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December 2016 - January 2017, Issue No. 41



Reach thousands of readers every month

your monthly independent free newspaper of Chania

TUI: With easyjet from Berlin to Heraklion and Rhodes Easyjet will carry out TUI flights for holiday programs offered by the tour operator during the summer of 2017 in the German market. Therefore, TUI customers traveling from Berlin to Heraklion, Rhodes and Tenerife in the new season will be served by the British low cost carrier. Furthermore, TUI bought Easyjet seats to Holland for summer 2017. The two companies cooperate already in the flight sector since June while TUI ticket stores offer special charge for bookings of Easyjet’s flights with free baggage.

New flights from Denmark to Chania next summer Danish Air Transport has scheduled three new flights to Chania for summer 2017. • Copenhagen – Chania (from June 30 to October 20/once per week/A320 • Copenhagen – Sitia (from June 14/ once per week/A320) • Karup – Chania (from June 30 to August 11/once per week/A320)

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Offering a selection of local interest articles, interviews, news and views from around the region of Chania and Western Crete

With a local services section, a range of advertisers and pages of free classfieds, Chania Post is an essential resource for anyone living in or just visiting this area

Three new destinations from Chania Airport

Ryanair launched Chania Summer 2017 schedule with 3 new destinations and celebrates 3m customers at Chania Airport


is the Best Affordable and Safe Way to Travel to Chania, Rethymno, Heraklion and to all villages of Southwestern Crete

Do People Really Believe That Santa Claus Isn’t Real? (by Hobson Tarrant)

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I was dining at a pre Christ-

mas event in a local tavern the other day and happened to overhear a nearby table discussing in quite bold terms that they actually believed the existence of Santa Claus to merely be a myth? Of course I can’t be sure that they weren’t sharing a joke, but in these modern times of internet technology and science wizardry I find it hard to comprehend that such a firm and well accepted point of fact should ever be brought into question. I mean, Google Mr S Claus under any pretext and the screen of your receptacle will immediately illuminate such personalised details as his residence in Iceland, how to make contact with him, vis a vis: a note up the chimney, indeed ask any child about his delivery dates, or check out many a festive magazine to be provided in full colour with the intricate details of his preferred manner of dress, the whiteness of his beard and even his particular liking for homemade mince pies. Even the reindeers that pull his sleigh are not only known

by name, but also have songs written about them.... What more proof can we need? I accept well enough that there are always people in this world who like to play the killjoy card and decry what we all know to be true, but it does go against the grain to realise that they in effect, are wanting for us to believe that our very own beloved parents had been telling us ‘porky pies’ for all of those years of childhood. Yes I can understand the sceptics who scoff about ‘coming down the chimney’ when they only have radiator heating, but hey... every specialist supplier has their own tricks of the trade. Then there are those that question how one man and a sleigh can deliver to every child in the world at the same stroke of midnight....? Gosh, even a first grader can tell you about time zones... Midnight in Greenwich is actually two of the clock in Crete. These people must think we’re stupid. So ok, I don’t deny that from time to time we will find imposters lurking in some storefront grotto or trying to finger our wallet on a Christmas

Eve street corner, but sadly that is the world we now live in. I ask you... how many times does Elvis still appear to do his Las Vegas show complete with guitar and white suit, when we know beyond all doubt that in reality he now works in a chip shop in Balham, South London. I do have to say that I find it sad that these “doubting Thomas’s” pretend to actually question that our great Santa Claus is still alive, or worse still, incapable of managing his packaging and delivery empire purely assisted by elves and fairies. Why can’t they, like the majority of right minded folk in the world, accept the fact that the vast wealth of history proven documentation, folklaw and quite frankly, faith, build a case of proof that is beyond all doubt. So yes, sadly I must admit that there have been cases of some folk who have expressed doubts as to the existence of our wonderful Mr S Claus, but they like the round earth society, who still imagine the world to be other than flat and square... (sad as they are)... will in time be expunged of the error of their thinking ways.


Your local free paper by FTP Publications 73, El. Venizelou str., Chania, 73100 Tel. +30 6977 295075 Owner/Publisher: FTP Publlications Web: http://www.chaniapost.eu E-mail: info@chaniapost.eu FB: http://www.facebook.com/chaniapost Twitter: @chaniapost Editors: Pandelis Giaitsis, Elpida “Hope” Katsarakis, Pandelis Spiridakis, Miltiades Markatos, Giannis Venetakis, Giannis Xamonakis, Petros Marinakis, Antonia Tsakirakis., Giorgos Atsalakis, Stavros Tsihlis, Manolis Karpadakis, Katerina Polizou. Advertising:

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CHANIA POST... on the go Read Chania Post wherever you are! ECO friendly paper - Please recycle When you finish reading... give it to a friend Find CHANIA POST at the following points: CHANIA Municipal Market, Airport, Public Bus Central Station, Old Harbour, Municipal Tourist Information Desk PLATANIAS Central Square Infokiosk, Botanical Park KISSAMOS Gramvousa and Balos boats, Elafonissi, Falassarna KANDANOS-SELINO Paleochora Info Desk, Sougia, Kandanos SFAKIA Hora Sfakion Infokiosk, Loutro, Agia Roumeli, ANENDYK boats APOKORONAS Georgioupoli, Kavros, Vamos, Kalyves, Vrysses Also in Chania taxis, Limnoupolis Water Park and in selected cafes, businesses and shops throughout Chania Prefecture.

Live @ Love @ Laugh


Loading ...to be more accurate... It’s the Final Count Down Bros... Eventually, after this leap year. 2016 everbody was yelling that it’s a bad luck & grumby period so as we say between us: SAVED By the Bell... Not the JINGLE BELL ...But The LIFE BELL ! Christmas is the most fairy taile season in Rethymno. THE TRUTH is that you can’t get enough of the decorated stores, roads, squares and even houses illuminating the special night walks... This sense is the best feeling to remember...even in the leap 2016. Hoping for the relief and the better to rise. And you will ask me... So what is it that make Christmas special at Rethymno? Give me a break man ...Let me count the tough, good parts here: is it 4 or 5? 1. The Christmas Carols at Rethymno (especially at the villages ) are outstanding. You cannot often enjoy carols as a Cretan

Cantata. People walking from door to door holding at their hands the cretan lyre and lute. People always enjoy that... 2. These days, farmers in the villages keep an old custom. Especially the older ones they never forget these days to keep the sheep milk and give it to the neighbour. It’s the spirit of giving to the family next to you. That was a tradition based on the family that had more benefits and this is why they helped and offered a ‘’gift’’ to the poorest families. These Are From the Old Days... Nowadays 3. The christmas atmosphere in the centre of Rethymno. The top spot is the Agnostos Square, down at the beach. Young people get selfies, videos with their friends. Families go for their christmas foto and the joy is around people, kids running and drivers hanging out of their windows saying loud ‘’HAPPY CHRISTMAS’’ It’s THE NEIGHBOURHOOD...that makes it special 4. Besides the leap 2016 built us!

Independent! ...we were depending from money, easy life , glorious lifestyle and successfull careers. More Clear, more Definite and CERTAINLY more Free Fighters. We are not depending now, we are creating and finding solutions. And that’s the benefit! 5. Believe and Give your HU MAN space, looooots of space!!! That Y(H)U - MAN that oftens invades in your mind and wants to change it all

Chania Post, 73, El. Venizelou str., Chania Tel. +30 6977295075 http://www.ftp-publications.gr

by Pantelis Spiridakis

Beginning from the small important every day things Always get your faith with you, it always open the road, your own destination Just Faith and damn good effort The rest will shine Besides its coming ...it’s your christmas manger that counts. Make It Worth It Happy Christmas My Chania Posters !!! Pantelis

Materials... Wool, Silk, Cotton The material being used in a carpet determines the final result of the carpet and how it grows old. The most commonly used material is sheep wool, although other materials may also be used. Wool is gathered from the flock of sheep and is used for the pile, warp and weft. Cotton is grown in most carpet producing countries, and is often used in the warp and the threads for the weft. Silk is used in the warp, weft and the pile in more exclusive carpets. The fine threads are gathered from the larvas of the silk butterfly. Dyeing When the yarn for a carpet is spun, the next phase is to colour it. This is a complicated process which demands knowledge and accuracy to achieve good results. For the more exclusive carpets,

coloured with natural dyes. The more simpler carpets often contains a mixture of natural and syntethic dyes. Some natural dyes can be produced fairly easy by collecting shells, from walnuts or pomegranate for example, and make a decoction from these. Other colours are easier to produce in a synthetic way. The colouring can be made in the home or by leaving the yarn to a dye-house. Nomadic and village carpets sometimes show a variation in the colouring,abrash.The reason for this is that the weaver may have not had enough yarns in that certain colour. During the work, a new dye has to be done with the yarn which did not match the previous nuance perfectly. In village and nomadic carpets, with its primitive patterns, this abrash, is not to be considered a defect, more like a reminder about the weavers work conditions. Knots The knot density is of great importance to the carpets durability, but the conditions vary. A nomad carpet woven by thick, handspun yarn is not so close, while an Isfahan or a Nain has to be close to meet its expectations. When the weaving is finished the carpet is cut down from the loom. Later on the pile

is trimmed with a pair of scissors, the fringes are secured and the sides are made stable. Afterwards, the post treatment take place with polishing, washing, drying and eventual repairs. Shapes & sizes The special thing about handmade carpets are, besides their beauty, they are individual. Not only can you find a large variety of patterns, colours and styles, but also a wide range of sizes does also exist. The most common shape on a carpet is the rectangular one which can be found in sizes from for more new s click on 60x40 cm to 600x400 http://cre tepost.gr cm and in some cases even larger. Besides the rectangular carpets there are squared, round, oval and runners. When choosing a carpet for your home, you should keep in mind, that it is of great importance that the size of the carpet is in proportion of the room and the rest of the furnishing. If a carpet is placed beautifully the pattern is brought out and works togehter with the floor and furniture to give the room its special character. Bear in mind also that a handmade carpet should not cover the whole floor. Soraya Handmade Carpet Gallery Theodoros Polyrakis Panagiotis Gatidis

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not very common for people living outside the Orient, except very wealthy people to own an oriental carpet. The classical carpet producing regions were Turkey (Anatolia), Persia (Iran), Caucasus, Afghanistan with their surrounding countries and the western parts of China. From these regions the most exclusive carpets were exported, while the more simple village and nomad carpets stayed in the domestic market. Towards the end of the 19th century the demand for carpets increased in the West and new manufacturing countries were added. The increased production lead to a changing level of the quality both in designs as in materials and the colouring of the wool. The development of the industry resulted to some carpets being manufactured by machines (for example Wilton carpets) but of course the quality of these cannot be compared to the handmade carpets. Today machinespun yarns are used in the production of some handmade carpets, but despite this the traditional handicraft are still used and is very much appreciated. When we talk about oriental carpets today we refer to handmade carpets in an area reaching from Morocco in the west, over to the Balkans (Romania and Bulgaria), Turkey, Iran, Caucasus, Afghan-

India, Tibet, Nepal all the way to the western parts of China. Persian carpets are mostly made in the home where the women often do this for an extra income while handling the household. This is the main reason why Persian carpets are still very cheap in consideration the work behind them. In fact, Persian carpets today, are worth their price in relation to its quality.

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Carpets... All you have to know, but you are “afraid� to ask For hundreds of years it was istan, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, the yarns used are solely

How to stay away from unlicensed “insurers” and avoid insurance fraud Insurance fraud

has risen in recent years, either by people by Stavros Tsihlis pretending to Insurance & Investment Advisor be advisors or agents without a proper license. The authorities even recorded a case of a nonexistent insurance company! According to experts, partly due to the ecock on ws cli r e n e r nomic situation, there .g for mo epost cret

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/ http:/

at bargain prices and persuaded them to sign up with the forged contracts. If it sounds too good to be true it probably isn’t! 3) The “foreign” insurance company Two years ago fraudsters, exploiting the fact the EU allowed insurance companies to operate in all EU member countries without requiring the physical installation of the company in

ian insurer had no representa- has indeed been trained and tion or operation in Greece. is qualified to offer insurance solutions. What do you need to know Anyone practicing without the in order to avoid one of the above requirements is faced above mentioned methods of with a 60.000 Euro fine plus iminsurance fraud prisonment of up to two years. Who is entitled to exercise the profession of the insurance advisor: Under the current law introduced by the Bank of Greece, an insurance advisor has to

I have paid my premium, how do I know if I have cover or not?: Under the relevant legislation introduced last year, anyone wishing to have insurance cov-

carry a professional qualification by the local Chamber of Commerce. In fact, you have the right to ask for these qualifications and it is now obligatory

er has to pay the premium in time and to carry a copy of the insurance contract. For vehicle insurance in particular, the Hellenic Information Centre (HIC) has launched a website through which everyone can check in real time if their insurance plan is valid. (www.hic.gr)

is an increase in all kinds of insurance fraud. These are either recorded as fraudulent claims or cases of unscrupulous scammers who pretend to be insurers. In the case of scammers, the following methods were used, as unraveled by law enforcement agencies in recent years:

each country, created an “insurance firm” pretending to represent a known Bulgarian insurer. They managed to set an entire network in Greece with offices

1) The method of unsettled premiums: Scammers posing as insurers approached mainly elderly people and claiming that a person close to them or a relative owed the premium for their renewal managed to detach large sums of money.

Which insurance companies are authorized to operate in Greece: The insurance firms that are based in Greece or have established a Greek branch are entitled to offer insurance services. Additionally, any insurance firms which are not based in Greece are also able to offer their services as long as they are registered with the Bank of in Athens and started to pro- that the advisor has to present Greece. vide cover to hundreds of cars. this certificate to anyone who Anyone can visit the Bank of After professional associations asks for it! Greece’s website and check and insurance companies con- Furthermore, he/she should whether his/her firm of choice tacted the authorities, it was certified by the Bank of Greece. is indeed authorized to operate proven that the specific Bulgar- This will ensure that the person legally in Greece.

2) The fake insurance policies A second method of insurance fraud has to do with fake insurance policies that individuals had issued. They then approached a large circle of people offering insurance plans

Thinking of Crete from a far, far away place As

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Christmas approaches this year I find myself visiting a far, far away place in by Yannis Xamonakis apokoronasnews.gr northern England. And even in a small place like that – about half of the size of Chania in terms of population - the visitor from Crete cannot help but notice that life here is much, much easier. Public services that exist to serve the needs of the customer, a mind boggling choice of goods available, a good -albeit pricey- transport service that takes you to a bigger town should you wish n o k to experience crushing r s clic re new cretepost.g o m r / fo crowds rushing to comhttp:/ plete their seasonal shopping, good customer services that acknowledge that the retailer is sometimes wrong or that the customer is always right, stores that are open all day every weekday and often through the entire weekend and at night should you want to purchase an aspirin for an unexpected headache or do your entire shopping in the middle of the night. No paperwork, no frustrating waiting for someone to finish

their personal call or cigarette before dealing with your query, no smoking in non smoking areas and not much evidence of selfish parking. The absence of the Cretan sky and the rich blue of the sea, the snow capped mountains on a clear winter day, the chestnut patches of autumn vine on the dark olive green and silver gray hills and the noise of the olive harvest are party compensated for by a warm central heating and leak-proof windows in a well insulated house. And the inevitable thought of why can’t we have them both? The Christmas lights were up early, but not as early as I remembered them in previous years – memory may be playing tricks here - and Christmas markets with all the tinsel and lights to brighten up the cold dark evenings. Nativity scenes with Christmas stories, Christmas miracles and some talk of Brexit or not Brexit and the US election results are entering the discussion but these are not too much of a concern to people of my generation who have

lived through stranger times and remember travelling to and working in the continent before Britain was part of the EU and lived through a time when the world came to the threshold of nuclear annihilation under the leadership of more conventional politicians. My friends are getting ready to take the children to a Christmas show at one of the local theatres and school halls. A choice between Cinderella, Treasure Island and Alice in Wonderland. And a number of amateur productions featuring old favourites like Captain Hook, Father Christmas himself and Scrooge. Thinking about Crete again. A story that would more successfully reflect local reality there would be something more like Groundhog Day, rather than one about compassion, redemption and a Christmas miracle, at a time when Father Christmas, for a growing number of children and families, is a local charity. That would be a completely fictitious story about a country

trapped in a repeating loop of perpetual negotiations over growing debt, fiscal coercion and cuts, after the politicians promise growth and prosperity and the end of austerity. And as the people wake up they relive the same set of bad news and the same terms of another memorandum that is going to be the last. This is of course part of what the country’s lenders have named ‘necessary reforms’, while at the same time there is no sign of pressure for any of the real reforms needed in the country, reforms that will root out corruption and bureaucracy, and policies that will create new jobs. And another question worms its way in my thoughts as an answer to my first one - Could it be that it is some part of the bigger picture which is at fault here, some attitudes or a certain way of accepting or some political decision taken in earlier times be the reason why the citizens of this beautiful part of the world can’t have it all? Happy Christmas

The History of the Hammam

The meaning of “bathhouse” in Arabic is... hammam teristic of the area, If it wasn’t for the Romans

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Our Hammam Story Our expertise comes from years of experience with clients all over the world. Al Hammam reinvented the idea of Hammam in 2009 with a spacious place where you can relive the splendour of that era, located in the center of the old Venetian harbor Chania, very close to the ruins of the old Turkish hammam of the city. Al Hammam baths are infused with the warm and luminous atmosphere that is so charac-

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and Greeks we probably all would still be bathing and showering in the cold. Because it was in fact the invention of the Roman Thermae or hot baths where many of our modern bathing traditions as well as the Hammam or Turkish steam bath find their origins. The Hammam is probably the oldest surviving bath tradition in the world. Its popularity has not faded over time. On the contrary. This ancient steam bath ritual has gained enthusiastic fans in every corner of the world. Constantinople, better known as today’s Istanbul, was the capital of the Roman Byzantium. The Romans had ruled this area for several centuries but around 1450 the Ottomans conquered the city. The Turk Ottomans brought with them their own bathing traditions but encountered the Roman bath habits. They merged these with their own. And thus evolved a whole new cleansing ritual conform the requirements and rules of Islamic religion. The Turks called it Hammam, spreader of warmth.

venated, relaxed, distressed... and recreate the happy... that makes Al Hamsocial ritual of the mam more than just a Hamold Venetian Har- mam. It’s happiness! bor that is currently attracting most What we offer Here at Al Hammam Baths we interest”. Today we’re in 2 believe that happiness can be locations around found in the smallest of things. Greece, from our It is our passion and our misfirst Al Hammam sion to transform your everyin Chania-Crete to day routines into more meanAl Hammam, Ath- ingful experiences. ens, Plaka,100 me- Inspired by ancient routines ters from famous from Asia we designed excluTurkish bath,’ ’Baths sive hamam & spa treat- for more new s click on http://cre of the wind’,’we re- ments with unique tepost.gr vived that authen- products that help you tic Turkish bath, create a moment of peace and under the Acropo- truly enjoy the moment. Lose lis, with all natural yourself in our high-quality organic and tradi- standard hammam facilities lotional treatments, cated in Athens at Plaka and where beauty, well-being, body Chania Crete at the Venecia care and relaxation of the mind Old Harbour. are experienced in harmony. Unlock your beauty, increase With a deep understanding of your confidence and improve individual skin and well-being your life, with traditional Hamneed, we deliver thousands of mam treatments that transservices every year, working form your inside out! one-on-one with amazing reCafé Anatolia sults right along with smiles. Our mission is to provide phys- Reflect, slow down, and seek ical transformation. It’s this peace after your treatments combination of skin improve- among tea& lokum, while you ment and transformation in enjoy the spectacular view of how we make you feel – reju- the old venetian Harbour.

“Pas Me Hellene Barbaros” (All non Greeks are Barbarians) - Aristotle (part 1)

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ous concepts. Meanwhile, I had plunged into a quest for my “Before we ancestral roots so that I could c o m m e n c e acquire a deeper understandthis course, ing of the claim of my professor by Panagiotis let us come to (not to mention that of many Terpandros Zachariou terms with the others whose courses I later fact that we are all Greeks!” attended during my studies of the sanguine-complexioned, English Literature in San Jose middle-aged college profes- State University). sor of philosophy expostulat- I feel both lucky and burdened ed as he laid his leather brief- to have had the privilege of case on the desk. I nearly fell equal exposure to two culoff my seat at the absur- tures at the tender and formadity of his statement tive ages of childhood and my n o k since I was the only teens. It was this exposure and r s clic re new cretepost.g o m r / fo Greek national in the the chameleon-like existence http:/ midst of a motley mixture within both the Greek and of nationalities and races American social infrastructures in the classroom. The only that rendered me not only bithing we had in common, I lingual but also bi-cognizant of felt, was that we were all at- these worlds. However, what tending The Introduction an irksome task it is to act as a To Logic course in California conduit between these worlds State University. Nor was his no matter how compelling the announcement wholeheart- need for me to do so. edly accepted by most of my Consequently, on comparing peers who protested – some the timeless Greek values that upholding their Anglo Saxon I had been brought up with to origins and others their Afro those that encapsulated the American or Asian decents. Western World I was living in, However, he was quick to dispel I began to doubt whether the any doubts by applying the “So- West had truly adopted the racratic method”, or the “midwife tionale, the humanitarian aximethod,” as he called it. Bom- oms and the aesthetic values of barded by his torrent of ques- the Greek heritage that its institions, to whose answers every- tutions and professors lay claim body conceded, we all agreed to. Not that my ancient forefathat the banking system, de- thers had formed a perfect somocracy, western music, sci- ciety, but the guidelines they ence, technology and school (perhaps inadvertently) laid were integral parts of our lives. out for posterity aimed towards After further picking our minds the excellence and happiness as to the origins of all these in- that would emerge in a world stitutions, we all realized that governed and dominated by we had been outflanked. The humanistic philosophers. man of letters literally beamed with the satisfaction of having The Western World - A Far Cry revealed to this multi-ethnic from Being Greek congregation that what they Bearing all this in mind, I asked all had in common was their … myself how a “Greek-thinking” “Greekness”. world could produce societTo this day, the apocalyptic ies dominated by populaces words of my professor still ring that are anywhere but on their in my ears, for they were truly a way to human development revelation. For both my class- in a philosophical sense. This mates and myself everything is not to say that I have taken had fallen into place. The Ionic an offence solely against the columns of the White House, West, for the East has more the Corinthian architecture of than its share of barbarism to Wall Street, the Doric pillars boast of, such as its turban-clad of the Lincoln Memorial, the fundamentalists and its dogT-shirts worn by members of ma-smitten societies which stifraternities and sororities bear- fle any humanitarian progress. ing the legend “Greek life”, the A well-studied Greek of today, not so “Latin” alphabet, even who knows that his country has the refrain of a rock piece “The always been at the crossroads Greeks don’t like no freaks” re- of all worlds in this planet, is in vealed everything that I had the position to cynically bark taken for granted regarding the at all directions pretty much tremendous influence of Helle- in the same way the father of nism thousands of miles from all cynics, Diogenes, barked at my birthplace. all human inanities around his That was in 1981. The years tree trunk dwelling. passed and world events accel- How could “Greeks” allow themerated at speeds beyond previ- selves to seek fulfillment solely

in material consumption? How could the beneficiaries of Hellenism replace mind-titillating symposiums and healthy eye to eye human interaction with that of the screen of the TV or the PC? Does the animated, media – bred mentality of the average Westerner in any way reflect the depth of thought and intellectual virility of the Greeks? Contemporary popular culture lacks many of the qualities that distinguished the Greek mind. In this fast-paced, sound-byte-laden, MTV world, for example, people no longer have the interest or attention span necessary for epic narratives, or thought-provoking conversations that require knowledge of context beyond the superficial. From a social perspective, if the ancient Greeks could wander back from the Elysian fields to a present day neighbourhood of a western country, they would surely accuse the inhabitants of “idiocy”. And this because only “idiots” (from the Greek ‘idiotes’ meaning “self-indulging” or “one who keeps to himself”, therefore unsociable) would lock themselves up indoors stupefied by an image-beaming screen. I wonder how they would feel knowing that the members of a given “idiotes’” family share domestic togetherness before this same screen with hardly any words passing between them in the evenings. Shopping malls are poor substitutes for the Agora (Market Place) of Athens, for if a group got together to tackle the perplexities of the cosmos in a shopping center, they would surely be prosecuted for “loitering”. For that matter, even when people do get together in western countries, they mingle in the company of alcohol. I will never forget the keg-of-beer accompanied “Toga Parties” held by the self-proclaimed “Greeks” of American universities. A beer-drinking world in which young people drink themselves to stupor for lack of any other means by which to socialize is a far cry from the social intercourse of the Greeks who held their symposiums with a moderate amount of food, watered-down wine and thought-provoking conversation. Even today it is beyond the grasp of the Modern Greek as to why or how “these northerners” can consume so much alcohol during their holidays. In that, the West resembles the decadence of the Romans

who, unlike the Greeks, never watered down their wine and glutted their food to the point of vomit. Both ancient and modern Greeks are well known for their sense of individuality and their praise of an individual’s freedom as opposed to that of the masses. It was a strong, individualistic sense of self that drove philosophers such as Socrates to their quest for truth, and commanders such as Alexander to their campaigns. One only needs to study modern behavioural patterns to ascertain that refined individuality is non-existent, since modes of behaviour are dictated by the stylistic trends of the same media that stupefies western “idiotai”. Consequently, people respond and react quite predictably to cues without philosophically questioning their validity. The media-stricken masses have been conditioned to predictably respond to “–ism” suffixed words like “sexism”, “racism”, “nationalism”, “chauvinism”, “anti Semitism” and so on, just as heads have been conditioned (especially in the USA) to shake disapprovingly at the sight of one who smokes. The word “terrorism” is a prime example of mass thought control among Americans. At the sheer mention of the cue “terrorism” the average American envisions swarthy-skinned, turban-clad Arabs storming into public areas and wreaking havoc in the name of Allah. In the late 90’s, the Serbs were added to the list of terrorists hosted by the American-run film industry. Amazingly, young Americans who storm into schools and spread death amongst their peers are disassociated from the term “terrorist”, just as is the American military which bombs in the name of American interests. Is it not ironic that the so excessively used suffix “-ism” is of Greek root? Western masses are also conditioned to seek a ‘homogenized’ quality of life. On returning to Greece proper, I couldn’t help observing, tongue-in-cheek, tourists going out of their way to post themselves in magazine-style, postcard-like, film-inspired poses for photographs in idyllic environments with glasses of wine in hand. Adherents of a harlequin romance mentality, they bake in the scorching sun only to return home boasting of a Mediterranean suntan as proof of their holidays... (end of part 1)

An Election Result for the Planet’s Future? (by David Capon)



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words are from the back cover of the album “Songs of Love and Hate’ by the late Leonard Cohen. I have owned that album since 1971 when it was first released and those words often come into mind n o and make me think. s click ost.gr re new ep for mo ttp://cret Leonard Cohen had h been ill for some time and he passed away a few hours before the result of the US election was confirmed. I had a great respect for the music and poetry of Leonard Cohen but in November those few words came back to me but I then replaced the words “locked up’ with “elected”. I know there are many, many people worldwide are fearful for the future because of the president-elect. I do not wish to consider the political and cultural problems that may manifest themselves from January onwards but I am fearful about Donald Trump’s attitude to the environment and his lack of understanding of major worldwide environmental problems and especial-

ly Climate Change. As you may have understood he considers the problem of Climate Change to be a conspiracy (led by the Chinese). You may have heard at about the same time that 2016 is heading towards being the warmest year on records: this is a theme that has been running for many years now. About 30 years ago I led a 10week course on Nature, conservation and basic ecology. I decided that the last session would be a summary and that I would deal with any remaining questions. I then decided that for the 9th week I would discuss the problems with the ozone layer and global warming. There were puzzled faces on the course members when I came to the latter subject as, at the time, the British media were suggesting that we were heading for a new Ice Age. As you will have realized the term ‘global warming’ has been turned into ‘Climate change’. One reason for this is that some parts of the world are not warming, mainly due to localised meteorological changes caused by the warming of other areas, often a very long distance away. ‘Climate change’ also deals with the repetitive new records for events such as tornadoes, typhoons, rainfall, drought, glacier melt etc and the extreme changes

that are happening on every continent. Politically, a major problem in trying to combat Climate Change requires unpopular measures, and governments and their leaders know that there may be civil unrest and that eventually they may lose their positions if the measures are introduced. There is another major problem in that some of the worst effects of climate change occur in the poorest areas of the world – and unfairly these areas are often not those causing the problems. To indicate how sensitive the topic is, I have a ‘contact’ on one of the Working Groups of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) and he is involved with what I consider the most important and interesting of the groups; the group that deals with the raw data, the modeling of that data and the future based on models. I was passed a huge document in 2013 and this was Draft 2 of the reports from that group (the totality, if I remember was over 1,700 pages). Why is the second draft so important? The first draft is returned to the independent scientists to check for errors. The second draft contains the unadulterated reports and is forwarded to the governments and other interested bodies. By the time the final

document was published (in 2014) there were huge changes made because governments (especially) were not happy with the wording, data or models and certainly did not want to be seen to be major contributors to the global problem. So to really understand the situation requires access to the raw data and the models produced from that. However, most people on the planet, who have access to real news reports, will realise that the intensity of global weather events (whether wind, rain, drought, temperature) is increasing and that new records appear seemingly every day or week. If a major political leader (and, of course, many people state the President of the USA is the most important person on the planet) decides there is not an issue then, I am afraid, there is little hope in stopping the acceleration of the problems and more and more people will suffer problems with health and millions will lose their lives, livelihoods and houses. I used the word acceleration deliberately because that is what is happening and we are getting to a situation where the problem cannot be reversed. Let us hope that important environmental issues are not considered to be an unnecessary distraction.

Ryanair launched Chania Summer 2017 schedule with 3 new destinations and celebrates 3m customers at Chania Airport Ryanair,

Greece’s favourite airline launched its Chania summer schedule (2017), with 3 new routes to Billund, Birmingham and Krakow, and more flights to Athens and Manchester, which will deliver 1m customers p.a. and support 750 jobs at Chania Airport. Ryanair also celebrated carrying over 3m customers to/ from Chania since its first flight in 2011, reaffirming its strong commitment to the local economy and tourism industry. Ryanair’s Chania summer 2017 schedule will deliver: • 1 based aircraft ($100m) • 3 new routes to: Billund (1 wkly), Birmingham (2 wkly) & Krakow (1 wkly) • Extra flights to: Athens (4 daily) & Manchester (3 weekly) • 30 routes in total • 1m customers p.a. • 750 on-site jobs*

Greek customers and visitors can choose from 30 Chania routes next summer and look forward to further improvements, as Ryanair continues its “Always Getting Better” programme, which includes a brand new Greek app, more routes, new cabin interiors and even lower fares. In Chania, Chiara Ravara, Ryanair’s Sales and Marketing Manager Eastern Mediterranean, said: “We are pleased to launch our Chania summer 2017 schedule, which includes 3 new routes to Billund, Birmingham and Krakow, and extra flights to Athens and Manchester, with 30 routes in total which will deliver 1m customers p.a. and support 750 jobs at Chania Airport. We are also proud to celebrate carry-

ing over 3m customers to/from Chania since we began operations in 2011, and look forward to demonstrating our ongoing commitment to the local economy and tourism industry in the coming years. Greek customers can look forward to even lower fares when they make advance bookings

for summer 2017, so there’s never been a better time to book a low fare flight on Ryanair and we urge all customers who wish to book their summer 2017 holidays to do so now on the Ryanair.com website or mobile app, where they can avail of the lowest fare air travel to and from Chania.

Are All-Inclusive Hotels a Danger to a Holiday Resorts Economy is no doubt that tourism in Crete is rapidly on the increase and reports of more cruise liners and flight routes for the future only go to show that this upward trend is expected to continue. Yet if you ask a seafront taverna owner, shop assistant or taxi driver how local business is doing they will all describe with genuinely grim faces how the streets are heaving with bodies, but only a few are spending. Ask them why and the answer is always the same.... All-Inclusive Hotels! This new marketing ploy of taking the tourist guests money for everything before they even arrive on the island must be wonderful for the large hotel trade because they not only are guaranteed the number of meals to serve each day, the rooms to be cleaned, the bottles of wine and cases of beer to order, but more importantly they benefit from a marvellous source of high volume positive cash flow. But give credit where it is due.... There is little doubt looking at reports of customer satisfaction that the vast majority of these hotels provide a superb level of service and positive customer experience. After all the guests of the “All–Inclusive” package can bask on the beautiful Mediterranean beaches and enjoy the safe and delightful traditions of the friendly Cretan people, whilst being content in the knowledge that their every

As you can imagine, the Hoteliers body describe their actions in a different light, they have proposed through the media that every tourist night not registered in a hotel is in effect an act of tax evasion, they go further to extrapolate this claim calculating that the ability for tourists to reside other than in a hotel costs the government millions of Euros a year in lost tax revenue. Obviously one can’t doubt that in a vast number of cases this is actually true. In fact drive down any street and you will spy numerous signs advertising rooms, houses and apartments of all manner of hue, the majority of which would never be capable of qualifying for an EOT tourist license. However leaving the legal and tax avoidance aspect to one side perhaps for another day, it has to be recognised that this alternative style of tourist rental offers a totally different holiday experience and benefits from the lack of regimentation that comes with the “All-Inclusive” package. Furthermore and closer to the point, these attract just the sort of casual visitors that a bustling and thriving holiday resort needs to enjoy the considerable charms of more ethnic pleasures of Cretan life and in doing so they spend money where it is so vitally needed in the local tavernas, supermarkets and on trades that exist purely to cater for tourists demands. So to state the obvious... The “All-Inclusive Hotels” probably wouldn’t care too much if their monopoly saw the demise of their

local competitors, after all any true customer needs could soon be added to their package and so become an additional profit source. Equally the Government under the current gruelling pressures from Europe cannot afford to lose out on vast sums of tourist generated taxes by allowing a wealth of unregulated traders to rent out rooms and villas without paying their dues. This issue is much ingrained in tradition, yet unless they are otherwise advised, the government may well side with the Hotel lobby (excuse the pun) and create yet more regulation hurdles to independent renting, these being designed to cripple the market by the easiest for more news click o n http://cre and simplest of methods tepost.gr to achieve a swift solution that channels potential visitors back into the hoteliers pocket. But in my view, for what it is worth, I believe that both alternatives of rental offers for visitors to the island are essential in order to sustain and attract even more visitors to visit Crete for their holidays, then whilst they are here they must be encouraged to spend their money in as many diverse ways as can be found. Then the only additional regulation needed will be to ensure and enforce the proper taxes into the government’s coffers. So yes, it is my opinion that the “All Inclusive Hotels” ARE a danger to a holiday resort’s economy... UNLESS a buoyant private rental market can be sustained to run in tandem.

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need will be catered for without having to spend even a single additional euro. But little do the hotel chains appear to care that by guaranteeing themselves the lion’s share of their guest’s holiday spending budget they have deprived the local trades of their essential income, thus putting into jeopardy the style, charm and character of the island that took several generations to forge and it is these very same features that have ultimately attracted the customers to spend their vacation in the area. Of course you can argue that “All is fair in love and business.” and if direct trading were the only tool used then perhaps the large “AllInclusive Hotels” could be said to have deserved their success. But it is my belief that unseen by many, a political leverage is applied by the Hoteliers as a body, to ensure that the EOT tourist board licenses to private property competitors are kept to a minimum, this being achieved by the stealth of making the conditions of contract untenable for the small independent trader. An example of typical small rental property clauses include: - Swimming pool operators licences - Lifeguard for a two person usage pool - 24 hour reception facility - Guests telephone - Seats in the shower - 50 person first aid kit To name but a few..... (These conditions are taken from a small property license issued 2 years ago).

news & articles

(by Hobson Tarrant)

Αγοράστε online το εισιτήριο σας You can buy online your ticket

www.e-ktel.com email: info@e-ktel.gr Kydonias & Parth. Kelaidi, Chania 73100 Information : 2821 093052 Storehouse : 2821 97497

Kefalogiannidon Str, Rethymnon 74100 Information : 2831 022785 Storehouse : 2831 022659

A symbol for Christmas (by Gil Holton)

O ver

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news & articles

the centuries Greek influence has greatly impacted on how we as a world find ourselves today. This influence is seen in areas such as politics, philosophy, arts and literature, science and sport. It can be traced back to the thriving Greek era 1000 B.C. to 323 B.C and has given the Greeks an important legacy in the history of mankind. The Greek language is one of the oldest languages still in use ton click o news tepost.gr e r o day with many of its /cre for m http:/ words and symbols being widely adopted into other languages. Early Greek literature including the translation of the New Testament from Hebrew into Greek has been influential in the two ways of writing the English word Christmas (the traditional version) or the alternative version Xmas. Scholars agree that the first known use of the alternative version was in the 1st century A.D. by scribes who used XPmas to shorten the word Christmas. In some cases XPmas was shortened to Xmas. The word Xmas became the more popular version in the 16th century as seen in various historical literatures and documents and has become the alternative spelling for Christmas. In the word XPmas the letters X and P are part of the Greek word for Christ namely Χριστός (Christos). Pronounced as Chi and Rho, the two Greek letters were an accepted abbreviation for Christ and were also used to create a monogram called Chi-Rho, a symbol of Christianity. Pagan Greek scribes also used the abbreviation XP to mark a particularly valuable or relevant passage not related to Christianity but derived from the Greek word χρήσιμος (chrísimos) meaning ‘useful’. A rise in popularity of the Chi-Rho as a symbol of Christianity can be attributed to the Roman emperor Constantine the Great (272 A.D. – 337 A.D.). In 312 A.D. Constantine and his army were preparing for the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, a battle that led the way for Constan-

tine to eventually become sole ruler of the Roman Empire. On the day before the battle it is chronicled that Constantine and his soldiers saw what resembled a sign over the sun and that night Christ appeared to the Roman emperor in a dream. He told Constantine to make a replica of the sign he had seen in the sky, which would be his defence in battle. This was interpreted as a promise of victory and Constantine had the Chi-Rho monogram (XP) put on the soldiers’ shields and standards. Constantine won the battle and its success was attributed to divine intervention and this converted him to Christianity. There are modern astronomical and astrological theories that lend some credence to the fact that Constantine’s saw something unusual. One such theory is that in the 312 A.D. an unusual spectacle of a close alignment of three bright celestial objects (planets) known as a syzygy occurred. The other account is that the sign in the sky was a meteorite’s descent through Earth’s atmosphere, that it is believed to have caused the Sirente crater situated in Sirente-Velino Regional Park in Abruzzo, Italy. In 313 A.D., a political agreement between Roman emperors Constantine and Licinius resulted in the Edict of Milan (a proclamation), which made Christianity an officially recognized and tolerated religion in the Roman Empire. In later life Constantine ordered the building of The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the site of Jesus’ tomb in Jerusalem that has become the holiest place in Christendom. He is venerated as a saint by Eastern Orthodox, Byzantine Catholics, and Anglicans. After Constantine, the ChiRho became part of the official Roman imperial insignia. Archaeologists have discovered the Chi-Rho symbol on

the helmets of Roman soldiers and coins and medallions minted during Emperor Constantine’s reign. By the year 350 A.D., the ChiRho began to be used on Christian sarcophagi, frescoes and mosaics. From about 353 A.D. the Greek letters Alpha and Omega were added to some

Chi-Rho monograms. Experts have concluded that the Alpha and Omega relate to a verse in the Bible Book of Revelation Chapter 1 that reads ‘I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending….’ In the UK a Roman Chi-Rho, in fresco, was found at the site of a Roman villa at Lullingstone near the village of Eynsford in Kent. Mosaics have been discovered from the time of the Roman occupation that also depicts the Chi-Rho monogram. In 1963 a mosaic pavement was uncovered at Hinton St. Mary, Dorset. At its center is the Chi-Rho monogram shaped like a medallion. The medallion has a male bust in front of the Chi-Rho symbol, with pomegranates. In Ancient Greek mythology, the pomegranate was known as the fruit of the dead and believed to have sprung from the blood of Adonis. Secondly, it is considered a symbol of Christmas in Greece and of eternal life. Pomegranates continue to be a motif often found in religious decoration especially in Greece. The fruit, broken or bursting open, is a symbol of the fullness of Jesus’ suffering and

resurrection. It is not uncommon to see the Chi-Rho with a wreath around it. This is said to symbolize the victory of the resurrection. The wreath is an early visual representation of the connection between the Crucifixion and triumphal resurrection, as seen in the 4th century sarcophagus of Domitilla in Rome. The use of similar symbols on Roman standards signified the Christian faith. Roman soldiers who had once arrested Jesus and marched him to Calvary now paraded under the banner of the resurrected Christ. The Chi-Rho monogram in various forms also appears in The Book of Kells and can be seen in Catholic churches, catacombs in Italy, the Basilica of the Annunciation in Nazareth, Milan cathedral and numerous museums. The shortened version for Christmas (Xmas) is the subject of controversy with those of Christian faith. Some believers criticize its usage as being offensive as it takes the Christ out of the word Christmas and is considered a pagan spelling. Christians have a point about the writing of Christmas rather than Xmas as it has become associated with the commercialization of Christmas. Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage stated that modern use of Xmas is space saving and is common in advertisements, headlines and banners. In formal writing the word Christmas is considered to be the correct version to use. The word Xmas was not created specifically to detract from Christianity or Christmas it is simply an abbreviation. Understanding how it came to be may alleviate the concerns of some. The history surrounding the word Xmas and related use of the Greek letters X and P is surely another monument to the influence and versatility of the Greeks and their language.

The house of Santa Run opened The house of Santa Run, the

of Chania. The Santa Run is a festive, charitable organization, a parody of the famous Santa Run held in various cities of the world every December whereby we will be walking the city streets of Chania wearing Santa Claus costumes. In this Santa Run, official timing and medals do not exist. In our Santa Run we are all winners because we offer aid to children in need. A distance of

around 3,5 km is being covered in the historic and commercial center of Chania, with the sole purpose of raising money to offer to four institutions that take care of children with health issues: elepap, kifaamea, kifap, horass. Santa Run was started in Chania by a group of friends which turned into a voluntary group and eventually became one of the most pioneering events in

Greece. This event managed to become an important cause for the entire city of Chania. This is the sixth year that Santa Run is taking place in Chania. Up to now we have raised 240.000 euros for the four institutions. This year, we hope to raise 100.000 euros in one year only for the children in need. This year be part of the Santa Run and have fun while offering to the children.

“Alarms and excursions “

The pouring water on my head Disguised the clamour from my bed. I struggled then to understand Why she stood there with in her hand The mangled bits of my alarm. I heard her say with icy calm “This thing was meant to waken you; And not to scare my socks off too!”

tops he’ll creep Every boy and yes girl, he will fine serve Filled joyful stockings found with vim and with verve Go lightly old man and take care as you go House roofs can be slippery when laden with snow In dead of night down the chimney he’ll slide Just leave a mincepie you made him with pride Kiss your mother, your father, for what he has sent Lock for the bike found and things smelling of scent My word how we wonder which house he did know No mistakes from old Santa.. “Delivered to family below!” Oh if only to thank him for his selfless task Perhaps a fine handshake or sip

for mo from hipflask re new Question his motive, http://cretepos sclick on t.gr why would he want to do? Rather sit in with TV, or eating his stew Still yearly he comes out, come rain or come shine Trees see him fly by, dog’s hair raises on spine Unless you are lucky no reindeer you’ll hear Vixen and Rudolph are leading this year What is the music that first comes to mind? Xylophone tinkling softly with singing behind You may know the tune so just sing along do Zoom to the chorus if all else is new.

by Niall Finn ********** ********** **********

“Christmas-Alphabet poem”

An old man named Santa he’ll soon start his run Bringing some presents, for kids festive fun Christmas at night while we’re all asleep Dim lights will not spy him as roof




Looking for British foods?

Look no more, British Food Store in Chania, Crete. We stock a massive array of British foods from Frozen to Ambient products. Biscuits, breads, Extra matured Cheddar, bacon, Black puddings & cakes. Over 600 British items in store. We also stock local Greek produce and everyday items.

Brirtish Market Store, Kokino Chorio, Chania. 282 503 1185

by Hobson Tarrant

@ info@britishmarket.gr

p. 15

I’m due out early, set the clock But then my thoughts all run amok; At intervals throughout the night They wake me up in sudden fright I’ve overslept! I didn’t hear! Could I be deaf now in that ear? Like criminals back at the crime Compulsively I check the time – So often that I get a cramp From switching on the bedside lamp. Beside me, she is breathing deep Each time I struggle back to sleep. Of course she has a peaceful night! She doesn’t have an early flight. When I give up, it’s half past five. Dozy, dopey, half alive I take a healing, soothing shower Forgetting at 10 to the hour That clock was set at last to ring. I didn’t hear a blessed thing –


biggest charity event of Chania, opened,at Hortatson Sq. at the ente of Chania, just beside the Municipal Market. You may go to Santa Run’ house every day and pay your fee registration for the big party on December 26 or buy small Christmas gifts for your family and friends. Monday 26 of December, 13:00, at the 1st Gymnasium

Is this a dagger I see before me? (by Niall Finn)

Leaving the broad quayside

p. 16

news & articles

of Chania’s Venetian harbour behind you and starting up the broader pedestrian zone, Chalidon, that leads up to the centre of the modern town and the bus station, you pass a marble fountain and reach a junction. To your right is a narrow lane full of tourist shops and post-card stands, cafes, restaurants and small hotels. on for more news click To the left a broader r http://cretepost.g road, Sifaka Street, is open to vehicular traffic, with only narrow pavements. At that point, you are standing at what was once the south western corner of Chania’s first fortress wall, erected in the third century BC around the original Hellenistic city. Almost 1000 years later, Byzantine military engineers use the same line to protect Chania from Arab raids and then in the 10th century, when Byzantium again ruled the island, they build higher walls, using whatever stone they could recycle from other buildings. It is this rampart, containing for example numerous millstones, that is on your left as you move eastwards along Sifaka Street. A second, wider and higher pedestrian walkway appears on your right, offering you an excellent view of the Byzantine defences. It is here that Michalis Pachticos has been handcrafting knives for 36 years in the workshop founded by his grandfather back in 1912. Theocharis Pachticos lived in Beyoğlu, known to the Greeks as Pera (“across”) because it was on the European side of the Golden Horn from the rest of Constantinople. Home to most of the city’s then large ethnically Greek population, early 20th-century Beyoğlu

was a thriving, bustling and diverse place. In today’s Istanbul it is still a major centre of the city’s artistic and nightlife but its Greek population has gone and 1912 is a key date. In that year, the first Balkan War saw the young nation state of Greece capture huge territories from the Ottoman Empire, with many Muslim refugees flooding into Turkey. The “Rums”, or Greek-speaking citizens of the Ottoman Empire, became subject to increasing hostility, culminating in the massive population exchanges of 1923. It was a good time to move. Opting for Chania, Theocharis setup his knife making workshop in the newly independent Crete, which became part of Greece in 1913. His son Apostolis took over the business, making knives over an incredible career of no fewer than 68 years. Now it is his grandson, Michalis, who cuts, works, grinds, polishes and engraves knife blades that are as strong as they are beautiful, before fitting them with handles in a range of lovely natural materials. Nor does the family history end there – for some years now, Michalis’s son-in-law has been exercising the same skills. While knives can be made from

a range of metals, the strongest use spring steel, often recycled from the suspension springs of minivans. These are cut into oblongs of the right length, after which the end that will be the point of the final knife is chopped obliquely in the first rough shaping of the “blank”, the original rough piece of metal. Heating the blank over a charcoal brazier makes it possible to hammer the hot metal to the right thickness for the blade, compressing the molecules together and hardening the steel in the process. On the grindstone, the final shape of the blade is achieved and the edge along it created. Carefully, the handle end of the blank is cut to the shape of the final handle. This is necessary because Pachticos knives do not have separate blades and handles, which would make them weak. Instead, the steel of the blade runs right up the whole length of the handle, or most of the length of it if that is preferable for aesthetic reasons. Further grinding removes the last of the pitting from the earlier hammering until the metal is completely smooth. At this point it is heated again and

when red-hot is quenched in a bath of olive oil, in a process known as annealing, giving greater resilience to the steel. The blade is then polished with increasingly fine grades of sandpaper before being engraved with the maker’s name and a dedication or verse. The gleaming, finished knife blade can now be matched to a handle – this, too, is handmade. Three natural materials are used: wood (where the wonderful natural grain of olivewood subtly complements the artisan’s input on the blade), horn and bone. Once the handle has been cut to the precise shape, it is riveted to the blade. In some cases, a brass guard is fitted where the blade and handle join. One final thing. Have you ever wondered why the daggers worn by Cretan men in traditional costume have a flared handle, with two wing-like projections at the far end from the blade? Michalis happily demonstrates the aptness of the design. When the knife is used to stab, the thumb is held securely by these projections, making it much less likely to slip in perspiration or, in times gone by, the running blood of battle.

What happens to food and its microstructure when it is fried? act like channels for water and vapor flow and oil penetration in the food. “As you fry the material, you can see how those pore structures are forming,” Takhar says. “We found that in the beginning of frying, the pore network is very complicated. The waviness in the pathway, the tortuosity, is very complex in the beginning so the material resists oil penetration. But as the frying progresses, those pathways become simpler. Pores open up and are easily accessible from the outside and oil can be taken up.” Takhar also explains that oil was observed distributed across the full thickness of the potato disks. In thicker materials with lots of moisture (like chicken nuggets and French fries), they have observed the oil to remain near the surface as continuous evaporation helps to resist oil penetration. “It is not easy to make a product that has no oil and still provides taste, flavor and texture that consumers enjoy,” he says. “People like that fried flavor and the texture of crispiness outside and softness inside. At the same time you want to reduce the oil content to make the food healthier. With this network study we wanted to see how those networks are formed, because networks are also related to texture.” It’s a

combination of the oil content and air pockets in the pore structure that provide the desired crispy texture. The findings from the potato disks in the study can also be applied to other fried foods, Takhar says. His lab has done previous research on frying using chicken nuggets and French fries. While Takhar and his lab have done mathematical modeling of what happens during frying—just one previous paper outlines over 100 mathematical equations hfottr more news clic p://cre k tepost on involved in the pro.gr cess—he says this study provides some experimental validation as to what is happening inside the food material. “I would say we still only understand about 10 percent of what is taking place during frying,” says Takhar. He and his lab have studied the effects of frying for 10 years. “For an engineer or a food scientist, it’s the ultimate problem because it’s so complicated. “Our aim is to make these products healthier, so that they have the same taste and texture but, at the same time, have lower fat content. That is our long-term goal with our research,” Takhar says. http://www.teatronaturale. com/

p. 17

mography (micro-CT) to gain 3D images of the microstructure of fried potato disks after they had been fried for various lengths of time. During deep frying, as food is immersed in hot oil, water in that food quickly evaporates and steam pressure builds. This pressure affects the microstructure, including the porosity—the number and size of pores in the food—as well as the twistiness of the pathways between those pores (tortuosity). This determines how and how much oil gets taken up into the food. For the study, russet potatoes cut into disks that were 45-mm in diameter and 1.65 mm thick were fried at 190 degrees Celsius for 20, 40, 60, or 80 seconds, freeze dried, and scanned. Takhar says about 986 2D images of the potato samples were collected and then combined to produce 3D images. Using the 3D images, they were able to gain more information about the pores and pore networks in the material. The researchers observed that as frying time increased, pore size increased, allowing for greater uptake of oil. They also saw a correlation between oil content and how the network of pathways between the pores changed throughout the frying time. These pathways

all about olive oil

Researchers conducted a study using X-ray miby Emm. Karpadakis cro-computed tomography to gain 3-D images of the microstructure of fried potato disks after they had been fried for various lengths of time in order to better understand oil uptake and distribution in fried foods. What happens to food and its microstructure when it is fried is a complicated process, both scientifically and mathematically speaking. While consumers want a product that is crispy and tasty, food scientists seek to get a closer glimpse into what exactly is going on inside the food during frying in order to improve products, frying in order to improve products. Particularly, Pawan Takhar, a University of Illinois food scientist, is interested in the food’s uptake of oil during frying and how that oil gets distributed throughout the food. “Through conventional lab techniques we can already see how much oil content is in food material, but we didn’t know how it gets distributed throughout the material,” he says. To understand the distribution of oil better, Takhar and his lab recently conducted a study using X-ray micro-computed to-

…where nature embraces the senses

The only one of its kind in Europe

το μοναδικό στο είδος του στην Ευρώπη


The area was reborn from its own ashes after the great fire of 2003.

undreds of different types of fruit trees, herbs and flowers in a uniquely landscaped area, offering you the opportunity to experience and get to know the blessed island of Crete in the most ideal way.


e are waiting for you in an area of approximately 200,000 m² to discover trees from all over the world, bearing edible fruit, as well as herbs, medicinal and ornamental plants.



n entertaining, educational park, ideal for walks.

Crete… a small continent


he area of the Botanical Park of Crete, 18 km from the city of Chania, at the foot of the White Mountains with its terrain and microclimate becomes a unique paradise for thousands of cold- and warm-climate plants!


he restaurant of the Botanical Park of Crete combines the revival of traditional recipes with cooking methods such a s t he he a rt h, wo o d burning oven, baking plate, etc, and flavours and products from the rich ground of the park such as vegetables, fruits, greens, garden produce, pulses, cheeses and bread... all flavoured with herbs from the park.

18th km of the National Road Chania-Omalos, Chania, Crete, Greece tel. +30 6976 860573

Simple steps for successful radiator installation

Tools & materials required Yoy might need Someone to help you New radiator New radiator brackets 2 adjustable wrenches also known as adjustable spanners Drain tray - a paint roller tray works well Radiator bleed key Bucket to empty your drain tray into Pipe, cable and stud detector Large allen key, if required A drill - opt for a hammer drill (corded or cordless) for masonry walls or, if you’re hanging your radiator on an internal stud wall, a drill driver A masonry bit for your drill Steel wool Cloths An old rag or tissue - to temporarily prevent leaks PTFE tape (also known as Thread Seal tape or Plumber’s Tape) Before you begin Check the visible condition of the wall where the radiator will be hung. If there are any cracks or crumbling plaster it’s worth considering making repairs before you fit your new radiator. Masonry, brickwork or blockwork walls If the wall is constructed from solid masonry – bricks or blocks cemented together with mortar – you’ll have the greatest choice of replacement radiators. These are strong solid walls and so, there will be few limitations on the size and style of radiator you can choose. With the right fixings, larger radiators can be placed on any part of the wall.

Studwork walls If the wall is constructed from plasterboard with a hollow space behind (a drywall or studwork wall), you’ll need to find out where the studs or noggings run – these are the vertical or horizontal pieces of timber that the plasterboard is attached to. A stud detector will help you find these. The studs are the strongest part of your wall, and so your radiator will need to be hung from these. Depending on their location, you may be limited on the shape or size of radiator you can use in the space. How to remove and replace your radiator The easiest way to replace a radiator is to choose a new one with identical pipe centres. However, if your new radiator is a different width from the old one, you’ll need to drain the system and make alterations to the pipework. Doing this is quite a straightforward task – modern plumbing fittings are very easy to work with – and will mean you can choose from a much wider range of designer radiators. Drain the system before you begin and remove flooring and skirting as necessary in order to gain access to the pipework. Step 1. Turn off the heating and isolate the radiator by closing off the valve at either end. Simply turn the manual valve clockwise until it won’t turn any further (if you have a thermostatic valve, turn this through to zero or the off position). If you have a lockshield valve at the other end, pull off the plastic shield and turn the square shaft clockwise with an adjustable spanner. Count and note the number of turns so that you can reset the new radiator at the same flow rate. Step 2. Place a tray beneath the valve to catch the water as it drains out. With both valves turned off, use an adjustable spanner to loosen one of the cap nuts connecting the valve to the radiator. You may need to hold the valve body with a second spanner or pipe wrench

to prevent it turning and buckling the pipe. Step 3. Open the bleed valve at the top of the radiator and loosen the cap nut. When the tray is almost full, re-tighten the cap nut and empty the tray into a bucket. Be ready with cloths to mop up any spillage – the water may be filthy, especially if you have an older system. Repeat until all the water has drained out, and then disconnect the other valve. Step 4. Lift the radiator from its brackets and tilt to drain any remaining water. Get your helper to stuff an old rag or tissue into the outlet at the other end to stop it leaking. If the existing brackets don’t suit the new radiator, unscrew them and fit those supplied with the new radiator. Before drilling into the wall, be sure you’ve checked what’s behind it with a pipe, cable and stud detector (also known as a multi-purpose digital detector). They’re simple to use and will let you know if there are any pipes, cables or studs where you’re planning to work. Simply run it over the surface of the area and it will tell you where hazards lie. Step 5. Remove the valve connectors from the old radiator, using an adjustable wrench or large allen key. Clean the threads with wire wool and wind PTFE tape around the threads about five times to ensure a good seal. Screw the connectors into the new radiator, making sure they are tightened fully, and then hang the radiator. Connect the valves and reset them, allowing the water to enter. You’ll need to open the bleed valve about half a turn so that air can escape; be sure to close it when water starts to appear. How to drain and refill the system All wet central heating systems will be provided with at least one drain cock, a valve that let’s you drain out water, to allow the system to be emptied for maintenance or repairs. Usually, this will be in the return pipe close to the boiler. However, where a solid

ground floor prevents pipes from being run below it, the pipes will drop down from the ceiling to supply ground floor radiators. These sections of pipework will remain full of water when the system is drained from the boiler drain cock and will have their own drain cocks, allowing them to be emptied separately. When refilling the system, make sure all drain cocks and radiator bleed valves are closed before restoring the water supply to the feed-and-expansion cistern in the loft. As water flows into the system, air will become trapped in the radiators, so bleed each by opening the bleed valve about half a turn, starting at the bottom of the house and for more n ews click http://cre working upward. Before tepost.gr turning the pump back on, bleed this too. You will need: Adjustable wrench A length of string and a piece of batten (or any long, narrow piece of timber) Hosepipe Radiator bleed key Step 1. Before draining the system, switch off the boiler, but allow the boiler circulation pump to run for 10 minutes to cool the water. Then turn off the pump and close the stop valve in the pipe supplying the feed-and-expansion cistern – this will prevent the system filling up with water. If there is no valve, place a batten or narrow piece of wood across the top of the cistern and using a piece of string, tie the ball valve arm to it to prevent the valve from opening and letting water flow into the cistern. Push one end of the hose onto the outlet of the drain cock. Run the hose to an outdoor drain. Step 2. Use an adjustable wrench to open the drain cock, but don’t remove the square valve shank completely. When the feed-and-expansion cistern has emptied, work down through the house, opening radiator bleed valves to release any remaining water trapped in the radiators.

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and replace radiators that aren’t working properly and, as well as saving you energy, it will ensure that your home is being heated efficiently. Replacing a new radiator isn’t too difficult a task, but do be sure to follow our instructions to avoid any unnecessary mess as well as any impact to the system.

do it yourself


Pet Safety Tips for Christmas Holidays Keeping

your furry family members safe during the holidays can be a difficult task. There are the ornaments, plants, presents, lights -- oh, and who could forget the Christmas tree (if do you decide to put one up this year)? Let’s take a look at some simple steps that will allow your pets to join in the holiday fun this year, while avoiding any trips to the animal emergency room.


pets & vets

Christmas Tree Tips 1. Place your Christmas tree in a corner, blocked off from your pet’s wanting eyes. If this doesn’t keep your dog or cat from attempting to jump onto the tree, you can on place aluminum foil, a r s click re new cretepost.g o m r o / f plastic drink bottle filled http:/ with knick knacks, or anything else that creates noise on the tree’s bottom limbs to warn you of an impending tree disaster. 2. Tinsel can add a nice sparkling touch to the tree, but make sure you hang it up out of your pet’s reach. Ingesting the tinsel can potentially block their intestines, which is generally only remedied through surgical means. 3. Do not put lights on the tree’s lower branches. Not only can your pet get tangled up in the lights, they are a burning hazard. Additionally, your dog or cat may inadvertently get shocked by biting through the wire. 4. Ornaments need to be kept

out of reach, too. In addition to being a choking and intestinal blockage hazard, shards from broken ornaments may injure paws, mouths, or other parts of your pet’s body. 5. For those buying a live Christmas trees this year, keep the area free and clear of pine needles. While they may not seem dangerous, the needles can puncture your pet’s intestines if ingested.

should be kept in an area your pet cannot reach. 2. Edible tree decorations -whether they be ornaments, or cranberry or popcorn strings -are like time bombs waiting to happen. These goodies are just too enticing and your pet will surely tug at them, knocking down your wonderfully decorated spruce. 3. Burning candles should be placed on high shelves or mantels, out of your pet’s Other Great Holiday Item way -- there’s no telling where Tips a wagging tail may end up. 1. Did you know holly, mistle- Homes with fireplaces should toe, and poinsettia plants are use screens to avoid accidental poisonous to dogs or cats? If burns. you normally use these plants 4. To prevent any accidental to decorate your home, they electrocutions, any exposed

indoor or outdoor wires should be taped to the wall or the sides of the house. 5. When gift wrapping, be sure to keep your pet away. Wrapping paper, string, plastic, or cloth could cause intestinal blockages. Scissors are another hazard, and they should be kept off floors or low tables. We don’t want to ruin all your holiday decorating fun. By all means, go crazy sprucing up your home and wrapping presents. But make sure you do in a way that is safe for your pet(s) this holiday season. PetMD.com

Christmas recipes from Crete Xerotigana

For the dough: 6 - 8 cups of all-purpose flour 2/3 cup of freshly squeezed orange and lemon juice 2/3 cup of olive oil 1 cup + 2 tablespoons of water ---------For the syrup: 1 cup of sugar 1 cup of honey 1 cup of water 1 stick of cinnamon ---------For the topping: 1/4 cup of toasted sesame seeds 1/4 cup of finely chopped walnuts 1 tablespoon of ground cinnamon ---------olive oil for frying


Combine 6 cups of flour and all remaining dough ingredients in a large bowl or plastic tub and knead well for at least 5 minutes. Add more flour as needed to make a smooth firm dough. Let rest for 30 minutes.

center of the spiral and turn to keep the spiral shape. When lightly golden on all sides, remove from the oil with a slotted spoon or spatula.

While the dough is resting, make the syrup. Bring all syrup ingredients to a boil in a large saucepan and boil for 15 minutes. Turn the heat to the lowest possible setting to keep it hot without boiling. Divide the dough into equalsized pieces, about the size of your fist. Roll out each piece of dough using the highest (thinnest) setting on a pasta machine or with a floured rolling pin, into a long strip, about 30-36 inches long and 5 inches wide, sprin-

kling with flour if needed to keep it dry. Cut lengthwise into strips 1 inch wide using a fluted pastry wheel. Each piece of rolled-out dough should make 5 long strips. Loop the long strip of dough loosely around two fingers, then three, then all four, continuing to make a loose spiral shape. Drop into 2 inches of hot oil. The dough is so thin that it will puff as it fries and will tend to uncurl. Place the tines of a fork in the

maining ingredients, mix the rest of the flour, 2 cups sugar and the spices. Create a well in the middle and place the starter there. Start kneading, working progressively and adding the rest of the water in doses until you get a firm yet smooth dough. Continue kneading, either by hand on a floured surface, or in a mixer with a dough hook (you might need to divide the dough mass to fit inside the mixer bowl). Knead til smooth, about 10-12 minutes. Add flour as needed to achieve the desired silky, nonsticky

texture. Place the dough in an oiled bowl, cover with plastic wrap and leave to rise, about 2 hours, until doubled in bulk. You can also divide the dough and knead two or four pieces separately, leaving them, if desired in the same oiled bowl in separate ones.

Let excess oil drip off and drain on paper towels. Do not stack the spirals. Place one spiral at a time in the steaming hot syrup (increase heat if necessary) for 5-6 seconds on each side. Remove with a slotted spoon and place on a serving platter. Combine walnuts and cinnamon. Sprinkle with a little of the walnut and cinnamon mixture, followed by the sesfor more n ews click o ame seeds. n http://cre tepost.gr Layer spirals on top, sprinkling each with the toppings. Tip: How much to sprinkle? At least a good sized pinch on each spiral... of the walnut/cinnamon mixture and of the sesame seeds. Yield: About 60 large spirals Note: The long strips can be cut in half to make smaller spirals, and they can be cut in narrower strips (6 to a rolled out piece of dough) to make more as well.



Make the starter: In a large bowl dissolve the yeast in 1 cup hot water and add 1 cup flour. Mix well, cover the bowl, allowing the yeast to rise for an hour. Add 1 cup sugar, ½ cup oil, the orange juice and 1 cup flour. Mix with a wooden spoon, add more flour if necessary in order to make a soft dough. Knead until smooth. Let sit covered in a warm place until doubled in bulk, it approx. 2 hours. Using a pestle and mortar grind the mastic crystals with 1 tsp sugar. In another bowl, large enough to fit all the re-

Once the dough has risen, punch it down again gently. Depending on whether you’ve kept one big piece or four smaller ones, divide so that there are eight equal balls all together. Shape these into

ropes about 20 cm / 8 inches long. Take two per loaf and shape into a cross, pressing to secure in the middle. Let rest in oiled pans, covered with a kitchen towel, until doubled in bulk, about 1 hour or so. Press a whole walnut into the middle and bake in a preheated oven at 200ºC / 390ºF. Brush with an egg wash and sprinkle with sesame seeds. Bake til golden, about 40 minutes. Cool on a wire rack and serve. Wrapped well in cling film, the breads will last for about a week. Or, wrap well and freeze.

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7g (0.25oz) beer yeast 3-4 cups hot water 2 ½ kilos (5.5lbs) flour used for bread (approx. 20 cups) 3 cups plus 1tsp sugar 1 cup extra virgin olive oil 1 cup fresh orange juice 1 tsp mastic crystals 1 tbsp ground cinnamon 1 tbsp ground coriander 1 tbsp ground fennel seeds 4 walnuts, in their shell 1 large egg, slightly beaten with 2 tbsp water 1 ½ cup sesame seeds mixed with ¼ cup sugar

food & wine


Alcohol advice for parents this Christmas D uring


health & nutrition

the festive party season managing the combination of young by Miltiades Markatos people and alcohol can be Pneumonologist tricky, which is why we’d like to offer some advice. Christmas can be a time when there is more alcohol around; children may see family members drinking more than at other times in the year or want to try some alcohol themselves. An alcohol free childhood is the healthiest and best option but explaining this to your child can be difficult. At this time of year it’s important that parents try to minimise the impact alcohol can on r s click re new cretepost.g o m r have on children. / fo http:/ Nearly half of 10-14 year olds say they have seen their parents drunk. This makes the festive period a particularly important time as past studies have revealed that there is a clear link between parents’ drinking and their kids’ relationship with alcohol. There are clear merits to setting and enforcing collective ground rules for young people when it comes to alcohol at Christmas. It’s important for them to know you’ll always support them but that there are consequences for breaking the rules you’ve agreed. While you might have set ground rules within your own home, friends and extended family members may not be aware of these when planning their Christmas parties. It’s therefore a good idea to agree a set of alcohol-relat-

ed ground rules in advance. Making a call to the party host to discuss the issue, even if they’re a friend or family member, may seem a little awkward. However, many parents discover their concerns are shared with others at the party. If that’s the case, they’re likely to be relieved that someone thought to broach the issue and decide on some ground rules. Along with the potential festive increase in alcohol consumption your children may ask more questions about alcohol. Typical questions might include, “what does alcohol taste like?” or “can I try a sip of your drink?” Providing clear and open answers can help earn your child’s trust, even if the overall message is that they aren’t allowed to try any alcohol. For example, some parents choose to describe the taste of alcohol by likening it to sour or bitter tastes they’ve experienced in the past. It’s also worth mentioning that young people’s taste buds change as they grow older, and that’s why alcohol tastes better for adults than it does for children. If you choose to say ‘no’ to letting your child try an alcoholic drink, there are ways to help them understand why. It might be helpful, for example, to point out that their body is still developing and that alcohol can damage a developing body. European countries have clear laws regarding young people and alcohol. If you are under 18 it is illegal to

buy alcohol or have someone else, like a parent, buy it for you. But there’s more to helping your child develop sensible attitudes to alcohol than just helping them understand the law regarding underage drinking. If your child asks you to take alcohol to a party, it’s important that you’re able to communicate the risks without putting them off talking to you about alcohol in the future. It’s not unusual for teenagers to ask to take alcohol to a Christmas party. It is also common for parents to feel uncomfortable about this idea. If this is the case for you then, as a parent, you should feel confident in making it clear that it is unacceptable. There are ways you can respond to such a request without making your child feel like you don’t understand. These include suggesting that your child takes a soft drink instead, so they don’t turn up empty-handed. You could also arm them with responses they can use to deflect any peer pressure to drink or get drunk at the party.

A life changing visit to our pharmacy can make you change the way you see life and put your body and mind in harmony. Have you ever visited a pharmacy to taste health? A different pharmacy in the centre of the old town of Chania is waiting to share with you secrets of well being and longevity. Taste the biolo gical honey, the royal jelly, tea from plants carefully chosen in therapeutic recipes, high concentration and purity juices of pomegranate, cranberry, aloe. Orthomolecular nutrition with suggestions on detox programs and a carefully selected range of supplements, vitamins an gluten free products from all over the world. In the same premises you can find a live homeopathic lab with 6.000 homeopathic remedies in stock and the ability to produce any kind of homeopathic form i.e. pills, granules, solutions etc Evangelia Sakka is the pharmacist in charge who has created that special pharmacy and will be happy to introduce you to that fantastic world but also suggest whatever will be more settable for you. Our philosophy doesn’t stop on food and supplements but we want you to think of your mind and body as well. That’s why we have created next to our pharmacy the Green Care SPA. A SPA that helps to uplift your mind and body with biological face an body treatments, reflexology, reiky, su jok and moxa treatment, Bach flower remedies, homeopathy sessions, bowtech as well as nail therapies. We are waiting for you to restart your life at Daskalogianni 43 - 45, SAKKA Pharmacy www.my-pharmacy.gr / www.greencarespa.gr

While the list of risks children face through drinking alcohol is long, if you discover your child has drunk alcohol without your permission during the Christmas period, the key to a successful response is not to over-react. As a parent, the most important thing is to keep the lines of communication with your children open, and to do this there needs to be a certain level of mutual understanding. If your child has been drinking, they’re not likely to be in the best state of mind to take in the information you want to give them about what’s happened. Take a deep breath and inform them that you’ll be talking about what’s happened tomorrow. At a time when you’re both feeling calm, invite you child to talk through whatever led them to drink alcohol. Listen to their story and don’t be afraid to tell them how you’re feeling. Next, gently reiterate the potential harms to young people of consuming alcohol. Finally, go over the ground rules and consequences you’ve agreed.

The best hiking trails and walks in Crete Discovering Crete’s enchant-

ing natural beauty is something that can only truly be done on foot. A stunning diversity of landscape, flora, and fauna, make this island a paradise for any type of walker, and for any level.

Samariá is the most famous and as a result, the most visited. Plenty of organised tours will take you to and through the gorge, which only exceeds its illustrious reputation. Otherwise, the easy (if somewhat long at 5-7 hours) path is simple to follow without a guide. Enormous walls tower nearly 1,000ft on either side of you at the famous ‘Gates,’ while the Lefka Ori rise majestically around the well-maintained path. It costs €5.00 to get in to the national park, but this is a small price to pay for the experience, while coaches or ferries at either end of the gorge make it easy to get to and from the closest big city, Chania. Richtis Gorge: A much less frequented and a more lush and forested gorge hike, is Richtis. From the minuscule village of Exo Mouliana (about a 15 minTHE SOUTH COAST ute drive from Sitia on eastTripiti to Sougia: The South THE GORGES ern Crete) this walk takes you coast of Crete, where the Lefka Samariá Gorge: Along with the through the verdant canyon on Ori meet the sea, is one of the neighbouring Imbros Gorge, an easy, well-marked path. You

snake past crumbling ruins, disappear into the foliage and spectacular untouched forests, past several paradisiacal waterfalls, before finishing at an often-deserted beach. You’ll have to cross the river numerous times and your feet may get wet, but the walk is passable most of the year, and you’ll have a chance to see some of Crete’s most beautiful flora and fauna, including numerous colourful butterflies and brilliant flowfor more n ews click o ers. n http://cre tepost.gr This is certainly one of the best places to experience the natural diversity and splendour of Crete. Extra information Remember that, when hiking, the weather can change rapidly, so always be prepared with all the usual hiking necessities: solid footwear, extra clothes, sunscreen, and always tell someone where you’re going and when you expect to be back before heading out. mypremiumeurope.com


most spectacular coastlines in the Mediterranean and the walk from Tripiti Gorge to Sougia (or the reverse) is easily one of the most stunning sections. After taking a boat to Tripiti (if you start walking from Sougia, you’ll need to arrange a boat back), hikers follow the coastline E4 trail after a short walk into the gorge (about 20 minutes). From there, you ascend the side and continue along a breathtaking stretch of coastline and the bay of Sougia. You pass the ruins of a Venetian fortress and the chapel of Prophet Elias set 400m above the Libyan sea with views that stretch for miles, and the terraces of the ancient town of Pikilassos. The walk is long (about 4 hours) and can be hot in summer (so take lots of water and sunscreen), but much of the wellmarked path is shaded and the views are second to none.

sports & leisure

LEFKA ORI Gingilos peak: So named for the white rocks and deep winter snow, the White Mountains are the most spectacular mountain range on Crete, with peaks over 2,000m in altitude, and at 2,080m Gingilos peak is one of the best. It’s also one of the most easily reached, and makes for a quickly rewarding hike, since you start from quite high up near the entrance to the famous Samariá Gorge. It does mean a few more tourists, though most go for the gorge walk, and good hikers quickly outdistance the crowd as you climb toward the peak. Steep sides and chasms can make this approximately 5 hour walk dangerous in bad weather, but in recent years, the path has been very well maintained. The pinnacle—where, in mythology, Zeus created a heavenly palace—offers divine views of the Aegean and Libyan Seas, the Samariá Gorge below, and the West of Crete.

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