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶƚĂŬĞƐƉůĂĐĞĂƐƐŽŽŶĂƐLJŽƵĂĚŵŝƚŝƚƐƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƚLJ͘

ÃÖ֮Ħó«ƒã®Ýƒ½Ù›ƒ—ù㫛ٛƒÄ—ã®Ã›ƒÝ 㫛ÖÙʹ›‘ãۗ®çÃ

sĞŶŝĐĞ͕ƐƉĂĐĞƐĨŽƌƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJĂƉƉƌŽƉƌŝĂƟŽŶ sĞŶŝƐĞ͕ĚĞƐĞƐƉĂĐĞƐƉŽƵƌĂƉƉƌŽƉƌŝĂƟŽŶƚĞŵƉŽƌĂŝƌĞ

KƵƌƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͕ŝŶĂůƐƚŽŶŝŶĞĂƐƚ>ŽŶĚŽŶ͕ŝƐĂŶĂƌĞĂƚŚĂƚŝƐǁŝƚŚŝŶ ŽŶĞŽĨƚŚĞϱйŽĨ>ŽŶĚŽŶ͛ƐƉŽŽƌĞƐƚĚŝƐƚƌŝĐƚƐ͘/ƚǁĂƐĚĞĐŝĚĞĚƚŚĂƚ ĂůƐƚŽŶ ĐŽƵůĚ ĂĐĐŽŵŵŽĚĂƚĞ ĂŶ ĞŶŽƌŵŽƵƐ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ǁŝƚŚ new housing, as if it were a blank sheet of paper or a desert. dŚĞ ĮƌƐƚ ƚŚŝŶŐ ǁĞ ĚŝĚ ǁĂƐ ƚŽ ƐŚŽǁ ƚŚĞ ůŽĐĂů ĂƵƚŚŽƌŝƟĞƐ ǁŚĂƚ ƚŚĞLJĂůƌĞĂĚLJŚĂĚ͕ďLJĞǀĂůƵĂƟŶŐƚŚĞĞdžŝƐƟŶŐĨĂďƌŝĐ͕ƚŚĞǀŽůƵŶƚĂƌLJ ƐĞĐƚŽƌ͕ ƚŚĞ ƚĞƌƟĂƌLJ ƐĞĐƚŽƌ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ƐĞĐƚŽƌ͕ ĂŶĚ ůŝŶŬŝŶŐ them with open spaces. We mapped the whole place. This enabled us to show how a place that was not supposed to ĐŽŶƚĂŝŶ ŽƉĞŶ ƐƉĂĐĞƐ ŝŶ ĨĂĐƚ ƉŽƐƐĞƐƐĞƐ Ă ĐŽŶƟŶƵŽƵƐ ƐƚƌĞƚĐŚ ŽĨ ƉĂƌŬŵĂĚĞƵƉŽĨĂĐŚĂŝŶŽĨĂƌĞĂƐƚŚĂƚĂƌĞŶŽƚƉĞƌĐĞŝǀĞĚĂƐƉƵďůŝĐ spaces, for example spaces inside social housing and areas of wasteland or streets. As part of this process, we also mapped ƟŵĞĨƌĂŵĞƐ dŚĞŶǁĞĚŝĚϭϮƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐǁŝƚŚƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJƐŵĂůůďƵĚŐĞƚƐ͘/ŶĂƐŵĂůů͕ ĐŽŵƉůĞƚĞůLJĞŵƉƚLJƉƵďůŝĐƐƉĂĐĞ͕ƚŚĞĂĚũƵƐƚŵĞŶƚƐŝŵƉůLJĞŶƚĂŝůĞĚ ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐŝŶŐ Ă ĨĞǁ ƉŝĞĐĞƐ ŽĨ ĞƋƵŝƉŵĞŶƚ͗ Ă ƉƌŽũĞĐƚŽƌ͕ ƐŽƵŶĚ equipment and a container. 4 days a week, a man comes to open the container, which becomes a playground for 3 hours. And then the playground is replaced with another use.

Dalston, a green park made of internal spaces Dalston, des projets temporaires pour changer la zone

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/ŶƚŚĞϮLJĞĂƌƐĨŽůůŽǁŝŶŐƚŚĞĮƌƐƚŵĂƉǁĞŵĂĚĞ͕ǁĞĂůƐŽŵĂŶĂŐĞĚ to transform a former railway line into a park and community ĂƌĞĂ͘tĞĂůƐŽĂĚĂƉƚĞĚƚŚĞŐŽǀĞƌŶĂŶĐĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͗ĞǀĞƌLJϲŵŽŶƚŚƐ͕ ƚŚŝƐƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉŝƐƌĞŶĞǁĞĚ͘ŶĚǁĞĂƌĞŶŽǁĂďůĞƚŽďĞŐŝŶĂŶ ŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƟŶŐďƵƚĚŝĸĐƵůƚĚĞďĂƚĞŽŶƚŚĞƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƚLJŽĨƌĞƚĂŝŶŝŶŐƚŚŝƐ park, because the existence of good quality open space would ĞŶĂďůĞƚŚĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞƌƚŽŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞŚŽƵƐŝŶŐĚĞŶƐŝƚLJŽŶŚŝƐƐŝƚĞ͘


>/&/KZ͕ architecte, muf architects, Londres (GB)

ESPACES PUBLICS AU PRISME DU TEMPS ŚĂƋƵĞ ƉƌŽũĞƚ ĚŽŝƚ ĐŽŵŵĞŶĐĞƌ ƉĂƌ ůĂ ƉƌĠƉĂƌĂƟŽŶ ĚĞ ƐĂ ǀŝĞ ƵůƚĠƌŝĞƵƌĞ͕ ĞŶ ĂƩĞŶĚĂŶƚ ůĞ ŵŽŵĞŶƚ Žƶ ůĞƐ ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚĞƐ Ğƚ ůĞƐ ĐůŝĞŶƚƐǀŽŶƚƋƵŝƩĞƌůĞƐŝƚĞƉŽƵƌǀŽŝƌĐŽŵŵĞŶƚŝůǀĂƐĞƉŽƐŝƟŽŶŶĞƌ͘ >͛ĂƐƉĞĐƚ ƉŽƐŝƟĨ ĚĞ ůĂ ĐŽŵŵĂŶĚĞ Đ͛ĞƐƚ ƋƵ͛ĞůůĞ ǀŽƵƐ ĚŽŶŶĞ ů͛ŽĐĐĂƐŝŽŶĚĞƌĞŶƚƌĞƌĚĂŶƐƵŶĞƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶŽƵƵŶĞŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶĞƚ͕ă ƚƌĂǀĞƌƐĐĞƩĞŽĐĐƵƉĂƟŽŶ͕Ě͛ŝŶŇƵĞŶĐĞƌĞŶƵŶĞĐĞƌƚĂŝŶĞŵĂŶŝğƌĞ ůĞ ĚŝĂůŽŐƵĞ Ğƚ ůĞƐ ƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƚĠƐ ĚĞ ƐŽŶ ƐĞŶƐ͕ ƉĂƌĐĞ ƋƵ͛ă ƚƌĂǀĞƌƐ ů͛ƵƐĂŐĞůĞƐĞŶƐĠǀŽůƵĞ͘sĞŶŝƐĞĞƐƚƵŶďŽŶĞdžĞŵƉůĞĚĞĐĞƌƚĂŝŶĞƐ ĚĞ ĐĞƐ ŶŽƵǀĞůůĞƐ ƌğŐůĞƐ ƐƵƌ ů͛ĠǀŽůƵƟŽŶ ĚƵ ƐĞŶƐ Ğƚ ĚĞƐ ƵƐĂŐĞƐ͘ sĞŶŝƐĞĞƐƚƵŶĞǀŝůůĞƐĂŶƐƚĞƌƌĂŝŶĚĞũĞƵŵĂŝƐĂǀĞĐƵŶĐĂƌŶĞƚĚĞ ƌğŐůĞƐŝŶǀŝƐŝďůĞƐƋƵŝǀŽƵƐƉĞƌŵĞƚĚĞĐŚĂŶŐĞƌůĞƐĞŶƐĚĞƐĞƐƉĂĐĞƐ ĚĞĚŝīĠƌĞŶƚĞƐĨĂĕŽŶƐ͘WĂƌĞdžĞŵƉůĞ͕ăƋƵĞůŵŽŵĞŶƚƵŶĞŇĂƋƵĞ Ě͛ĞĂƵĚĞǀŝĞŶƚͲĞůůĞƵŶĞƉŝğĐĞĚ͛ĞĂƵ͍ĞƩĞƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶĂůŝĞƵ ĂƵŵŽŵĞŶƚŽƶŽŶůƵŝĞŶĂĐĐŽƌĚĞůĂƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƚĠ͘

‘ƒÙãʦك֫®›—›½͛›ø®ÝãƒÄã›ã—›Ý ã›ÃÖÊك½®ã›Ý‘ÊÃÛÝçÖÖÊÙã—çÖÙʹ›ã

When a puddle become a water feature? YƵĂŶĚƵŶĞŇĂƋƵĞĚ͛ĞĂƵĚĞǀŝĞŶƚͲĞůůĞƵŶĞƉŝğĐĞĚ͛ĞĂƵ͍

EŽƚƌĞ ƉƌŽũĞƚ ă ĂůƐƚŽŶ Ɛƚ ƐĞ ƐŝƚƵĞ ĚĂŶƐ ƵŶ ƋƵĂƌƟĞƌ ƉĂƌŵŝ ůĞƐ ϱ й ĚĞƐ ƉůƵƐ ƉĂƵǀƌĞƐ ĚĞ >ŽŶĚƌĞƐ͘ /ů ĂǀĂŝƚ ĠƚĠ ĚĠĐŝĚĠ ƋƵĞ ĂůƐƚŽŶ ƉŽƵƌƌĂŝƚ ĂĐĐƵĞŝůůŝƌ ƵŶ ĠŶŽƌŵĞ ĂŵĠŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ ĂǀĞĐ ĚĞ ŶŽƵǀĞĂƵdžůŽŐĞŵĞŶƚƐĐŽŵŵĞƐ͛ŝůƐ͛ĂŐŝƐƐĂŝƚĚ͛ƵŶĞĨĞƵŝůůĞĚĞƉĂƉŝĞƌ ǀŝĞƌŐĞŽƵĚ͛ƵŶĚĠƐĞƌƚ͘>ĂƉƌĞŵŝğƌĞĐŚŽƐĞƋƵ͛ŽŶĂĨĂŝƚĞĂĠƚĠĚĞ ŵŽŶƚƌĞƌĂƵdžƉŽƵǀŽŝƌƐůŽĐĂƵdžĐĞƋƵ͛ŝůƐĂǀĂŝĞŶƚĚĠũăăƉĂƌƟƌĚ͛ƵŶĞ ĠǀĂůƵĂƟŽŶĚĞů͛ĞdžŝƐƚĂŶƚ͕ůĞƐĞĐƚĞƵƌĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƟĨ͕ůĞƐĞĐƚĞƵƌƚĞƌƟĂŝƌĞ Ğƚ ůĞ ƐĞĐƚĞƵƌ ĐƵůƚƵƌĞů͕ ĞŶ ůĞƐ ĂƐƐŽĐŝĂŶƚ ĂƵdž ĞƐƉĂĐĞƐ ŽƵǀĞƌƚƐ͘ EŽƵƐ ĂǀŽŶƐ ĐĂƌƚŽŐƌĂƉŚŝĠ ƚŽƵƐ ůĞƐ ůŝĞƵdž͘ ĞůĂ ŶŽƵƐ Ă ƉĞƌŵŝƐ ĚĞ montrer comment un lieu qui n’était pas censé comporter Ě͛ĞƐƉĂĐĞƐ ŽƵǀĞƌƚƐ ƉŽƐƐğĚĞ ĞŶ ƌĠĂůŝƚĠ ƵŶ ƉĂƌĐ ĐŽŶƟŶƵ ŐƌąĐĞ ă ƵŶĞŶĐŚĂŠŶĞŵĞŶƚĚĞnjŽŶĞƐƋƵŝŶĞƐŽŶƚƉĂƐƉĞƌĕƵĞƐĐŽŵŵĞĚĞƐ espaces publics, par exemple des espaces au sein de logements ƐŽĐŝĂƵdžŽƵďŝĞŶĚĞƐnjŽŶĞƐĞŶĨƌŝĐŚĞ͕ĚĞƐƌƵĞƐ͘ĞƚƌĂǀĂŝůĂŝŶƚĠŐƌĠ une cartographie des temporalités ŶƐƵŝƚĞ͕ŶŽƵƐĂǀŽŶƐĨĂŝƚϭϮƉƌŽũĞƚƐĂǀĞĐĚĞƐďƵĚŐĞƚƐƌĞůĂƟǀĞŵĞŶƚ ƌĞƐƚƌĞŝŶƚƐ͘ĂŶƐƵŶƉĞƟƚĞƐƉĂĐĞƉƵďůŝĐƋƵŝĠƚĂŝƚĐŽŵƉůğƚĞŵĞŶƚ ǀŝĚĞ͕ ů͛ĂũƵƐƚĞŵĞŶƚ Ă ĐŽŶƐŝƐƚĠ ă ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵŝƌĞ ƋƵĞůƋƵĞƐ ĠůĠŵĞŶƚƐ Ě͛ĂŵĞƵďůĞŵĞŶƚ ͗ ƵŶ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚĞƵƌ͕ ĚƵ ŵĂƚĠƌŝĞů ƐŽŶŽƌĞ Ğƚ ƵŶ ĐŽŶƚĂŝŶĞƌ͘ ϰ ũŽƵƌƐ ƉĂƌ ƐĞŵĂŝŶĞ ŝů LJ Ă ƵŶ ŵŽŶƐŝĞƵƌ ƋƵŝ ŽƵǀƌĞ ůĞ ĐŽŶƚĂŝŶĞƌ ƋƵŝ͕ ƉŽƵƌ ϯ ŚĞƵƌĞƐ͕ ĚĞǀŝĞŶƚ ƵŶ ƚĞƌƌĂŝŶ ĚĞ ũĞƵ͘ ƚ ĞŶƐƵŝƚĞ ůĞ ƚĞƌƌĂŝŶ ĚĞ ũĞƵ ĞƐƚ ƌĞŵƉůĂĐĠ ƉĂƌ ƵŶ ĂƵƚƌĞ ƵƐĂŐĞ͘ Ƶ ĐŽƵƌƐĚĞƐϮĂŶƐƐƵŝǀĂŶƚŶŽƚƌĞƉƌĞŵŝğƌĞĐĂƌƚŽŐƌĂƉŚŝĞ͕ŶŽƵƐĂǀŽŶƐ pu transformer également un ancien chemin de fer en parc et ĞŶ ůŝĞƵ ĐŽŵŵƵŶĂƵƚĂŝƌĞ͘ EŽƵƐ ĂǀŽŶƐ ĂƵƐƐŝ ĂĚĂƉƚĠ ůĂ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ĚĞŐŽƵǀĞƌŶĂŶĐĞ͗ƚŽƵƐůĞƐϲŵŽŝƐ͕ĞůůĞĞƐƚƌĞŶŽƵǀĞůĠĞ͘ƚŶŽƵƐ sommes à présent en mesure d’entamer un débat intéressant ŵĂŝƐ ĚŝĸĐŝůĞ ƐƵƌ ů͛ĠǀĞŶƚƵĂůŝƚĠ ĚĞ ŐĂƌĚĞƌ ĐĞ ƉĂƌĐ͕ ƉĂƌĐĞ ƋƵĞ ů͛ĞdžŝƐƚĞŶĐĞ Ě͛ƵŶ ĞƐƉĂĐĞ ŽƵǀĞƌƚ ĚĞ ƋƵĂůŝƚĠ ƉĞƌŵĞƩƌĂŝƚ ĂƵ promoteur d’augmenter la densité des logements sur son site.

Dalston, temporary projects for changing the aerea Dalston, des projets temporaires pour changer la zone

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>/&/KZ͕ architect, muf architects, London (UK)

ƒ—¹çÝã®Ä¦ãÊ㫛ÖÊÝÝ®½›ƒÄ—®—›Ä㮥ù®Ä¦ ó«ƒã®Ý½ƒ‘»®Ä¦

Barking London plan and views of the central public space with an arboretum >ĞƋƵĂƌƟĞƌůŽŶĚŽŶŝĞŶĚĞĂƌŬŝŶŐ͕ƉůĂŶĞƚǀƵĞƐĚĞů͛ĞƐƉĂĐĞƉƵďůŝĐĐĞŶƚƌĂů avec un arboretum

Barking is at the eastern end of the London Underground’s ŝƐƚƌŝĐƚ>ŝŶĞ͕ǁŚŝĐŚŵĂĚĞŝƚĂŶĂƩƌĂĐƟǀĞƚĂƌŐĞƚĨŽƌŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ͕ ĂŌĞƌ ϲϬ LJĞĂƌƐ ǁŝƚŚŽƵƚ ĂŶLJ͘ ĂƌŬŝŶŐ ŝƐ ůŝŬĞ Ă ƐŵĂůů ŵƵƐĞƵŵ ŽĨ moments of urban planning. Things changed around the year ϮϬϬϬ͕ĂŶĚŵƵĐŚŚĂƐďĞĞŶĚŽŶĞŝŶƚŚĞƐƉĂĐĞŽĨũƵƐƚϰLJĞĂƌƐ͘/ƚ is a landscape where there has been a great deal of intense ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͕ǁŚŝĐŚŚĂƐůĞŌďĞŚŝŶĚĞŵƉƚLJƐƉĂĐĞƐ͕ĨŽƌĞdžĂŵƉůĞ one public space in the shade, which acts as a wind tunnel, and ĂĨĞǁǀĞƌLJƉŽƐŝƟǀĞĞůĞŵĞŶƚƐ͕ƐƵĐŚĂƐĂŵĞŶŝƟĞƐƚŚĂƚĂƌĞŽƉĞŶĂƚ ŶŝŐŚƚ͘KƵƌƐŝƚĞŝƐZͲƐŚĂƉĞĚ͕ĂĨƌĂŐŵĞŶƚŽĨĂďĂŶĚŽŶĞĚůĂŶĚďĂĐŬŝŶŐ onto the supermarket, which belongs to the local authority, and ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƐĂĐĐĞƐƐƚŽƚŚĞƚŽǁŶŚĂůů͕ƚŚĞŶĞǁůŝďƌĂƌLJĂŶĚϰϬϬƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ĂƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚƐ͘KƵƌĮƌƐƚƌĞƐƉŽŶƐĞƚŽƚŚŝƐƐŚĂĚLJĂƌĞĂǁĂƐƚŽĂĐĐĞƉƚ ŝƚ ďLJ ŵĂŬŝŶŐ ŝƚ ĞǀĞŶ ŵŽƌĞ ƐŚĞůƚĞƌĞĚ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚ ƚŚĞ ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ of an arboretum that would temper the climate. This was an ĂĐĐĞƉƚĂŶĐĞƚŚĂƚŝƚŚĂƐϮǀĞƌLJĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƋƵĂůŝƟĞƐ͕ĨƌĞĞĚŽŵŽŶƚŚĞ ŽŶĞŚĂŶĚ͕ďƵƚĂůƐŽŵLJƐƚĞƌLJ͕ǁŚŝĐŚŝƐƐŽŵĞƚŚŝŶŐƚŚĂƚĐĂŶĚĞĮŶĞ ĂƉƵďůŝĐƐƉĂĐĞ͘tĞŝŶǀĞƐƚĞĚŝŶϭϱŵĞƚƌĞŚŝŐŚƚƌĞĞƐƚŽŵĂŬĞĂŶ instant forest, and we wondered whether this could also be a ƉůĂĐĞĨŽƌĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶƚŽĐůŝŵď͕ŝĨǁĞůĂŝĚƚŚĞƚƌĞĞƐŚŽƌŝnjŽŶƚĂůůLJ͘ŶĚ ƚŚĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞƌƌĞƉůŝĞĚ͗͞ƵƚŽĨĐŽƵƌƐĞ͘tŚLJƐŚŽƵůĚŶ͛ƚƚŚĞLJĞŶũŽLJ ƚŚĞŝƌĐŚŝůĚŚŽŽĚĂƐ/ĚŝĚ͍͟ And we were able to work with the architects to change the ĨŽŽƚƉƌŝŶƚŽĨƚŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐĂŶĚĐƌĞĂƟŶŐĂŶĞǁŽƉĞŶŝŶŐƚŽŵĂŬĞƚŚĞ space more permeable and allow the public space to expand. dŚĞǀĞƌLJĮƌƐƚƉƌŽũĞĐƚǁĂƐĂƟŶLJǁŽƌŬƐŚŽƉĂŶĚƚŚĞĮƌƐƚƉŚĂƐĞǁĂƐ ĂĨƌĂŐŵĞŶƚŽĨƉƵďůŝĐƐƉĂĐĞƚŚĂƚĂƌŽƵƐĞĚŶŽĐŽŶƚƌŽǀĞƌƐLJ͘KƉƉŽƐŝƚĞ this new library there is a site in the corner, which became a new ĐŽŵŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƵƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞĚ Ϯ ŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐ ĨŽƌ ĚŝĂůŽŐƵĞ͘ One was this famous, comfortable, wooden bench, which we deliberately painted bright pink, because it was only supposed to ƐƚĂLJƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĂǁĞĞŬďĞĨŽƌĞďĞŝŶŐƐĞƚŽŶĮƌĞ͘ƵƚŝŶĨĂĐƚ͕ŝŶƐƚĞĂĚ͕ ƉĞŽƉůĞƐƚĂƌƚĞĚƐŝƫŶŐŽŶŝƚ͘dŚĞƐĞĐŽŶĚŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƚLJĨŽƌĚŝĂůŽŐƵĞ ǁĂƐƚŚĞƐƚƌƵŐŐůĞĨŽƌƚŚĞŐƌĂŶŝƚĞƚŽďĞĂĐƋƵŝƌĞĚůŽĐĂůůLJ͘,ŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ what was missing was a link with history. So in the course of one ĂŌĞƌŶŽŽŶ͕ŵLJĂƌƟƐƚƉĂƌƚŶĞƌ<ĂƚŚĞƌŝŶĞůĂƌŬĞĂŶĚ/ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƚĞĚ ĂůŽƐƚďƵŝůĚŝŶŐǁŚŝĐŚŝŶĨĂĐƚŚĂĚŶĞǀĞƌĞdžŝƐƚĞĚ͕ĨƌŽŵƌƵŝŶƐĨŽƵŶĚ under the new library. /ĨƚŚĞĮƌƐƚƉƌŝŽƌŝƚLJŝƐƚŽĞdžƉůŽŝƚǁŚĂƚĂůƌĞĂĚLJĞdžŝƐƚƐ͕ƚŚĞƐĞĐŽŶĚ ŝƐ ƚŽ ĂĚũƵƐƚ ƚŽ ǁŚĂƚ ŝƐ ƉŽƐƐŝďůĞ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƚŚŝƌĚ ƚŽ ŝĚĞŶƟĨLJ ǁŚĂƚ is lacking. And what was lacking here was the fragile, the ŵLJƐƚĞƌŝŽƵƐ͕ƚŚĞŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůĂŶĚƚŚĞĐŝǀŝĐ͘

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>/&/KZ͕ architecte, muf architects, Londres (GB)

Ý͛ƒ‘‘ÊÃʗ›Ù—çÖÊÝÝ®½››ã—›¥®Ä®Ù‘›Øç® ÃÄØç› Barking se situe à l’extrémité de la ligne du métro Est de Londres, ĐĞƋƵŝů͛ĂƌĞŶĚƵĂƩƌĂĐƟĨĞŶƚĞƌŵĞƐĚ͛ŝŶǀĞƐƟƐƐĞŵĞŶƚĂůŽƌƐƋƵ͛ŝů Ŷ͛LJĞŶĂǀĂŝƚƉĂƐĞƵĚĞƉƵŝƐϲϬĂŶƐ͘ĂƌŬŝŶŐĞƐƚƵŶǀĠƌŝƚĂďůĞƉĞƟƚ ŵƵƐĠĞĚĞƐŵŽŵĞŶƚƐĚĞůĂƉůĂŶŝĮĐĂƟŽŶƵƌďĂŝŶĞ͘>ĞƐĐŚŽƐĞƐŽŶƚ ĐŚĂŶŐĠĂƵƚŽƵƌĚĞů͛ĂŶϮϬϬϬĞƚďĞĂƵĐŽƵƉĂĠƚĠĨĂŝƚĞŶů͛ĞƐƉĂĐĞĚĞ ƐĞƵůĞŵĞŶƚϰĂŶƐ͛͘ĞƐƚƵŶƉĂLJƐĂŐĞŽƶŝůLJĂĞƵƵŶĚĠǀĞůŽƉƉĞŵĞŶƚ ŝŶƚĞŶƐĞ͕ƋƵŝĂůĂŝƐƐĠĚĞƌƌŝğƌĞůƵŝĚĞƐĞƐƉĂĐĞƐǀŝĚĞƐ͕ƉĂƌĞdžĞŵƉůĞ ƵŶĞƐƉĂĐĞƉƵďůŝĐĚĂŶƐů͛ŽŵďƌĞ͕ƋƵŝĂŐŝƚĐŽŵŵĞƵŶƚƵŶŶĞůăǀĞŶƚ͕ Ğƚ ƋƵĞůƋƵĞƐ ĠůĠŵĞŶƚƐ ƚƌğƐ ƉŽƐŝƟĨƐ͕ ƚĞůƐ ƋƵĞ ĚĞƐ ĠƋƵŝƉĞŵĞŶƚƐ ŽƵǀĞƌƚƐ ůĂ ŶƵŝƚ͘ EŽƚƌĞ ƐŝƚĞ ĞƐƚ ĞŶ ĨŽƌŵĞ ĚĞ Z͕ ƵŶ ĨƌĂŐŵĞŶƚ ĚĞ ƚĞƌƌĂŝŶ ĚĠůĂŝƐƐĠ͕ ƋƵŝ ĂƉƉĂƌƟĞŶƚ ĂƵdž ƉŽƵǀŽŝƌƐ ůŽĐĂƵdž͕ ƋƵŝ ƚŽƵƌŶĂŝƚůĞĚŽƐĂƵƐƵƉĞƌŵĂƌĐŚĠ͕ŵĂŝƐĚĞƐƐĞƌǀĂŝƚů͛ŚƀƚĞůĚĞǀŝůůĞ͕ ůĂ ŶŽƵǀĞůůĞ ďŝďůŝŽƚŚğƋƵĞ Ğƚ ϰϬϬ ĂƉƉĂƌƚĞŵĞŶƚƐ ƉƌŝǀĠƐ͘ EŽƚƌĞ première réponse à cet espace ombragé a été de se l’approprier en le rendant plus ombragé, en le remplissant d’un arboretum qui tempérerait le climat. En acceptant qu’il ait 2 qualités très ĚŝīĠƌĞŶƚĞƐ͕Ě͛ƵŶĞƉĂƌƚůĂůŝďĞƌƚĠ͕ŵĂŝƐĂƵƐƐŝůĞŵLJƐƚğƌĞ͕ƋƵŝĞƐƚ ƋƵĞůƋƵĞ ĐŚŽƐĞ ƋƵŝ ƉĞƵƚ ĚĠĮŶŝƌ ƵŶ ĞƐƉĂĐĞ ƉƵďůŝĐ͘ EŽƵƐ ĂǀŽŶƐ ŝŶǀĞƐƟ ĚĂŶƐ ĚĞƐ ĂƌďƌĞƐ ĚĞ ϭϱ ŵğƚƌĞƐ ƉŽƵƌ ĨĂŝƌĞ ƵŶĞ ĨŽƌġƚ ŝŶƐƚĂŶƚĂŶĠĞ͕ĞƚŶŽƵƐĂǀŽŶƐĚĞŵĂŶĚĠăů͛ĂŵĠŶĂŐĞƵƌƐŝ͕ƉĞƵƚͲġƚƌĞ͕ ůĞƐĞŶĨĂŶƚƐƉŽƵƌƌĂŝĞŶƚLJŐƌŝŵƉĞƌ͕ƐŝŽŶůĞƐŵĞƩĂŝƚăů͛ŚŽƌŝnjŽŶƚĂůĞ͘ ƚ ŝů Ă ƌĠƉŽŶĚƵ ͗ ͨ DĂŝƐ ďŝĞŶ ƐƸƌ͘ WŽƵƌƋƵŽŝ Ŷ͛ĂƵƌĂŝĞŶƚͲŝůƐ ƉĂƐ ŵŽŶĞŶĨĂŶĐĞ͍ͩƚŶŽƵƐĂǀŽŶƐƉƵƚƌĂǀĂŝůůĞƌĂǀĞĐůĞƐĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚĞƐ ƉŽƵƌ ŵŽĚŝĮĞƌ ů͛ĞŵƉƌĞŝŶƚĞ ĚƵ ďąƟŵĞŶƚ ŐƌąĐĞ ă ƵŶ ŶŽƵǀĞĂƵ percement pour réaliser un espace plus perméable dans lequel ů͛ĞƐƉĂĐĞƉƵďůŝĐƉŽƵǀĂŝƚƐ͛ĂŐƌĂŶĚŝƌ͘>ĞƚŽƵƚƉƌĞŵŝĞƌƉƌŽũĞƚĠƚĂŝƚƵŶ minuscule atelier et la première phase était un morceau d’espace ƉƵďůŝĐ͕ ƋƵŝ ŶĞ ƐŽƵůĞǀĂŝƚ ƉĂƐ ĚĞ ĐŽŶƚƌŽǀĞƌƐĞ͘ Ŷ ĨĂĐĞ ĚĞ ĐĞƩĞ ŶŽƵǀĞůůĞďŝďůŝŽƚŚğƋƵĞŝůLJĂƵŶƐŝƚĞĚĂŶƐů͛ĂŶŐůĞ͕ƋƵŝĞƐƚĚĞǀĞŶƵ ƵŶĞŶŽƵǀĞůůĞĐŽŵŵĂŶĚĞƉŽƵƌŶŽƵƐĞƚϮŽĐĐĂƐŝŽŶƐĚĞĚŝĂůŽŐƵĞ͘ >͛ƵŶĠƚĂŝƚĐĞĨĂŵĞƵdž͕ĐŽŶĨŽƌƚĂďůĞ͕ďĂŶĐĚĞďŽŝƐ͕ƋƵĞŶŽƵƐĂǀŽŶƐ ĚĠůŝďĠƌĠŵĞŶƚƉĞŝŶƚĞŶƌŽƐĞǀŝĨ͕ƉĂƌĐĞƋƵ͛ŝůŶĞĚĞǀĂŝƚƌĞƐƚĞƌƋƵ͛ƵŶĞ ƐĞŵĂŝŶĞĂǀĂŶƚĚ͛ġƚƌĞďƌƸůĠ͘DĂŝƐĞŶĨĂŝƚ͕ĂƵĐŽŶƚƌĂŝƌĞ͕ůĞƐŐĞŶƐ se sont mis à s’asseoir dessus. La 2ème occasion de dialogue a ĠƚĠ ĚĞ ůƵƩĞƌ ƉŽƵƌ ƋƵĞ ůĞ ŐƌĂŶŝƚ ƐŽŝƚ ĂĐƋƵŝƐ ůŽĐĂůĞŵĞŶƚ͘ DĂŝƐ ŝů ŵĂŶƋƵĂŝƚ ƵŶ ůŝĞŶ ă ů͛ŚŝƐƚŽŝƌĞ͘ ŝŶƐŝ͕ ĂƵ ĐŽƵƌƐ Ě͛ƵŶ ĂƉƌğƐͲŵŝĚŝ͕ ŵŽŶ ĂƌƟƐƚĞ ƉĂƌƚĞŶĂŝƌĞ <ĂƚŚĞƌŝŶĞ ůĂƌŬĞ Ğƚ ŵŽŝͲŵġŵĞ ĂǀŽŶƐ ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵŝƚƵŶďąƟŵĞŶƚƉĞƌĚƵƋƵŝĞŶĨĂŝƚŶ͛ĂǀĂŝƚũĂŵĂŝƐĞdžŝƐƚĠ͕ă ƉĂƌƟƌĚĞƌƵŝŶĞƐƚƌŽƵǀĠĞƐƐŽƵƐůĂŶŽƵǀĞůůĞďŝďůŝŽƚŚğƋƵĞ͘^ŝůĞϭer ĞŶũĞƵĞƐƚĚĞǀĂůŽƌŝƐĞƌĐĞƋƵŝĞdžŝƐƚĞ͕ůĞϮème est de s’accommoder du possible et le 3èmeĚĞĚĠĮŶŝƌĐĞƋƵŝŵĂŶƋƵĞ͘ƚĐĞƋƵŝŵĂŶƋƵĂŝƚ ŝĐŝƐĞŵďůĂŝƚġƚƌĞůĞĨƌĂŐŝůĞ͕ůĞŵLJƐƚĠƌŝĞƵdž͕ů͛ŚŝƐƚŽŝƌĞĞƚůĞĐŝǀŝƋƵĞ͘

A bench in a corner becomes a project of public spaces hŶďĂŶĐĚĂŶƐƵŶĐŽŝŶĚĞǀŝĞŶƚƵŶƉƌŽũĞƚĚ͛ĞƐƉĂĐĞƉƵďůŝĐ

Horizontal trees for children games Arbres horizontaux de jeux pour enfants

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s^dE>Z,͕ architect researcher, LIA, Berlin (DE)

2

TEMPORARY AND ADAPTING SPACES ͞dŚĞ ĂĚĂƉƚĂďůĞ ĐŝƚLJ͟ ŝƐ Ă ƚŽƉŝĐ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ >/E ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĂů ƉƌĂĐƟĐĞ ĂŶĚ ĞƌůŝŶ WŽůLJƚĞĐŚŶŝĐ͛Ɛ >/ >ĂďŽƌĂƚŽƌLJ ĨŽƌ /ŶƚĞŐƌĂƟǀĞ ƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞĂƌĞǁŽƌŬŝŶŐŽŶ͕ǁŝƚŚĂƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌĨŽĐƵƐŽŶƚĞƐƟŶŐ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĞƐĂŶĚŵĞƚŚŽĚƐƌĞůĂƟŶŐƚŽƚŚĞĂĚĂƉƚĂďŝůŝƚLJŽĨ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐĂŶĚƵƌďĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐ͘dŚĞĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ͞ƉŽƐƚͲ<LJŽƚŽ͟;ƉŽƐƚͲĐĂƌďŽŶͿŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƐŝƐŶŽƚŽŶůLJƚŽĂĐŚŝĞǀĞ ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶƐŝŶKϮĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͕ďƵƚƚŽĚĞĂůǁŝƚŚƚŚĞƌĞƐƵůƟŶŐƐŽĐŝĂů͕ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĂŶĚ ĞĐŽůŽŐŝĐĂů ƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ďLJ ŵĂŬŝŶŐ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ urban districts capable of absorbing change, i.e. making them ͞ƌĞƐŝůŝĞŶƚ͘͟

ƉŚĞŵĞƌĂůƵƌďĂŶŝŶƐƚĂůůĂƟŽŶ /ŶƐƚĂůůĂƟŽŶƵƌďĂŝŶĞĠƉŚĠŵğƌĞ

ã›ÃÖÊكÙùÝãÙç‘ãçÙ›Ý The 1st ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ʹ dDWK ʹ ŝƐ Ă ƐƚƵĚLJ ŽĨ ƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ƵƐĞĚ ŽŶ ďƌŽǁŶ ĮĞůĚ ƐŝƚĞƐ͘ ϳϮ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐ ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĞŶ ĂŶĂůLJƐĞĚƚŽƐĞĞǁŚĞŶĂŶĚĨŽƌŚŽǁůŽŶŐĂƚLJƉĞŽĨĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ ĐĂŶďĞƉůĂĐĞĚŽŶĂƐƉĞĐŝĮĐůŽĐĂƟŽŶǁŝƚŚŽƵƚĚĂŵĂŐŝŶŐƚŚĞƐŝƚĞ too much. It is not so much about land as about installing water, ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJĂŶĚǁĂƐƚĞǁĂƚĞƌĐŽůůĞĐƟŽŶ͘ This temporary building concept has prompted us to establish an ŝŶǀĞŶƚŽƌLJŽĨĨƌĞĞƐƉĂĐĞƐǁŝƚŚƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůŝŶƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͘tĞĐŽŶĚƵĐƚĞĚ ĂŶ ĞdžƉĞƌŝŵĞŶƚĂů ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ĨŽƌ Ă ƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJ ƉĂƌŬ Ăƚ dĞŵƉĞůŚŽĨ ĂŝƌƉŽƌƚ͕ ƉƌŽǀŝĚŝŶŐ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƐŝƚĞ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ǁĂƐ ŵĂĚĞ ǁŝƚŚ ǀĞƌLJ ĨĞǁ ŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐ ĂŶĚ ĨŽƌ Ă ůŝŵŝƚĞĚ ƉĞƌŝŽĚ͘ ŶŽƚŚĞƌ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ͞WƌŝŶĐĞƐƐ͟ 'ĂƌĚĞŶƐ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ŽŶ ǁĂƐƚĞůĂŶĚ ŝŶ <ƌĞƵnjďĞƌŐ͕ ǁŚĞƌĞƚŚĞĐŽŶƐƟƚƵĞŶƚĞůĞŵĞŶƚƐĐĂŶďĞƌĞŵŽǀĞĚŝŶĂƐŝŶŐůĞĚĂLJ͕ ƌĞƐƚŽƌŝŶŐƚŚĞǁĂƐƚĞůĂŶĚƚŽŝƚƐŽƌŝŐŝŶĂůĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶ͘

>ŝŐŚƚŝŶƚĂůůĂƟŽŶ /ŶƐƚĂůůĂƟŽŶůƵŵŝŶĞƵƐĞ

‘ÊÄò›ÙÝ®ÊÄÊ¥®Ä—çÝãÙ®ƒ½Ý®ã›Ý ŶŽƚŚĞƌƉƌŽũĞĐƚŝƐƚŚĞĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐŽĨĞdžŝƐƟŶŐŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂůƐŝƚĞƐĂƚ^ĂŝŶƚ ƟĞŶŶĞŝŶ&ƌĂŶĐĞ͕ůĂƌŐĞͲƐĐĂůĞĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐƉƌĞǀŝŽƵƐůLJƵƐĞĚĨŽƌĂƌŵƐ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ͕ďƵƚŶŽǁƉĂƌƟĂůůLJŽƌĐŽŵƉůĞƚĞůLJĞŵƉƚLJ͘ The challenge is to reintegrate these spaces into the city. We mapped the sites and produced an atlas containing an internal analysis of all the buildings, but also showing their geographical ůŽĐĂƟŽŶĂŶĚƚŚĞƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞŵ͘tĞĐƌĞĂƚĞĚĂĐĂƚĂůŽŐƵĞ ƚŽƐĞĞǁŚĂƚĐĂŶďĞĚŽŶĞŝŶƚŚĞĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ͕ďĞĐĂƵƐĞŶŽƚ all of them can be used for the same purpose. Some of these ƐŚĞĚƐĂƌĞŇĂƚ͕ŽƚŚĞƌƐƚĂůůĞƌ͕ŽƚŚĞƌƐŚĂǀĞƉŽŽƌĂĐŽƵƐƟĐƐ͕ĂƌĞƚŽŽ small or are inaccessible. This study is a basis from which to gain an idea of what can be done with these abandoned spaces, to think about how a link ĐĂŶďĞĨŽƵŶĚďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƐŚĞĚƐƚŽŵĂŬĞƚŚĞŵŚƵďƐŽƌ central points and thereby create a synergy that can genuinely spread to the surrounding neighbourhoods.

^ĂŝŶƚͲƟĞŶŶĞ͕ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂůďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐŝŶƐŝĚĞƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ ^ĂŝŶƚͲƟĞŶŶĞ͕ďąƟŵĞŶƚƐŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĞůƐĞŶĐƈƵƌĚĞǀŝůůĞ

16


s^dE>Z,͕ architecte chercheur, LIA, Berlin (DE)

ESPACES TEMPORAIRES ET ADAPTABLES ͨ >Ă ǀŝůůĞ ĂĚĂƉƚĂďůĞ ͩ ĞƐƚ ƵŶ ƚŚğŵĞ ƐƵƌ ůĞƋƵĞů ů͛ĂŐĞŶĐĞ >/E Ğƚ le bureau de recherches LIA de l’Ecole Polytechnique de Berlin ƚƌĂǀĂŝůůĞŶƚ ĞŶ ĠƚƵĚŝĂŶƚ ƉůƵƐ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůŝğƌĞŵĞŶƚ ů͛ĂĚĂƉƚĂďŝůŝƚĠ ĚĞƐ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐ ĚĞ ďąƟŵĞŶƚƐ͕ ĚĞƐ ĂŵĠŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚƐ ƵƌďĂŝŶƐ ĞŶ ĞdžƉĠƌŝŵĞŶƚĂŶƚĚŝīĠƌĞŶƚĞƐƐƚƌĂƚĠŐŝĞƐĞƚŵĠƚŚŽĚĞƐ͘>͛ĞŶũĞƵƉŽƵƌ ůĂŵĠƚƌŽƉŽůĞͨWŽƐƚͲ<LJŽƚŽͩ;ƉŽƐƚĂƌďŽŶĞͿĞƐƚŶŽŶƐĞƵůĞŵĞŶƚ Ě͛ŽďƚĞŶŝƌůĂƌĠĚƵĐƟŽŶĚĞƐĠŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐĚĞKϮ͕ŵĂŝƐĚ͛ŝŶƚĠŐƌĞƌůĞƐ ďŽƵůĞǀĞƌƐĞŵĞŶƚƐƐŽĐŝĂƵdž͕ĠĐŽŶŽŵŝƋƵĞƐ͕ĠĐŽůŽŐŝƋƵĞƐĞŶƌĞŶĚĂŶƚ ůĞƐ ƋƵĂƌƟĞƌƐ ĚĞƐ ǀŝůůĞƐ ƋƵŝ ĞdžŝƐƚĞŶƚ ĐĂƉĂďůĞƐ Ě͛ĂďƐŽƌďĞƌ ĚĞƐ ĐŚĂŶŐĞŵĞŶƚƐ͕Đ͛ĞƐƚͲăͲĚŝƌĞͨƌĠƐŝůŝĞŶƚƐͩ͘

ÝãÙç‘ãçٛÝã›ÃÖÊك®Ù›Ý Le 1er ƉƌŽũĞƚ͕ dDWK͕ ĞƐƚ ƵŶĞ ƌĞĐŚĞƌĐŚĞ ƐƵƌ ĚĞƐ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐ ƚĞŵƉŽƌĂŝƌĞƐƵƟůŝƐĂďůĞƐƐƵƌĚĞƐƚĞƌƌĂŝŶƐĞŶĨƌŝĐŚĞ͘^ŽŝdžĂŶƚĞͲĚŽƵnjĞ ƉƌŽũĞƚƐ ŽŶƚ ĠƚĠ ĂŶĂůLJƐĠƐ ƉŽƵƌ ƐĂǀŽŝƌ ƋƵĂŶĚ Ğƚ ĞŶ ĐŽŵďŝĞŶ ĚĞ ƚĞŵƉƐ ŽŶ ƉĞƵƚ ŵĞƩƌĞ ĞŶ ƉůĂĐĞ ƵŶ ƚLJƉĞ ĚĞ ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ ă ƵŶ endroit précis sans trop endommager ce site. Il ne s’agit pas tant Ě͛ƵŶĞƋƵĞƐƟŽŶĚĞƐŽůƋƵĞĚ͛ŝŶƐƚĂůůĂƟŽŶĚ͛ĞĂƵ͕Ě͛ĠůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚĠĞƚĚĞ ĐŽůůĞĐƚĞƵƌĚĞƐĞĂƵdžƵƐĠĞƐ͘ĞĐŽŶĐĞƉƚĚĞďąƟŵĞŶƚƚĞŵƉŽƌĂŝƌĞ ŝŶĐŝƚĞăĨĂŝƌĞů͛ŝŶǀĞŶƚĂŝƌĞĚĞƐĞƐƉĂĐĞƐůŝďƌĞƐĞŶǀŝůůĞƋƵŝŽŶƚƵŶĞ ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůŝƚĠ͘EŽƵƐĂǀŽŶƐŵĞŶĠƵŶĞĞdžƉĠƌŝŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶƐƵƌƵŶƉƌŽũĞƚ ĚĞƉĂƌĐƚĞŵƉŽƌĂŝƌĞŝŵƉůĂŶƚĠăů͛ĂĠƌŽƉŽƌƚdĞŵƉĞůŚŽĨ͕ƉĞƌŵĞƩĂŶƚ ů͛ĂĐĐğƐ ĂƵ ƐŝƚĞ͕ ƋƵŝ Ă ĠƚĠ ƌĠĂůŝƐĠ ĂǀĞĐ ƚƌğƐ ƉĞƵ Ě͛ĠůĠŵĞŶƚƐ Ğƚ ƉŽƵƌ ƵŶĞ ĚƵƌĠĞ ůŝŵŝƚĠĞ͘ hŶ ĂƵƚƌĞ ƉƌŽũĞƚ ĞƐƚ ĐĞůƵŝ ĚĞƐ ũĂƌĚŝŶƐ ͨWƌŝŶĐĞƐƐĞͩŝŵƉůĂŶƚĠƐƐƵƌĚĞƐƚĞƌƌĂŝŶƐǀĂŐƵĞƐă<ƌĞƵnjďĞƌŐŽƶůĞƐ ĠůĠŵĞŶƚƐƋƵŝůĞĐŽŶƐƟƚƵĞŶƚƉĞƵǀĞŶƚġƚƌĞĞŶůĞǀĠƐĞŶƵŶĞũŽƵƌŶĠĞ ƉĞƌŵĞƩĂŶƚĚĞƌĞƐƟƚƵĞƌůĞƚĞƌƌĂŝŶǀĂŐƵĞ͘

Temporary housing Maison temporaire

‘ÊÄò›ÙÝ®ÊÄ—›ÝÝ®ã›Ý®Ä—çÝãÙ®›½Ý hŶĂƵƚƌĞƉƌŽũĞƚĞƐƚů͛ĂŶĂůLJƐĞĚĞƐƐŝƚĞƐŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĞůƐĞdžŝƐƚĂŶƚƐă^ĂŝŶƚ ƟĞŶŶĞĞŶ&ƌĂŶĐĞ͕ĚĞƐŝŶƐƚĂůůĂƟŽŶƐŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚĞƐ͕ĚĞƐƟŶĠĞƐăůĂ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶĚ͛ĂƌŵĞƐ͕ƉĂƌƟĞůůĞŵĞŶƚŽƵĐŽŵƉůğƚĞŵĞŶƚǀŝĚĞƐ͘ >͛ĞŶũĞƵ ĞƐƚ ĚĞ ƌĠŝŶƚĠŐƌĞƌ ĐĞƐ ĞƐƉĂĐĞƐ ĚĂŶƐ ůĂ ǀŝůůĞ͘ EŽƵƐ ĂǀŽŶƐ ƌĠĂůŝƐĠ ƵŶĞ ĐĂƌƚŽŐƌĂƉŚŝĞ ĂǀĞĐ ƵŶ ƚůĂƐ ƌĞƉƌĞŶĂŶƚ ƚŽƵƐ ůĞƐ ďąƟŵĞŶƚƐĞŶůĞƐĂŶĂůLJƐĂŶƚĚĞů͛ŝŶƚĠƌŝĞƵƌŵĂŝƐĂƵƐƐŝĞŶƌĞŐĂƌĚĂŶƚ ůĞƵƌ ŝŵƉůĂŶƚĂƟŽŶ ŐĠŽŐƌĂƉŚŝƋƵĞ Ğƚ ůĞƵƌƐ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐ ĞŶƚƌĞ ĞƵdž͘ EŽƵƐĂǀŽŶƐĨĂŝƚƵŶĐĂƚĂůŽŐƵĞƉŽƵƌǀŽŝƌĐĞƋƵŝĞƐƚƌĠĂůŝƐĂďůĞĚĂŶƐ ůĞƐĚŝīĠƌĞŶƚƐďąƟŵĞŶƚƐ͕ĐĂƌƚŽƵƐŶĞƐĞƉƌġƚĞŶƚƉĂƐĂƵdžŵġŵĞƐ ƵƟůŝƐĂƟŽŶƐ͘ ĞƌƚĂŝŶƐ ĚĞ ĐĞƐ ŚĂŶŐĂƌƐ ƐŽŶƚ ƉůĂƚƐ͕ Ě͛ĂƵƚƌĞƐ ƉůƵƐ ŚĂƵƚƐ͕ Ě͛ĂƵƚƌĞƐ ƉŽƐƐğĚĞŶƚ ƵŶĞ ŵĂƵǀĂŝƐĞ ĂĐŽƵƐƟƋƵĞ ŽƵ ƐŽŶƚ ƚƌŽƉ ƉĞƟƚƐ͕ ŶĞ ƐŽŶƚ ƉĂƐ ĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞƐ͘ ĞƩĞ ĠƚƵĚĞ ĞƐƚ ƵŶĞ ďĂƐĞ pour se forger une idée de ce qui peut être fait de ces espaces ĂďĂŶĚŽŶŶĠƐ͕ ƉŽƵƌ ƌĠŇĠĐŚŝƌ ĐŽŵŵĞŶƚ ŽŶ ƉĞƵƚ ƚƌŽƵǀĞƌ ƵŶ ƚƌĂŝƚ Ě͛ƵŶŝŽŶ ĞŶƚƌĞ ĐĞƐ ĚŝīĠƌĞŶƚƐ ŚĂŶŐĂƌƐ ƉŽƵƌ ĞŶ ĨĂŝƌĞ ĚĞƐ ƉƀůĞƐ ŽƵ ĚĞƐ ĐĞŶƚƌĂůŝƚĠƐ ĂĮŶ ĚĞ ĐƌĠĞƌ ƵŶ ĞīĞƚ ĚĞ ƐLJŶĞƌŐŝĞ ƋƵŝ ƉĞƵƚ ƌĠĞůůĞŵĞŶƚƌĂLJŽŶŶĞƌƐƵƌůĞƐƋƵĂƌƟĞƌƐĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŶĂŶƚƐ͘

^ĂŝŶƚͲƟĞŶŶĞ͕ƚLJƉŽůŽŐŝĞƐŽĨŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂůďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ ^ĂŝŶƚͲƟĞŶŶĞ͕ƚLJƉŽůŽŐŝĞƐĚĞďąƟŵĞŶƚƐŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĞůƐ

ϭϳ


s^dE>Z,͕ architect researcher, LIA, Berlin (DE)

®Äã›ÄÝ®¥®‘ƒã®ÊÄÊ¥㫛›ø®Ýã®Ä¦‘®ãù dŚĞ ƚŚŝƌĚ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ͞'ƌĂŶĚ WĂƌŝƐ͕ ^ŽŌ DĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƐ͟ ĂĚǀĂŶĐĞƐ Ă ǀŝƐŝŽŶŽĨƚŚĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞWĂƌŝƐĐŽŶƵƌďĂƟŽŶƚŚƌŽƵŐŚƚŽ ϮϬϯϬ͗ ĐƌĞĂƟŶŐ Ă ƉŽƐƚͲ<LJŽƚŽ ŵŽĚĞů ďLJ ƌĞĚĞƐŝŐŶŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ĨĂďƌŝĐ ĂŶĚ ŵŽǀŝŶŐ ĂǁĂLJ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ƐŝŶŐůĞ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ ƚŽǁĂƌĚƐ Ă ŵƵůƟƉŽůĂƌĐŝƚLJ͘tĞƉƵƚĨŽƌǁĂƌĚϯŵĂŝŶƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĞƐ͗ŽŶĞǁŝƚŚƚŚĞ ͞ůŝŐŚƚ͟ǀĞƌƐŝŽŶŽĨƚŚĞĐŝƚLJǀĞƌƐƵƐƚŚĞĚĞŶƐĞŽƌ͞ŝŶƚĞŶƐĞ͟ĐŝƚLJ͕ŽŶĞ ǁŝƚŚƚŚĞůŽĐĂůĐŝƚLJǁŚĞƌĞƚŚĞŝƐƐƵĞŝƐĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďŝůŝƚLJ͕ĂŶĚĮŶĂůůLJŽŶĞ ƚŚĂƚ ŚŝŐŚůŝŐŚƚƐ ŶĂƚƵƌĂů ĞůĞŵĞŶƚƐ ĂŶĚ ĂƌƟĐƵůĂƚĞƐ ƚŚĞŵ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ͘dŚĞĐŝƚLJŽĨWĂƌŝƐŝƐ ĂĐŽŶƟŶƵŝƚLJ͘ƵƚǁŚĞŶLJŽƵ ŽďƐĞƌǀĞŝƚƐ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͕ǁŚŝůƐƚƚŚĞĐĞŶƚƌĞŝƐƚŚĞƚƌĂĚŝƟŽŶĂůƵƌŽƉĞĂŶƐƉĂĐĞ͕ƚŚĞ suburbs by contrast contain all the elements added in the 2nd ŚĂůĨŽĨƚŚĞϮϬthĐĞŶƚƵƌLJ͕ƉůĂĐĞĚƐŝĚĞͲďLJͲƐŝĚĞǁŝƚŚŶŽĂƩĞŵƉƚĂƚ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶ͘ƵƚƚŚŝƐŝƐƚŚĞĐŝƚLJǁĞŚĂǀĞƚŽǁŽƌŬǁŝƚŚ͘,ĞƌĞƚŚĞƌĞ ŚĂƐďĞĞŶĂƌĞǀĞƌƐĂůŝŶƚŚĞƌĂƟŽďĞƚǁĞĞŶďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ͕ĨƌĞĞƐƉĂĐĞƐ ĂŶĚĐƵůƟǀĂƚĞĚĂƌĞĂƐ͘dŚĞŽůĚĞƐƚďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐĂƌĞŶŽŵŽƌĞƚŚĂŶĮŌLJ years old. The life cycles of buildings are much shorter and they ŚĂǀĞďĞĞŶĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƚĞĚĨŽƌĂƐƉĞĐŝĮĐĨƵŶĐƟŽŶ͕ĞŝƚŚĞƌŚŽƵƐŝŶŐŽƌ industry. So these are the sites that urgently need to be adapted ĂƚĐĞƌƚĂŝŶŬĞLJůŽĐĂƟŽŶƐǁŚĞƌĞƚŚĞLJǁŝůůŚĂǀĞĂŶŝŵƉĂĐƚŽŶƚŚĞŝƌ surroundings.

/ŶƚĞŶƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ͗ŵŝŶŝ/ /ŶƚĞŶƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ͗ŵŝŶŝ/

dŚĞ ƉƌŝŽƌŝƚLJ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ŝŶƚĞŶƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĚŝǀĞƌƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ĂƌĞĂƐ͕ Ă ƐĐĂƩĞƌŝŶŐ ŽĨ ĐŽŶĨĞƫ͕ ďƵƚ ďĂƐĞĚ ŽŶ Ă ƐŽůŝĚ ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJ͘ /ƚ is about introducing new typologies, new spaces that can be ƵƐĞĚ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚůLJ͕ ĨŽƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ ĨŽƌ ĂŐƌŝĐƵůƚƵƌĞ Žƌ ĐƌĂŌ ĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ͘ /ƚ͛Ɛ ĂďŽƵƚ ƚŚĞ ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ͞ŵŝĐƌŽͲŚƵďƐ͕͟ ƐŵĂůů ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ĂĐĐĞƐƐĞĚ ŽŶ ĨŽŽƚ Žƌ ďLJ ďŝŬĞ͕ ůŝŬĞ dŽŬLJŽ͛Ɛ ͞ĐŽŶǀĞŶŝĞŶĐĞ ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ͕͟ ŵŽďŝůĞ Žƌ ƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJ ƐƉĂĐĞƐ ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐĞĚ ƚŽ ŽīĞƌ ũŽď ŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐĂŶĚƚŽƐƟŵƵůĂƚĞƵƌďĂŶůŝĨĞ͘tŝƚŚƚŚĞƐĞƐŵĂůůͲƐĐĂůĞ ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĞƐ͕ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ͕ǁĞĐĂŶĚŝǀĞƌƐŝĨLJƚŚĞĐŝƚLJĂŶĚŐŝǀĞŝƚŵŽƌĞ ůŽŶŐͲƚĞƌŵƌĞƐŝƐƚĂŶĐĞƚŽĚŝƐƌƵƉƟŽŶƐĂŶĚƚŚĞƌĞďLJƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵƚŚĞƐĞ ƐŝŶŐůĞͲĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂƌĞĂƐŝŶƚŽŵƵůƟĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂƌĞĂƐ͘ The strategy of using natural elements as a focus of ƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶŝƐĂďŽƵƚďƌŝŶŐŝŶŐŶĂƚƵƌĞďĂĐŬƚŽƚŚĞƌŝǀĞƌďĂŶŬƐ͘ /ŶƚŚĞƐĞŽŌĞŶŇŽŽĚͲƉƌŽŶĞĂƌĞĂƐ͕ǁĞŚĂǀĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚϯƚLJƉĞƐŽĨ ƐƉĂĐĞƐ͗ ƚŚĞ ƐĞůĨͲĐůĞĂŶŝŶŐ ǁĂƚĞƌǁĂLJ͕ Ă ƌŝǀĞƌ ůĂŶĚƐĐĂƉĞ͖ ƚŚĞŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞĐŝƚLJĐĞŶƚƌĞ͕ŇĞdžŝďůĞƉŽŶƚŽŽŶƐǁŚĞƌĞĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐĐĂŶ ďĞŵĂŝŶƚĂŝŶĞĚĂƚĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƐĞĂƐŽŶƐ͕ƚŽƌĞͲĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚƚŚĞůŝŶŬǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞƌŝǀĞƌ͖ĂŶĚƚŚĞŶƚŚĞƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶŽĨĞdžŝƐƟŶŐŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂůƐŝƚĞƐ ŝŶƚŽ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ njŽŶĞƐ͕ ĚĞĂůŝŶŐ ǁŝƚŚ ŇƵĐƚƵĂƟŽŶƐ ŝŶ ƌŝǀĞƌ ůĞǀĞůƐ ďLJ ŝŶƐƚĂůůŝŶŐĂǁĂƚĞƌƌĞƚĞŶƟŽŶƚĂŶŬ͘ tĞ ĂƌĞ ĐŽŶƟŶƵŝŶŐ ƚŽ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉ ƚŚĞƐĞ ƚŚĞŵĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ Ăŝŵ ŽĨ ƉƌŽĚƵĐŝŶŐĂĐĂƚĂůŽŐƵĞĨŽƌƚŚĞ͞ĂĚĂƉƚĂďůĞĐŝƚLJ͘͟

Revitalizing dense city Revitaliser la ville dense

18


s^dE>Z,͕ architecte chercheur, LIA, Berlin (DE)

®Äã›ÄÝ®¥®‘ƒã®ÊÄ—›½ƒò®½½››ø®ÝãƒÄ㛠Le 3èmeƉƌŽũĞƚͨ'ƌĂŶĚWĂƌŝƐ͕DĠƚƌŽƉŽůĞĚŽƵĐĞͩƉƌŽƉŽƐĞƵŶĞǀŝƐŝŽŶ ĚĞů͛ĂŐŐůŽŵĠƌĂƟŽŶƉĂƌŝƐŝĞŶŶĞƉŽƵƌƐŽŶĚĠǀĞůŽƉƉĞŵĞŶƚũƵƐƋƵ͛ĞŶ ϮϬϯϬ͗ĐƌĠĞƌƵŶŵŽĚğůĞWŽƐƚͲ<LJŽƚŽĞŶƌĞƉĞŶƐĂŶƚů͛ĞdžŝƐƚĂŶƚƉŽƵƌ Ɛ͛ĠůŽŝŐŶĞƌ ĚĞ ůĂ ŵŽŶŽ ĐĞŶƚƌĂůŝƚĠ Ğƚ ĂůůĞƌ ǀĞƌƐ ůĂ ŵƵůƟƉŽůĂƌŝƚĠ͘ EŽƵƐ ĂǀŽŶƐ ƉƌŽƉŽƐĠ ϯ ƐƚƌĂƚĠŐŝĞƐ ƉƌŝŶĐŝƉĂůĞƐ ͗ ĐĞůůĞ ĚĞ ůĂ ǀŝůůĞ ůĠŐğƌĞǀĞƌƐƵƐůĂǀŝůůĞĚĞŶƐĞŽƵůĂǀŝůůĞͨŝŶƚĞŶƐĞ͕ͩĐĞůůĞĚĞůĂǀŝůůĞ ƉƌŽĐŚĞƉŽƵƌůĂƋƵĞůůĞů͛ĞŶũĞƵĞƐƚů͛ĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďŝůŝƚĠ͕ĞƚĞŶĮŶĐĞůůĞĚĞ ůĂ ǀĂůŽƌŝƐĂƟŽŶ Ě͛ĠůĠŵĞŶƚƐ ŶĂƚƵƌĞůƐ ƉŽƵƌ ůĞƐ ĂƌƟĐƵůĞƌ ă ůĂ ǀŝůůĞ͘ >͛ĂŐŐůŽŵĠƌĂƟŽŶ ƉĂƌŝƐŝĞŶŶĞ ĞƐƚ ƵŶĞ ĐŽŶƟŶƵŝƚĠ͘ DĂŝƐ ůŽƌƐƋƵ͛ŽŶ ŽďƐĞƌǀĞƐĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͕ƐŝůĞĐĞŶƚƌĞĞƐƚů͛ĞƐƉĂĐĞĞƵƌŽƉĠĞŶĐůĂƐƐŝƋƵĞ͕ ůĂ ďĂŶůŝĞƵĞ ƉĂƌ ĐŽŶƚƌĞ ĞƐƚ ĐŽŶƐƟƚƵĠĞ Ě͛ĠůĠŵĞŶƚƐ ĂũŽƵƚĠƐ ĚĂŶƐ la 2ème ŵŽŝƟĠ ĚƵ ϮϬème ƐŝğĐůĞ͕ ƉŽƐĠƐ ůĞƐ ƵŶ ă ĐƀƚĠƐ ĚĞƐ ĂƵƚƌĞƐ ƐĂŶƐĂƵĐƵŶĞŝŶƚĠŐƌĂƟŽŶ͘DĂŝƐĐ͛ĞƐƚĐĞƩĞǀŝůůĞƋƵĞŶŽƵƐĚĞǀŽŶƐ ƉƌĞŶĚƌĞĞŶĐŽŵƉƚĞ͘/ĐŝůĞƌĂƟŽƐ͛ĞƐƚŝŶǀĞƌƐĠĞŶƚƌĞůĂĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ ĞƚůĞƐĞƐƉĂĐĞƐůŝďƌĞƐĞƚƐƵƌĨĂĐĞƐĐƵůƟǀĠĞƐ͘>ĞƐďąƟŵĞŶƚƐůĞƐƉůƵƐ ĂŶĐŝĞŶƐ ŽŶƚ ƵŶĞ ĐŝŶƋƵĂŶƚĂŝŶĞ Ě͛ĂŶŶĠĞƐ͘ >ĞƐ ĐLJĐůĞƐ ĚĞ ǀŝĞ ĚĞƐ ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶƐ ƐŽŶƚ ďĞĂƵĐŽƵƉ ƉůƵƐ ƌĠĚƵŝƚƐ Ğƚ ůĞƐ ďąƟŵĞŶƚƐ ŽŶƚ ĠƚĠĠƌŝŐĠƐƉŽƵƌƵŶĞĨŽŶĐƟŽŶďŝĞŶƉƌĠĐŝƐĞ͕ŚĂďŝƚĂƚŽƵŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĞ͘ Ğ ƐŽŶƚ ĚŽŶĐ ůĞƐ ƐŝƚĞƐ ƉŽƵƌ ůĞƐƋƵĞůƐ ƵŶĞ ƵƌŐĞŶƚĞ ĂĚĂƉƚĂƟŽŶ est nécessaire dans des endroits exemplaires qui auront des ĞīĞƚƐƐƵƌůĞƐĂůĞŶƚŽƵƌƐ͘>ĞƉƌŝŶĐŝƉĞĞƐƚƵŶĞŝŶƚĞŶƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶĞƚƵŶĞ ĚŝǀĞƌƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶĚĞƚĞƌƌŝƚŽŝƌĞƐĞdžŝƐƚĂŶƚƐ͕ĚĞƉĂƌƐĞŵĞƌĚĞƐĐŽŶĨĞƫƐ͕ mais selon une stratégie concrète. Il s’agit d’introduire de ŶŽƵǀĞůůĞƐƚLJƉŽůŽŐŝĞƐ͕ĚĞŶŽƵǀĞĂƵdžĞƐƉĂĐĞƐĂĮŶƋƵ͛ŽŶƉƵŝƐƐĞůĞƐ ƵƟůŝƐĞƌĚ͛ƵŶĞŵĂŶŝğƌĞĚŝīĠƌĞŶƚĞ͕ƉĂƌĞdžĞŵƉůĞƉŽƵƌů͛ĂŐƌŝĐƵůƚƵƌĞ ŽƵƉŽƵƌĚĞƐĞƐƉĂĐĞƐĂƌƟƐĂŶĂƵdž͛͘ĞƐƚů͛ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶĚĞͨŵŝĐƌŽ ŚƵďƐ͕ͩƉĞƟƚƐĐĞŶƚƌĞƐĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞƐăƉŝĞĚŽƵĞŶďŝĐLJĐůĞƩĞĐŽŵŵĞ ůĞƐ ͨ ĐŽŶǀĞŶŝĞŶĐĞ ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ ͩ ă dŽŬLJŽ͕ ŝŵƉůĂŶƚĠƐ Ě͛ƵŶĞ ŵĂŶŝğƌĞ ŵŽďŝůĞ ŽƵ ƚĞŵƉŽƌĂŝƌĞ ƉŽƵƌ Žīƌŝƌ ĚĞƐ ƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƚĠƐ Ě͛ĞŵƉůŽŝ Ğƚ ĚLJŶĂŵŝƐĞƌ ůĂ ǀŝĞ ƵƌďĂŝŶĞ͘ ŝŶƐŝ ĂǀĞĐ ĐĞƐ ƉĞƟƚĞƐ ƐƚƌĂƚĠŐŝĞƐ ŽŶ ƉĞƵƚ ĚŝǀĞƌƐŝĮĞƌ ůĂ ǀŝůůĞ Ğƚ ůĂ ƌĞŶĚƌĞ ƉůƵƐ ƌĠƐŝƐƚĂŶƚĞ ƐƵƌ ůĞ ůŽŶŐ ƚĞƌŵĞ ĂƵdž ďŽƵůĞǀĞƌƐĞŵĞŶƚƐ Ğƚ ĂŝŶƐŝ ƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĞƌ ĐĞƐ njŽŶĞƐ ŵŽŶŽĨŽŶĐƟŽŶŶĞůůĞƐĞŶĚĞƐnjŽŶĞƐƉůƵƌŝĨŽŶĐƟŽŶŶĞůůĞƐ͘

,ŽƵƐŝŶŐĞƐƚĂƚĞͬŝīƵƐĞĚŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ Grands ensembles / Habitat dispersé

>ĂƐƚƌĂƚĠŐŝĞĚĞŵƵƚĂƟŽŶĂƵƚŽƵƌĚĞƐĠůĠŵĞŶƚƐŶĂƚƵƌĞůƐĐŽŶƐŝƐƚĞ ă ƌĠͲŶĂƚƵƌĂůŝƐĞƌ ĚĞƐ njŽŶĞƐ ƐŝƚƵĠĞƐ ĞŶ ďĞƌŐĞƐ ĚĞƐ ĐŽƵƌƐ Ě͛ĞĂƵ͘ ĂŶƐ ĐĞƐ ůŝĞƵdž ƐŽƵǀĞŶƚ ŝŶŽŶĚĂďůĞƐ͕ ŶŽƵƐ ĂǀŽŶƐ ĚĠǀĞůŽƉƉĠ ϯ ƚLJƉĞƐĚ͛ĞƐƉĂĐĞƐ͗ůĞĐŽƵƌƐĚ͛ĞĂƵĂƵƚŽŶĞƩŽLJĂŶƚ͕ƉĂLJƐĂŐĞŇƵǀŝĂů͖ WƵŝƐ ĂƵ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ ǀŝůůĞ ĚĞƐ ƉŽŶƚŽŶƐ ŇĞdžŝďůĞƐ ƐƵƌ ůĞƐƋƵĞůƐ ƉĞƵǀĞŶƚ ġƚƌĞŵŝƐĞŶƉůĂĐĞĚĞƐĂĐƟǀŝƚĠƐƐĞůŽŶůĞƐƐĂŝƐŽŶƐƉŽƵƌƌĞƚƌŽƵǀĞƌ ƵŶĞƌĞůĂƟŽŶĂǀĞĐůĂƌŝǀŝğƌĞ͖ƚĞŶĮŶůĂƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶĚĞƐŝƚĞƐ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĞůƐĞdžŝƐƚĂŶƚĞŶnjŽŶĞĚ͛ŚĂďŝƚĂƟŽŶĞŶƚĞŶĂŶƚĐŽŵƉƚĞĚĞůĂ ŇƵĐƚƵĂƟŽŶĚƵŶŝǀĞĂƵĚĞůĂƌŝǀŝğƌĞĂǀĞĐů͛ŝŶƐƚĂůůĂƟŽŶĚ͛ƵŶďĂƐƐŝŶ ĚĞƌĠƚĞŶƟŽŶĚĞů͛ĞĂƵ͘ EŽƵƐĐŽŶƟŶƵŽŶƐĚĞĚĠǀĞůŽƉƉĞƌĐĞƐƚŚğŵĞƐƉŽƵƌĐŽŶƐƟƚƵĞƌƵŶ ĐĂƚĂůŽŐƵĞƉŽƵƌůĂͨǀŝůůĞĂĚĂƉƚĂďůĞͩ͘

River city sŝůůĞŇĞƵǀĞ

19


^^d/:KZEd͕ architect, urban planner, Barcelona (ES)

3

RESILIENCE OF A SEGREGATED ESTATE 㫛çِƒÄٛ¦›Ä›Ùƒã®ÊÄÊ¥㫛½ƒîă —®ÝãÙ®‘ã͕ƒÙ‘›½Êă;›ÝͿ dŚĞůĂDŝŶĂĚŝƐƚƌŝĐƚŚĂƐĂƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶŽĨϭϮϬϬϬ͕ĐŽŵƉĂƌĞĚǁŝƚŚ ϯϬϬϬϬŝŶƚŚĞŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚLJŽĨ^ĂŶƚĚƌŝă͘>ĂDŝŶĂŝƐũƵƐƚĂƚƚŚĞ end of the extension of Barcelona’s Cerda plan, on the other ƐŝĚĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĞƐŽƐ ZŝǀĞƌ͕ ĐůŽƐĞ ƚŽ ůĂƌŐĞ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐ ďƵƚ ŶŽƚ connected to them.

>ĂDŝŶĂĂŌĞƌƌĞŐĞŶĞƌĂƟŽŶďĞĐĂŵĞĂŶƵƌďĂŶĚŝƐƚƌŝĐƚ >ĂDŝŶĂĂƉƌğƐƌĠŐĠŶĠƌĂƟŽŶĞƐƚĚĞǀĞŶƵĞƵŶƋƵĂƌƟĞƌƵƌďĂŝŶ

The area was built to clear the slums and rehouse the people ůŝǀŝŶŐ ƚŚĞƌĞ͘ dŚĞ ĮƌƐƚ͕ ƉĂƌƟĂů ϭϵϱϵ ƉůĂŶ ǁĂƐ ĚĞƐŝŐŶĞĚ ĂƌŽƵŶĚ ĞŵƉƚLJƐƉĂĐĞ͕ǁŝƚŚƚŚĞŝĚĞĂŽĨĂƉŝǀŽƚĂůƐƉĂĐĞǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚĞĚŝƐƚƌŝĐƚ͘ /Ŷ ϭϵϲϳ͕ ƚŚĞ ŝŶŝƟĂů ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ǁĂƐ ĂůƚĞƌĞĚ͕ ĂŶĚ ĂŵĞŶŝƟĞƐ ǁĞƌĞ ĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƚĞĚǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚĞĐĞŶƚƌĂůƐƉĂĐĞ͘ŶĚŝŶϭϵϳϭ͕ƚŚĞƌĞǁĂƐĂ ƚŚŝƌĚĐŚĂŶŐĞŝŶǁŚŝĐŚĂůůƚLJƉŽůŽŐŝĐĂůĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJŝƐůĂĐŬŝŶŐĂŶĚƚŚĞ ǁŚŽůĞĞƐƚĂƚĞŝƐĞŶƟƌĞůLJďĂƐĞĚŽŶĂƐŝŶŐůĞďůŽĐŬĚĞƐŝŐŶ͘tŝƚŚŝŶ Ă ƐƉĂĐĞ ŽĨ ϭϴ ŵŽŶƚŚƐ͕ ϭ ϴϱϬ ŝĚĞŶƟĐĂů ĚǁĞůůŝŶŐƐ ǁĞƌĞ ďƵŝůƚ͘ ,ŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ϮLJĞĂƌƐĂŌĞƌƚŚĞŽƉĞŶŝŶŐ͕ƚŚĞŚĞĂĚůŝŶĞƐƌĞĂĚ͗͞>ĂDŝŶĂ͕ ĂŶĞǁďŽƌŶŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌŚŽŽĚƚŚĂƚŝƐĂůƌĞĂĚLJĂůŵŽƐƚĂďĂŶĚŽŶĞĚ͘͟ dŚĞŶĐĂŵĞƚŚĞϮϬϬϰƵůƚƵƌĞ&ŽƌƵŵŝŶĂƌĐĞůŽŶĂǁŝƚŚŝƚƐŐƌĞĂƚ ůĂLJŽƵƚƉůĂŶĨŽƌĂϮϱϬŚĞĐƚĂƌĞƐĂƌĞĂŽŶƚŚĞĞĚŐĞŽĨůĂDŝŶĂ͕ďƵƚ ƚŚĞƌĞǁĞƌĞŶŽƉůĂŶƐĨŽƌƚŚŝƐĐƌŝƐŝƐͲƌŝĚĚĞŶŚŽƵƐŝŶŐĞƐƚĂƚĞ͘^ŽƚŚĞ ŵĂLJŽƌƐĂŝĚ͗͞ŶŽƵŐŚ͕ŝĨǁĞŚĂǀĞƚŽďƵƌŶƚŚĞĞƐƚĂƚĞ͕ǁĞ͛ůůďƵƌŶ ŝƚ͕ŝĨǁĞŚĂǀĞƚŽƌĞĨƵƌďŝƐŚŝƚ͕ǁĞ͛ůůƌĞĨƵƌďŝƐŚŝƚ͘ƵƚŽŶĐĞĂŶĚĨŽƌ Ăůů͕ǁĞŚĂǀĞƚŽĮŶĚĂƐŽůƵƟŽŶĨŽƌƚŚŝƐĂƌĞĂ͘͟ŶĚƚŚĂƚŝƐŚŽǁƚŚĞ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĚĞĐŝĚĞĚ ŽŶ ĂŶ ƵƌďĂŶ ƌĞŐĞŶĞƌĂƟŽŶ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͘tĞďĞŐĂŶƚŚĞǁŽƌŬďLJĮŶĚŝŶŐŽƵƚĂƐŵƵĐŚĂƐǁĞĐŽƵůĚ ĂďŽƵƚ ƚŚĞ ƐŽĐŝĂů ĂŶĚ ĂŶƚŚƌŽƉŽůŽŐŝĐĂů ƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶ͕ ĐŽŶĚƵĐƟŶŐ Ă technical analysis of all the buildings and urban analysis, a huge ĞīŽƌƚ ĞŶƚĂŝůŝŶŐ ŶƵŵĞƌŽƵƐ ŝŶƚĞƌǀŝĞǁƐ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ǁĞƵƐĞĚƚŽŵĂƉƚŚĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŽĨƐŽĐŝĂůĐŽŶŇŝĐƚ͘

‘ƒÙãʦك֫ùÊ¥—›¥®‘®ãÝÊ¥çِƒÄ½®¥›

Mapping of social problems and habitability of housing ĂƌƚŽŐƌĂƉŚŝĞĚĞƐƉƌŽďůğŵĞƐƐŽĐŝĂƵdžĞƚĚĞů͛ŚĂďŝƚĂďŝůŝƚĠĚĞƐůŽŐĞŵĞŶƚƐ

ϮϬ

tĞĚĞĮŶĞĚϳŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐƚŽƵƐĞŝŶĂŶĂůLJƐŝŶŐƚŚĞĂƌĞĂ͘dŚĞƌĞƐƵůƚƐ ŽĨƚŚĞƐĞŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐǁŽƵůĚŐŝǀĞƵƐĂĚŝƌĞĐƟŽŶĂŶĚǁŽƵůĚůĞŐŝƟŵŝƐĞ ƚŚĞĐŚŽŝĐĞŽĨĂƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJĨŽƌƚŚĞĂƌĞĂ͘ ͲdŚĞϭstŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌǁĂƐůŽĐĂƟŽŶĂŶĚĐŽŶƚĞdžƚ͘>ĂDŝŶĂƚŽĚĂLJŝƐŶŽ longer on the outskirts. And through our plan, we wanted to ƐŚŽǁƚŚĂƚůĂDŝŶĂŝƐĂŐŽŽĚƉůĂĐĞƚŽůŝǀĞ͘ Ͳ Ϯnd ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌ͗ ƐŽĐŝĂů ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐ͘ /Ŷ ƚŚĞ ůĂ DŝŶĂ ĂƌĞĂ͗ ŝůůŝƚĞƌĂĐLJ͕ ĨĂŵŝůLJ ǀŝŽůĞŶĐĞ͕ ƵŶĞŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚ͕ ƐĐŚŽŽů ĂďƐĞŶƚĞĞŝƐŵ͕ ĚƌƵŐƐ͘  map shows the places where illegal substances were sold and ĐŽŶƐƵŵĞĚ͗ŽŶĐĞƌƚĂŝŶƐƚĂŝƌĐĂƐĞƐ͕ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐůĞǀĞůƐ͕ƐƚƌĞĞƚƐ͙ǁŝƚŚĂ ŚŝŐŚĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƟŽŶĂƚĐĞƌƚĂŝŶůŽĐĂƟŽŶƐ͘ Ͳ ϯrd ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌ͗ ŚĂďŝƚĂďŝůŝƚLJ͘ dŚĞ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ƐŚŽǁĞĚ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ĂƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚƐ ǁĞƌĞ ǁĞůůͲďƵŝůƚ͕ ƐŽůŝĚ͕ ƐƚĂďůĞ͕ ǁŝƚŚ ƌĞĂƐŽŶĂďůLJ spacious interiors. There was no reason why they should be demolished. Ͳ ϰth ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌ͗ ĚĞŶƐŝƚLJ͘ /ƚ ǁĂƐ ƐĂŝĚ ƚŚĂƚ ŝƚƐ ŚŝŐŚ ĚĞŶƐŝƚLJ ĐĂƵƐĞĚ the social problems of this area. But when we compared la Mina with thirty other areas, we concluded that the problems of la DŝŶĂĂƌĞŶŽƚĐĂƵƐĞĚƐŽŵƵĐŚďLJĚĞŶƐŝƚLJĂƐďLJĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ͘


^^d/:KZEd͕ architecte, urbaniste, Barcelone (ES)

Z^/>/E͛hE'ZE ENSEMBLE SEGREGUE ½ƒٛ¦›Ä›Ùƒã®ÊÄçِƒ®Ä›—çØçƒÙ㮛Ù—›½ƒ îă͕ƒÙ‘›½Êě;›ÝͿ >Ğ ƋƵĂƌƟĞƌ ĚĞ ůĂ DŝŶĂ ĐŽŵƉƌĞŶĚ ϭϮ ϬϬϬ ŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ ĂůŽƌƐ ƋƵĞ ůĂ ŵƵŶŝĐŝƉĂůŝƚĠ ĚĞ ^ĂŶƚ Ěƌŝă ĞŶ ĐŽŵƉƚĞ ϯϬ ϬϬϬ͘ >Ğ ƋƵĂƌƟĞƌ ĚĞůĂDŝŶĂƐĞƚƌŽƵǀĞũƵƐƚĞăůĂĮŶĚĞů͛ĞdžƚĞŶƐŝŽŶĚƵƉůĂŶĞƌĚĂ ĚĞĂƌĐĞůŽŶĞ͕ĚĞů͛ĂƵƚƌĞĐƀƚĠĚĞůĂƌŝǀŝğƌĞĞƐŽƐ͕ƚŽƵƚƉƌğƐĚĞƐ grandes infrastructures mais non connecté à elles. Ğ ƋƵĂƌƟĞƌ Ă ĠƚĠ ƌĠĂůŝƐĠ ƉŽƵƌ ƐƵƉƉƌŝŵĞƌ ůĞƐ ďŝĚŽŶǀŝůůĞƐ Ğƚ ƌĞůŽŐĞƌůĞƐŐĞŶƐ͘>ĞƉƌĞŵŝĞƌƉůĂŶƉĂƌƟĞůĚĞϭϵϱϵ͕ĂĠƚĠƚƌĂǀĂŝůůĠ ăƉĂƌƟƌĚƵǀŝĚĞ͕ĐŽŵŵĞƵŶĞƐƉĂĐĞƉŝǀŽƚăů͛ŝŶƚĠƌŝĞƵƌĚƵƋƵĂƌƟĞƌ͘ Ŷ ϭϵϲϳ͕ ůĞ ƉƌŽũĞƚ ŝŶŝƟĂů ĞƐƚ ĂůŽƌƐ ŵŽĚŝĮĠ͕ ů͛ĞƐƉĂĐĞ ĐĞŶƚƌĂů ĚĞǀŝĞŶƚƵŶĞĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƟŽŶ Ě͛ĠƋƵŝƉĞŵĞŶƚƐ͘ƚĞŶϭϵϳϭƐƵƌǀŝĞŶƚ un 3ème ĐŚĂŶŐĞŵĞŶƚ Žƶ ŝů Ŷ͛LJ Ă ĂƵĐƵŶĞ ĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚĠ ƚLJƉŽůŽŐŝƋƵĞ ƉƵŝƐƋƵĞƚŽƵƚƌĞƉŽƐĞƐƵƌůĂĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶĚ͛ƵŶƵŶŝƋƵĞŵŽĚğůĞĚĞ ďĂƌƌĞƐ͘ŶϭϴŵŽŝƐ͕ŝůƐ͛ĞƐƚĐŽŶƐƚƌƵŝƚϭϴϱϬůŽŐĞŵĞŶƚƐŝĚĞŶƟƋƵĞƐ DĂŝƐϮĂŶŶĠĞƐĂƉƌğƐů͛ŝŶĂƵŐƵƌĂƟŽŶůĂƉƌĞƐƐĞƟƚƌĞ͗ͨ>ĂDŝŶĂ͕ƵŶ ƋƵĂƌƟĞƌƋƵŝǀŝĞŶƚĚĞŶĂŠƚƌĞĞƚĚĠũăƉƌĞƐƋƵĞĂďĂŶĚŽŶŶĠͩ͘ ŶĮŶ͕ ĞƐƚ ƉƌĠƐĞŶƚĠ ůĞ &ŽƌƵŵ ƵůƚƵƌĞ ϮϬϬϰ ă ĂƌĐĞůŽŶĞ ĂǀĞĐ ƐŽŶ ŐƌĂŶĚ ƉůĂŶ ŵĂƐƐĞ ĚĞ ϮϱϬ ŚĞĐƚĂƌĞƐ ĂƵdž ĂďŽƌĚƐ ĚĞ ůĂ DŝŶĂ ŵĂŝƐƌŝĞŶŶ͛ĞƐƚƉƌĠǀƵƉŽƵƌĐĞƋƵĂƌƟĞƌĚ͛ŚĂďŝƚĂƚĞŶĐƌŝƐĞ͘ůŽƌƐ ůĞ ŵĂŝƌĞ Ěŝƚ ͨ ƐƐĞnj͕ Ɛŝ ŽŶ ĚŽŝƚ ďƌƸůĞƌ ůĞ ƋƵĂƌƟĞƌ͕ ŽŶ ůĞ ďƌƸůĞ͕ si on doit le réhabiliter, on le réhabilite. Mais une fois pour ƚŽƵƚĞ͕ŽŶĚŽŝƚƚƌŽƵǀĞƌƵŶĞƐŽůƵƟŽŶƉŽƵƌĐĞƋƵĂƌƟĞƌͩ͘ƚĐ͛ĞƐƚ ĂŝŶƐŝ ƋƵ͛ĞƐƚ ĚĠĐŝĚĠ ƉĂƌ ůĞ ŐŽƵǀĞƌŶĞŵĞŶƚ Ğƚ ůĂ ƌĠŐŝŽŶ ƵŶ ƉƌŽũĞƚ ĚĞƉůĂŶŝĮĐĂƟŽŶƵƌďĂŝŶĞ͘EŽƵƐĂǀŽŶƐĐŽŵŵĞŶĐĠăƚƌĂǀĂŝůůĞƌĞŶ ƌĞĐƵĞŝůůĂŶƚƵŶŵĂdžŝŵƵŵĚĞĐŽŶŶĂŝƐƐĂŶĐĞƐĚĞůĂƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶƐŽĐŝĂůĞ ĞƚĂŶƚŚƌŽƉŽůŽŐŝƋƵĞ͕ƵŶĞĂŶĂůLJƐĞƚĞĐŚŶŝƋƵĞĚĞƚŽƵƐůĞƐďąƟŵĞŶƚƐ Ğƚ ĚĞƐ ĂŶĂůLJƐĞƐ ƵƌďĂŝŶĞƐ͕ ƵŶ ƚƌĂǀĂŝů ĨĂŶƚĂƐƟƋƵĞ ă ƚƌĂǀĞƌƐ ĚĞ ŶŽŵďƌĞƵƐĞƐ ŝŶƚĞƌǀŝĞǁƐ ĚĞƐ ŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ͕ ƋƵŝ ŶŽƵƐ Ă ĚŽŶŶĠ ƵŶĞ ĐĂƌƚŽŐƌĂƉŚŝĞĚƵĐŽŶŇŝƚƐŽĐŝĂů͘

Built out of the city, la Mina is now inside new development Construit en dehors de la ville, la Mina se trouve maintenant au sein du nouveau développement

‘ƒÙãʦك֫®›—›Ý—›¥®‘®ãÝ—›½ƒò®›çِƒ®Ä› EŽƵƐĂǀŽŶƐĚĠĮŶŝƐϳŝŶĚŝĐĂƚĞƵƌƐƐĞƌǀĂŶƚăĂŶĂůLJƐĞƌĐĞƋƵĂƌƟĞƌ͘>Ğ résultat de ces indicateurs nous donnera une ligne de conduite Ğƚ ůĂ ůĠŐŝƟŵĂƟŽŶ ĚƵ ĐŚŽŝdž ĚĞ ƚĞůůĞ ŽƵ ƚĞůůĞ ƐƚƌĂƚĠŐŝĞ ĂĚŽƉƚĠĞ ƉŽƵƌůĞƋƵĂƌƟĞƌ͘ Ͳ >Ğ ϭer indicateur est l’emplacement et le contexte. La Mina ĂƵũŽƵƌĚ͛ŚƵŝŶ͛ĞƐƚƉůƵƐăůĂƉĠƌŝƉŚĠƌŝĞ͘ƚŶŽƵƐǀŽƵůŽŶƐăƚƌĂǀĞƌƐ ĐĞƉůĂŶĂĸƌŵĞƌƋƵĞůĂDŝŶĂĞƐƚƵŶďŽŶĞŶĚƌŽŝƚƉŽƵƌǀŝǀƌĞ͘ ͲϮèmeŝŶĚŝĐĂƚĞƵƌ͗ůĂĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐŽĐŝĂůĞ͘ĂŶƐůĞƋƵĂƌƟĞƌĚĞůĂDŝŶĂ͗ ĂŶĂůƉŚĂďĠƟƐŵĞ͕ ǀŝŽůĞŶĐĞ ĨĂŵŝůŝĂůĞ͕ ĐŚƀŵĂŐĞ͕ ĂďƐĞŶƚĠŝƐŵĞ ƐĐŽůĂŝƌĞ͕ ĚƌŽŐƵĞ͘ hŶĞ ĐĂƌƚĞ ƌĞƉƌĠƐĞŶƚĞ ůĞƐ ůŝĞƵdž Žƶ ƐĞ ǀĞŶĚĞŶƚ ĞƚƐĞĐŽŶƐŽŵŵĞŶƚůĞƐƉƌŽĚƵŝƚƐŝůůŝĐŝƚĞƐ͗ĚĂŶƐĐĞƌƚĂŝŶƐĞƐĐĂůŝĞƌƐ͕ ĠƚĂŐĞƐ͕ƌƵĞƐ͙ĂǀĞĐƵŶĞĨŽƌƚĞĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƟŽŶăĐĞƌƚĂŝŶƐĞŶĚƌŽŝƚƐ͘ Ͳ ϯème ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚĞƵƌ ͗ ů͛ŚĂďŝƚĂďŝůŝƚĠ͘ >͛ĂŶĂůLJƐĞ ŵŽŶƚƌĞ ƋƵĞ ůĞƐ ůŽŐĞŵĞŶƚƐĠƚĂŝĞŶƚďŝĞŶĐŽŶƐƚƌƵŝƚƐ͕ƐŽůŝĚĞƐ͕ƐƚĂďůĞƐ͕ĂǀĞĐƵŶďŽŶ ŶŝǀĞĂƵĚĞƋƵĂůŝƚĠĚĞĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶăů͛ŝŶƚĠƌŝĞƵƌ͘ZŝĞŶŶĞũƵƐƟĮĞƋƵ͛ŝů faille les démolir. ͲϰèmeŝŶĚŝĐĂƚĞƵƌ͗ůĂĚĞŶƐŝƚĠ͘KŶĚŝƚƋƵĞůĞƐƉƌŽďůğŵĞƐƐŽĐŝĂƵdž ĚĞ ĐĞ ƋƵĂƌƟĞƌ ƐŽŶƚ ůŝĠƐ ă ƐĂ ĨŽƌƚĞ ĚĞŶƐŝƚĠ͘ DĂŝƐ ĞŶ ĐŽŵƉĂƌĂŶƚ

A segregated housing zone hŶĞnjŽŶĞĚ͛ŚĂďŝƚĂƚƐĠŐƌĠŐƵĠ

21


^^d/:KZEd͕ architect, urban planner, Barcelona (ES)

Ͳ dŚĞ ϱth ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌ ǁĂƐ ƚŚĞ ƐƚƌĞĞƚ ĂŶĚ ŐƌŽƵŶĚ ŇŽŽƌ ďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐĞƐ͘ /Ŷ ƚŚĞ ŶĞǁ ƉĂƌƚ͕ ƚŚĞ ŐƌŽƵŶĚ ŇŽŽƌ ǁĂƐ ůŝŬĞ Ă ŵŽůůƵƐĐ͗ ŚĂƌĚ on the outside, with fences, walls, barriers of all kinds, no ĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶ͘ Ͳ ϲth ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌ͕ ĂŵĞŶŝƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƉƵďůŝĐ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ͘ /Ŷ ůĂ DŝŶĂ͕ ƚŚĞLJ ǁĞƌĞ ĞdžĐůƵƐŝǀĞůLJ ĨŽƌ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ͘ dŚĞƌĞ ǁĞƌĞ ŶŽ ĂŵĞŶŝƟĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ǁŽƵůĚ ĞŶĐŽƵƌĂŐĞ ĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶ Žƌ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ŽƚŚĞƌ surrounding areas. ͲdŚĞϳth indicator was free spaces. There were open spaces but they were not connected. The aim was to break open the estate ƚŽ ƌĞĐƌĞĂƚĞ ŝƚ ďĞƩĞƌ͕ ƚŽ ŽƉĞŶ ŝƚ ƵƉ ŝŶ ŽƌĚĞƌ ƚŽ ƐĞǁ ŝƚ ƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ ďĞƩĞƌ͕ƵůƟŵĂƚĞůLJƚŽĚŝŐƵƉƚŚĞĐĞŶƚƌĂůĂƌĞĂƚŽďƵŝůĚĂŶĞǁĨŽĐƵƐ of urban life.

ٛ®ÄãÙʗ瑛㫛ÖÊã›Ä㮃½®ãùÊ¥çِƒÄ Ù«ùã«ÃÝ DŽĚĞůĂŶĚŵĂƉŽĨƌĞŐĞŶĞƌĂƟŽŶŽĨůĂDŝŶĂ DĂƋƵĞƩĞĞƚƉůĂŶĚĞůĂƌĠŐĠŶĠƌĂƟŽŶĚĞůĂDŝŶĂ

tĞ ƚŚĞŶ ĚĞĮŶĞĚ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŝŶĐŝƉůĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ŶĞǁ ƉůĂŶ͘ ĞŶƚƌĂůŝƚLJ͗ ĐĞŶƚƌĂů ƐƉĂĐĞƐ ŐŝǀĞ ƚŽǁŶ ƚŚĞŝƌ ŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ͘ ŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ͗ ŐƌĞĂƚĞƌ ƌŝĐŚŶĞƐƐ ŽĨ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŵĂŬĞͲƵƉ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͕ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƐƉĂĐĞƐ͕ ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞƐ͕ ƚLJƉŽůŽŐŝĞƐ ĂŶĚ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ͘ ŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶ͗ ƚŚŝƐ ĂƌĞĂ ŶĞĞĚĞĚ ƚŽ ĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƚĞ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ wider city through transport, the street fabric but also through ŝƚƐĂŵĞŶŝƟĞƐ͘ This led to the proposal to introduce a component to connect ƚŚĞ ĞƐžƐ WĂƌŬ njŽŶĞ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ŵĂƌŝŶĂ njŽŶĞ͗ Ă ƐƉĂĐĞ ĂƌŽƵŶĚ ϲϬϬ ŵĞƚĞƌƐ ůŽŶŐ ĂŶĚ ϰϬ ŵĞƚĞƌƐ ǁŝĚĞ͕ Ă ZĂŵďůĂ ƚŚĂƚ ǁŽƵůĚ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƚĞ ŶĞǁ ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞƐ͕ ŶĞǁ ĂŵĞŶŝƟĞƐ͕ ŶĞǁ ƐƉĂĐĞƐ͘ ŶĚ the discussion with the inhabitants resulted in changes from ƚŚĞ ƉƌĞůŝŵŝŶĂƌLJ ƉůĂŶ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ĮŶĂů ƉůĂŶ͕ ĂīĞĐƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƐĐŚŽŽů͕ ƚŚĞ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ZĂŵďůĂ͕ ĞƚĐ͙ EĞǁ ůŽĐĂů ĂŵĞŶŝƟĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ been introduced to become landmark structures, structuring ůĂŶĚŵĂƌŬƐĨŽƌƚŚĞƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͗ĂŶĞǁƉŽůŝĐĞƐƚĂƟŽŶ͕ĂŶĞǁůŝďƌĂƌLJ͕ ĂŶĞǁŐLJŵŶĂƐŝƵŵ͕ĂŶĞǁŵĂƌŝŶĂ͙dŚĞĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞ͕ŝŶƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌ ƚŚĞĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞŽĨƚŚĞŶĞǁŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ͕ŝƐǀĞƌLJĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚĨƌŽŵƚŚĂƚ ŽĨƚŚĞĨŽƌŵĞƌĂƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚďůŽĐŬƐ͘tĞƉƌŽǀŝĚĞĂŶĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞŽĨ ďŝŐƚŽƐŵĂůů͕ǁŚŝĐŚŝŶĐůƵĚĞƐƚĞƌƌĂĐĞƐĂŶĚŵŽƌĞůƵdžƵƌŝŽƵƐƌŽŽŌŽƉ apartment. dŽĚĂLJ͕ ůĂ DŝŶĂ ŚĂƐ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ƌŝŐŚƚƐ ĂŶĚ ƋƵĂůŝƟĞƐ ĂƐ LJŽƵ ĮŶĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ͘ /ƚ ĐĂŶ ŶŽǁ ĂĐĐŽŵŵŽĚĂƚĞ ƚŚĞ ĚLJŶĂŵŝĐ ƟŵĞƐĐĂůĞƐŽĨƵƌďĂŶůŝĨĞ͗ƚŽƵƌŝƐƚƐŶŽǁƉĂƐƐƚŚƌŽƵŐŚƚŚĞĂƌĞĂĨƌŽŵ ŶŽƌƚŚƚŽƐŽƵƚŚŽŶůĂZĂŵďůĂ͕ƚŚĞƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐŽĨůĂDŝŶĂƐƟůůĐƌŝƐƐͲ ĐƌŽƐƐƚŚĞĂƌĞĂĨƌŽŵƐŝĚĞƚŽƐŝĚĞ͘dŚĞŶŝŐŚƚŝƐŶŽůŽŶŐĞƌĂƟŵĞŽĨ ĚĂŶŐĞƌ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJ ĨĞƐƟǀĂůƐ ƚĂŬĞ ƉůĂĐĞ ŚĞƌĞ͘ dŚĞ ƉƌŽĨŽƵŶĚ ƉƌŽďůĞŵŽĨƚŚĞƐĞĂƌĞĂƐŝƐƚŚĞŶĞĞĚƚŽĐŚĂŶŐĞƐŽĐŝĂůĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐ͘ People come before stones. Social life comes before urban planning.

A Rambla links the district with the surroundings >ĂZĂŵďůĂƌĞůŝĞůĞƋƵĂƌƟĞƌĂǀĞĐů͛ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŶĞŵĞŶƚĂůĞŶƚŽƵƌ

22


^^d/:KZEd͕ architecte, urbaniste, Barcelone (ES)

ůĂ DŝŶĂ ă ƚƌĞŶƚĞ ĂƵƚƌĞƐ ƋƵĂƌƟĞƌƐ͕ ŶŽƵƐ ĂǀŽŶƐ ĐŽŶƐƚĂƚĠ ƋƵĞ ůĞƐ ƉƌŽďůğŵĞƐĚĞůĂDŝŶĂŶĞƐŽŶƚƉĂƐůŝĠƐăůĂĚĞŶƐŝƚĠ͕ŵĂŝƐƉůƵƚƀƚ ăůĂĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚĠ͘ Ͳ>ĞϱèmeŝŶĚŝĐĂƚĞƵƌĞƐƚůĂƌƵĞĞƚůĞƐĂĐƟǀŝƚĠƐĂƵƌĞnjͲĚĞͲĐŚĂƵƐƐĠĞ͘ ĂŶƐůĂƉĂƌƟĞŶŽƵǀĞůůĞůĞƌĞnjͲĚĞͲĐŚĂƵƐƐĠĞĨŽŶĐƟŽŶŶĞĐŽŵŵĞƐ͛ŝů ĠƚĂŝƚƵŶŵŽůůƵƐƋƵĞ͗ĚƵƌăů͛ĞdžƚĠƌŝĞƵƌ͕ĂǀĞĐĚĞƐŐƌŝůůĞƐ͕ĚĞƐŵƵƌƐ͕ ĚĞƐĠůĠŵĞŶƚƐĚĞĐůƀƚƵƌĞ͕ŝůŶ͛LJĂƉĂƐĚ͛ĠĐŚĂŶŐĞƐ͘ Ͳ >Ğ ϲème ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚĞƵƌ͕ ůĞƐ ĠƋƵŝƉĞŵĞŶƚƐ Ğƚ ůĞƐ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ ƉƵďůŝĐƐ͘  ůĂ DŝŶĂ͕ ŝůƐ ƐŽŶƚ ĞdžĐůƵƐŝǀĞŵĞŶƚ ƉŽƵƌ ƐĞƐ ŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ͘ ƵĐƵŶ ĠƋƵŝƉĞŵĞŶƚŶĞƉĞƌŵĞƚĚĞƐĠĐŚĂŶŐĞƐŽƵĚĞƐƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐĂǀĞĐůĞƐ ĂƵƚƌĞƐƋƵĂƌƟĞƌƐĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŶĂŶƚƐ͘ Ͳ>Ğϳème indicateur, ce sont les espaces libres. Il y a des espaces ŽƵǀĞƌƚƐŵĂŝƐŶŽŶĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĠƐ͘/ůƐ͛ĂŐŝƚĚĞĨĂŝƌĞĠĐůĂƚĞƌůĞƋƵĂƌƟĞƌ ƉŽƵƌŵŝĞƵdžůĞƌĞĐƌĠĞƌ͕ů͛ŽƵǀƌŝƌƉŽƵƌŵŝĞƵdžůĞƌĞĐŽƵĚƌĞ͕ĞŶĮŶĚĞ ĚĠďůĂLJĞƌůĂnjŽŶĞĐĞŶƚƌĂůĞƉŽƵƌĐŽŶƐƚƌƵŝƌĞƵŶĞŶŽƵǀĞůůĞƵƌďĂŶŝƚĠ͘

EĞǁĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ EŽƵǀĞĂƵdžĠƋƵŝƉĞŵĞŶƚƐ

ٛ®ÄãÙʗç®Ù›½ƒÖÊÝÝ®½®ã›—›ÝÙùã«Ã›Ý çِƒ®ÄÝ EŽƵƐĂǀŽŶƐĂůŽƌƐĚĠĮŶŝĚĞƐƉƌŝŶĐŝƉĞƐƉŽƵƌůĞŶŽƵǀĞĂƵƉůĂŶ͘>Ă ĐĞŶƚƌĂůŝƚĠ͗ůĞƐůŝĞƵdžĐĞŶƚƌĂƵdžĂƉƉŽƌƚĞŶƚĂƵdžǀŝůůĞƐůĞƵƌŝĚĞŶƟƚĠ͘ >Ă ĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚĠ Ͳ ƵŶĞ ƉůƵƐ ŐƌĂŶĚĞ ƌŝĐŚĞƐƐĞ ĚĞƐ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐ ĚĂŶƐ ůĂ ĐŽŵƉŽƐŝƟŽŶ ĚĞ ůĂ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͕ ĚĞƐ ĞƐƉĂĐĞƐ͕ ĚĞƐ ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞƐ͕ ĚĞƐƚLJƉŽůŽŐŝĞƐĞƚĚĞƐĂĐƟǀŝƚĠƐĠĐŽŶŽŵŝƋƵĞƐ͘>ĞƐĠĐŚĂŶŐĞƐ͗ĐĞ ƋƵĂƌƟĞƌĚŽŝƚĂǀŽŝƌĚĞƐĠĐŚĂŶŐĞƐĂǀĞĐůĂŐƌĂŶĚĞǀŝůůĞăƚƌĂǀĞƌƐůĞƐ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚƐ͕ůĞƟƐƐƵĚĞƐƌƵĞƐŵĂŝƐĂƵƐƐŝăƚƌĂǀĞƌƐůĞƐĠƋƵŝƉĞŵĞŶƚƐ͘ ĞůăǀĂĚĠĐŽƵůĞƌůĂƉƌŽƉŽƐŝƟŽŶĚĞůĂĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶĚ͛ƵŶĠůĠŵĞŶƚ ƋƵŝǀĂŵĞƩƌĞĞŶƌĞůĂƟŽŶůĂnjŽŶĞĚƵƉĂƌĐĚĞůĞƐžƐĂǀĞĐůĂnjŽŶĞĚƵ ƉŽƌƚĚĞƉůĂŝƐĂŶĐĞ͗ƵŶĞƐƉĂĐĞĚ͛ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶϲϬϬŵğƚƌĞƐĚĞůŽŶŐƵĞƵƌ ƐƵƌ ƋƵĂƌĂŶƚĞ ŵğƚƌĞƐ ĚĞ ůĂƌŐĞ͕ ƵŶĞ ZĂŵďůĂ ƋƵŝ ǀĂ ĚŽŶŶĞƌ ůŝĞƵ ĂƵdž ŶŽƵǀĞůůĞƐ ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞƐ͕ ĂƵdž ŶŽƵǀĞĂƵdž ĠƋƵŝƉĞŵĞŶƚƐ͕ ĂƵdž ŶŽƵǀĞĂƵdžĞƐƉĂĐĞƐ͘ƚůĂĚŝƐĐƵƐƐŝŽŶĂǀĞĐůĞƐŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐĂĞŶƚƌĂŠŶĠ ĚĞƐĐŚĂŶŐĞŵĞŶƚƐĞŶƚƌĞůĞƉůĂŶƉƌĠĂůĂďůĞĞƚůĞƉůĂŶĚĠĮŶŝƟĨƋƵŝ ĂīĞĐƚĞŶƚ ů͛ĠĐŽůĞ͕ ůĞƐ ďąƟŵĞŶƚƐ͕ ůĂ ZĂŵďůĂ͕ ĞƚĐ͙ >ĞƐ ŶŽƵǀĞĂƵdž ĠƋƵŝƉĞŵĞŶƚƐ ĚĞ ƉƌŽdžŝŵŝƚĠ ŽŶƚ ĠƚĠ ŝŵƉůĂŶƚĠƐ ƉŽƵƌ ĚĞǀĞŶŝƌ ĚĞƐ ĠůĠŵĞŶƚƐĚĞƌĠĨĠƌĞŶĐĞ͕ƵŶƉƀůĞĚ͛ĂƩƌĂĐƟŽŶƉŽƵƌůĂƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͗ ƵŶ ŶŽƵǀĞĂƵ ĐŽŵŵŝƐƐĂƌŝĂƚ͕ ƵŶĞ ŶŽƵǀĞůůĞ ďŝďůŝŽƚŚğƋƵĞ͕ ƵŶ ŶŽƵǀĞĂƵŐLJŵŶĂƐĞ͕ƵŶŶŽƵǀĞĂƵƉŽƌƚĚĞƉůĂŝƐĂŶĐĞ͙>͛ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞ ĞƚĞŶƉĂƌƟĐƵůŝĞƌĐĞůůĞĚĞů͛ŚĂďŝƚĂƚŶŽƵǀĞĂƵĞƐƚƚƌğƐĚŝīĠƌĞŶƚĞĚĞ l’architecture des grands blocs anciens. Nous proposons une ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞĚƵŐƌĂŶĚǀĞƌƐůĞƉĞƟƚ͕ƋƵŝŝŶĐŽƌƉŽƌĞĚĞƐƚĞƌƌĂƐƐĞƐ͕ des appartements plus luxueux sur les toits. ƵũŽƵƌĚ͛ŚƵŝůĂDŝŶĂĂůĞƐŵġŵĞƐĚƌŽŝƚƐĞƚƋƵĂůŝƚĠĚ͛ƵƌďĂŶŝƐĂƟŽŶ ƋƵĞů͛ŽŶƉĞƵƚƚƌŽƵǀĞƌĂƵĐĞŶƚƌĞǀŝůůĞ͘>ĞƐƚĞŵƉŽƌĂůŝƚĠƐĚLJŶĂŵŝƋƵĞƐ ĚĞůĂǀŝĞƵƌďĂŝŶĞƉĞƵǀĞŶƚƐ͛LJŝŶƐƚĂůůĞƌ͗ůĞƐƚŽƵƌŝƐƚĞƐƚƌĂǀĞƌƐĞŶƚ ŵĂŝŶƚĞŶĂŶƚůĞƋƵĂƌƟĞƌĚĂŶƐůĞƐĞŶƐŶŽƌĚͬƐƵĚĚĞůĂZĂŵďůĂ͕ůĞƐ ŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐůĂƚƌĂǀĞƌƐĞŶƚĞŶĐŽƌĞĚĞƉĂƌƚĞŶƉĂƌƚ͘>ĂŶƵŝƚŶ͛ĞƐƚƉůƵƐ un moment de dangerosité et les fêtes éphémères s’y installent. >ĞƉƌŽďůğŵĞĚĞĐĞƐƋƵĂƌƟĞƌƐĞƐƚůĂƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶŶĠĐĞƐƐĂŝƌĞĚĞ ůĂ ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶ ƐŽĐŝĂůĞ͘ >Ă ƉŝĞƌƌĞ ǀŝĞŶƚ ĂĐĐŽŵƉĂŐŶĞƌ ůĂ ƉĞƌƐŽŶŶĞ͘ >͛ƵƌďĂŶŝƐŵĞǀŝĞŶƚĂĐĐŽŵƉĂŐŶĞƌůĞƐŽĐŝĂů͘

ŶĞǁƉĂƩĞƌŶǁŝƚŚŵŝdžĞĚƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞƐ hŶŶŽƵǀĞĂƵŵŽĚğůĞĂǀĞĐĚĞƐƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞƐŵŝdžƚĞƐ

New housing Nouveaux logements

23


,>DhdZ^,͕ architect, head of planning, Selb (DE)

4

SHRINKING TO DEVELOP BETTER ݛ½͕¥ÙÊÃÖÊّ›½ƒ®ÄãÊ—›‘½®Ä› ^Ğůď ŝƐ Ă 'ĞƌŵĂŶ ƚŽǁŶ ŝŶ ŶŽƌƚŚͲĞĂƐƚ ĂǀĂƌŝĂ ƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ďŽƌĚĞƌǁŝƚŚƚŚĞĨŽƌŵĞƌĂƐƚ'ĞƌŵĂŶLJ͘&ŽƌŵĞƌůLJĂƐŵĂůůǁĞĂǀŝŶŐ centre, it grew through the manufacture of porcelain, an industry ƚŚĂƚŵĂĚĞŝƚǁŽƌůĚͲĨĂŵŽƵƐ͘ƚƚŚĞĞŶĚŽĨƚŚĞϭϵϳϬƐ͕ĂŶƵƌďĂŶ plan designed by Walter Gropius was introduced. Unfortunately, the town was damaged by the crisis in the porcelain industry in ƚŚĞ ŵŝĚͲϭϵϵϬƐ͘ ŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚ ĨĞůů ĂŶĚ ŵĂŶLJ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ŵŽǀĞĚ ŽƵƚ͘ /Ŷ ƚŚĞ ĞĂƌůLJ ϵϬƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ƚŽǁŶ ŚĂĚ Ă ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ϮϬ ϬϬϬ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ŚĂƐ ŶŽǁ ƐŚƌƵŶŬ ƚŽ ŶŽ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ϭϲ ϬϬϬ͘ ^Ğůď ǁĂƐ Ă ƐŝŶŐůĞͲ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌLJƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͕ĂŶĚŵƵĐŚŽĨŝƚƐƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶŚĂƐŵŽǀĞĚĂǁĂLJ ƚŽĮŶĚũŽďƐŝŶĂƌĞĂƐŽĨŚŝŐŚƵƌďĂŶĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƟŽŶ͘dŚĞƌĞŵĂŝŶŝŶŐ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐĐŽŶƐŝƐƚŽĨŽůĚĞƌƉĞŽƉůĞŽƌƉĞŽƉůĞƵŶĂďůĞƚŽŵŽǀĞĨŽƌ one reason or another.

Walter Gropius, master plan, end of 70th tĂůƚĞƌ'ƌŽƉŝƵƐ͕ƉůĂŶŵĂƐƐĞ͕ĮŶĚĞƐĂŶŶĠĞƐϳϬ

ٛò®ãƒ½®Ý®Ä¦㫛ãÊóÄ /ŶϮϬϬϯ͕ĂŶĞǁƵƌďĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞǁĂƐŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐĞĚ ĂŶĚƚŚĞƚŽǁŶŽĨ^ĞůďǁĂƐĐŚŽƐĞŶĂƐĂƚĞƐƚůŽĐĂƟŽŶĨŽƌŶĞǁƚŽŽůƐ ĂŶĚ ŶĞǁ ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĞƐ͘ ůů ƚŚĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ĚŽŵĂŝŶƐ ʹ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ͕ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ͕ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů͕ ƐŽĐŝĂů ʹ ǁĞƌĞ ƚŽ ďĞ ŵĞƌŐĞĚ ǁŝƚŚŝŶ ĂŶŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƚĞĚƉůĂŶ͕ĂŶĚĞǀĞƌLJĐŝƟnjĞŶǁĂƐƚŽďĞŝŶǀŽůǀĞĚŝŶƚŚĞ process. People in the town were afraid that another plan would be imposed on them from outside, without taking their wishes ŝŶƚŽĂĐĐŽƵŶƚ͘dŽƌĞŵŽǀĞƚŚŝƐĐŽŶĐĞƌŶ͕ǁĞůĂƵŶĐŚĞĚĂĐŽŵƉĞƟƟŽŶ for the inhabitants, in which we asked them to express what they ǁĂŶƚĞĚƚŚƌŽƵŐŚǁƌŝƟŶŐ͕ƉŝĐƚƵƌĞƐ͕ƐŽƵŶĚ͕ĂŶĚŵĂŶLJƉĞŽƉůĞƚŽŽŬ part. We then applied the ideas and implemented the winning ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͕ĂƉŽƌĐĞůĂŝŶĐŚĞƐƐďŽĂƌĚŵĞĂƐƵƌŝŶŐϴŵĞƚƌĞƐďLJϴŵĞƚƌĞƐ installed in the middle of an abandoned brewery, which was ƚŚĞĮƌƐƚƐƚĞƉŝŶĂƉƌŽũĞĐƚƚŽĐƌĞĂƚĞĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐƚŚĂƚĐŽƵůĚĚĞǀĞůŽƉ ƌĂƉŝĚůLJďƵƚŝŶĐŽůůĂďŽƌĂƟŽŶǁŝƚŚůŽĐĂůƉĞŽƉůĞ͘KƵƚŽĨƚŚŝƐĐŽůůĂƉƐĞ of the porcelain industry, something new has emerged, new ďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐĞƐŚĂǀĞƐĞƚƵƉƚŚĞƌĞ͕ǁĞŚĂǀĞĞdžƉůŽŝƚĞĚŶĞǁƉŽƚĞŶƟĂů͘ What happened for industry has also happened in housing, ǁŝƚŚ Ă ƌĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌŝŶŐ ƉůĂŶ͘ DĂŶLJ ůŽĐĂů ƉĞŽƉůĞ ůŝǀĞĚ ŝŶ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ ĞĂƌŵĂƌŬĞĚ ĨŽƌ ĚĞŵŽůŝƟŽŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ĂƐŬĞĚ ǁŚLJ ƚŚĞŝƌ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ŝŶ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌǁŚĞŶŽƚŚĞƌƐǁĞƌĞŝŶĞƋƵĂůůLJďĂĚĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶ͘ǀĞƌLJŽŶĞ ǁĂƐŐŝǀĞŶĂŚŽŵĞŝŶĐŽŵƉĞŶƐĂƟŽŶ͘/ŶƚŚĞƐƉĂĐĞŽĨŽŶĞĂŶĚĂ ŚĂůĨ LJĞĂƌƐ͕ ǁĞ ŵŽǀĞĚ ϴϬ ĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐ͕ Ăůů ĂŵŝĐĂďůLJ͘ tĞ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚ ŵŽĚĞƌŶŝƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ƐƚŽĐŬ͘ ŶĚ ƚŚŽƵŐŚ ƚŚŝƐ ŽĨ course means there are too many houses, it is because we are ƚƌLJŝŶŐƚŽĐŽŶǀĞƌƚŽƌƌĞƉůĂĐĞƚŚĞŽŶĞƐŝŶďĂĚĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶ͘

ٛ®Ä¥Êّ®Ä¦㫛‘›Äãك½Ä瑽›çÝ ŶĚ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ƟŵĞ ĂƐ ǁĞ ǁĞƌĞ ĂďĂŶĚŽŶŝŶŐ ƐŽŵĞ ƉĂƌƚƐ ŽĨ the town, it was important to reinforce the central nucleus. We ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƚĞĚ ŶĞǁ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ͕ ƉĂƐƐŝǀĞ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ŚĞĂƚĞĚ with solar and geothermal energy, with a winter garden for each ĚǁĞůůŝŶŐ͕ĂŶĚƚŚĞƌĞǁĞƌĞǁĂŝƟŶŐůŝƐƚƐƚŽŵŽǀĞŝŶŚĞƌĞ͘ůŽŶŐƐŝĚĞ ƚŚŝƐƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͕ŝŶƐƉƌŝŶŐϮϬϭϮǁĞǁŝůůďĞƐƚĂƌƟŶŐĂĨĂŵŝůLJŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ

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,>DhdZ^,͕ ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚĞ͕ĐŚĞĨĚĞů͛ƵƌďĂŶŝƐŵĞ͕^Ğůď;Ϳ

RETRECIR POUR MIEUX SE DEVELOPPER ݛ½͕—›½ƒÖÊّ›½ƒ®Ä›ƒç—›‘½®Ä ^ĞůďĞƐƚƵŶĞǀŝůůĞĂůůĞŵĂŶĚĞĂƵEŽƌĚͲĞƐƚĚĞůĂĂǀŝğƌĞƐĞƉŽƐĂŶƚ Ě͛ĂďŽƌĚĞŶŵĂƌŐĞĚĞů͛ŽƵǀĞƌƚƵƌĞĚĞƐĨƌŽŶƟğƌĞƐăů͛ĂƌƌŝğƌĞĚĞů͛Ğdž Z͘ ŶĐŝĞŶŶĞ ƉĞƟƚĞ ǀŝůůĞ ĚĞ ƟƐƐĞƌĂŶĚƐ͕ ĞůůĞ Ɛ͛ĞƐƚ ĚĠǀĞůŽƉƉĠĞ ă ƉĂƌƟƌ ĚĞ ůĂ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ĚĞ ƉŽƌĐĞůĂŝŶĞ ĚĞǀĞŶĂŶƚ ƵŶĞ ǀŝůůĞ ĚĞ ƌĞŶŽŵŵĠĞ ŵŽŶĚŝĂůĞ ƉŽƵƌ ůĂ ƉŽƌĐĞůĂŝŶĞ͘  ůĂ ĮŶ ĚĞƐ ĂŶŶĠĞƐ ϭϵϳϬƵŶƉůĂŶƵƌďĂŝŶĚĞtĂůƚĞƌ'ƌŽƉŝƵƐĂĠƚĠĞŶƚƌĞƉƌŝƐ͘>ĂǀŝůůĞ fut malheureusement frappée par la crise de l’industrie de ƉŽƌĐĞůĂŝŶĞĂƵŵŝůŝĞƵĚĞƐĂŶŶĠĞƐϭϵϵϬ͘>ĞƐĞŵƉůŽŝƐĚŝŵŝŶƵğƌĞŶƚ ĞƚďĞĂƵĐŽƵƉĚĞŐĞŶƐĚĠŵĠŶĂŐğƌĞŶƚ͘ƵĚĠďƵƚĚĞƐĂŶŶĠĞƐϵϬ͕ ůĂǀŝůůĞĐŽŵƉƚĂŝƚϮϬϬϬϬŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐĞƚĂĐƚƵĞůůĞŵĞŶƚĞůůĞĂƩĞŝŶƚă ƉĞŝŶĞůĞƐϭϲϬϬϬ͘^ĞůďĠƚĂŝƚƵŶĞŵŽŶŽͲƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞĚŽŶƚůĂƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ƉŽƵƌůĂƉůƵƉĂƌƚĂĚĠŵĠŶĂŐĠƉƵŝƐƋƵĞů͛ĞŵƉůŽŝƐĞƚƌŽƵǀĂŝƚĚĂŶƐůĞƐ njŽŶĞƐăĨŽƌƚĞĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƟŽŶƵƌďĂŝŶĞ͘>ĂƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶƌĞƐƚĂŶƚĞĞƐƚ composée de personnes âgées ou d’habitants immobiles.

ĞŵŽůŝƟŽŶŽĨŽďƐŽůĞƚĞĚŝƐƚƌŝĐƚƐ ĠŵŽůŝƟŽŶĚĞƋƵĂƌƟĞƌƐŽďƐŽůğƚĞƐ

ٛ—ÊÄěÙò®›ƒ½ƒò®½½› ŶϮϬϬϯ͕ƵŶŶŽƵǀĞĂƵƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞĚ͛ĂŵĠŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚƵƌďĂŝŶĂĠƚĠ ůĂŶĐĠĞƚůĂǀŝůůĞĚĞ^ĞůďĨƵƚĐŚŽŝƐŝĞĐŽŵŵĞǀŝůůĞƚĞƐƚƉŽƵƌƚƌŽƵǀĞƌ ĚĞƐŽƵƟůƐĞƚĠƚĂďůŝƌĚĞŶŽƵǀĞůůĞƐƐƚƌĂƚĠŐŝĞƐ͘dŽƵƐůĞƐĚŽŵĂŝŶĞƐ ĚĞ ů͛ĠĐŽŶŽŵŝĞ͕ ĚĞ ů͛ŚĂďŝƚĂƚ͕ ĚĞ ů͛ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŶĞŵĞŶƚ Ğƚ ĚƵ ƐŽĐŝĂů ĚĞǀĂŝĞŶƚĨƵƐŝŽŶŶĞƌĚĂŶƐƵŶƉůĂŶĚ͛ŝŶƚĠŐƌĂƟŽŶ͕ĞƚĐŚĂƋƵĞĐŝƚŽLJĞŶ ĚĞǀĂŝƚƉĂƌƟĐŝƉĞƌăĐĞƉƌŽĐĞƐƐƵƐ͘>ĞƐŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐĐƌĂŝŐŶĂŝĞŶƚƋƵ͛ŽŶ ůĞƵƌŝŵƉŽƐĞĚĞŶŽƵǀĞĂƵƵŶƉůĂŶǀĞŶĂŶƚĚĞů͛ĞdžƚĠƌŝĞƵƌƐĂŶƐůĞƐ ƉƌĞŶĚƌĞ ĞŶ ĐŽŵƉƚĞ͘ WŽƵƌ ƌĠƐŽƌďĞƌ ĐĞƩĞ ĐƌĂŝŶƚĞ͕ ŶŽƵƐ ĂǀŽŶƐ ůĂŶĐĠƵŶĐŽŶĐŽƵƌƐƉĂƌŵŝůĞƐĐŝƚŽLJĞŶƐĚĂŶƐůĞƋƵĞůŶŽƵƐůĞƵƌĂǀŽŶƐ ĚĞŵĂŶĚĠĚĞƐ͛ĞdžƉƌŝŵĞƌăƚƌĂǀĞƌƐů͛ĠĐƌŝƚ͕ů͛ŝŵĂŐĞ͕ůĞƐŽŶ͕ĐŽŵŵĞ ŝůƐůĞƐŽƵŚĂŝƚĂŝĞŶƚĞƚďĞĂƵĐŽƵƉŽŶƚƉĂƌƟĐŝƉĠ͘EŽƵƐĂǀŽŶƐĞŶƐƵŝƚĞ ĂƉƉůŝƋƵĠůĞƐŝĚĠĞƐĞƚƌĠĂůŝƐĠůĞƉƌŽũĞƚƉƌĞŵŝĞƌƉƌŝdž͕ƵŶĠĐŚŝƋƵŝĞƌ en porcelaine de 8 mètres sur 8 mètres implanté au milieu d’une ďƌĂƐƐĞƌŝĞ ĂďĂŶĚŽŶŶĠĞ Ğƚ ƋƵŝ Ă ĠƚĠ ůĞ ƉƌĞŵŝĞƌ ƉĂƐ Ě͛ƵŶ ƉƌŽũĞƚ ĚĞ ĐƌĠĂƟŽŶ Ě͛ĂĐƟǀŝƚĠƐ ƋƵŝ ƉŽƵǀĂŝƚ ġƚƌĞ ĚĠǀĞůŽƉƉĠ ƌĂƉŝĚĞŵĞŶƚ ŵĂŝƐĞŶĐŽůůĂďŽƌĂŶƚĂǀĞĐůĞƐĐŝƚŽLJĞŶƐ͘ĞĐĞƚĞīŽŶĚƌĞŵĞŶƚĚĞ ů͛ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĞĚĞůĂƉŽƌĐĞůĂŝŶĞƋƵĞůƋƵĞĐŚŽƐĞĚĞŶŽƵǀĞĂƵĂĠŵĞƌŐĠ͕ ĚĞŶŽƵǀĞůůĞƐĞŶƚƌĞƉƌŝƐĞƐƐ͛LJƐŽŶƚŝŶƐƚĂůůĠĞƐ͕ŶŽƵƐĂǀŽŶƐĞdžƉůŽŝƚĠ ĚĞŶŽƵǀĞůůĞƐƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůŝƚĠƐ͘

EĞǁƵƌďĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚǁŝƚŚƐŚƌŝŶŬŝŶŐĂƌĞĂƐĂŶĚŝŶƚĞŶƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ of districts centres (red) Nouveau développement urbain avec des zones de décroissance ĞƚŝŶƚĞŶƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶĚĞƐĐĞŶƚƌĞƐĚĞƋƵĂƌƟĞƌƐ;ĞŶƌŽƵŐĞͿ

ĞƋƵŝĂĞƵůŝĞƵĂƵŶŝǀĞĂƵĚĞů͛ĂĐƟǀŝƚĠƐ͛ĞƐƚĂƵƐƐŝƌĠĂůŝƐĠĂƵŶŝǀĞĂƵ ĚĞů͛ŚĂďŝƚĂƚĂǀĞĐƵŶƉůĂŶĚĞƌĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂƟŽŶ͘ĞĂƵĐŽƵƉĚ͛ŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ ĠƚĂŝĞŶƚ ĐŽŶĐĞƌŶĠƐ ƉĂƌ ůĞƐ ŝŵŵĞƵďůĞƐ ĚŽŶƚ ůĂ ĚĠŵŽůŝƟŽŶ ĠƚĂŝƚ ƉƌĠǀƵĞ͕ĞƚĚĞŵĂŶĚĂŝĞŶƚƉŽƵƌƋƵŽŝůĞƵƌŝŵŵĞƵďůĞĞŶƉĂƌƟĐƵůŝĞƌ ĂůŽƌƐ ƋƵĞ Ě͛ĂƵƚƌĞƐ ĠƚĂŝĞŶƚ ĞŶ ĂƵƐƐŝ ŵĂƵǀĂŝƐ ĠƚĂƚ͘ ŚĂĐƵŶ Ă ŽďƚĞŶƵƵŶůŽŐĞŵĞŶƚĞŶĐŽŵƉĞŶƐĂƟŽŶ͘ŶƵŶĂŶĞƚĚĞŵŝ͕ŶŽƵƐ ĂǀŽŶƐ ĚĠŵĠŶĂŐĠ ϴϬ ĨĂŵŝůůĞƐ͕ ƚŽƵƐ ă ů͛ĂŵŝĂďůĞ͘ EŽƵƐ ĂǀŽŶƐ ĂƐƐƵƌĠ ůĂ ŵŽĚĞƌŶŝƐĂƟŽŶ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞ ĚĞ ůŽŐĞŵĞŶƚƐ ĞdžŝƐƚĂŶƚƐ͘ ƚ Ɛŝ naturellement il y a trop de logements, c’est que nous essayons ĚĞƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĞƌŽƵƌĞŵƉůĂĐĞƌůĞƐůŽŐĞŵĞŶƚƐĞŶŵĂƵǀĂŝƐĠƚĂƚ͘

ٛĥÊّ›Ù½›ÄÊùƒç‘›Äãك½ ƚ ĞŶ ŵġŵĞ ƚĞŵƉƐ ƋƵĞ ŶŽƵƐ ĂďĂŶĚŽŶŶŝŽŶƐ ĚĞƐ ƉĂƌƟĞƐ ĚĞ ůĂ ǀŝůůĞ͕ŝůĠƚĂŝƚŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚĚĞƌĞŶĨŽƌĐĞƌůĞŶŽLJĂƵĐĞŶƚƌĂů͘EŽƵƐĂǀŽŶƐ

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,>DhdZ^,͕ architect, head of planning, Selb (DE)

ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͕ƐƟůůŝŶƐŝĚĞƚŚĞƚŽǁŶ͕ǁŝƚŚƚŚĞDĂĚƌŝĚͲďĂƐĞĚƵƌŽƉĂŶϵ ǁŝŶŶŝŶŐƚĞĂŵ͘tĞĂƌĞĐƌĞĂƟŶŐĂŶĞǁŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌŚŽŽĚĐĞŶƚƌĞ͕Ă ƉůĂĐĞǁŚĞƌĞĞǀĞƌLJŽŶĞĐĂŶŵĞĞƚ͕ǁŝƚŚĂŵĞĞƟŶŐƌŽŽŵ͕ŐLJŵĂŶĚ ĂƉƌŽũĞĐƚĨŽƌĂĚŝƐƚƌŝĐƚŚĂůůƚŚĂƚŝƐĂůƌĞĂĚLJƵŶĚĞƌĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ͘ tŝƚŚƚŚĞƐĂŵĞƵƌŽƉĂŶϵƚĞĂŵ͕ǁĞŚĂǀĞďƵŝůƚĂŚŽƵƐĞĨŽƌĚĂLJ ŶĂŶŶŝĞƐ͕ƌĞŵĂƌŬĂďůĞĐƌĞĐŚĞĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ͕ĂŶŝŶŶŽǀĂƟǀĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͕ĂŶĚ ĞƋƵĂůůLJ ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟǀĞ ƚŚĞ ŶĞdžƚ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƐ͕ ĂŶ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůLJŽƵƚŚŚŽƐƚĞůĂŶĚĂŶĞǁLJŽƵƚŚĐĞŶƚƌĞ͘ /ŶĂƚŽǁŶƚŚĂƚŝƐĚŝŵŝŶŝƐŚŝŶŐ͕ŝƚŝƐŵŽƌĞŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚƚŽƉĂLJĂƩĞŶƟŽŶ ƚŽ ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ͘ tĞ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞ ƚŚŝƐ ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ďLJ ŐŽŽĚ ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐĞƐ ĂŶĚ͕ ŝŶ ƌĞƚƵƌŶ͕ ƚŽ ŐĞƚ ƚŚĞ ďĞƐƚ ŝĚĞĂƐ ĨŽƌ ŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶ͕ LJŽƵ ŶĞĞĚĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞĐŽŵƉĞƟƟŽŶƐ͘

›ãã®Ä¦ÊÄùÊçã« zŽƵƚŚŝŶǀŽůǀĞŵĞŶƚŝƐŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ͘ŶĚĨŽƌĂƚŽǁŶƚŽƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐLJŽƵ need to introduce an understanding of planning into the schools. dŚĂƚŝƐǁŚLJĞǀĞƌLJLJĞĂƌ/ŐŽŝŶƚŽƚŚĞƐĐŚŽŽůƐŝŶŽƌĚĞƌƚŽĞdžƉůĂŝŶƚŚĞ ƚŽǁŶ͛ƐŝŶƚĞŶƟŽŶƐƚŽƚŚĞLJŽƵŶŐƐƚĞƌƐ͕ĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞƐƚŚĞƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐŽĨƚŚĞ ƉůĂŶƐ͕ŐŝǀĞƚŚĞŵƚŚĞƐĞŶƐĞƚŚĂƚƚŚĞƚŽǁŶŽĨ^ĞůďŝƐĚLJŶĂŵŝĐƐŽ ƚŚĂƚǁŚĞŶŽŶĞĚĂLJƚŚĞLJŚĂǀĞƚŚĞŝƌŽǁŶĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐ͕ƚŚĞLJǁŝůůŬŶŽǁ ƚŚĂƚƚŚĞLJĐĂŶŚĂǀĞĂŐŽŽĚůŝĨĞŚĞƌĞ͕ƚŚĂƚƚŚĞLJĐĂŶĐŽŵĞďĂĐŬĂƚ ĂŶLJƟŵĞĂŶĚǁŝůůŚĂǀĞŐŽŽĚŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐ͘dŚĞĂŝŵŝƐƚŽĞŵďĞĚ the idea in young people’s minds by going into the schools.

New public space Nouvel espace public

New housing Nouveaux logements

26

We are also taking part in Europan 11, because we think that this ĐŽŵƉĞƟƟŽŶŝƐĂƚĞƌƌŝĮĐƉůĂƞŽƌŵ͘&ŽƌĂƚŽǁŶǁŚŝĐŚŚĂĚƉƌŽďůĞŵƐ͕ ĂŶĚƐƟůůŚĂƐ͕ŝƚŝƐĂŶŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƚLJƚŽƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ͕ƚŽďƌĞĂŬŽƵƚŽĨƚŚŝƐ ĚĞƉƌĞƐƐŝŽŶ ďLJ ŵĞĂŶƐ ŽĨ ŶĞǁ ďƵƚ ƌĞĮŶĞĚ ŝĚĞĂƐ ĨŽƌ ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶ͘ ŶĚǁŚĞŶ/ƐĂLJ͞ŐŝǀĞŵĞĂƌĞĐŝƉĞ͟ĂŶĚƚŚŝƐƌĞĐŝƉĞĂĐƚƵĂůůLJŵĂŬĞƐ ŝƚƉŽƐƐŝďůĞƚŽƌĞǀĞƌƐĞƚŚĞĂƚƌŽƉŚLJŽĨĂƚŽǁŶ͕/ŐŝǀĞŝƚĂƚƌLJ͘/ŶŽƌĚĞƌ ƚŽƐƵĐĐĞĞĚ͕LJŽƵŶĞĞĚƚŚĞŝŶǀŽůǀĞŵĞŶƚŽĨŬĞLJŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƐ͕ǁŚŽĂƌĞ ĐŽŵŵŝƩĞĚƚŽŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƟŶŐƚŚĞĐŽŶĐĞƉƚŽĨƵƌďĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͘ ƵƚŽĨĐŽƵƌƐĞLJŽƵĂůƐŽŶĞĞĚƚŽďĞĂďůĞƚŽƌĞůLJŽŶĂůůƚŚĞĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ƉůĂLJĞƌƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ĂŶĚ ƉƵďůŝĐ ƐĞĐƚŽƌƐ͘ /Ĩ LJŽƵ ǁĂŶƚ ƚŽ ƉƵƚ Ă ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ŝŶƚŽ ĂĐƟŽŶ ƋƵŝĐŬůLJ͕ ĂŶĚ ĐĂƌƌLJ Ăůů ƚŚĞ ĐŝƟnjĞŶƐ ǁŝƚŚ LJŽƵ ĞŶƚŚƵƐŝĂƐƟĐĂůůLJ͕ ƌĂƚŚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ũƵƐƚ ĚŽŝŶŐ LJŽƵƌ ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ ƌŽƵŶĚ Ă ƚĂďůĞ͕ƚŚĞŶLJŽƵŶĞĞĚƚŽŵĂŬĞLJŽƵƌƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐǀŝƐŝďůĞĂŶĚŝŶǀŽůǀĞĂůů ƚŚĞŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐŝŶƚŚĞƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ͘^ŽŝŶĐŽŶĐůƵƐŝŽŶ͕ŽŶƚŚĞƋƵĞƐƟŽŶ ŽĨ͞^ŚƌŝŶŬŝŶŐƚŽƌĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉďĞƩĞƌ͍͕͟/ƚŚŝŶŬƚŚĂƚŽŶĞĐĂŶƌĞƐƉŽŶĚ ƉŽƐŝƟǀĞůLJĂŶĚ/ŝŶǀŝƚĞLJŽƵĂůůƚŽ^ĞůďƚŽƐĞĞƚŚĞƚƌƵƚŚŽĨŝƚ͘


,>DhdZ^,͕ ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚĞ͕ĐŚĞĨĚĞů͛ƵƌďĂŶŝƐŵĞ͕^Ğůď;Ϳ

ĚŽŶĐ ŝŵƉůĂŶƚĠ ĚĞ ŶŽƵǀĞĂƵdž ŝŵŵĞƵďůĞƐ͕ ĚĞƐ ŵĂŝƐŽŶƐ ƉĂƐƐŝǀĞƐ͕ ĐŚĂƵīĠƐăů͛ĠŶĞƌŐŝĞƐŽůĂŝƌĞĞƚůĂŐĠŽƚŚĞƌŵŝĞ͕ĂǀĞĐƉŽƵƌĐŚĂƋƵĞ ůŽŐĞŵĞŶƚ ƵŶ ũĂƌĚŝŶ Ě͛ŚŝǀĞƌ͘ ƚ ŝů LJ Ă ĞƵ ĚĞƐ ůŝƐƚĞƐ Ě͛ĂƩĞŶƚĞ ƉŽƵƌ ŽďƚĞŶŝƌ ĚĞƐ ůŽŐĞŵĞŶƚƐ͘ Ŷ ƉĂƌĂůůğůĞ ĚĞ ĐĞ ƉƌŽũĞƚ͕ ŶŽƵƐ ĚĠďƵƚĞƌŽŶƐĂƵƉƌŝŶƚĞŵƉƐϮϬϭϮƵŶƉƌŽũĞƚĚĞůŽŐĞŵĞŶƚƐĨĂŵŝůŝĂƵdž ĞŶĐŽƌĞăů͛ŝŶƚĠƌŝĞƵƌĚĞůĂǀŝůůĞĂǀĞĐů͛ĠƋƵŝƉĞůĂƵƌĠĂƚĞĚ͛ƵƌŽƉĂŶϵ ƋƵŝƌĠƐŝĚĞăDĂĚƌŝĚ͘EŽƵƐĐƌĠŽŶƐƵŶŶŽƵǀĞĂƵĐĞŶƚƌĞĚĞƋƵĂƌƟĞƌ͕ ƵŶƉŽŝŶƚĚĞƌĞŶĐŽŶƚƌĞƉŽƵƌƚŽƵƐ͕ĂǀĞĐƐĂůůĞĚĞƌĠƵŶŝŽŶ͕&ŝƚŶĞƐƐ͕ ĞƚƵŶƉƌŽũĞƚĚĞŵĂŝƐŽŶĐŽŵŵƵŶĞĚĠũăĞŶĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ͘ ǀĞĐůĂŵġŵĞĠƋƵŝƉĞĚ͛ƵƌŽƉĂŶϵ͕ŶŽƵƐĂǀŽŶƐƉƵƌĠĂůŝƐĞƌƵŶĞ maison pour assistantes maternelles. C’est un remarquable ĠƋƵŝƉĞŵĞŶƚ ĚĞ ĐƌğĐŚĞ͕ ƵŶ ƉƌŽũĞƚ ŝŶŶŽǀĂŶƚ ĐŽŵŵĞ ůĞ ƉƌŽĐŚĂŝŶ ƉƌŽũĞƚ ĚĞ ĐĞƐ ŵġŵĞƐ ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚĞƐ͕ ƵŶĞ ĂƵďĞƌŐĞ ĚĞ ũĞƵŶĞƐƐĞ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůĞĞƚƵŶŶŽƵǀĞĂƵĐĞŶƚƌĞƉŽƵƌůĂũĞƵŶĞƐƐĞ͘ ĂŶƐƵŶĞǀŝůůĞĐŽŶĐĞƌŶĠĞƉĂƌůĂĚĠĐƌŽŝƐƐĂŶĐĞŝůĞƐƚƉůƵƐŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ĚĞ ƌĞƐƚĞƌ ĂƩĞŶƟĨ ă ůĂ ƋƵĂůŝƚĠ͘ KŶ ĂĐƋƵŝĞƌƚ ĐĞƩĞ ƋƵĂůŝƚĠ ƉĂƌ ĚĞ ďŽŶƐ ƉƌŽĐĠĚĠƐ ĚĞ ƉůĂŶŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ Ğƚ ĞŶ ƌĞƚŽƵƌ ƉŽƵƌ ĂǀŽŝƌ ůĞƐ meilleures idées pour réaliser, il faut organiser des concours d’architectes

ZĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞĐŝƚLJĐĞŶƚĞƌ͕ƉƌŽũĞĐƚŽĨƐŽĐŝĂůŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ;'ƵƟĠƌƌĞnjͲĞ La Fuente arch. ES) ZĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂƟŽŶĚƵĐĞŶƚƌĞǀŝůůĞ͕ƉƌŽũĞƚĚĞůŽŐĞŵĞŶƚƐƐŽĐŝĂƵdž;'ƵƟĠƌƌĞnjͲ De La Fuente arch. ES)

îݛÙÝçÙ½ƒ¹›çěÝݛ >ĂƉĂƌƟĐŝƉĂƟŽŶĚĞƐũĞƵŶĞƐĞƐƚŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚĞ͘ƚƉŽƵƌĨĂŝƌĞĂǀĂŶĐĞƌ ƵŶĞǀŝůůĞŝůĨĂƵƚŝŶƚƌŽĚƵŝƌĞůĂĐŽŵƉƌĠŚĞŶƐŝŽŶĚĞůĂƉůĂŶŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ ĚĂŶƐůĞƐĠĐŽůĞƐ͛͘ĞƐƚƉŽƵƌƋƵŽŝ͕ĐŚĂƋƵĞĂŶŶĠĞ͕ũĞŵĞƌĞŶĚƐĚĂŶƐ ůĞƐĠĐŽůĞƐĞƚũ͛ĂŝůĂƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƚĠĚ͛ĞdžƉůŝƋƵĞƌĂƵdžũĞƵŶĞƐƋƵĞůůĞƐƐŽŶƚ ůĞƐ ŝŶƚĞŶƟŽŶƐ ĚĞ ůĂ ǀŝůůĞ͕ ĐŽŵŵĞŶƚ ůĂ ƉůĂŶŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞ͕ Ě͛ĂŶĐƌĞƌ ĚĂŶƐ ůĞƵƌƐ ĞƐƉƌŝƚƐ ƋƵĞ ůĂ ǀŝůůĞ ĚĞ ^Ğůď ĞƐƚ ĚLJŶĂŵŝƋƵĞ͘ ƚůŽƌƐƋƵ͛ŝůƐĨŽŶĚĞƌŽŶƚƵŶĞĨĂŵŝůůĞƉůƵƐƚĂƌĚ͕ůĞƵƌĨĂŝƌĞƐĂǀŽŝƌƋƵĞ ů͛ŽŶǀŝƚďŝĞŶŝĐŝ͕ƋƵ͛ŝůƐƉĞƵǀĞŶƚƌĞǀĞŶŝƌăƚŽƵƚŵŽŵĞŶƚĞƚLJĂƵƌŽŶƚ de bonnes chances. Cela doit marquer les esprits, c’est pourquoi nous allons dans les écoles. EŽƵƐ ƉĂƌƟĐŝƉŽŶƐ ĂƵƐƐŝ ă ƵƌŽƉĂŶ ϭϭ ĐĂƌ ŶŽƵƐ ƉĞŶƐŽŶƐ ƋƵĞ ĐĞ ĐŽŶĐŽƵƌƐĞƐƚƵŶĞĨŽƌŵŝĚĂďůĞƉůĂƚĞĨŽƌŵĞ͘WŽƵƌƵŶĞǀŝůůĞƋƵŝĂǀĂŝƚ ĚĞƐƉƌŽďůğŵĞƐ͕ĞƚĞŶĂĞŶĐŽƌĞ͕Đ͛ĞƐƚƵŶĞŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƚĠĚ͛ĂǀĂŶĐĞƌ͕ ĚĞƐŽƌƟƌĚĞĐĞƩĞĚĠƉƌĞƐƐŝŽŶŐƌąĐĞăĚĞƐŝĚĠĞƐĚ͛ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶƚŽƵƚ ĞŶĮŶĞƐƐĞ͘ƚůŽƌƐƋƵĞũĞĚĞŵĂŶĚĞͨĚŽŶŶĞnjŵŽŝƵŶĞƌĞĐĞƩĞͩĞƚ ƋƵ͛ŝůĞƐƚĞŶĞīĞƚƉŽƐƐŝďůĞŐƌąĐĞăĐĞƩĞƌĞĐĞƩĞĚĞĐŽŶƚƌĞƌů͛ĂƚƌŽƉŚŝĞ Ě͛ƵŶĞǀŝůůĞ͕ũĞů͛ĞdžƉĠƌŝŵĞŶƚĞ͘WŽƵƌƌĠƵƐƐŝƌŝůĨĂƵƚůĂƉĂƌƟĐŝƉĂƟŽŶ ĚĞ ƉĞƌƐŽŶŶĞƐ ĐůĠƐ͕ ĞŶŐĂŐĠĞƐ ĚĂŶƐ ů͛ŝŶƚĠŐƌĂƟŽŶ ĚƵ ĐŽŶĐĞƉƚ ĚĞ ĚĠǀĞůŽƉƉĞŵĞŶƚƵƌďĂŝŶ͘DĂŝƐŝůĨĂƵƚĂƵƐƐŝŶĂƚƵƌĞůůĞŵĞŶƚƉŽƵǀŽŝƌ ĐŽŵƉƚĞƌƐƵƌůĞƐĂĐƚĞƵƌƐĚƵƐĞĐƚĞƵƌƉƌŝǀĠĞƚƉƵďůŝĐ͘WŽƵƌůĂƌĂƉŝĚĞ ƌĠĂůŝƐĂƟŽŶ Ě͛ƵŶ ƉƌŽũĞƚ͕ ƉŽƵƌ ĞŵƉŽƌƚĞƌ ƚŽƵƐ ůĞƐ ĐŝƚŽLJĞŶƐ ĚĂŶƐ ƵŶĠůĂŶĚ͛ĞŶƚŚŽƵƐŝĂƐŵĞĞƚŶĞƉĂƐũƵƐƚĞĨĂŝƌĞĚĞůĂƉůĂŶŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ ĂƵƚŽƵƌ Ě͛ƵŶĞ ƚĂďůĞ͕ ŝů ĨĂƵƚ ƉůƵƚƀƚ ƌĞŶĚƌĞ ǀŝƐŝďůĞƐ ĐĞƐ ƉƌŽũĞƚƐ Ğƚ impliquer tous les citoyens dans le processus. En conclusion à ůĂƋƵĞƐƟŽŶͨZĠƚƌĠĐŝƌƉŽƵƌŵŝĞƵdžƐĞƌĞĚĠǀĞůŽƉƉĞƌ͍͕ͩŽŶƉĞƵƚ ƌĠƉŽŶĚƌĞƉŽƐŝƟǀĞŵĞŶƚũĞƉĞŶƐĞĞƚũĞǀŽƵƐŝŶǀŝƚĞƚŽƵƐăǀĞŶŝƌă ^ĞůďƉŽƵƌǀŽƵƐĐŽŶǀĂŝŶĐƌĞ͘

New house for day nannies (up) New youth hostel (down) ƵƌŽƉĂŶϵ;'ƵƟĠƌƌĞnjͲĞ>Ă&ƵĞŶƚĞͬdĂůůĞƌĞϮĂƌĐŚ͘^Ϳ Nouveau centre pour assistantes maternelles (en haut) Nouvelle auberge de jeunesse (en bas) ƵƌŽƉĂŶϵ;'ƵƟĠƌƌĞnjͲĞ>Ă&ƵĞŶƚĞͬdĂůůĞƌĞϮĂƌĐŚ͘^Ϳ

Ϯϳ


D/,>^/<KZ^</͕ architect, XDGA Brussels (BE)

5

TEMPORALITIES OF URBAN PROJECT ƒěó‘½çÝã›Ù®Ä݃‘½ƒù;¥ÙͿ dŚĞůƵƐƚĞƌĂƚ^ĂĐůĂLJŝƐƉĂƌƚŽĨĂŶĂŵďŝƟŽƵƐƉůĂŶƚŽďƵŝůĚĂŶĞǁ metro line around Paris linking the important focal points of ƚŚĞŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƐ͘dŚĞĂŝŵŝƐĐůĞĂƌ͗ƚŽďƵŝůĚĂŶĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞ͞&ƌĞŶĐŚ ^ŝůŝĐŽŶ sĂůůĞLJ͟ ƐŽƵƚŚͲǁĞƐƚ ŽĨ WĂƌŝƐ͕ ĨŽƌŵŝŶŐ Ă ĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƵŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƟĞƐ͕ZΘĂŶĚďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐĞƐ͕ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐĂŶĚƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ͘

ƒóÊʗ›—Ö½ƒ®ÄÖÊÖ罃㛗ó®ã«çÄ®ò›Ùݮ㮛Ý ƒÄ—¥ƒÙýƒÄ—

Saclay, an agricultural land at the door of Paris Saclay, un territoire agricole aux portes de Paris

This area is currently empty, which is why it is easier to build ŚĞƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ŝŶ WĂƌŝƐ͘ dŚŝƐ ĞŵƉƚLJ ĂƌĞĂ ŝŶĐůƵĚĞƐ Ă ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ϭϬƉŽǁĞƌĨƵůĂŶĚŚŝŐŚůLJŵŽƟǀĂƚĞĚĨĂƌŵĞƌƐ͘ŶĚϭϬйŽĨ&ƌĞŶĐŚ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ ŝƐ ĂůƌĞĂĚLJ ůŽĐĂƚĞĚ ŚĞƌĞ͘ &ŽůůŽǁŝŶŐ Ă ĐŽŵƉĞƟƟŽŶ͕ ƚŚĞ ůĂŶĚƐĐĂƉĞ ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚ DŝĐŚĞů ĞƐǀŝŐŶĞ ǁĂƐ ĐŚŽƐĞŶ ƚŽ ŚĞĂĚ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ĚĞƐŝŐŶ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͕ ŝŶ ĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ Ϯ ƵƌďĂŶ ĚĞƐŝŐŶĞƌƐ͗ yĂǀĞĞƌ Ğ 'ĞLJƚĞƌ ;y'Ϳ ĂŶĚ &ůŽƌŝƐ ůŬĞŵĂĚĞ ;&Ϳ͘ DŝĐŚĞů ĞƐǀŝŐŶĞǁŽŶƚŚĞĐŽŵƉĞƟƟŽŶŽŶƚŚĞďĂƐŝƐŽĨĂƉŽǁĞƌĨƵůŝĚĞĂ͗ ƚŽďƵŝůĚƚŚĞƵƌďĂŶƉƌŽũĞĐƚŝŶƌĞůĂƟŽŶƚŽƚŚĞǁŽŽĚĞĚĞĚŐĞŽĨƚŚĞ ^ĂĐůĂLJƉůĂƚĞĂƵ͘dŚĞWůĂƚĞĂƵŝƐĂǁĞůůͲĚĞĮŶĞĚĞŶƟƚLJ͕ĚĞĮŶĞĚďLJ ƚŚĞƌŝǀĞƌďĞĚ͕ǁŝƚŚǁŽŽĚůĂŶĚŽŶƚŚĞĞĚŐĞƐďƵƚŶŽǁŽŽĚůĂŶĚĂƚĂůů within the interior of the Plateau, which is made up of farmland near Paris. The Plateau has no strategic access infrastructures ĂŶĚ͕ ŝŶ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌ͕ Ăƚ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚ͕ ŶŽ ƉƵďůŝĐ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ Ăƚ Ăůů͘ dŚĞ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚŝƐǁŚŽůĞůĂƌŐĞĂƌĞĂŝƐŶŽŵŽƌĞƚŚĂŶϲϬϱϬ͘

ƒ½ƒÄ—Ý‘ƒÖ›ƒÄ—çِƒÄÝãك㛦ù ƚƚŚĞƐĐĂůĞŽĨƚŚĞůĂŶĚ͕ƚŚĞŝŶƐƉŝƌĂƟŽŶĨŽƌƚŚĞůĂŶĚƐĐĂƉĞĚĞƐŝŐŶŝƐ the parks in Washington DC, public spaces that form a necklace, ĐƌĞĂƚĞĚ ŽŶ ƐĞǀĞƌĂů ƟŵĞƐĐĂůĞƐ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĂƌĞ ƚŚĞ ƟŵĞĨƌĂŵĞƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ǁĞ ĂƌĞ ůŽŽŬŝŶŐ Ăƚ ŚĞƌĞ͘ dŚĞ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞ ǁĂƐ ƚŽ ƌĞŝŶĨŽƌĐĞ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶƟŶƵŝƚLJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ƵƌďĂŶ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͕ ďLJ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ĚĞŶƐŝƚLJ ĂůŽŶŐƐŝĚĞ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ďLJ ŝŶĐŽƌƉŽƌĂƟŶŐƚŚĞĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶŽĨƟŵĞ͘dŚĞƌĞŝƐŶŽƉŽŝŶƚƚŚŝŶŬŝŶŐ ĂďŽƵƚďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐĞǀĞƌĂůŵŝůůŝŽŶƐƋƵĂƌĞŵĞƚƌĞƐŝŶŽŶĞŐŽ͘ŶĚƚŚŝƐ ŚĂĚƚŽďĞĚŽŶĞǁŚŝůĞƌĞƚĂŝŶŝŶŐϮϯ͕ϬϬϬŚĂŽĨĨĂƌŵůĂŶĚ͘

The project preserves the natural elements and is backed to the forest on the edges >ĞƉƌŽũĞƚƉƌĠƐĞƌǀĞůĞƐĠůĠŵĞŶƚƐŶĂƚƵƌĞůƐĞƚůĂĨŽƌġƚƋƵŝĐĞŝŶƚƵƌĞůĞƚĞƌƌŝƚŽŝƌĞ

28

KŶ ƚŚĞ ŵĞĚŝƵŵ ƐĐĂůĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐĂŵƉƵƐ͕ ƚŚŝƐ ŝƐ Ă ǀĞƌLJ ĚŝƐƟŶĐƟǀĞ area, where the buildings resemble spaceships, turned inwards. &Žƌ ŽƵƌ ƉĂƌƚ͕ ŚŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ ǁĞ ƐĂǁ ƚŚŝƐ ĐĂŵƉƵƐ ĂƐ Ă ƚŚĞŵĞ ƉĂƌŬ͕ ǁŝƚŚĂůŽƚŽĨŽƌŝŐŝŶĂůĞůĞŵĞŶƚƐ͗ϮŶƵĐůĞĂƌƌĞĂĐƚŽƌƐ͕ĂůĂŬĞŶĞdžƚƚŽ ƚŚĞŶƵĐůĞĂƌƉŽǁĞƌƐƚĂƟŽŶ͕ƚŚĞ^LJŶĐŚƌŽƚƌŽŶ͕ĂŐŝŐĂŶƟĐůĂƐĞƌ͕ĂŶ ĂĞƌŽƉůĂŶĞƚĞƐƚĐĞŶƚƌĞĂŶĚŐĞŶĞƟĐƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚůĂď͙tĞĨŽĐƵƐĞĚŽŶ ƚŚĞƵŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞĂŶĚƚŚĞƚŚŝŶŐƐǁĞǁĞƌĞĐĞƌƚĂŝŶǁĞƌĞ ĐŽŵŝŶŐ͕ĂƌŽƵŶĚϭ͕ϮϬϬ͕ϬϬϬŵϸŽǀĞƌĂϯϬLJĞĂƌƐƉĞƌŝŽĚ͘dŚĞĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚ ǁĞƚŽŽŬǁŝƚŚƚŚĞĐůŝĞŶƚǁĂƐĂƐĨŽůůŽǁƐ͗ǁŚĂƚǁĞĚŽŶ͛ƚǁĂŶƚŝƐĂ ƐĐŝĞŶƟƐƚƐ͛ŐŚĞƩŽ͕ǁĞǁĂŶƚĂƚŽǁŶ͕ƐŽŚŽǁĐĂŶǁĞĐƌĞĂƚĞƐƵĐŚĂ ŵŝdž͍ŶĚǁĞĐĂŵĞƵƉǁŝƚŚĂƐĐĞŶĂƌŝŽŽĨŵŝdžĞĚƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞƐƚŚĂƚ ĐŽƵůĚƌĞĂůůLJďĞĐŽŵĞĂƚŽǁŶŽǀĞƌƟŵĞ͕ŽŶƚŚĞĂƐƐƵŵƉƟŽŶƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ƵŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞ ǁŽƵůĚ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƚĞ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞƐ linked to the cluster, and the other programmes would generate ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞƌĞ ǁŽƵůĚ ďĞ Ă ǁŚŽůĞ ĐŚĂŝŶ ŽĨ ƌĞĂĐƟŽŶƐ͘ tĞ


D/,>^/<KZ^</͕ architecte, XDGA Bruxelles ;Ϳ

TEMPORALITES DU PROJET URBAIN çÄÄÊçò›ƒç‘½çÝã›Ùƒ݃‘½ƒù;¥ÙͿ >ĞůƵƐƚĞƌă^ĂĐůĂLJƐ͛ŝŶƐĐƌŝƚĚĂŶƐůĂŐƌĂŶĚĞĂŵďŝƟŽŶĚĞĨĂŝƌĞƵŶĞ ŶŽƵǀĞůůĞůŝŐŶĞĚĞŵĠƚƌŽĂƵƚŽƵƌĚĞWĂƌŝƐƋƵŝƌĞůŝĞƌĂůĞƐƉŽůĂƌŝƚĠƐ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚĞƐĚĞůĂŵĠƚƌŽƉŽůĞƉĂƌŝƐŝĞŶŶĞ͘>͛ŽďũĞĐƟĨĞƐƚĐůĂŝƌ͗ĨĂŝƌĞ ƵŶĞͨ&ƌĞŶĐŚ^ŝůŝĐŽŶsĂůůĞLJͩĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞĚĂŶƐůĞƐƵĚͲŽƵĞƐƚĚĞWĂƌŝƐ ĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂŶƚƵŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚĠƐ͕ZΘĞƚĞŶƚƌĞƉƌŝƐĞƐ͕ŚĂďŝƚĂƚĞƚƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ͘

çěÖ½ƒ®Ä›Ê®Ý››֛çÖ½››—͛çÄ®ò›ÙÝ®ã›Ý›ã—› ã›Ùك®Ä݃¦Ù®‘ʽ›Ý ĞƩĞnjŽŶĞĞƚĂƵũŽƵƌĚ͛ŚƵŝƵŶǀŝĚĞ͕Đ͛ĞƐƚƉŽƵƌƋƵŽŝŝůĞƐƚƉůƵƐĨĂĐŝůĞĚĞ ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵŝƌĞŝĐŝƋƵ͛ăWĂƌŝƐ͘ĞǀŝĚĞĞƐƚƉĞƵƉůĠĚĞϭϬĂŐƌŝĐƵůƚĞƵƌƐ͕ƚƌğƐ ƉƵŝƐƐĂŶƚƐĞƚƚƌğƐŵŽƟǀĠƐ͘ƚŽŶƚƌŽƵǀĞĚĠũăŝĐŝϭϬйĚĞůĂƌĞĐŚĞƌĐŚĞ ĨƌĂŶĕĂŝƐĞ͘^ƵŝƚĞăƵŶĐŽŶĐŽƵƌƐ͕DŝĐŚĞůĞƐǀŝŐŶĞ͕ƉĂLJƐĂŐŝƐƚĞ͕ĂĠƚĠ ĐŚŽŝƐŝ ĐŽŵŵĞ ŵĂŶĚĂƚĂŝƌĞ ƉŽƵƌ ůĞ ƉƌŽũĞƚ ƵƌďĂŝŶ ĂƐƐŽĐŝĠ ă ĚĞƵdž ƵƌďĂŶŝƐƚĞƐ ͗ yĂǀĞĞƌ Ğ 'ĞLJƚĞƌ ;y'Ϳ Ğƚ &ůŽƌŝƐ ůŬĞŵĂĚĞ ;&Ϳ͘ DŝĐŚĞů ĞƐǀŝŐŶĞ Ă ƌĞŵƉŽƌƚĠ ůĞ ĐŽŶĐŽƵƌƐ ƐƵƌ ůĂ ďĂƐĞ Ě͛ƵŶĞ ŝĚĠĞ ĨŽƌƚĞ͗ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵŝƌĞůĞƉƌŽũĞƚƵƌďĂŝŶĞŶƐ͛ĂƉƉƵLJĂŶƚƐƵƌůĂůŝƐŝğƌĞďŽŝƐĠĞ ĚƵƉůĂƚĞĂƵĚĞ^ĂĐůĂLJ͘>ĞWůĂƚĞĂƵĞƐƚƵŶĞĞŶƟƚĠƚƌğƐůŝƐŝďůĞ͕ƋƵŝĞƐƚ ĚĠĮŶŝĞƉĂƌůĞůŝƚĚĞůĂƌŝǀŝğƌĞĞƚƵŶĞĐĞŝŶƚƵƌĞĚĞĨŽƌġƚƐ͘>͛ŝŶƚĠƌŝĞƵƌ ĚĞĐĞůƵŝͲĐŝĞƐƚĐŽŵƉůğƚĞŵĞŶƚĚĠƉŽƵƌǀƵĚĞĨŽƌġƚƐĞƚĞƐƚĐŽŵƉŽƐĠ de terrains agricoles et ce, très près de Paris. Le Plateau n’a aucun ƌĠƐĞĂƵƐƚƌĂƚĠŐŝƋƵĞĚ͛ĂĐĐğƐĞƚŝůLJĂĞŶƉĂƌƟĐƵůŝĞƌĂƵũŽƵƌĚ͛ŚƵŝƵŶĞ ĂďƐĞŶĐĞƚŽƚĂůĞĚĞƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚƐĞŶĐŽŵŵƵŶ͘>ĂƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚ ĐĞŐƌĂŶĚƚĞƌƌŝƚŽŝƌĞŶ͛ĞƐƚƋƵĞĚĞϲϬϱϬŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ͘

The land is occupied by 10 rich famers and 10% of the French research Le territoire est occupé par 10 riches fermiers et 10% de la recherche française

çěÝãك㛦®›փù݃¦›Ù››ãçِƒ®Ä› A l’échelle du grand territoire, le point de départ pour l’étude est la référence des parcs à Washington, des espaces publics en forme de collier, créés sur plusieurs échelles de temps, qui ƐŽŶƚůĞƐƚĞŵƉŽƌĂůŝƚĠƐĚƵƉƌŽũĞƚƵƌďĂŝŶĚŽŶƚŽŶƉĂƌůĞŝĐŝ͘>͛ĞŶũĞƵ ĠƚĂŝƚ ĚĞ ƌĞŶĨŽƌĐĞƌ ůĂ ĐŽŶƟŶƵŝƚĠ ĚĞ ů͛ƵƌďĂŶŝƐĂƟŽŶ ĞdžŝƐƚĂŶƚĞ͕ ĞŶ ĚĞŶƐŝĮĂŶƚ ĂƵƚŽƵƌ ĚĞƐ ďąƟŵĞŶƚƐ ĞdžŝƐƚĂŶƚƐ͕ ĂǀĞĐ ƵŶĞ ƌĠŇĞdžŝŽŶ sur le temps. Il ne faut pas penser construire quelques millions ĚĞ ŵğƚƌĞƐ ĐĂƌƌĠƐ ĞŶ ƵŶ ƐĞƵů ĐŽƵƉ͘ ƚ ĐĞĐŝ ĚĞǀĂŝƚ ƐĞ ĨĂŝƌĞ ĞŶ ƉƌĠƐĞƌǀĂŶƚϮϯϬϬϬŚĂĚĞƚĞƌƌĂŝŶƐĂŐƌŝĐŽůĞƐ͘ A l’échelle moyenne, celle du campus, c’est un territoire très ƉĂƌƟĐƵůŝĞƌ͕ Žƶ ůĞƐ ďąƟŵĞŶƚƐ ƌĞƐƐĞŵďůĞŶƚ ă ĚĞƐ ǀĂŝƐƐĞĂƵdž ƐƉĂƟĂƵdž͕ ŝŶƚƌŽǀĞƌƟƐ͘ DĂŝƐ ŶŽƵƐ ů͛ĂǀŽŶƐ ĐĞƉĞŶĚĂŶƚ ƌĞŐĂƌĚĠ ĐŽŵŵĞƵŶƉĂƌĐăƚŚğŵĞƐ͕ĂǀĞĐďĞĂƵĐŽƵƉĚ͛ĠůĠŵĞŶƚƐŽƌŝŐŝŶĂƵdž ͗ĚĞƵdžƌĠĂĐƚĞƵƌƐĂƚŽŵŝƋƵĞƐ͕ƵŶůĂĐăĐƀƚĠĚƵĐĞŶƚƌĞĂƚŽŵŝƋƵĞ͕ le Synchrotron, un immense laser, un centre d’essais pour les ĂǀŝŽŶƐ Ğƚ ůĞƐ ŐğŶĞƐ͘ EŽƵƐ ĂǀŽŶƐ ƉƌŝƐ ĞŶ ĐŽŵƉƚĞ ůĞ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞ ƵŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚĂŝƌĞ Ğƚ ůĞƐ ĐŚŽƐĞƐ ĚŽŶƚ ŽŶ ĠƚĂŝƚ ƐƸƌ ƋƵ͛ĞůůĞƐ ĂůůĂŝĞŶƚ ƐĞƌĠĂůŝƐĞƌ͕ƐŽŝƚƋƵĞůƋƵĞƐϭϮϬϬϬϬϬŵϮƐƵƌƵŶĞƉĠƌŝŽĚĞĚĞϯϬ ĂŶƐ͘ >͛ŚLJƉŽƚŚğƐĞ ƋƵ͛ŽŶ Ă ĨĂŝƚĞ ĂǀĞĐ ůĞ ĐůŝĞŶƚ ĠƚĂŝƚ ůĂ ƐƵŝǀĂŶƚĞ ͗ ĐĞƋƵĞŶŽƵƐŶĞƐŽƵŚĂŝƚŽŶƐƉĂƐĐ͛ĞƐƚƵŶŐŚĞƩŽĚĞƐĐŝĞŶƟĮƋƵĞƐ ͖ ŶŽƵƐ ǀŽƵůŽŶƐ ƵŶĞ ǀŝůůĞ͕ ĚŽŶĐ ĐŽŵŵĞŶƚ ĨĂŝƌĞ ĐĞƩĞ ŵŝdžŝƚĠ ͍ ƚ ŶŽƵƐƐŽŵŵĞƐĂƌƌŝǀĠƐăĐĞƐĐĠŶĂƌŝŽĚĞƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞƐŵŝdžƚĞƐƋƵŝ ƉŽƵƌƌĂŝƚ ǀƌĂŝŵĞŶƚ ġƚƌĞ ƵŶĞ ǀŝůůĞ ĚĂŶƐ ůĞ ƚĞŵƉƐ͘ >Ğ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞ ƵŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚĂŝƌĞ ƐĞƌĂ ůĞ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞ ŵŽƚĞƵƌ ƋƵŝ ǀĂ ŐĠŶĠƌĞƌ

The proposal as a set of islands with intense centres around metro ƐƚĂƟŽŶƐ͕ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚďLJĂůŝŶĞĂƌďŽƵůĞǀĂƌĚ >Ğ ƉƌŽũĞƚ ƉƌŽƉŽƐĞ ƵŶ ĞŶƐĞŵďůĞ Ě͛ŠůĞƐ ĂǀĞĐ ĚĞƐ ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ ŝŶƚĞŶƐĞƐ ĂƵƚŽƵƌ Ě͛ƵŶĞƐƚĂƟŽŶĚĞŵĠƚƌŽ͕ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĠĞƐƉĂƌƵŶďŽƵůĞǀĂƌĚůŝŶĠĂŝƌĞ 29


D/,>^/<KZ^</͕ architect, XDGA Brussels (BE)

The cluster is divided in 3 parts composed with mixed programmes >ĞĐůƵƐƚĞƌĞƐƚĚŝǀŝƐĠĞŶƚƌŽŝƐƉĂƌƟĞƐĐŽŵƉŽƐĠĞƐĚĞƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞƐŵŝdžƚĞƐ

ƉƌŽƉŽƐĞĚĐƌĞĂƟŶŐŵĂdžŝŵƵŵĚĞŶƐŝƚLJĂƚƚŚĞůŝŶŬĂŐĞƉŽŝŶƚŽĨĂůů the networks, with the metro, with distances accessible on foot. ŶĚ ƌĂƚŚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ŚĂǀŝŶŐ Ă ƐŝŶŐůĞ ŚƵď͕ ŽƵƌ ĂƌĐŚŝƉĞůĂŐŽ ƐŚŽƵůĚ ŚĂǀĞϯŝƐůĂŶĚƐ͕ǁŝƚŚϯƌĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĂƟǀĞƐƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶƐ͗ƚŚĞ ƐĐŝĞŶƟƐƚƐ ǁŽƌŬŝŶŐ ŽŶ ŶƵĐůĞĂƌ ƉŽǁĞƌ͕ ƚŚĞ ƵŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƟĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ ůĞƐƐ ŵŽŶĞLJďƵƚǁŚŝĐŚǁŽƵůĚďƌŝŶŐƚŚĞĮĞůĚŵŽĚĞůƐĂŶĚĂůůƚŚĞEŽďĞů ƉƌŝnjĞƐ͕ĂŶĚƚŚĞĐŽůĞWŽůLJƚĞĐŚŶŝƋƵĞƚŽƚƌĂŝŶƚŚĞƚŽƉƉŽůŝƟĐŝĂŶƐ͘ ŶĚŝŶƐƚĞĂĚŽĨĂƐŝŶŐůĞŵĞƚƌŽƐƚĂƟŽŶ͕ǁĞŵĂŶĂŐĞĚƚŽŐĞƚϯ͕ŽŶĞ at the centre of each of these islands. From this structure, we linked the central elements of the neighbourhood. As regards the boundaries of these islands, our aim from the start was to ĂǀŽŝĚĐŽŶƟŶƵŽƵƐƵƌďĂŶŝƐĂƟŽŶ͕ĂŶĚƐŽǁĞĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚƌĞĚůŝŶĞƐ at certain places, which would not be crossed.

çِƒÄ®Ý®Ä¦Êò›Ùã®Ã›ãÊÖÙʗ瑛ƒ«ùÙ®— ®Ä«ƒ®ã›—›Äò®ÙÊÄÛÄã ZĂƚŚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ĐŽŵŝŶŐ ƵƉ ǁŝƚŚ ĂŶ ƵƌďĂŶ ĚĞƐŝŐŶ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ĞŶƟƌĞ ϴ km area, we produced a book to guide future designers and ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƐ͕ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ŝĚĞĂ ŽĨ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĮƌƐƚ ŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌŚŽŽĚ ŽƵƌƐĞůǀĞƐ ƐŽ ƚŚĂƚ ŽƚŚĞƌƐ ĐŽƵůĚ ĨŽůůŽǁ ƚŽ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉ Ă ĐŽŚĞƌĞŶƚ whole. We therefore composed the whole design around a grid, based on the grid layout of the nuclear research centre, designed ďLJ ƵŐƵƐƚĞ WĞƌƌĞƚ͘ dŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶŝƐĂƟŽŶ ďĞŐŝŶƐ ǁŝƚŚ ĚĞŶƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ at a point where it already existed, and once the metro comes ŝŶ͕ ǁŝƚŚ ŝƚƐ ϯ ƐƚĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ǁĞ ǁŝůů ŚĂǀĞ Ă ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ ŵŽŵĞŶƚƵŵ towards density. In our book, we include strategies on how to ďƵŝůĚƵƉƚŚŝƐŐƌŝĚŽǀĞƌƟŵĞ͘zŽƵďĞŐŝŶďLJĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐĂŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĐ ůŽĐĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ŝŶ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌ ǁŝƚŚ ƉƌĞͲĮŐƵƌĂƟŽŶ ƉĂƌŬƐ͕ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚǀĞƌLJĞĂƌůLJƚŽƐŚŽǁƚŚĂƚƐŽŵĞƚŚŝŶŐŝƐŐŽŝŶŐŽŶ͕ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞĂƌĞĂŝƐĐŚĂŶŐŝŶŐ͕ƚŚĞŶLJŽƵŝŶƐƚĂůůƉƵďůŝĐĂŵĞŶŝƟĞƐ͘ŶĚƚŚĞ ĂŝŵŝƐƚŚĂƚƚŚŝƐƐŚŽƵůĚďĞĚŽŶĞŽǀĞƌƟŵĞ͕ǁŽƌŬŝŶŐŽŶďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ ĂŶĚǀĞŐĞƚĂƟŽŶ͕ƚŽƉƌŽĚƵĐĞĂŶŝŶŚĂďŝƚĞĚĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͕ĂŚLJďƌŝĚ ƵƌďĂŶĨĂďƌŝĐǁŝƚŚŝŶĂŶŝŶƚĞƌǁĞĂǀŝŶŐŽĨƵƌďĂŶĚĞŶƐŝƚLJĂŶĚŶĂƚƵƌĞ͘

ŶĞǁĐĞŶƚƌĂůďŽƵůĞǀĂƌĚĐŽŶŶĞĐƚƐƚŚĞϯŝƐůĂŶĚƐĂŶĚĐŽŶƐƟƚƵƚĞƐĂƐƉŝŶĞ of public spaces >Ğ ƉƌŽũĞƚ ƉƌŽƉŽƐĞ ƵŶ ĞŶƐĞŵďůĞ Ě͛ŠůĞƐ ĂǀĞĐ ĚĞƐ ĐĞŶƚƌĞƐ ŝŶƚĞŶƐĞƐ ĂƵƚŽƵƌ Ě͛ƵŶĞƐƚĂƟŽŶĚĞŵĠƚƌŽ͕ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĠĞƐƉĂƌƵŶďŽƵůĞǀĂƌĚůŝŶĠĂŝƌĞ

ƚ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ƟŵĞ͕ ŚŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ ǁĞ ƉƌŽƉŽƐĞĚ ůŝŶŬŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĨƵƚƵƌĞ neighbourhoods through a large, linear public space, inspired ďLJƚŚĞǀĞŶƵĞĚĞdĞƌǀƵƌĞŶŝŶƌƵƐƐĞůƐ͕ǁŚŝĐŚƐƚĂƌƚƐŝŶƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ĞŶĚƐ ŝŶ Ă ƉĂƌŬ ĂŶĚ ŝŶĐŽƌƉŽƌĂƚĞƐ ǀĞƌLJ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ĞůĞŵĞŶƚƐ͕ ǀĞƌLJĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƚLJƉŽůŽŐŝĞƐ͕ǁŚŝĐŚŚĂǀĞďĞĞŶŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐĞĚŽǀĞƌƟŵĞ͕ ŝŶ ƐƚĂŐĞƐ͕ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ĂĚĚŝƟŽŶ ŽĨ ŶĞǁ ĨƌĂŐŵĞŶƚƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƵƌƐĞŽĨ ƟŵĞ͘ dŚŝƐ ǁŝůů ĨŽƌŵ Ă ĐŚĂŝŶ ŽĨ ƉƵďůŝĐ ƐƉĂĐĞƐ͘ ^Ž ŽƵƌ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ŝƐ structured around the grid, which makes it possible to establish ŶĞŝŐŚďŽƵƌŚŽŽĚƐ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐŝǀĞůLJ͕ ďƵƚ ĂůƐŽ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ƉƵďůŝĐ transport and a chain of public spaces. tĞǀĞƌLJƋƵŝĐŬůLJďĞŐĂŶƚŚĞĮƌƐƚĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶƐ͕ƚŚĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉƌĞĮŐƵƌĂƟŽŶ ƉĂƌŬƐ͕ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ĮƌƐƚ ďƵƐ ƌŽƵƚĞƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƵƌďĂŶŝƐĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ŐƌĂĚƵĂůůLJ ƚĂŬŝŶŐ ƉůĂĐĞ ďŽƚŚ ŝŶ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ǁŝĚĞƌĂƌĞĂĂŶĚĂƚƚŚĞůŽĐĂůƐĐĂůĞ͘dŚĞƵůƟŵĂƚĞĂŝŵŝƐƚŽĐƌĞĂƚĞĂ ŐĞŶƵŝŶĞƐĐŝĞŶĐĞƚŽǁŶ͕ǁŝƚŚŐŽŽĚĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐƚŽƚŚĞŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƐ͕ ĂŶĚŶŽƚƐŝŵƉůLJĂƌĞƐĞƌǀŽŝƌŽĨƐĐŝĞŶƟƐƚƐŝƐŽůĂƚĞĚĨƌŽŵƚŚĞǁŽƌůĚ͘

ϯϬ


D/,>^/<KZ^</͕ architecte, XDGA Bruxelles ;Ϳ

d’autres programmes liés au cluster, et les autres programmes ǀŽŶƚ ŐĠŶĠƌĞƌ ĚĞƐ ůŽŐĞŵĞŶƚƐ͕ Ğƚ ŝů LJ ĂƵƌĂ ƚŽƵƚĞ ƵŶĞ ĐŚĂŠŶĞ ĚĞ ƌĠĂĐƟŽŶƐ͘EŽƵƐĂǀŽŶƐƉƌŽƉŽƐĠĚĞĚĞŶƐŝĮĞƌĂƵƚĂŶƚƋƵĞƉŽƐƐŝďůĞ͕ ĂƵƉŽŝŶƚƋƵŝůŝĞƚŽƵƐůĞƐƌĠƐĞĂƵdž͕ŽƶǀŽƵƐĂǀĞnjăůĂĨŽŝƐůĞŵĠƚƌŽĞƚ ĚĞƐƋƵĂƌƟĞƌƐĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďůĞƐăƉŝĞĚ͘ƚŶŽƵƐĂǀŽŶƐƉĞŶƐĞƌƚƌŽŝƐŠůĞƐ ĚĂŶƐ ŶŽƚƌĞ ĂƌĐŚŝƉĞů͕ ĂǀĞĐ ƚƌŽŝƐ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶƐ ƌĞƉƌĠƐĞŶƚĂƟǀĞƐ ĚĞ ĐŚĞƌĐŚĞƵƌƐ͗ůĞƐĐŚĞƌĐŚĞƵƌƐůŝĠƐĂƵŶƵĐůĠĂŝƌĞ͕ůĞƐƵŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚĠƐĂǀĞĐ moins de fonds mais qui apportaient les modèles de champs et tous les prix Nobel, et l’école polytechnique pour faire les ŚŽŵŵĞƐĚ͛ĠƚĂƚ͘ƚŶŽƵƐĂǀŽŶƐŽďƚĞŶƵƋƵ͛ĂƵůŝĞƵĚ͛ƵŶĞƐƚĂƟŽŶĚĞ ŵĠƚƌŽŶŽƵƐƉƵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐĞŶĂǀŽŝƌƚƌŽŝƐ͕ƵŶĞĂƵĐĞŶƚƌĞĚĞĐŚĂƋƵĞŠůĞ͘ ƉĂƌƟƌĚĞĐĞƩĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͕ŶŽƵƐĂǀŽŶƐůŝĠůĞƐĠůĠŵĞŶƚƐĐĞŶƚƌĂƵdž ĚƵ ƋƵĂƌƟĞƌ͘ Ŷ ĐĞ ƋƵŝ ĐŽŶĐĞƌŶĞ ůĞƐ ůŝŵŝƚĞƐ Ě͛ĞdžƚĞŶƐŝŽŶ ĚĞ ĐĞƐ ŠůĞƐ͕ĚğƐůĞĚĠƉĂƌƚ͕ŶŽƵƐĂǀŽŶƐƐŽƵŚĂŝƚĠĠǀŝƚĞƌƵŶĞƵƌďĂŶŝƐĂƟŽŶ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĞƚŽŶĂĚŽŶĐĠƚĂďůŝĚĞƐůŝŐŶĞƐƌŽƵŐĞƐăĐĞƌƚĂŝŶƐĞŶĚƌŽŝƚƐ que l’on ne franchit pas.

çِƒÄ®Ý›Ù—ƒÄݽ›ã›ÃÖÝÖÊçÙÖÙʗç®Ù›çÄ î½®›ç«ƒ®ã›«ùÙ®—› WůƵƚƀƚ ƋƵĞ ĚĞ ĚĞƐƐŝŶĞƌ ůĂ njŽŶĞ ĞŶƟğƌĞ ƐƵƌ ϴ ŬŝůŽŵğƚƌĞƐ͕ ŶŽƵƐ ĂǀŽŶƐ ƉƌŽĚƵŝƚ ƵŶ ůŝǀƌĞ ƉŽƵƌ ŐƵŝĚĞƌ ůĞƐ ĨƵƚƵƌĞƐ ƵƌďĂŶŝƐƚĞƐ Ğƚ ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚĞƐ͕ĚĞĨĂĕŽŶăĐĞƋƵĞŶŽƵƐĨĂƐƐŝŽŶƐƵŶƉƌĞŵŝĞƌƋƵĂƌƟĞƌ et eux feraient les autres dans une cohérence d’ensemble. On ĂĚŽŶĐĐŽŵƉŽƐĠůĞƚŽƵƚăƉĂƌƟƌĚ͛ƵŶĞŐƌŝůůĞĞŶƉĂƌƚĂŶƚĚĞĐĞůůĞ du centre de recherche nucléaire, dessiné par Auguste Perret. >͛ƵƌďĂŶŝƐĂƟŽŶĚĞŶƐĞĐŽŵŵĞŶĐĞůăŽƶĞůůĞĞdžŝƐƚĂŝƚĚĠũăĞƚƵŶĞĨŽŝƐ ĂƌƌŝǀĠ ůĞ ŵĠƚƌŽ͕ ŶŽƵƐ ĂƵƌŽŶƐ ƵŶ ĐŽƵƌĂŶƚ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ Ě͛ŝŶƚĞŶƐŝƚĠ͘ ĂŶƐ ŶŽƚƌĞ ůŝǀƌĞ͕ ŶŽƵƐ ĂǀŽŶƐ ĚĠĮŶŝ ĚĞƐ ƐƚƌĂƚĠŐŝĞƐ ƐƵƌ ůĂ ĨĂĕŽŶ Ě͛ƵƌďĂŶŝƐĞƌĐĞƩĞŐƌŝůůĞĚĂŶƐůĞƚĞŵƉƐ͘KŶĐŽŵŵĞŶĐĞăƌĠĂůŝƐĞƌ ă ƋƵĞůƋƵĞƐ ĞŶĚƌŽŝƚƐ ƐƚƌĂƚĠŐŝƋƵĞƐ͕ ĞŶ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůŝĞƌ ĚĞƐ ƉĂƌĐƐ ĚĞ ƉƌĠĮŐƵƌĂƟŽŶ͕ ƉŽƵƌ ŵŽŶƚƌĞƌ ƋƵ͛ŝů ƐĞ ƉĂƐƐĞ ƋƵĞůƋƵĞ ĐŚŽƐĞ͕ ƋƵĞ ůĞƚĞƌƌŝƚŽŝƌĞĠǀŽůƵĞ͕ƉƵŝƐŽŶŝŶƐƚĂůůĞĚĞƐĠƋƵŝƉĞŵĞŶƚƐƉƵďůŝĐƐ͘ƚ ů͛ŽďũĞĐƟĨĞƐƚƋƵĞĐĞůĂƐĞƌĠĂůŝƐĞĚĂŶƐůĞƚĞŵƉƐĞŶƚƌĂǀĂŝůůĂŶƚ ůĞ ďąƟĞƚůĞǀĠŐĠƚĂůƉŽƵƌŽďƚĞŶŝƌƵŶŵŝůŝĞƵŚĂďŝƚĠ͕ƵŶƟƐƐƵƵƌďĂŝŶ ŚLJďƌŝĚĞŽƶǀŝůůĞĚĞŶƐĞĞƚŶĂƚƵƌĞƐ͛ĞŶƚƌĞůĂĐĞŶƚ͘ DĂŝƐƉĂƌĂůůğůĞŵĞŶƚŶŽƵƐĂǀŽŶƐƉƌŽƉŽƐĠĚ͛ĂƌƟĐƵůĞƌůĞƐƋƵĂƌƟĞƌƐ ĂƵƚŽƵƌ Ě͛ƵŶ ŐƌĂŶĚ ĞƐƉĂĐĞ ƉƵďůŝĐ ůŝŶĠĂŝƌĞ͕ ŝŶƐƉŝƌĠ ĚĞ ů͛ǀĞŶƵĞ ĚĞ dĞƌǀƵƌĞŶ ă ƌƵdžĞůůĞƐ ƋƵŝ ĐŽŵŵĞŶĐĞ ĚĂŶƐ ůĂ ǀŝůůĞ Ğƚ ĮŶŝƚ ĚĂŶƐ ƵŶ ƉĂƌĐ͕ Ğƚ ĐŽŵƉŽƌƚĞ ĚĞƐ ĠůĠŵĞŶƚƐ ƚƌğƐ ĚŝīĠƌĞŶƚƐ͕ ĚĞƐ ƚLJƉŽůŽŐŝĞƐƚƌğƐĚŝīĠƌĞŶƚĞƐƋƵŝƐĞƐŽŶƚŝŶƐƚĂůůĠĞƐĚĂŶƐůĞƚĞŵƉƐ͕ ƉĂƌ ĠƚĂƉĞƐ͕ ĂǀĞĐ ů͛ĂũŽƵƚ ĚĞ ŵŽƌĐĞĂƵdž ĂƵ ĨƵƌ Ğƚ ă ŵĞƐƵƌĞ͘  ^ĂĐůĂLJ ĐĞ ďŽƵůĞǀĂƌĚ ǀĂ ĐŽŶƐƟƚƵĞƌ ƵŶĞ ĐŚĂŠŶĞ ĚĞ ůŝĞƵdž ƉƵďůŝĐƐ͘ EŽƚƌĞƉƌŽũĞƚƐ͛ĂƌƟĐƵůĞĂƵƚŽƵƌĚĞůĂŐƌŝůůĞƋƵŝƉĞƌŵĞƚĚĞƌĠĂůŝƐĞƌ ůĞƐ ƋƵĂƌƟĞƌƐ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐŝǀĞŵĞŶƚ ƚŽƵƚ ĞŶ ĠƚĂŶƚ ƌĞůŝĠƐ ĂǀĞĐ ůĞƐ transports en commun et les lieux publics mis en chaînon. Nous ĂǀŽŶƐĐŽŵŵĞŶĐĠƚƌğƐǀŝƚĞůĞƐƉƌĞŵŝğƌĞƐƌĠĂůŝƐĂƟŽŶƐ͕ăŝŶƐƚĂůůĞƌ ůĞƐ ƉĂƌĐƐ ĚĞ ƉƌĠĮŐƵƌĂƟŽŶ͕ ĂǀĞĐ ůĞƐ ƉƌĞŵŝğƌĞƐ ůŝŐŶĞƐ ĚĞ ďƵƐ Ğƚ ů͛ƵƌďĂŶŝƐĂƟŽŶĐŽŶƟŶƵĞŵĂŝƐůŝŵŝƚĠĞƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐŝǀĞŵĞŶƚĞŶƌĞůĂƟŽŶ au territoire d’une part et à l’échelle de proximité. Pour créer à ƚĞƌŵĞ ƵŶĞ ǀƌĂŝĞ ǀŝůůĞ ƐĐŝĞŶĐĞ ďŝĞŶ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĠ ă ůĂ ŵĠƚƌŽƉŽůĞ Ğƚ ŶŽŶƉůƵƐƐŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚƵŶƌĠƐĞƌǀŽŝƌĚĞĐŚĞƌĐŚĞƵƌƐŝƐŽůĠĚƵŵŽŶĚĞ͘

dŚĞ ƉĂƩĞƌŶ ŝƐ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ ŝŶ ƟŵĞ ŝŶƚĞƌǁĞĂǀŝŶŐ ǁŝƚŚ ǀĞŐĞƚĂƟŽŶ ƚŽ ĐŽŵƉŽƐĞ progressively a hybrid milieu >Ğ ŵŽĚğůĞ ĞƐƚ ĚĠǀĞůŽƉƉĠ ĚĂŶƐ ůĞ ƚĞŵƉƐ ĞŶƚƌĞŵġůĂŶƚ ůĂ ǀĠŐĠƚĂƟŽŶ ƉŽƵƌ composer progressivement un milieu hybride

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THEME EUROPAN 12 ADAPTABLE CITY LA VILLE ADAPTABLE This book is published in the context of the conference ƵƌŽƉĂŶϭϭŝŶŽƐůŽ͕ƚŚĞϰͲϱthŽĨEŽǀĞŵďĞƌϮϬϭϭ ĞƩĞĠĚŝƟŽŶĞƐƚƉƵďůŝĠĞƐƵŝƚĞĂƵdžĐŽŶĨĠƌĞŶĐĞƐ ƵƌŽƉĂŶϭϭăKƐůŽ͕ůĞƐϰĞƚϱEŽǀĞŵďƌĞϮϬϭϭ ,ĞĂĚŽĨƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶ ŝƌĞĐƚĞƵƌĚĞůĂƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶ DIDIER REBOIS Secretary general Secrétaire général EUROPAN Editorial secretary ^ĞĐƌĠƚĂŝƌĞĚĞƌĠĚĂĐƟŽŶ FRANÇOISE BONNAT /ŶĐŚĂƌŐĞŽĨƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐhZKWE ŚĂƌŐĠĞĚĞƐƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐhZKWE JULIE MANIERE /ŶĐŚĂƌŐĞŽĨĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶhZKWE ŚĂƌŐĠĞĚĞůĂĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶhZKWE dƌĂŶƐůĂƟŽŶ dƌĂĚƵĐƟŽŶ JOHN CRISP Graphic design ŽŶĐĞƉƟŽŶŐƌĂƉŚŝƋƵĞ DhEZhͬǁǁǁ͘ĂLJƵƚŽ͘Ĩƌ Edited by Edité par EUROPAN La Grande Arche, Pilier Sud ϵϮϬϱϱWĂƌŝƐ>ĂĠĨĞŶƐĞĞĚĞdž France ǁǁǁ͘ĞƵƌŽƉĂŶͲĞƵƌŽƉĞ͘ĐŽŵ 32


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E12 theme  

ADAPTABLE CITY

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