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ANNUAL REPORT 2011

Center for Green Chemistry & Green Engineering at Yale

Center for Green Chemistry & Green Engineering at Yale Yale University

225 Prospect Street New Haven, CT 06520 phone: 203.432.5215 greenchemistry@yale.edu visit us at http://greenchemistry.yale.edu http://twitter.com/YaleGCGE

Dear Friends, As the Center closes out its fourth year I feel proud as I reflect on all of the major accomplishments of 2011. The Center has continued to grow its staff and build upon its strengths in research. This year we strengthened our research portfolio with support from the National Science Foundation and the US Environmental Protection Agency. As a result, the Center generated significant results from key projects including design guidelines for chemicals for reduced toxicity, biofuel alternatives, safer nanotechnology, and sustainable water-energy management. Over the past year, the green chemistry field advanced and gained momentum: a recent Pike Research Report on green chemistry estimates that market opportunities in the field will reach $100 billion by 2020 and lists the Yale Center as a key player. The journal Green Chemistry, where we published four papers this year, continues to climb in impact factor finishing the year at 5.5. The Center celebrated the graduation of several outstanding members and several senior researchers went on to faculty positions at renowned institutions. Dr. Sarah Miller, the Center’s first PhD graduate, is currently the Operational Specialist at Roberto Clemente Leadership Academy in New Haven, CT. Dr. Patrick Foley is now the CTO at P2 Science, Inc, a new company based on the Yale Center’s patent-pending technology, also here in New Haven. Dr. Adelina Voutchkova recently started her position as an Assistant Professor in the Chemistry Department at George Washington University in Washington, DC while Dr. Matthew Eckelman has moved on to be an Assistant Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Northeastern University in Boston, MA. As we begin our 5th year as a Center we look forward to expanding the impact of our research and continuing to demonstrate the synergistic environmental and economic benefits of green chemistry and green engineering. I invite you to visit our website (www.greenchemistry.yale.edu) and join our mailing list to receive updates about green chemistry and engineering news, our research activities, publications, members, and alumni. You can also follow us on twitter @ YaleGCGE and friend us on Facebook. As always, do not hesitate to get in touch with us at greenchemistry@yale.edu. I look forward to working with you in 2012 as we continue to strive towards realizing a sustainable future. Sincerely

Julie Beth Zimmerman, PhD Acting Director Center for Green Chemistry and Green Engineering

GREEN CHEMISTRY & GREEN ENGINEERING at YALE

Managing Directors: Paul Anastas, PhD Director, On Public Service Leave with the US EPA Teresa and H. John Heinz III Professor in the Practice of Chemistry for the Environment

Harold Shapiro

Dr. Anastas will be returning to Yale University in 2012 after having been appointed by President Barack Obama to serve as the Science Advisor and Assistant Administrator for Research and Development for the US EPA in 2010. Dr. Anastas is the Teresa and H. John Heinz III Professor in the Practice of Chemistry for the Environment. He is the Professor in the Practice of Green Chemistry with appointments in the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Department of Chemistry, and Department of Chemical Engineering. In addition, Dr. Anastas serves as the Director of the Center for Green Chemistry and Green Engineering at Yale. From 2004 -2006, Paul Anastas served as Director of the Green Chemistry Institute in Washington, D.C. He was previously the Assistant Director for the Environment in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy where he worked from 1999-2004. Trained as a synthetic organic chemist, Dr. Anastas received his Ph.D. from Brandeis University and worked as an industrial consultant. He is credited with establishing the field of green chemistry during his time working for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as the Chief of the Industrial Chemistry Branch and as the Director of the U.S. Green Chemistry Program. Dr. Anastas has published widely on topics of science through sustainability, such as the books Benign by Design, Designing Safer Polymers, Green Engineering, and his seminal work with co-author John Warner, Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice.

Julie B. Zimmerman, PhD Acting Director Assistant Professor of Green Engineering School of Engineering and Applied Sciences School of Forestry and Environmental Studies Dr. Julie Beth Zimmerman is an Assistant Professor of Green Engineering jointly appointed in the School of Engineering and Applied Science (Environmental Engineering Program) and the School of Forestry and Environment at Yale University.  Dr. Zimmerman also serves as the Acting Director of Krooninterests Hall the Center for Green Chemistry and Green Engineering at Yale. Her research include green Benson chemistry and engineering, systems dynamics modeling of natural and©Robert engineered water systems, environmentally benign design and manufacturing, the fate and impacts of anthropogenic compounds in the environment as well as appropriate water treatment technologies for the developing world. She also conducts research on corporate environmental behavior and governance interventions to enhance the integration of sustainability in industry and academia.  Dr. Zimmerman previously served as an Engineer in the Office of Research and Development at the United States Environmental Protection Agency where she managed grants to academia and small businesses in the areas of pollution prevention and sustainability.  She received a joint PhD from the University of Michigan in Environmental Engineering and Natural Resource Policy.

Evan Beach, PhD Program Manager Associate Research Scientist Dr. Evan Beach is a research scientist in the Department of Chemistry. He joined the Anastas group in 2007 after working in green chemistry laboratories at Carnegie Mellon University and The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His research interests are focused on transformations of biomass, including exploitation of lignin and algae biomass as sources of value-added chemicals to support biofuel technologies. Dr. Beach also develops curriculum for green chemistry and green engineering educational programs aimed at university students as well as outreach programs for the general public. 2

Administrative Staff:

PhD Students:

Erin McBurney Senior Administrative Assistant

Samuel Collom PhD Student, Chemistry

Janice Mitchell Administrative Assistant

Kathryn Dana PhD Candidate, Environmental Engineering

Research Staff:

Patrick Foley PhD Candidate, Environmental Engineering

Katalin Barta, PhD Associate Research Scientist Matthew Eckelman, PhD Postdoctoral Associate Valerie Fuchs, PhD Postdoctoral Associate Barry Husowitz, PhD Associate Research Scientist Azadeh Kermanshahi Pour, PhD Postdoctoral Fellow Fuzhan Nasiri, PhD Associate Research Scientist Toby Sommer, PhD Associate Research Scientist Adelina Voutchkova, PhD Associate Research Scientist

Amanda Lounsbury PhD Student, Environmental Engineering Lauren Martini PhD Candidate, Chemistry Sarah Miller PhD Candidate, Environmental Engineering Leanne Pasquini PhD Student, Environmental Engineering Lindsay Soh PhD Candidate, Environmental Engineering Jamila Saifee Yamani PhD Student, Environmental Engineering Ranran Wang PhD Student, Environmental Science

Masters Students:

Brian Weeks Research Assistant

Leah Butler Master’s Candidate, Environmental Management

Visiting Researchers:

Erik Fyfe Master’s Candidate, Environmental Science

Julian Fouquet Undergraduate, École Nationale de Chimie-Physique-Biologie Ken Goeury Undergraduate, École Nationale de Chimie-Physique-Biologie Thomas Sondergaard Hansen PhD Candidate, Technical University of Denmark Laura Zuluaga Graduate Student, La Universidad Nacional de Columbia

Troy Savage Master’s Candidate, Environmental Science

Undergraduate Students: Yale College ‘11 Brent Muller Justin Steinfeld

Yale College ‘13 Becca Santee Trietch Shirlee Wohl

Yale College ‘12 Megan Altizer Bezawit Getachew Matthew Spaulding Genoa Warner

Yale College ‘14 Emily Hong Lucia Huang

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GREEN CHEMISTRY & GREEN ENGINEERING at YALE

OVERVIEW OF THE CENTER The Mission of The Center for Green Chemistry and Green Engineering at Yale is to advance sustainability by catalyzing the effectiveness of the Green Chemistry and Green Engineering community. Green Chemistry and Green Engineering represent the fundamental building blocks of sustainability. Working in these disciplines, chemists and engineers are creating the scientific and technological breakthroughs that will be crucial to the future success of the human economy. The Center for Green Chemistry and Green Engineering at Yale works to stimulate and accelerate these advances. The Center is Guided By Four Core Operating Principles... • Insist on scientific and technical excellence and rigor. • Focus on generating solutions rather than characterizing problems. • Work with a diverse group of stakeholders. • Share information and perspectives broadly. We Seek To Accomplish Four Key Objectives... • Advance the science. • Prepare the next generation. • Catalyze implementation. • Raise awareness. The Focus Areas for the Center for Green Chemistry and Green Engineering Include: Research The Yale Center supports and advances research in Green Chemistry and Green Engineering (GC&GE), a critical component to building the community, designing and discovering innovative solutions, and achieving a sustainable future. The Center serves as a catalyst to both Yale and the greater Green Chemistry and Green Engineering communities for discipline-specific and cross-disciplinary research collaborations focused on key areas of GC&GE within science, technology, and policy for sustainability. Policy and Outreach The Center engages in policy, communication, and outreach initiatives that raise awareness of- and support for - GC&GE. In this dialogue the Center engages with a wide network of stakeholders, including NGOs, industry, academia, and government, as well as local communities and the general public. Education A robust educational program is an essential element of the Center. Center activities are focused on educating undergraduate and graduate students in the principles and practice of GC&GE. The Center also serves the wider academic community by providing opportunities for faculty training and by developing and disseminating GC&GE curriculum materials. International Partnerships GC&GE are rapidly spreading through both industrialized nations and the emerging economies. In all regions, the Center engages with the network of scientists, engineers, policy-makers, business people, and public health and environmental experts focused on sustainability science on behalf of the greater good. Industrial Collaborations GC&GE can only provide meaningful impact on the challenges of global sustainability when implemented on a large scale. For this reason, collaboration with industry is a key part of the Yale Center’s work. Direct engagement creates a dialogue that informs industry of the latest research breakthroughs in the field of sustainable science and technology. Likewise, such engagement informs academic researchers on industry’s most important concerns. This dialogue facilitates a direct line for implementation of these innovations. 4

RESEARCH: MATERIALS

C-Glycosides as Renewable Surfactants Center researchers invented and commercialized a new class of surfactants made from renewable, bio-based starting materials. These carbohydrate-based chemicals have a distinct structural motif based on a C-glycoside bond that distinguishes them from existing commercial products. In 2011 the Center published a report on the synthesis and properties of the new surfactants. Foaming properties, solubilization, toxicity, and biodegradation have been characterized for several of the prototype surfactants. Patrick Foley, a Ph.D. student in the Anastas group, recently graduated and now serves as Chief Scientific Officer of P2 Science, a company founded to further develop the technology for potential applications in detergents, personal care products, and environmental cleanup.

Related Publications:

Foley, P. M.; Kermanshahi pour, A.; Beach, E. S.; Zimmerman, J. B., Derivation and synthesis of renewable surfactants. Chemical Society Reviews 2011, Advanced Copy Online Foley, P. M.; Phimphachanh, A.; Beach, E. S.; Zimmerman, J. B.; Anastas, P. T., Linear and Cyclic C-Glycosides as Surfactants. Green Chemistry 2011, 13 (2), 321-325.

Presentations:

“Green Chemistry, Green Engineering, and Chemical Design: Exploring C-Glycosides as Surfactants” Patrick Foley The Salzberg Chemistry Seminar, New York, NY “New Chemical Products from Biomass: C-Glyosides as Surfactants” Patrick Foley Climate & Energy Congress Spring Symposium, New Haven, CT

Surfactant Company Launched from Research P2 Science, Inc.

Patrick Foley, PhD (ABD), a recent graduate from Yale University’s School of Engineering & Applied Science, is now co-founder and Chief Scientific Officer for the new company, P2 Science, Inc. P2 Science is using patent-pending technology from the Yale Center for Green Chemistry and Green Engineering to develop and manufacture a new class of high performance surfactants, C-glycosides (CG’s). Foley is the lead Yale inventor of the C-glycoside technology and Neil Burns is the company’s founding CEO. www.p2science.com 5

GREEN CHEMISTRY & GREEN ENGINEERING at YALE

Designing Chemicals for Reduced Toxicity This work on green chemical design aims to understand the pathways that link fundamental chemical properties to harmful effects on human health and the environment. The goal is to publish design guidelines to serve as a first-level toxicity screening tool for new commercial chemicals, or existing chemicals used in new products and formulations. The Center’s approach combines elements of mechanistic analysis, computational chemistry, and statistics to identify ranges and bounds for chemical properties that are most correlated with specific harmful effects in organisms. Case studies on acute and chronic toxicity of chemicals to aquatic species were completed in 2011. Ongoing work is investigating machine learning techniques, particularly Support Vector Machines, as a way to improve the analysis. In 2011 the Center invited 6 scientists to present their research in a dedicated session track at the ACS GCI 15th Annual Green Chemistry and Engineering Conference in Washington, DC. The presentations were followed by a workshop on in silico approaches to chemical design for reduced toxicity. Attendees included academic, industry, and government scientists. The group is currently preparing a joint publication to highlight possible directions for new research.

Related Publications:

Voutchkova, A. M.; Kostal, J.; Steinfeld, J. B.; Emerson, J. W.; Brooks, B. W.; Anastas, P. T.; Zimmerman, J. B., Towards rational molecular design: derivation of property guidelines for reduced acute aquatic toxicity. Green Chemistry 2011, 13 (9), 2373-2379.

In The Media:

How to design a safer chemical, Nature doi:10.1038/news.2011.448

Presentations:

“Green Toxicology: Towards molecular design guidelines for reduced acute aquatic toxicity” Adelina Voutchkova, Jakub Kostal, Bryan Brooks, Julie B. Zimmerman 15th Annual Green Chemistry & Engineering Conference, Washington, DC “Towards Molecular Design Tools for Minimal Endocrine Disruption” Adeilna Voutchkova, Julie B. Zimmerman and Paul T. Anastas Environmental Health Sciences, San Francisco, CA “Designing Molecular Guidelines for Reducing the Acute Toxicity of Pesticides on Birds Using Support Vector Regression” Barry Husowitz Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Boston MA “Towards Rational Design of Safer Chemicals: Property Guidelines for Reduced Acute Aquatic Toxicity” Adelina Voutchkova Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Boston MA

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RESEARCH: MATERIALS

Catalytic Transformation of Biomass The Center is developing new catalytic methods to produce useful chemicals from abundant, renewable natural materials- lignin and lignocellulose. Non-food biomass captures significant amounts of carbon-neutral energy. Thus chemical transformations to produce liquid transportation fuels and diverse commodity and specialty chemicals would have significant economic and environmental benefits. The task is challenging due to the highly complex structure of biomass, thus we are exploring multiple approaches. Initially heterogeneous catalytic systems are being established and refined. These studies provide an understanding of key factors and structural features required for reactivity and selectivity; this information will be used to develop homogeneous catalysts. The goal is to develop a homogeneous system that can operate under milder reaction conditions and provide greater control over product streams. The Center welcomes Sam Collom, a graduate student in the Department of Chemistry, who joined the project in 2011 and is carrying out lignin model compound studies. Sam is jointly advised by Professor Nilay Hazari and Professor Robert Crabtree.

Related Publications:

Matson, T. D.; Barta, K.; Iretskii, A. V.; Ford, P. C., One-Pot Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose and of Woody Biomass Solids to Liquid Fuels. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2011, 133 (35), 14090-14097.

Presentations:

“Catalytic disassembly of organosolv lignin via hydrogen transfer from supercritical methanol” Katalin Barta, Evan Beach, Alexei Iretskii, Peter Ford, Paul Anastas 15th Annual Green Chemistry & Engineering Conference, Washington, DC “Algae as a source of renewable chemicals: Opportunities and challenges” Patrick Foley, Evan Beach, Julie B. Zimmerman 15th Annual Green Chemistry & Engineering Conference, Washington, DC

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RESEARCH: MATERIALS

GREEN CHEMISTRY & GREEN ENGINEERING at YALE

Green Design of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) The Center is studying the environmental toxicity, fate, and transport of these commercially promising nanomaterials. This project has shown that surface modification of SWNTs with various functional groups can affect toxicity to cells. Center researchers are now working to link the fundamental physicochemical properties of the functionalized SWNTs to the cytotoxic response. The effects of environmental conditions such as pH and salinity are also of interest. The goal is to be able to “design out” negative implications of the materials and thereby support greener practice in designing and producing next-generation nano-enabled products.

Presentations:

“Green Design of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Decreased Bacterial Toxicity via Addition of Surface Functional Groups” Leanne Pasquini, Toby Sommer, Sara Hashmi, Menachem Elimelech, Julie B. Zimmerman 2011 Gordon Conference on Environmental Nanotechnology Waterville Valley, NH “Green Design of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Decreased Bacterial Toxicity via Addition of Surface Functional Groups” Leanne Pasquini, Toby Sommer, Sara Hashmi, Menachem Elimelech, Julie B. Zimmerman 15th Annual Green Chemistry & Engineering Conference, Washington, DC “Towards Green Design of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Decreased Cytotoxicity via Addition of Surface Functional Groups” Leanne Pasquini, Julie B. Zimmerman EPA STAR Fellowship Conference, Washington, DC

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of Escherichia coli cells after exposure to a SWNT deposit layer. Image by Leanne Pasquini 8

Fluorescent image of E. coli cells after exposure to a SWNT deposit layer. The blue and red indicate viable and non-viable cells, respectively. Image by Leanne Pasquini

RESEARCH: ENERGY

Lindsay Soh prepares lipids for analysis

The Fate of Sucralose through Environmental and Water Treatment Processes Sucralose is an artificial sweetener that has recently been found at significant concentrations in surface waters. This research assessed the extent of degradation as well as by-product formation and toxicity of sucralose through environmental degradation and advanced-treatment processes. Environmental processes included microbial degradation, plant uptake, soil sorption and hydrolysis, while advanced treatment processes encompassed adsorption by granular activated carbon, chlorination, ozonation, and ultraviolet radiation. Further, the sucralose was evaluated as an environmental tracer as it is shown to be persistence and present in detectable concentrations.

Related Publications:

Soh, L.; Conners, K. A.; Brooks, B. W.; Zimmerman, J. B., Fate of Sucralose through Environmental and Water Treatment Processes and Impact on Plant Indicator Species. Environmental Science & Technology 2011, 45 (4), 1363-1369.

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GREEN CHEMISTRY & GREEN ENGINEERING at YALE

Biodiesel from Algae: Greener Processing The Center is improving the potential of algae as a sustainable source of biofuels by devising a more efficient, selective, and safe way to separate oil from other components of the biomass. Due to the growing demand for energy and the depletion of non-renewable sources, alternative fuel sources need to be researched and brought to the level where viable implementation can occur.  To advance the realization of algae as a feedstock for biodiesel, process technologies and closed-loop biomass use must be optimized. The objective of this research is to develop the potential of algal lipid for use in biodiesel production by optimizing lipid extraction techniques for efficiency, sustainability, decreased hazard, and selectivity. In particular, extraction improvements will include cell disruption, greener solvent systems (i.e. supercritical fluid extraction), selective extraction, and simplified extraction-fuel conversion processes.  Further research will be conducted on algae cell optimization as a starting material as well as on potential end-use applications for unused biomass.

Related Publications:

Soh, L.; Zimmerman, J. B., Biodiesel Production Potential of Algal Lipids Extracted with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. Green Chemistry 2011, 13 (6), 1422-1429. Foley, P. M.; Beach, E. S.; Zimmerman, J. B., Algae as a source of renewable chemicals: opportunities and challenges. Green Chemistry 2011, 13 (6), 1399-1405.

Presentations:

“Algal Lipids Produced Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide” Lindsay Soh EPA STAR Fellowship Conference, Washington, DC “Biodiesel production potential of algal lipids extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide” Lindsay Soh, Julie B. Zimmerman 15th Annual Green Chemistry & Engineering Conference, Washington, DC

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RESEARCH: ENERGY

RESEARCH: SYSTEMS

Life Cycle Assessment of Algal Biofuels and Bio-based Products This project uses modeling and life cycle assessment to characterize the energy balance and other environmental implications of technology for producing fuels and chemicals from algae. Algae are a potentially bountiful feedstock for bio-products and biofuels, but as a nascent technology, the environmental impacts of large scale cultivation and processing need to be assessed. This project has two parts - one is to examine different technological options for algae cultivation and processing and to test different combinations for their environmental performance. The second is to gather existing life cycle assessment studies of algae that report a wide range of energy and green house gas results, and to undertake a meta-analysis in order harmonize the studies and look for central tendencies. This enables a meaningful discussion of actual technological difference among systems, which were previously obscured by the wide range of modeling assumptions and system boundaries considered.

Related Publications:

Brentner, L. B.; Eckelman, M. J.; Zimmerman, J. B., Combinatorial life cycle assessment to inform process design of industrial production of algal biodiesel. Environmental Science & Technology 2011, 45 (16), 7060-7067.

Presentations:

“Algae as a source of biofuels and bio-based chemicals” Evan Beach, Laura Brentner, Matthew Eckelman, Erik Fyfe, Julie B. Zimmerman Green Technologies for Developing Nations, Montego Bay, Jamaica “Meta-analysis of LCAs for algal fuels” Matthew Eckelman, Erik Fyfe, Julie B. Zimmerman Life Cycle Assessment XI, Chicago, IL

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RESEARCH: WATER

GREEN CHEMISTRY & GREEN ENGINEERING at YALE

Arsenic Remediation Using Metal Oxide-Impregnated Chitosan Beads Center members are working to remove arsenic from drinking water using sustainably produced materials that bind the toxic contaminants. Metal oxides are excellent adsorbents for arsenic, but require energy-intensive filtration after treatment. The technology we developed exploits the performance of metal oxides, but removes the need for filtration by embedding the active components in chitosan - a hydrogel sourced from shellfish waste. We are exploring the extension of this technology to other wastewater contaminants. The Center congratulates Sarah Miller on her successful defense of her PhD thesis focusing on the arsenic bio-adsorbents. Dr. Miller is currently the Operations Specialist at the Roberto Clemente Leadership Academy.

Related Publications:

Miller, S. M.; Spaulding, M.; Zimmerman, J. B., Optimization of capacity and kinetics for a novel bio-based arsenic sorbent,TiO2-impregnated chitosan bead. Water Research 2011, 45 (17), 5745-5754.

Presentations:

“Arsenic remediation using metal oxide impregnated chitosan beads (MICB)� Jamila Yamani Water Technologies for Emerging Regions (WaTER) Conference, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK Jamila Saifee Yamani filters samples to remove nano powder TiO2

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RESEARCH: WATER

System Dynamics Causal loop diagram of a municipal water system with wastewater reclamation

A Systems Dynamics Approach for Urban Water Reclamation-Reuse Planning: A Case Study from the Great Lakes Region The project involves creating a systems dynamics computer model of the water/wastewater system, extending the system to include water reuse and determining if water reuse is cost effective under different scenarios. Appropriate water reclamation and reuse practices are critical due to increasing water scarcity, concerns about the effect of wastewater discharges on receiving water, and availability of high-performing and cost-effective water reuse technologies. However, incorporation of water reuse schemes into water/wastewater infrastructure systems is a complex decision-making process, involving various economical, technological, and environmental criteria. System dynamics allows modeling of complex systems and provides information about the feedback behavior of the system. We are applying our comprehensive system dynamics model of water/wastewater systems to various cities’ scenarios to determine potential for water reuse. Dr. Valerie Fuchs is currently the Water Resources Engineer at MWH Global and Dr. Fuzhan Nasiri has joined the faculty of the Built Environment Department as Assistant Professor at the University College London.

Presentations:

“A System Dynamics Approach for Urban Water Reclamation- Reuse Planning: A Case Study from the Great Lakes Region” Fuzhan Nasiri, Ranran Wang, Troy Savage, Nico Barawid, Julie B. Zimmerman Engineering Sustainability 2011, Pittsburgh, PA “Measuring resilience of green and grey stormwater infrastructure” Valerie Fuchs Engineering Sustainability 2011, Pittsburgh, PA “Water Reuse Planning and Management: A System Dynamics Approach”,  Ranran Wang, Fuzhan Nasiri, Troy Savage, Nico, Barawid, Julie B. Zimmerman Engineering Sustainability 2011, Pittsburgh, PA “Municipal Water System Planning and Optimization: Exploring wastewater reclamation and reuse from water utilities’ perspective” Troy Savage, Ranran Wang, Fuzhan Nasiri, Nico Barawid, Julie B. Zimmerman International System Dynamics Society Conference, Washington, DC 13

GREEN CHEMISTRY & GREEN ENGINEERING at YALE

Green Chemistry and Engineering Leadership Program

The Center is coordinating an international effort to train young scientists for future leadership roles in the field. In 2011 the Center convened distinguished scientists in the fields of green materials, chemistry, engineering, and energy to plan a program for identifying and supporting next generation leaders. The group will work to establish a system to match postdoctoral researchers and junior faculty members with opportunities in the field. The group also intends to organize a series of workshops to provide networking opportunities, encourage outreach to allied fields, and provide training in outreach to journalists and policymakers.

Green Chemistry and Engineering: Raising Awareness

Center staff contributed to several reviews of the scientific literature, highlighting examples of green principles put into action. International collaboration, travel, and educational workshops have been a major focus of activity. In summer 2011 the Center teamed with the University of the West Indies and the Jamaican Ministry of Energy to host the 2-day symposium “Green Technologies for Developing Nations�, focusing on state-of-the-science research and applications.

Related Publications:

Cui, Z; Beach, E. S.; Anastas, P. T., Green chemistry in China. Pure and Applied Chemistry 2011, 83 (7), 1379-1390. Mulvihill, M. J.; Beach, E. S.; Zimmerman, J. B.; Anastas, P. T., Green Chemistry and Green Engineering: A Framework for Sustainable Technology Development. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 2011, 36, 271-293.

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RESEARCH: Green Chemistry & Green Engineering

Presentations: Julie B. Zimmerman, PhD

“Better Living through Green Chemistry” Consumer Specialty Products Association’s (CSPA) Cleaning Products Division: New Horizons 2011 Conference, Ponte Verda, FL “Green Chemistry & Green Engineering for the Fragrance Industry” Sustainable Fragrances 2011, Arlington, VA “Green Chemistry and Engineering: The How of Sustainability” Chemistry Seniors Symposium: Chemistry Makes History University of New Haven, West Haven, CT “The Frontiers of Green Chemistry & Green Engineering” Guangdong Provincial Government Leadership Program Yale University School of Management, New Haven, CT “Assessment and Sustainable Design of Appropriate Water Treatment Technology Through Green Chemistry and Engineering” Princeton University, Princeton, NJ “Assessment and Sustainable Design of Algal Biofuels and Novel Arsenic Sorbent through Green Chemistry and Green Engineering” Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ Evan Beach, PhD

“Center for Green Chemistry & Green Engineering at Yale University” Unleashing Green Chemistry and Engineering In Service of a Sustainable Future” Region 2 U.S. EPA Sponsored Workshop, New York, NY “Green Chemistry: Successes, Challenges, and State of the Art” Southwest Regional American Chemical Society Meeting, Austin, TX Kira Matus, PhD

“Green and Sustainable Innovation in the Chemical Industry: A Survey of Practices and Perceptions” Kira Matus, Evan Beach and Julie B. Zimmerman 15th Annual Green Chemistry & Engineering Conference, Washington, DC

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GREEN CHEMISTRY & GREEN ENGINEERING at YALE

Yale Courses

Offered through Spring 2012 - Fall 2012

World Water (ENVE330) This course will explore the complex issues associated with water, global trends, and sustainability.  Topics will range from sources to meet current water needs for human consumption, industry, agriculture, recreation and ecosystem services, and the state of these sources under future scenarios of status quo, global warming, population growth, and the industrialization of developing nations.  The course will also cover the fundamentals of water chemistry, the current design of water and wastewater treatment and distribution systems, an analysis of these designs through Green Engineering, and innovations for future designs including providing services without significant infrastructure.  There will also be elements of the course focused on water policy, environmental justice, and the economic valuation of water globally.  This course will also have a one-credit elective laboratory for the students to conduct experiments related to water treatment processes in the developed and developing world, particularly point of use water treatment systems. Green Engineering and Sustainable Design (ENVE 360/ENAS 360/ENAS 660) This course will focus on a green engineering design framework, The 12 Principles of Green Engineering, highlighting the key approaches to advancing sustainability through engineering design. This class will begin with discussions on sustainability, metrics, general design processes, and challenges to sustainability. The current approach to design, manufacturing, and disposal will be discussed in the context of examples and case studies from various sectors. This will provide a basis for what and how to consider when designing products, processes, and systems to contribute to furthering sustainability. The fundamental engineering design topics that will be addressed include toxicity and benign alternatives, pollution prevention and source reduction, separations and disassembly, material and energy efficiencies and flows, systems analysis, biomimicry, and life cycle design, management, and analysis. Science to Solutions: How Should We Manage Water (F&ES 610a) While there are many different approaches to understanding and managing environmental problems, most involve three major steps:  (i) describing/understanding the nature of the problem and its causes; (ii) using technical, policy, social and other management tools/ processes to help address it; while (iii) recognizing/making the value judgments embedded in each (what problems/data are “important”?  what solutions are “best”?).  The purpose of this introductory course is to illustrate how an MEM student might integrate scientific understanding with management choices as part of an effort to address any particular environmental issue.  Ideally, it should help students choose areas of specialization, as well as improve their ability to engage in integrative problem solving – both in their final semester and after they graduate. The class is focused on water issues, but the integrative structure of the class could be used on other problems as well.  The class is built around a case study approach, in which the faculty bring their different perspectives to bear on understanding and addressing the issues raised in a diverse set of cases, including:  the “dead zone” in the Gulf of Mexico; the New York City drinking water supply; Australia’s response to water scarcity; the Cochabamba “water wars”; and invasive species in the Great Lakes. 16

RESEARCH: Education

Greening Business Operations  (F&ES 886a/FES 380) The course examines various industries from engineering, environmental, financial perspectives, and emphasizes increasingly detailed analyses of corporate environmental performance. Methods are drawn from operations management, industrial ecology, and accounting and finance to investigate industrial processes, the potential to pollute, and the environmental and business implications of various sustainability approaches. Life cycle assessment and environmental cost accounting are typical tools that are taught; the class also involves several field trips to companies.

Kroon Hall, Yale University ŠRobert Benson 17

GREEN CHEMISTRY & GREEN ENGINEERING at YALE

Policy and Outreach

Center members participated in the 2011 Yale Day of Service volunteering at the farm to support the Yale Sustainable Food Project.

In The Media:

Green Chemistry Pike Research Report A recent Pike Research report, Green Chemistry: Bio-based Chemicals, Renewable Feedstocks, Green Polymers, Less-toxic Alternative Chemical Formulations, and the Foundations of a Sustainable Chemical Industry, forecasts that Green Chemistry represents a market opportunity that will grow to approximately $100 billion in 2020. The report named the Yale Center for Green Chemistry & Green Engineering amongst the key industry players in the field. A One-Pot Approach to Algae Biodiesel Biodiesel Magazine, September 8, 2011 How to design a safer chemical Nature News, July 29, 2011 Yale Engineering Grad Students Contribute to Science and Engineering Education in Local Middle School Yale School of Engineering and Applied Sciences News & Events, May 4, 2011 Better by Design Science News, March 26, 2011 Green Chemistry Discovery Could Lead to Safer Plastics The Atlantic, March 15, 2011 Energy symposium draws students, congressmen Yale Daily News, February 21, 2011 Bottled Water Ban Advances New Haven Independent, February 16, 2011 18

Policy and Outreach

Social Media

The Center for Green Chemistry and Green Engineering at Yale has an up-to-date website with the latest Center news, research, publications, and member information at www.greenchemistry.yale.edu You can learn more about the Center and Green Chemistry and Green Engineering news by signing up on our website for the emailed newsletter And by following us on Twitter @YaleGCGE

Center for Green Chemistry & Green Engineering September 2011 19

Center for Green Chemistry & Green Engineering at Yale 225 Prospect Street New Haven, CT 06520 phone: 203.432.5215 greenchemistry@yale.edu visit us at http://greenchemistry.yale.edu


Yale Center for Green Chemistry Annual Report 2011