Y-SAV Country report Sweden, 2012
In 2010, a European project addressing Youth Sexual Aggression and Victimization (Y-SAV) was launched. Y-SAV is a three-year project co-financed by the European Union in the framework of the Health Programme to address the issue of sexual aggression and victimization among young people.
h COUNTRY REPORT SWEDEN December 1, 2012 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 INTRODU UCTION In 2010, , a Europea an project addressing a Y Youth Sexual l Aggression and Victim mization (Y-S SAV) was launched d. Y-SAV is a three-year project co-f financed by the Europea an Union in t the framewo ork of the Health P Programme to t address th he issue of s exual aggres ssion and vic ctimization a among young g people. The proj ject aims to build a mult tidisciplinary y network of f European experts in var rious membe er states, bring to ogether the knowledge on youth se exual aggres ssion and vic ctimization i in a state-o of-the-art database e, develop a more harmonised way of measuring these issue es and provi de recomme endations for strat tegic action to t address th he problem o of youth sex xual aggressio on under diff fferent circumstances in different EU mem mber states. ort is part of f the Y-SAV knowledge k b base. The knowledge bas se presents in r This repo nformation regarding youth se exual aggres ssion and vi ictimization for each EU E member state. This report pres sents the current situation in Sweden reg garding polic cies, legislation, organisations, prev evalence, risk factors dence-based interventio ons in the a rea of youth h sexual agg gression and d victimization. Each and evid topic is c nsive chapte er. The appendices conta ain more det tailed inform mation on covered by a comprehen the diffe erent organis sations and studies. s mpiled by Pro of. Dr. Chris stian Diesen, Dr. Katrin Lainpelto, L a nd Ms. Eva F. F Diesen This report was com aw, Stockholm m University y, in collaboration with the Y-SAV p rincipal inve estigators at the Faculty of La ers WPF (The e Netherlands) and the U University of Potsdam (Ge ermany). at Rutge ed funding from the This report arises from th e project Yâ€“SAV which has receive ropean Union n in the fram mework of the Health Pro ogramme. Eur Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 TABLE O OF CONTENT TS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Gov vernment and policies .................. ............................................. ........................ 1 Leg gal situation .............................. ............................................. ........................ 5 Inst titutions, org ganisations and a services . ............................................. ....................... 10 Res search studie es on prevale ence .......... ............................................. ....................... 13 Risk k factors and d outcomes ................ ............................................. ....................... 14 Evid dence-based d interventions ............ ............................................. ....................... 16 Sum mmary/concl lusions...................... ............................................. ....................... 17 x I. Informat tion on instit tutions, orga anisations an nd services ................. ....................... 18 Appendix Appendix x II. Researc ch on prevale ence, risk fac ctors and ev vidence based interventio ons .................. 29 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 1. GOV VERNMENT AND POLIC CIES 1.1 Mini istries There is no sexual health depart tment or You uth Departm ment in Swed den and the Y Youth Minist ter in the governm ment is respo onsible for ot ther matters s as well. All l questions about a health h and youth questions q are –if not handled by b the Justic ce Departme ent-1 matters s for the Min nistry of Hea alth and Social Affairs epartemente et).2 This ha as always be een a very big ministry y, with mor re than one minister (Socialde responsible (and a division d of th he mandate, , e.g. betwe een health, gender g equa ality, social insurance i cial care). Under U the department t lies the Swedish S Boa ard of Heal lth and Soc cial Care and soc (Socialst tyrelsen),3 th hat directs the t political decisions in nto action, controls the f functioning of health and soci ial services, but also makes m regula ations for th he practice and do rese earch in the ese fields (mostly evaluations) ). In the late e 90s Socialst tyrelsen laun nched a proj ject (called KUB) to exa amine the exual abuse and the pro oject resulte ed in a serie es of meta-s studies perfo ormed by problem of child se ts in law, psy ychiatry, psy ychology, me edia and othe er disciplines. In commo on was the st tandpoint scientist that child sexual ab buse had be een a hidde en form of criminal c beh haviour for a long time e, that it ally has been n almost a taboo to mak ke these crim mes public when w the pe erpetrator is a family historica member r or an acqu uaintance. Only O when p paedophiles committed the abuses s it could become b a matter f for criminal investigation n. Now (from m the 80ies) ) the situatio on had chang ged; incest and a child sexual a abuse was re eported in a much highe er extent, thanks to the e public atte ention this issue i had gotten. Still it was estimated e th hat only arou und 10% of the t abuses were w reporte ed. The met ta-studies d that most abuses probably not are e committed by paedoph hiles but by men who are ‘sexual revealed opportun nists’. he Ministry of o Health and d Social Affa airs or anoth her departme ent (or some etimes directly under Under th the gov vernment) there are so ome govern nment agencies working with issu ues involving sexual victimiza ation and tr reatment for r crime victi ims, but all these agenc cies have a b broader agenda: The Children n´s Ombudsm man (Barnom mbudsmannen vising the rig ght of the ch hild accordin ng to the n)4 is superv UN Child d convention n, and prom motes public c interest re egarding key y issues for children, but is not allowed to interfere in individua al cases. edish Nation nal Board fo or Youth Aff fairs (Ungdo omsstyrelsen)5 is a gove ernment age ency that The Swe works to o ensure that t young peop ple have acc cess to influe ence and welfare, produ uce and comm municate knowled dge about yo oung people e´s living co onditions. Th he target gr roup is decis sion-makers and the edits a lot of o publicatio ons on diffe erent youth subjects, but since 200 06 there has been a agency e certain focus on vio olence again nst young wo omen and on o the theme Youth, Se ex and Inter rnet. The has also pinp pointed problems like ho nour based violence v and d forced mar rriages. agency h me Victim Compensatio C on and Supp port Author rity (Brottsoffermyndigh heten)6 is a national The Crim agency t that promot tes assistance for crime victims in general g and provide com mpensation for f crime victims o of unknown perpetrators s (or when pe erpetrators fail to pay th he compensa ation to the victim). 1 2 3 4 5 6 http://w www.regering gen.se/sb/d/1 1476 http://w www.regering gen.se/sb/d/1 1474 http://w www.socialsty yrelsen.se/ http://w www.barnomb budsmannen.s se/ http://w www.ungdomsstyrelsen.se/ /main/ http://w www.brottsof ffermyndighet ten.se/ 1 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 The age ency is also performing research o on the impa act of crime e victimizati ion - every convicted c person in n Sweden ha as to contribute to that r research wit th a fine of approximatel a ly 50 euros. (A major part of t the funds fo or the Swedish participa ation in the Y-SAV Y project comes fro om the Crim me Victim Compens sation and Support S Auth hority). In 20 011 the Auth hority presen nted a study, , in cooperation with 7 other EU-countrie es, on ‘Child Victims in n the Union n - Rights an nd Empower rment’, prom moting a holistic perspective e on child victims and d special tr raining for all professi ionals work king with ed children. victimize dia Council (Statens ( Med dieråd)7 is a government tal institution that studi es the impact of the The Med media a and it has pe erformed some studies on how med dia influence es young pe eople. Among gst these studies t there is one (Svedin 200 07) on the im mpact of por rnography, showing that 27% of the boys and 5% of th he girls betw ween 18 and d 24 years c consumed in nternet porn no on a regu ular basis. How H that consump ption influen nces their sex xual life has s not been po ossible to ev valuate, but young boys who look a lot at porno and st tep by step choose c more e extreme fo orms (child, animal a and s sadistic porn nography) endency to express e more e violent opi inions on how w sex should d be perform med. have a te B of In nstitutional Care (Statens Institut tionsstyrelse e)8 is admin nistrating Swedish National Board compulsory care for r young peop ple, but also o gives grant ts for scientific research h on this cat tegory of people. Amo ongst the on n-going studi ies is one on o sexual ‘r risk-taking’ b by young de etainees, young p another one on the importance i of o ethnicity and gender in that population. wedish Priso on and Probation Serv vice (Krimin nalvården)9 handles th he prisons and the The Sw rehabilit tation of off fenders. Whe en sex offen nders are co onvicted in Sweden S ther re are no mandatory m treatment programmes, but a voluntary one (of Canadian C ori igin) called ROS (Relation och or women-ba atterers as w well. The pro ogramme, wh hich started in 2002, has s still not Samlevnad), used fo operly evalu uated, but according to Canadian st tudies the re elapses are reduced (fro om 20 to been pro 10%). ucation is a responsibility of the D Department of Educatio on (Utbildnin ngsdepartem mentet).10 Sex edu Since 19 955 there ha as been a mandatory m se ex education for pupils s in Swedish h schools, st tarting in upper gr rammar scho ool. Since th he first World d War there has been a movement i in Sweden for sexual rights an nd sexual en nlightment, free f abortion ns and easy access to co ontraceptive es. The sex education e at schoo ol is a produ uct of that movement m an nd there has s never been n a strong o opinion (e.g. amongst religious s groups) aga ainst it (exc cept on the issue of abo ortion). As a consequenc ce of this po olicy it is possible for pupils to o get free co ontraceptive es from the school s nurse e and there a are Youth Re eceptions (Ungdom msmottagning gar) in every y local distric ct (kommun) for individu ual advice, m medicine and d help. 1.2 Polic cies On a gen neral level the t Governm ment commun nication Chil ld policy - a policy for th he rights of the child (Govt. c communication 2007/08: :111) report ts on the direction and priorities o of child polic cy in the next few w years and d a strategy is formed i hen Children n’s Rights in n Sweden in Strategy To Strength (Prop. 2 2009/10:232, , Strategi fö ör att stärka a barnets rä ättigheter i Sverige).11 T The governm ment bill contains s a number of principle es that shou ld be the basis b for the e parliament t, government, state agencies s, regions an nd municipal lities in thei r work to en nsure childre en’s rights. T The bill also contains the Gov vernment’s own o initiativ ves to stren gthen childr ren’s rights and a repo ort from an on-going effort o of a number r of priority y areas of c child rights policy. The bill was pa assed on th he 1st of Decembe er 2010. On n a more sp pecific level - concerning g sexual vic ctimization - the Government (in Decembe er 2007) dec cided on an updated u acti ion plan agai inst sexual exploitation e o of children. 7 8 9 http://w www.statensm medierad.se/ http://w www.stat-inst t.se/ http://w www.kriminal lvarden.se/ http:// /www.regerin ngen.se/sb/d/1454 http:// /www.regerin ngen.se/sb/d/12168/a/1487 701 2 10 11 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 It contai ins new mea asures to discourage th e sexual exploitation of f children in n Sweden an nd in the world. T The aim of the action n plan is th hat no child d in Sweden n should be e exposed to t sexual exploitation, that no n child fro om another country sho ould be exp posed to sex xual exploit tation by dren who ar re victims of f sexual exp ploitation sh hould receive all the Swedish persons and that child support and help they t need. The plan al lso declares s that Sweden will con ntribute to effective ration on the e issue. international cooper ion plan con ntains new interventions s to complem ment on goi ing work, am mong other things to The acti discoura age the sexu ual exploitat tion of child dren in tour rism, identif fy and map intervention-actions concerni ing perpetra ators, increa ase coopera ation at a national n and internation nal level and review current legislation. The T Governm ment has also o assigned th he Foundatio on of Childre en’s Welfare Funds to and distribute e knowledge e about sexu al exploitati ion of childre en. The Foun ndation has proposed gather a that a s special know wledge cent tre should b be establish hed with the e purpose t to support research, r distribut te knowledg ge of child sexual s explo oitation to professionals p such as po olice, social services, schools, child and adolescent a psychiatry, p and NGOs. This proposal is curren ntly managed d by the Ministry. . 1.3 Curr rent discussion In the ov verall progre essive Swedish legislatio on on sex crimes there is s still an exc ception, a pr roduct of an older r tradition. The T exceptio on -which is quite rema arkable consi idering the c context- is rape r law. Swedish rape law is still regardin ng rape as an n assault, an nd not a crim me against th he personal integrity. i That me eans that sex xual intercou urse without t the other party p being willing w canno ot be punish hed if the demand for proven threat t or vio olence canno ot be fulfilled. When rap pe is viewed as a form of f assault, it is natu ural when in nvestigating offences to look for evi idence of inj jury. And th he offence is s difficult to prove e if there are no injuries. This also means that the point of o departure is that wom men must resist so o that the re equirements for rape are e met and th his in its turn means tha at there is a risk that each rep port without t evidence of o resistance is regarded d as a false report. r The alternative requisite that has s been intro oduced through the sta atutory amen ndment in 2005 2 -that th he exploitat tion of a person i in a helples ss state should also be regarded as a rape- doe es not differ rentiate in terms of evidence e except in situations where w it ca an be conclu uded that th he woman w was in a co ompletely oblivious s state. The criterion is not met if she was sufficiently con nscious to be e able to un nderstand some of what occurr red. A major, and increa asing, propo ortion of rape e reports re late to cases that lie on the b border betw ween threats and helples ssness, but cannot be proved p as th he man relie es on the defence of consent and claims that he beli ieved that th he woman was w going alo ong all the way. w The only pro oper solution n -to assert the t sexual se elf-determin nation of a woman w and her integrity y- would, accordin ng to the pub blic opinion that is hear rd, be to introduce legis slation based d on punishin ng sexual acts tha at occur ‘unl lawfully’. Su uch a law wa as proposed in an Inquiry by the Ju ustice Depar rtment in October 2010 and can c be put into i legislat tion within a year or tw wo if the po oliticians agree. It is actually not certain that such a law would i increase the number of prosecutions s, but in the e long run it could potentially have h such a signal effect t that the nu umber of actual rapes wi ill be reduce ed. ith a median n of 2 years 6 months in prison for r rape) are reg garded as The penalties for sex crimes (wi nient in Swe eden, but th he opinion in n favour of more m harsh punishment p is not very strong. A quite len certain d discussion ha as been goin ng on about sex purchas se and the fa act that no o ten more one has gott than a f fine (never prison), eve en if they ab bused traffic cked girls, and a that dis scussion has led to a change o of law wher re it may be e possible to o use impriso onment in se evere cases. . In the mos st famous case in c connection with w sex purchase -whe re the crime e series star rted with bu uying sex fro om young girls, we ent on with very v violent sex with the e young sex sellers and later on end ded up in a couple c of rapes of f children- th he perpetrat tor was a Ch hief of Police e (in the city y of Uppsala a). In Decem mber 2010 he was c convicted to o 6 years in prison. p A pa radox of the e case was that he was k known as a promoter p of gende er equality (and therefore nick-name ed Captain Frock F by his colleagues). . This case made m the public re ealise that perpetrators can be found d in the mos st unexpecte ed environme ents. 3 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Another debate concerns the po ossibilities to o protect ch hildren from sex offende ers. Offende ers of sex crimes a against children are regis stered and e everyone who applies for a non-priva ate job with h children is check ked with the e register. A case of a f former athle ete who rece ently reveale ed that he had h been abused by his trainer started a discussion about wide ening that â€˜alarm syste mâ€™. There are a some es on the in nternet and some maga azines that publish p names and phot tos of convi icted sex webpage criminals, but the public majority seems to be against such s a policy y. One reaso on appears to o be that ople realise the difficult ty of identify ying non-convicted perpe etrators. most peo 4 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 2. LEG GAL SITUAT TION 2.1 Law w and legal definitions The lega al issues at stake s in Swe eden are con nnected bot th to law and legal prac ctice. During g the last decades there have e been quite e many chan nges in the laws on sex xual crime a and in many y aspects Sweden now can be e said to hav ve a progres ssive and up p to date leg gislation in t the field. There is a strong belief of the legislator (e especially in times of a social-democ s cratic govern nment) that laws can p attitudes and be ehaviour. Th his is certainly a valid sta atement whe en sexual be used to change people´s crimes a and protection of the youth is cons sidered. For r a long peri iod legislatio on has been n used to signal va alues in pro otection of the vulnera able, e.g. th he prohibition of child smacking (1979) ( or purchase e of sexual services s (199 98). The main n purpose of f these laws is not to pun nish the perpetrators but to c constitute a norm. With h an open d debate, a strong wome en’s liberatio on movement and a legislato or willing to take progres ssive steps t to protect th he integrity of o women, y youth and ch hildren, a new clim mate has ent tered. Earlie er taboos hav ve faded. As s a consequence there ha as been an enormous e increase e in reported relational crimes. c e law was ch hanged in 20 005, adding ‘helpless stage’ to the possible req quisites for rape r (i.e. The rape that the e victim is not n –because e of e.g. ha ndicap, into oxication– ca apable of gi iving consen nt).12 The inquiry t that the refo orm was base ed on, reject ted a legisla ation with no on-consent as s a general platform, p and the law was crit ticised from the beginni ng for that lack l of a more radical ch hange. A new w inquiry was soon n established d and in Oct tober 2010 la aunched a ne ew proposal with a less severe crime –sexual abuse– b based on non n-consent as a compleme ent to rape by b coercion. As said abov ve (1.3): whe ether the new proposal will be e accepted or o not is uncl lear. xual abuse of f children (u under 15, the age of leg gal consent) was also ch hanged in The law against sex 2005, in ntroducing st tatuary rape e. Before it was possible e to conside er consent w when early teenagers t (12-14 y years) had in ntercourse with w someone e older - now w it is irrele evant; to hav ve sex with a person under 15 5 is always considered rape of a c child (which is the label l of the crim me). Some offenders o though a are excluded d from punib bility: if the perpetrator r and the vic ctim are clo ose in age (13-14 and 15-17 ye ears) and th he act is do one without coercion prosecution p shall s not be e made. In case the perpetra ator is older (18-25 years) and th ere is volun ntarity from m the young ger the crim me is not consider red rape of a child, but t child abuse e (a less sev vere crime). There has been some criticism against t the Supreme e Court in this interpreta ation of the law, as the free will of the so much h younger can be q questioned in n these circu umstances. rn form of crime, c connected to se exual contac cts between older men and children, is the A moder ‘seductio on’ via inte ernet, mostly y through c chat-sites, ca alled ‘groom ming’. These e contacts, with the intention n to abuse children c sex xually, were criminalised in 2009. And A last yea ar Sweden got g a law against stalking -a law that pr robably has more relev vance and application for adults than for es it possible e to prosecu ute harassing g persecutio on, a type o of acting not so rare children- that make t ex-partners s. The laws against chil ld pornograp phy, trafficking and sex purchase ha ave been amongst modified d, made mor re effective, during the l last years. These T examples show tha at the legisla ator has a strong at ttention to the t field of sexual s crime es. ary on defini itions in Swe edish law: A summa Rape e: gender-ne eutral (both perpetrator and victim), coercion (f force or thre eat) or helpl less state (vict tim not cap pable of giv ving consen nt), intercou urse or ‘co orresponding act’ (all forms of pene etration - oth her act: sexu ual coercion ); child d sexual abuse: under 15 5 (under 18 w within depen ndent relatio ons), penetra ation rape of a child, othe er forms reg garded as ch hild sexual a abuse, separate regulat tions for gro ooming and involving child dren in sexua al posing (an nd buying sex x from a per rson under 18 8); sexu ual harassme ent: touching g a person w with sexual intent or inv volving a ch hild in an ac ct of sex, inclu uding exhibit tion and verb bal sexual ha arassment of f any person. 12 https:/ //lagen.nu/19 962:700 5 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 2.2 Offic cial statistic cs The Swe edish Counci il on Crime Prevention (Brottsföreb byggande råd det (BRÅ))13 handles the e official crime st tatistics, but t also perfor rms criminol logical studies on crime patterns an nd crime pre evention. Several studies have e been made on rape a and sexual abuse a and Ra apport 2008 :13 pointed out that c of victims that t has demons strated the biggest b incre ease in police reports teenage girls is the category on rape during the beginning b of the 2000s. In 2008 approx. 1.600 ra apes with vic ctims under 18 years were reported. The e latest repo ort on youth h sexual victimization, Rapport 201 11:6, a stud dy of 378 ith rape victims under the age of 18 shows th hat for children under 1 12 years most of the cases wi perpetra ators are fat thers or step p-fathers, an nd for childr ren aged 12-17 most of the perpetrators are boy-frien nds or acqua aintances jus st somewhat t older than the t victim. Another A signi ng is that ificant findin physical violence sel ldom was use ed. e 70s and on n there has been b a signif ficant raise of o the report ting rate of r rape and chi ild sexual From the abuse. In n 1975 367 rapes r and att tempted rap pes (all ages) ) were reported, in 1990 0 1.410, in 20 000 2.026 and in 2 2008 5.379 - the latter representing r g an increase over 260% %. The numb ber of reports is still rising an nd there are e no signific cant changes s of law tha at explains that t develop pment (although the definitio on of rape wa as somewhat t widened in n 2005, see 2.1). 2 1.385 of o the victim ms in 2008 we ere under 15 years s (legal age) ), compared to 300 in 2 2000, repres senting a raise by 461% % in eight ye ears, also signifyin ng that a cert tain part of the increase e of reported d rape has oc ccurred in th hat age range e. al crimes aga ainst children n under 15 were w reporte ed, including g 1.214 rape against a In 2007, 3.771 sexua child. Th he number of o reported other o sexual abuses agai inst children was 890, of f which 55% occurred in a fam mily relation n. In additio on there wer re 1.530 rep ports on sex xual harassm ment against t minors, which m makes the tot tal of 3.771 reports on se exual crimes s against children under 15. As a whole there has not been such an a immense increase of f reporting as a for adult rape, but t the change of o law in aking statua ary rape a co oncept- has had the imp pact that there has bee en a flow fro om ‘child 2005 -ma sexual a abuse’ to ‘ra ape of a chil ld’, increasin ng the rape cases from 12% to 32% of the severe sexual crimes a against a chi ild. A minor r part of the ese reported d crimes, deals with ince est but the reported incest ca ases had a peak p in the beginning of f the 90s wh hen the public discussio n about it was w at its heat. An n explanation of that pe eak may be t the fact that t many adults then repo orted abuse they had suffered d as children. . d in Swedish official crim minal statistic cs, but in The age groups 15-18 and 18-25 are not gen erally found 2003 a r report (BRÅ 2005:7)14 sta ated that 29 9% of the reported rape cases conce erned childr ren under 18 years s. Many signs s indicate th hat the perce entage is sig gnificantly hi igher today. Another rep port (BRÅ 2008:13) )15 found tha at the median age of rep porting rape had sunken from f 27 year rs in 2000 to o 22 years in 2005. on of the general increa ase of rape reports r is tha at the willin ngness to rep port rape The main explanatio wn step by st tep, shown also a by the f fact that a decreasing pa art of the re eports expres ss violent has grow acts. But this does not n fully exp plain the dev velopment during d the la ast 5 years, w when there has been an ‘explosion’ of report ts. One impo ortant facto or can be the media foc cus on rape that has almost a been pre evalent durin ng this perio od, probably y also creatin ng concepts of rape not corresponding to the actual le egislation, i.e. that lack of consent i is constitutin ng the crime e. But it cann uded that not be exclu the raise e of reports mirrors a fac ctual raise of f rape, especially among gst young pe eople. 13 14 15 http:// /www.bra.se/ / http:// /www.bra.se/ /download/18 8.cba82f7130f4 475a2f1800012829/2005_07 7_valdtakt_ka artlaggning.pd df http:// /www.bra.se/ /bra/publikati ioner/arkiv/p ublikationer/2008-12-31-va aldtakt-mot-p personer-15-ar r-ochaldre.htm ml 6 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 2.3 Lega al studies Legal stu udies in Swe eden demons strate that l egislation is s not sufficie ent for deali ng with crim me within relations ships, that subsequent s prosecutions p s have not increased at the same r rate as the reporting and that t many cases s are discont tinued owing g to a lack of f resources, prejudice or r difficulties s in terms of evidence. This is more due to o attitudes, on views of women and children, th han on the substance s penal legislat tion. It is no onetheless im mportant tha at comprehe ensive legisla ation is impl lemented of the p to prote ect against abuse, as suc ch legislation n drives deve elopment forward. In th he long run, statutory amendm ments can res sult in a changed and les ss conciliatory approach to the probl us also to lems and thu a reduct tion in the nu umber of crimes of abuse e. nvestigate these crimes the situatio on is not tha at favourabl le. Investigations are When it comes to in often su uperficial and d restricted, , only 10-20% % of the rep ports lead to o prosecution n. With olde er victims ces like ‘real l rape’ and ‘ideal victim m’ still are in vigour, bia ases that ha ave been rev vealed by prejudic some fe eminist legal studies (Su utorius 2003, , Andersson 2004, West terstrand 200 08).16,17,18 With W child the investiga ate skills are scarce. On ne of the main m reasons for this is t that in Swed den more victims t regard is s taken to ‘t the best inte erest of the child’ than is done in ot ther countrie es. In practice this is interpreted as keep ping the ch hild away fr rom the inv vestigation in i order to reduce the e risk of sation. This policy is pa artly based on o the state ement that p proceedings in abuse secondary traumatis ust be quick, that it is unreasonable e for the vict tim -and part ticularly chil ldren- to hav ve to live cases mu for months and may ybe years in n uncertainty y about the e outcome of the procee edings. But with the g the child from f the pro oceedings, positive p results from inv vestigations are rarer policy of protecting those countr ries where le ess regard is s taken of th he child’s need of securi ity. If one is satisfied than in t with one e or two sho ort video que estionings of f the child, the t statement made by the child wi ill not be strong e enough to sta and up again nst the deni ial of an adu ult. For this reason, ext tensive corro oborative evidence e is required to back up u the child d’s statemen nt and the precondition ns seldom prevail p to acquire such inform mation. One reason is t that most child c abuse with known n perpetrato or is only erwards. In other words s, children, and in parti icular small children, ha ave little brought to light afte opportun nity of obta aining redre ess. Howeve er, if evide ence cannot be acquire ed from the e child’s statement and corro oborative ev vidence, the ere is -if abu use has occu urred- a sour rce that is incredibly timated in Sweden, S nam mely the sus spect. Other countries achieve a m much higher r level of underest success by basing their prosecution for sexua al abuse of a child on ad dmissions. Th his may partly be due dmission sign nificantly mitigating the e penalty -w which not is the case in Sweden- , but even to an ad more on n having clea ar and distin nct strategie es for how to o conduct qu uestionings w with those suspected of these e offences. In other co ountries, it is assumed that the su uspect may admit to th he abuse occurred d - in Sweden it is assum med that he w s In conclu usion, results s will not im mprove as will not do so. long as the strategies for the investigation n are not im mproved, as these cases in general are most ate and prove e (Diesen & D Diesen 2009).19 difficult to investiga 16 17 Sutoriu us, H., Kaldal, A. (2003). Be evisprövning v vid sexualbrot tt. (Evidence in i sexual offe nce). Norsted dts juridik. Anders sson, U,. (20 004). Hans (o ord) eller hen nnes? - en kö önsteoretisk analys a av stra affrättsligt skydd s mot sexuella ö övergrepp. (H His (Word) or her? h - a gende er theoretical analysis of cr riminal-law pr rotection against sexual assault). Bokbox förlag g. Andersson n, U,. (2004). . Hans våld eller e hennes v vilja? - en disk kussion om de en rättsliga p prövningen av v våldtäkt. His or her r will? - a disc cussion of the legal review o of rape). Juridisk tidskrift. 18 Wester rstrand, J. (20 008). Mellan mäns m händer - kvinnors rät ttssubjektivite et, internatio onell rätt och diskurser och prost titution och trafficking t . (B Between the m men's hands - women's lega al personality, , internationa al law and discourse es and prostitu ution and traff ficking). Unive versitetstrycke eriet i Uppsala a 19 Diesen n, C., Diesen, , E.F. (2009). Övergrepp mot kvinnor och barn. (V Violation of W Women and Children). Norstedts s juridik. 7 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 When it t comes to o sexual aggression aga ainst a cat tegory of victims v betw ween childh hood and adolesce ence, the yo oung teenage ers (15-17 y years), there e are other investigation n problems. In many cases th he victim doe es not consi ider herself as a victim of rape, bu ut a victim o of circumsta ances and gender p patterns, and d does not re eport promp ptly. If she re eports later it i is often co onsidered a weakness w (the rape is a ‘fruit of conclusio on’) and mig ht as well be e so if evide ence is lost i n the meant time. If a s made and the suspect is interroga ated, he will not conside er himself as s an offende er, but as report is someone e who did no ot understan nd she was n not willing. In such a ca ase -where it t is her word against his- it w will be impos ssible to pro ove rape or sexual abuse. The claim med lack of mens rea cannot be counter proved and the case will soon be cl losed. In this s area a new w rape law b based on non n-consent could he elp a bit, bu ut most of th he evidence problems re emain (Leijo onhufvud 200 09).20 The sa ame goes with the e problem when w the vic ctim is unde er 15 years (13-14) and the perpet trator claims s that he thought she was olde er (and it wa as not reckle ess in making g that conclu usion). rds procedur res higher up p the legal c chain, a ten ndency towards greater restrictivene ess could As regar be obse erved in the e 2000s whe en assessing the issue of prosecuti ion of sexua al crime ca ases. The discussio on about err roneous conv victions, a n umber of ac cquittals in Supreme S Cou urt and the following demand for stronge er corrobora ative, have resulted in prosecutors becoming more cautio ous when bringing charges in these t cases. This particu ularly applies s to cases of date-rape a and incest. As A regards other ch hild sexual ab buse cases, there are ot ther circumst tances that restrain pros secution. Th he quality of the in nvestigation -and thereb by the rate of prosecuti ion- depends s to a large extent on local l and more transient circ cumstances, e.g. the in nterrogation quality and d the use o of coercive measures m 21 the suspect (Diesen ( & Diesen 2009).2 against t t the rece ent focus is on the issue e of corrobor rative eviden nce: such ev vidence is In court it appears that referred d to when ma aking a conv viction, and the lack of such evidence is mainly y the justific cation for an acquittal. . The meanin ng of ‘corrob borative evid dence’ is still extremely y unclear, ev ven in the making a Supreme e Court (HD). It also app pears to be t the case that evidence that t is accep pted as corro oborating in the ca ase of conviction (in cas ses without directly inte errelated evi idence) is ge enerally wea aker than lacking c corroborativ ve evidence in case of a acquittal. In the case of a convictio on, it may be e enough that the aggrieved party p has talked to a clos sely related person abou ut the abuse e, but witnes sses, DNA technical evi idence is req quested whe en acquitting g. This sugge ests that the e courts wish h to make and/or t the outc come clear and a well justified for th hose reading the judgme ent, although h the evalua ation can be assum med to be based b mainly y on an ass sessment of the aggrieved party’s c credibility (L Lainpelto 2012).22 Together wi ith the observation that t the reasons s for judgme ent are often n scanty, not t least as regards the assessm ment of the parties’ sta atements, this t can be a sign that t a more meticulous tement has not been co onducted (S Schelin 2008).23 Probably analysis of the stat y as a result of the debate a about corrob borative evid dence there has been a decrease d of convictions, , from 22% in n 2006 to 34% in 20 010 (Diesen & Diesen 2013).24 20 21 22 23 24 Leijonh hufvud, M. (20 008) Samtycke esutredningen n. Thomson fö örlag. See not te 19. Lainpel lto, K. (2012) ‘Stödbevisnin ng I brottmål’ (diss.), Stock kholm. Schelin n, L. (2008) ‘Värdering V av utsagor u i brott tmål’ (diss.) Stockholm. S Diesen, , C. & Diesen, , E. (2013) ‘Öv vergrepp mot kvinnor och barn b ’. Stockho olm. 8 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 2.4 More e legal studi ies Author(s) Andersson n, U. Ti itle Th he Unbounded d Body of the Law of Ra ape - the Intru usive Criterio on of NonCo onsent Publisher In: Responsib ble Selves: Wo omen in the Nordic Legal Culture e (eds. Nousiainen, K., m, K., Gunnarsson, Å., Lundström Niemi-Kiesilä äinen, J.) Aldershot, As shgate In: Mord, mis sshandel och sexuella över rgrepp. Histor riska och kulturella perspektiv p på kön och våld. (Killings, bea atings and sexual ab buse. Historica cal and cultural persp pectives on se ex and violence) (ed. Lövkrona, I. .), Nordic Acade emic Press Iustus förlag Ashgate Year r of publ lication 2001 Andersson n, U. De et gränslöst fe eminina. Kvin nnliga kr roppar och sex xualiteter i rä ättslig ha antering av vå åldtäkt (T The boundless feminine. Fe emale bo odies and Sexu ualities in the e legal ha andling of rape) 2001 Berglund, , K. Andersson n, U. St traffrätt och kön k (C Criminal law and a gender) Th he Unbounded d Body of the Law of Ra ape - the Intru usive Criterio on of NonCo onsent Ha arm and Gend der Ny ya sexualbrottsprejudikat? ? Ne ew sex-crime precedent? Se ex Crime Legis slation - Proa ctive and An nti-Therapeut tic effects Se ex och samtyc cke (S Sex and consen nt) De efining Rape - Emerging Ob bjekctives fo or States Unde er Internation nal Law 2007 7 2007 7 Berglund, , K. Kaldal, A., Lainpelto o, K. Diesen, C C. Asp, P. Eriksson, M. Scandinavian Studies in La aw Juridisk tidsk krift International Journal of La aw and Psychiatr ry Iustus förlag Martinus Nijh hoff Publishers s 2009 9 2009 9/10 2010 0 2010 0 2011 9 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 3. INST TITUTIONS, , ORGANISA ATIONS AND D SERVICES S 3.1 Victim-oriented d institutions s, organisati ions and ser rvices ational level l 3.1.1 Na As descr ribed under Government G level (2.1.) there are se everal institutions under r the directio on of the governm ment that -am mongst othe er tasks- per rform survey ys and publi ish informat tion on yout th sexual aggressio on and victimization. Th here is also one, already y mentioned d institution, , The Nation nal Board of Healt th and Welfa are (Socialstyrelsen) tha at supervises s all local ac ctivities conc cerning supp port/care for offen nders and vic ctims (medic cal care, psy ychiatric trea atment, insti itutional car re, etc.). national leve el there is a homepage, UMO,25 finan nced by the government t. The site is ‘a youth On the n friendly clinic for young people e’ aged 13 t to 25 years, where they y can find re elevant, cur rrent and quality a assured information abo out sex, heal lth and relat tionships. Th his homepag ge is a nation nal cyber equivale ent to the loc cal youth centres. t the NGOs working w with h children´s s rights and child support, BRIS (Chi ildren´s Right in the Amongst Society),26 and their hot-line for children up to 18 years, should d be mentio oned. Anothe er is the organisation Rädda Barn nen (Save th he Children) ),27 working for children n´s rights an nd better charity o living co onditions aro ound the wo orld. The org ganisation has 87.000 members m and d 244 local offices o in Sweden and runs a centre c for ch hildren and y young people e in crisis, bu ut also perfo orms studies on youth sexual abuse. ECPAT T Sweden wo orks against c commercial exploitation of children (up to 18 ye ears), has e for reporting child porn nography and d makes cam mpaigns against sex touri ism.28 a hotline 3.1.2 Re egional/local level The health and social services in Sweden ar re organised d in landsting g (regional l level) and ko ommuner palities, loca al level), bot th coordinate ed in policy matters on a national le evel by SKL (Sveriges (municip kommer och landsti ing).29 The regions are responsible for health care and th he municipa alities for social se ervices and care c for elderly. local level th here are You uth Centres, Ungdomsmo ottagningar, in each mu unicipality (a and in big On the l cities se everal), prov viding free information and advisor ry psychosocial services in all dimensions of young life for perso ons (mostly) between 12 2 and 25 yea ars. They also have spe ecial feature es for the dical examin nation (for ve enereal diseases) and provide contra aceptives. sexual life, with med re several NG GOs in Swed den working with the sup pport of crim me victims: w with a gener ral target There ar group th here is BOJ,30 the natio onal organisa ation for cri ime victims, coordinatin ng the work k of local support groups. Mor re specialise ed are the t two national organisatio ons for coor rdinating the e women KR.31,32 Both organisation ns have speci ial shelters f for young gir rls. There shelters in Sweden; ROKS and SK are also some local NGOs that have shelte ers and supp port for cert tain groups, e.g. Terrafe em,33 for immigrant women of f all ages, of ffering a help pline in 43 la anguages. 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 http:// /www.umo.se e/ http:// /bris.se/ http:// /www.rb.se/P Pages/default.aspx http:// /www.ecpat.s se/index.php http:// /www.skl.se/ http:// /boj.se/ http:// /roks.se/ http:// /www.kvinnoj jouren.se/ http:// /www.terrafem.org/ 10 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 All the shelter orga anisations are a independ dent but ha ave substant tive financia al support from f the ment and gov vernment age encies. governm tion there are a some or rganisations working wit th victims of o child sex xual abuse and a their In addit parents, some with local departments. On ne of them, HOPP (Hop pe),34 works s with impro oving the tation of vic ctims that ha ave been su ubjected to sexual abuse e. The organ nisation has a multirehabilit disciplinary perspec ctive on inv vestigation a and treatme ent and will soon publ lish a hand-book on 5 g sexual abu use. Another r organisatio on, ATSUB,35 focuses on the familie es of abused children surviving and works with infor rmation, legal aid and re ehabilitation n for both vic ctim and its relatives. There also 3 ganisation, specialised s in n women sub bjected to in ncest, RSCI,36 to give sup is an org pport to women that experien nced sexual abuse a in their childhood . 3.2 Perp petrator-orie ented institutions, orga anisations an nd services On the r regional leve el there are special psyc chiatric unit ts, PBU or BUP, organise ed for young g people, providing voluntary psychiatric care c for pers sons under the t age of 20 0. Many of t these units have h staff sed in treatm ment of victims of sexual l abuse, but there is only y one unit in n this segment that is specialis specialis sed in treati ing paedophiles; Centru m för Andro ologi och Sex xualmedicin in Huddinge (in the 3 Stockhol lm region).37 It can als so be noted d that one region, Landstinget i V Västernorrlan nd,38 has 39 introduc ced a Canadian tool to as ssess the ris k of perform ming sexual violence. v T These guidelines were created by Boer, Ha art, Kropp & Webster, in British Colo ombia (Canad da) and are d r forensic designed for use. 20 factors in three areas s - psychosoc cial and sex x crime bac ckground, fu uture (e.g. negative attitude to treatmen nt) - are analysed from a as many sour rces as possib ble. 3.3 Prof fessional tra aining, healt th education n and resear rch A govern nmental init tiative has been b to crea ate the Nati ional Centre e for Women n’s Peace (N Nationellt centrum m för kvinnof frid (NCK))40 formed in 2 2004 and situ uated in Upp psala. The ce entre is a pr roduct of the wom men’s peace reform in th he late 90s w when a new crime, c gross violation of women’s pe eace, was made law w. This gend der-related crime c constr ruction is loo oking upon women-batte w ering as a co ontinuum and a co ontrol mecha anism, worth h a more sev vere punishm ment than a number n of a assaults. The e function of the N NCK is to be e a national knowledge centre on relational r violence, but t also a help p-line for battered d women. So ome of the studies s of th he centre ha ave certain values v for yo oung women, but the main tar rget group is s adult wome en. In 2008 N NCK launched d a hand-boo ok for victim ms of sexual crimes. c universities of o Linköping and Stockho olm there ar re special un nits for child d research within w the At the u area of b behavioural sciences, pe erforming stu udies on e.g. sexual habits amongst young peopl le and on sexual aggression and victimi ization, but t also givin ng special courses for r students and for onals. Amon ngst the courses there i s a mandato ory educatio on for police e officers th hat make professio child int terrogations. 34 35 36 37 http:// /www.hopp.org/ http:// /www.atsub.s se/ http:// /www.rsci.nu/ / http:// /www.karolins ska.se/Verksa amheternas/K Kliniker--enhet ter/Endokrink kliniken/Centr rum-Andrologi i-Sexualme edicin/ 38 39 http:// /www.lvn.se/ Belfrag ge H., Strand S., Ekman L., and Hasselbo org A. (2012) Assessing risk k of patriarcha al violence wi ith honour as a motive: six years s’ experience using the PA ATRIARCH che ecklist. International Journ nal of Police Science & Managem ment: March 20 012, Vol. 14, No. N 1, pp. 20-29. 40 http:// /www.nck.uu. .se/ 11 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 On the N NGO side th here are two o organisatio ons that wor rk specificall ly with sexu ual issues. The major 41 one is R RFSU (IPPF member), m The T National l Association n for Sexual Education, established in 1933. The aim of the organisation is to o spread an open and kn nowledge-based view upo on sexual iss sues, and the orga anisation wo orks with education and d lobbying, both b nationw wide and int ternationally y. During 2009-201 11 ‘the sexu uality of the child’ was a special theme - the platform is th hat children´s sexual curiosity y about sex should s be met with unde anisation, RFSL,42 The erstanding. The other national orga Swedish Federation for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexu ual and Tran nsgender Rights, works t to make LGB BT people have the e same rights s as others. 41 42 http:// /www.rfsu.se/ / http:// /rfsl.se/ 12 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 4. RESEARCH STU UDIES ON PREVALENCE E There ha as been many prevalence studies o on child sex abuse perfo ormed and published in n Sweden during t the last dec cades. The results r are quite simila ar, and the differences probably are a to be explaine ed by differences in de efinitions (e. .g. what is meant by ‘sexual ‘ hara assment’) more than differenc ces in scientific quality. Swedish p revalence and incidence e surveys in dicate that 7-14% of the girls s and 3-6% of the boys are a forced to o intercourse e before the e age of 18. There are also a some studies w with a wider r concept, more focused on young pe eople´s lives. ent study (Danielsson et al 2009) ab out experien nces of emot tional, physi ical and sexu ual abuse One rece amongst t young peop ple (15-23 ye ears) showed d that young women are more often exposed to all forms of sexua al violence: 14% 1 of all yo oung women and 4.7% of f the men st tated that th hey had been n subject to sexua al abuse (mild, moderate, severe) d during the pa ast 12 months. And 6% of the young women had been n exposed to o penetrating g violence d uring the pa ast 12 months (correspon nding figure for f young men 0,4 4%). In both young men and women sexual abus se was heavily overlappe ed by emoti ional and physical abuse. The negative eff fects of the sexual abuse e during the last 12 mon nths were assessed as more se evere by the e young wom men for the e mild and moderate m fo orms, while assessments s for the severe fo orms were equal e for both sexes. l prev valence of c child sexual abuse a (Prieb be 2009) is ba ased on a po opulation A study focused on lifetime 9 high-schoo ol seniors, asking a them questions about a their experiences s in being forced f to of 4.339 different t sexual act ts (e.g. exhibition, touc hing, masturbation of another a pers son, genital sex, oral sex, ana al sex). 44.8% % of the girl ls had exper rienced conta act sexual abuse withou ut penetratio on, 13.5% penetrat ting sexual abuse a (corre esponding 13 3.0% respect tively 5.5% for f boys). C Compared to o the 35% (girls) or r 77% (boys) who had no ot experienc ced any abus se the popul lations of th he penetratin ng victim groups d differed and contained more m immigra ants, bigger city inhabita ants and the ey had paren nts with a lower so ocioeconomic c status. Of those who re eported sexu ual abuse 2.6 6% had been n filmed in an n abusive situation n and alcoho ol/drugs we ere involved in 42.0% of f the cases. There was a correlation found between n early sex debut and sex s abuse v victims, but -assessing the risk of r re-victimizat tion-most abuses o occurred afte er the sex de ebut. 13 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 5. RISK K FACTORS AND OUTC COMES 5.1 Risk k factors of perpetration p n A minor study on pe erpetrators (Tidefors 20 010), with 45 5 young sex offenders (1 13-22 years) ), studies the psyc chological background b factors for committing g sexual abu use. The fin ndings are that the offender rs estimated d depression n, anger and d anti-social behaviour higher and empathy an nd sexual openness lower than n the contro ol group. Th e boys in th he group had d been early y sexually ac ctive and bed a rigid image of sexuality. s Ma any of the boys had separated s sexually advanced, but describ parents, lived in fos ster care and/or (68%) h had contact with the so ocial service es already be efore the many (40%) had h experien nced sexual abuse themselves and 50% 5 had lear rning difficul lties (25% abuse, m of them with ADHD-diagnosis). Similar S findin ngs are foun nd in a study y from 1999 (Långström), with 46 young se ex offenders (12-20 years) subjective e to forensic c medical eva aluation. Th e sex offend ders were 3-4 time es more like ely to be declared insan ne to young non-sex offenders and adult sex offenders, signifyin ng that expe erts might consider c a y young individ dual´s sex offending o be ehaviour in itself as ve of a serious psychiatri ic disorder. A majority was w hyperact tive or inatte tentive in sch hool, had indicativ speech o or language problems and a more th han a third had been diagnosed wi th severe conditions affecting g the centr ral nervous system. Lo ow family economic e st tatus, disha rmonious upbringing conditions and sep parations fro om parents were common examp ples of psyc chosocial ad dversities nced during childhood. A majority had been bullied b and non-sexual antisocial acts a were experien prevalen nt. (Regardin ng this study y it should be noted th hat only app prox. 10% of f the prosec cuted sex offender rs are suspec cted to have e a psychiatr ric disorder and therefore subjected d to forensic c medical evaluatio on). c study (Set to et al 2010), with 4.0 000 particip pants in Swe eden and No orway, exam mines the A Nordic hypothes sis that exp periencing sexual s coerc cion is asso ociated with h engaging i in sexually coercive behaviou ur. The findi ings are that t youths who o had experi ienced sexua al coercion a are three tim mes more likely to o engage in coercive c sex xual behavio our than those without that t experie ence (10-12% % vs. 4%). The asso ociation rem mained signif ficant when controlling for e.g. non nsexual antis social behav viour and substanc ce use, whic ch means that the find dings support a robust link betwe een experien nced and performe ed sexual co oercion. 5.2 Vuln nerability factors for vic ctimization A study with the ma ain aim was to investiga ate trauma and a dissocia ation among Swedish ado olescents ed that girls (10-19 year rs) scored sig gnificantly hi igher than b boys in both a clinical (Nilsson 2007) showe and a no ormative group, and that t girls in the age range of o 14-15 gave e the signific cantly highes st scores. The stud dy used psyc chometric in nstruments (l like A-DES) to t evaluate the trauma status and it can be noted th hat Swedish adolescents a gave lower main scores than have been b reporte ed in other countries, c but the same mean for the clin nical group, where the girls g with kn nown experie enced traum ma/sexual ave the highe est scores. abuse ga evalence stu udy (Priebe 2010), conc centrated on n sexual abu use and psy ychosocial as spects of In a pre heath, 6 67% of the girls and 27% of the boys (in a population of 1.107 7 adolescent ts with the mean m age 18.3) rep ported some e form of sex xual abuse ex xperience. The T mean age e of the abu se was 14.0 years for girls and d 14.7 for bo oys. The per rpetrator on n the first ab buse occasio on was at lea ast 5 years older for 50% of t the girls and 38% of the boys. Sexua al abuse was s related to more emotio onal and behavioural problems and lower r self-esteem m when com mpared with non-abuse and the mo ore severe abuse a the the psychos social health h. But, whe en adjusted for socio-d demographic c and family y-related poorer t variables s, most of th he weaker he ealth variabl les disappeared. actor for being a victim of sexual ag ggression is selling s sex. Some S studies s have been n made in A risk fa Sweden on the issue e, one (Svedin et al 2004 4) is focused d on young people´s p hab bits, showing g that 1% of the gi irls and 1.8% % of the boys (1.4% of the e population, 4.343 persons mean ag ge 18) had so old sex at least on nce (the first transaction at the me edian age of f 15.9 years s). Compared d to the res st of the selling boys and girls we ere more aff flicted with asocial beha aviour and had h more population the sex-s social proble ems. The sex x-sellers had d a ‘sexualise ed’ life (with an early d debut, many partners psycho-s and adva anced sex) and a were less s controlled (smoking, drinking, abus sing drugs). 14 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 5.3 Outc comes A study on (152) wo omen subjec cted to child d sexual abu use in their childhood c (J Jonzon 2006) showed ly a third re evealed the abuse durin ng their chil ldhood (befo ore the age of 18) and that the that onl average delay of di isclosure wa as 21 years. Lacking self-esteem and social su upport were strongly related t to both psyc chological an nd psychosoc cial health, but also the nature/exte ent of the abuse a and the influ uence of othe er negative life l events p played a major part as well. s also a stu udy dealing with male e victims of f rape (Knutag책rd 2009 9) showing that the There is experien nce of rape drained their emotiona l energy. Th his put these e men in a p position whe ere there were no o words and d without words w they a are invisible e in society and not ab ble to process their experien nce of rape by b seeking pr rofessional h help. 15 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 6. EVID DENCE-BAS SED INTERV VENTIONS 6.1 Perp petration A study focused on treatment, was publish hed recently y by Swedish Council on n Health Te echnology Assessme ent (SBU). Seven S expert ts, most of t them from the t psychiatric field, ha as assembled d Swedish and inte ernational da ata on child sexual s abuse e, with meth hods for prev vention as th he main obje ect of the study (Lå ångström et al 2011). First of all the e report conf firms the est timation tha at only 10% of o the sex crimes in Sweden ar re reported to the autho orities (polic ce or social service) and d that the fig gure may be even lower when it comes to children as victims. dings on prev vention and treatment t ar re summarise ed as follows s: The find re is a lack of o knowledge e about effic cient method ds for treatm ment of child d sex abuser rs. This is ther serio ous as the aim of the tr reatment is to prevent new n abuses. More resea arch is neces ssary and such h research be ecomes even n more impo ortant if the e European Council C Conv vention on protection of ch hildren from sexual exploitation and d abuse is implemented; the scientific base b is not sufficient t to evaluate if there is s a treatme ent that can n reduce divism amon ngst adult sex x offenders; recid for y young sex off fenders ther re is limited support that t multi-syste em therapy p prevents rela apses; for children (un nder 13) wit th sexual be ehaviour dir rected towa ards other c children ther re is not ugh of scien ntific evidence of the re esult of cog gnitive behav viour therap py, nor is it possible enou toda ay to assess other o methods; for c children and adolescents s who have n not committ ted sexual of ffenses again nst children but is at risk of doing so there t is a lac ck of researc ch on preven ntive method ds. 6.2 Victimization lier (5.3.) me entioned stu udy by Jonzo on (2006), with adult wom men subjecte ed to sexual l abuse in The earl childhoo od or youth, showed that the influen nce of family y and social support and d inventions by social services and psychologists (e.g. through the erapy) had a limited influence on th he life quality of the victims. This can als so be a reaso on why these e women had d turned to the organisa ation that formed the population for the study. Inst tead the be est outcome e was often n related to o the findin ng of an anding life partner. understa n and young people victi imized by se exual abuses s oftentimes have to me eet a lot of different Children professio onals to hav ve the crime e investigate ed and to ge et psychosoc cial rehabilit tation. One practical disadvan ntage with th hese multi-t task interven ntions is that t these servi ices are not coordinated d and are found in n different places (police e stations, ho ospitals, clin nics, social centres, c etc. .). A solution n is Child Advocac cy Centres an nd 27 such centres c have e been estab blished in Sw weden since 2005. The main m idea erican origin) of these institutions i is that a ch hild (under 18) 1 suspecte ed to be a victim v of (of Ame violent o or sexual cri imes should get all the help and inv vestigation resources r ‘un nder the sam me roof’, meaning g that they go to a special centre where polic ce, prosecutors, social w workers, pae ediatrics, child ps sychiatrists and a child psychologists p s are gather red to coop perate in th he investiga ation and treatment of the ch hild. The Sw wedish child c centres wer re evaluated in 2006 and d 2010 and the main s more secu ure, that the e (not suspec cted) parent ts are satisf fied, that findings are that the child feels the coop peration bet tween differ rent disciplin nes is impro oved and tha at the psych osocial interventions come at an earlier st tage compar red to tradit ional organis sation. other hand the t prosecuti ions were no ot more freq quent in the CAC district ts than in the control On the o group. O One reason for f the lack of differen ce in prosec cutions is th hat the role of the pros secutor is essential for the ou utcome of th he process; with a pros secutor that is ‘present’ ’ the odds are a much than with a prosecutor that is ‘dist tant’ - and in some CAC Cs the prose ecutors were e absent. better t Another problem wi ith the CACs s in Sweden today is tha at the very young victim ms (under 4) ) and the teenagers (13-18 yea ars) -though belonging to o the target group- seldo om get acces ss to the serv vices. 16 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 7. SUM MMARY/CON NCLUSIONS Youth se exual aggress sion and victimization co onstitutes a major problem in Swed den. 7-14% of all girls and 3-6% % boys are -a according to o recent prev valence stud dies- forced to intercour rse before th he age of 18. In a survey of 18 1 years olds 14% of the e girls and 4.7% 4 of the boys stated that they had h been subjecte ed to some kind k of sexual abuse dur ring the past 12 months s. Another si ign is that th he police reports on rape has s increased immensely, i y (2000-2 2008, all age es), and tha at almost 260% in 8 years ren (under 15, including attempts) are a reported each year. 2.000 rapes of childr 8 the pub blic and scientific interest has been focused on violence For a longer period -since the 80swomen and on child se exual abuse, but lately the issue of f sexually a abused teena agers has against w entered the agenda. . Still there is i no answer r to the ques stion why the e frequency of reported rape has increase ed that much h; if it is a result of a higher tend dency to rep port or if it is a factual l raise of occurred d abuses. Ce ertainly, the e willingness s of the vic ctim to make a police r report has increased i during t the last dec cade, due to t a change e of attitude to rape victims v (by the police and the environm ment), but it i may also be a fact t that sexual and a cultural l habits (som me related to t drugs, others to o Internet) amongst a teen nagers have risen the risk of sexual victimization v n. mportance (at ( least for r the high level of repo orts) is the never endin ng public Another factor of im attention and media a debate on rape in Swe eden, not sel ldom connec cted to the w weaknesses in law or ctice. In general the Swe edish law on n sexual crim mes is up to date, d but as the old definition of law prac rape -as coercion- remains, the ere is a lot of criticism m against the e lack of m modernisation n of that paragrap ph. Now and d then there e are single e cases that draw the public p atten ntion, re-starting the discussio on about cha anging the rape r law or expressing frustration about a the d difficulties to o convict child sex x abusers. Th hese debates s have creat ted some com mmon insights by the pu blic, e.g. that not all child sex x abusers ar re paedophile es and that the possibilities for an incest victim m of gaining ‘justice’ are scar rce if years have h passed when the a abuse is disc closed. There is also gen neral accept tance for the sayin ng ‘a no is al lways a no, no n matter ho ow late it is expressed’. rror of the public p intere est in the m matter there e are many GOs G and NG GOs working with the As a mir problems of sexual victimizatio on. There ha ave also bee en a lot of studies s perfo ormed in Sw weden on udes and crim mes. Lately there have been b some studies s on ris sk and on pr revention sexual habits, attitu , but the fi indings are limited. Re egarding tre eatment for offenders no rehabilit tation or as well, preventi ion method has been fo ound efficien nt, but a reason for tha at could be that too few w efforts have bee en made in that field (i in Sweden o or elsewhere e). Finally, it t should be noted the age a range between n 20 and 25 years has not got any s special atten ntion yet (as this catego ory in Sweden is not regarded d as ‘youth’, , but ‘adults’). 17 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 APPEND DIX I. INFOR RMATION ON O INSTITUT TIONS, ORG GANISATION NS AND SER RVICES im-oriented d institutions s, organisati ions and ser rvices 1. Victi 1.1 Nat tional level C on and Supp port Authori ity (Brottsof ffermyndigh heten) The Crime Victim Compensati Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.brott tsoffermyndi igheten.se/ Nation nal Agency, G GO. The Crime Victim Compensati ion and Supp port Authorit ty promotes support for crime victims in general and a provide compensatio c on for crime victims nknown per rpetrators (or ( when perpetrators p fail to pay p the of un compe ensation to the victim). The agency y also perfor rms research h on the impac ct of crime victimizatio on and a prioritised are ea is psychical and sexual violence ag gainst women and children. ational Organ nisation for Women’s an nd Young Women’s W She elters (ROKS) ) The Na Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description www.roks.se NGO. ROKS is based on a feminist id deology, and d is the bigg gest organisa ation for wome en´s shelters s in Sweden and has around 100 sh helters all over o the country. The aim m is to prot tect women and childre en who hav ve been ct to violenc ce or rape. The T work of the national l organisatio on is not subjec limite ed to suppor rt the local shelters (that have fina ancial suppo ort from the lo ocal commun nity, but are e independen nt) - a major r task is to promote p preventive efforts s. Within the organisation there are e approxima ately 30 ers specialise ed in the nee eds of young girls (Tjejjo ourer). shelte em Terrafe Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.terra afem.org/ NGO. Terraf fem works f for the right t of women of all ages to live in a society without the violen nce and abuse of men. Terrafem T wa as founded in March who earlier had worked d with a she elter for immigrant 2000 by women w en, the first of its kind in Sweden. Terrafem´s work is base ed on a wome perspe ective of bo oth gender and a ethnicity y. Terrafem runs Sweden n’s only nation nal helpline for immigrant women of all ages. T The helpline (020-52 10 10) offers supp port in 43 languages. Terrafem’s also o gives legal advice o women shelter, a shelter s for girls g and apa artments with daily and offer suppo ort. riga till sexu uellt utnyttj jade barn) (The Associa ation of fam milies of ATSUB (Föreningen för anhör sexuall ly abused ch hildren) Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.atsub b.se/index.p php NGO. ATSUB B is an orga nisation that works with h sexually a abused children and their parents. The ey offer a he elp phone, support for c children and parents vate and/or in groups, legal l aid and d activities f for abused children c in priv (summ mer camps, o open house, etc.). 18 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 i (RSCI) Stödcentrum mot incest Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description www.rsci.nu NGO. RSCI is i an organis sation forme ed in 1981 which w gives support to women who have h been subjected to t incest in the childho ood or yout th. The suppo ort in given i in therapeut tic groups. It also organ nises worksho ops and inform mation meeti ings. wedish Asso ociation of Women’s W Sh helters and Young Women’s Empo owerment Centres C The Sw (Sverig ges Kvinno- och o tjejjour rers riksförb bund (SKR)) Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description www.kvinnojour.c com NGO. SKR is s a national l association n of women’ ’s shelters ( kvinnojour), young wome en’s empowe erment cent tres (tjejjou ur), relative es’ associatio ons and other organisation ns working to o prevent an nd put a stop p to men’s violence v agains st women. T The association is not aff filiated to an ny political party p or religio on. SKR has a about 90 me ember-organi isations. ofridslinjen Kvinno Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //kvinnofrids slinjen.se/ NGO. Kvinno ofridslinjen is a nation nal helpline e for wome en who hav ve been subjec cted to threa ats and viole ence. The lin ne is open ar round the clock and free of o charge. S Association (Br rottsofferjou uren (BOJ)) The Crime Victim Support Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //boj.se/ NGO. BOJ is s a non-profi it organisatio on that work ks with victim ms of crime and the work is based on n internation nal conventions on hum man rights. BOJ B coates the wor rk of local su upport group ps and there e are over 10 00 local ordina Victim m Support Ce entres in Swe eden. uren.se Tjejjou Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.tjejj ouren.se/ NGO. Tjejjo ouren.se is a national l young wo omen´s em powerment centre intern net portal aim med at 12-2 20 year olds and is a way y to reach all young wome en who are in n need of support. The website w cont tains contact t details of ove er 60 empow werment ce entres all ov ver Sweden. Young wom men can pose questions o on-line whi ich will be e answered within 48 hours. ected to the e website th here is also an intranet where the women Conne working at the ce ntres can ex xchange thou ughts and exp periences. uset Novahu Website e Type of f organisatio on http:/ //www.nova ahuset.com/ Non-p profit organis sation, NGO. . 19 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Short d description The target t group p is adolesce ents betwee en 12-25 yea ars who hav ve been sexually victimize ed. Novahuse et offers support via tele ephone, onli ine chat selling, thera apy groups and a support in contact with w the and e-mail, couns y also offer r lectures and a spread information n about authorities. They on and right t now (2012) there is a c campaign in Swedish S sexual victimizatio ernet’. schools regarding ‘Youth, Sex and the Inte 1.2 Reg gional/local level n’s Shelters (Kvinnojour rer) Women Website e Wome en´s Shelter rs that are members of o The Swed dish Associa ation of Wome en’s Shelters s and Young g Women’s Empowerme ent Centres can be found via this link k: //www.kvinn nojouren.se/ /node/3706 http:/ NGO. The Swedish S mov vement of women´s w sh helters has b been an im mportant driving force in m making men n´s violence against wo omen visible and in cting and su pporting wo omen who ha ave been sub bjected to vi iolence. protec There e are about 140 local wo omen´s shel lters in Swed den support ting and helpin ng women su ubjected to violence. Most M shelters s offer coun nselling, advice e, safe acco ommodation and support in contac ct with the police, social services, fa amily court and a the legal system. Type of f organisatio on Short d description mpowermen nt Centres (T Tjejjourer) Young Women’s Em Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description Young g Women’s E mpowermen nt Centres ca an be found v via this link http:/ //www.tjejj ouren.se/ko ontakta-en-jo our NGO. There e are about 60 young women´s w empowerment centres in Sweden and 25 2 of these are members of the Sw wedish Assoc ciation of Women’s W Shelte ers and You n’s Empowe erment Cent tres. Many of the ung Women Empow werment Ce entres are attached a to a women´s s shelter bu ut their work is i different f from the wo ork of the she elters. The b biggest difference is that the t Empower rment Centr res meet girl ls who have questions about all kinds of things, n not just abou ut violence, e.g. relatio onships, sex, , sexual assaul lt, bullying and substance abuse. Another difference is that Empow werment Ce entres work more with outreach an nd preventio ons than wome en´s shelters s do. The tar rget group varies from c centre to cen ntre but is usually girls an d young wom men from 13 3 to their ea arly twenties s. Some es have a tel lephone help pline. centre Victim Supp port Centres Crime V Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description efanten BUP-Ele Website e Type of f organisatio on http:/ //www.lio.se e/Verksamhe eter/Narsjuk kvarden-i-ce entralaOsterg gotland/BUP P-kliniken-i-L Linkoping/BU UP-Elefanten n/ Region nal health ca are with national tasks. All Cri ime Victim S Support Cent tres can be found f via thi s link http:/ //boj.se/?c= =4&pg=73 NGO. There e are over 100 local Crime C Victim m Support C Centres in Sweden, S organised by the C Crime Victim m Support Associations (B BOJ). 20 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Short d description In the e region of Östergötland d, at the Un niversity Hos spital in Lin nköping, there is a special l unit for ch hildren and adolescents a up to 18 ye ears old subjec cted to sexu ual abuse an nd children and a adolesce ents up to 18 years old who w have co mmitted sex xual abuse. BUP-Elefant ten prioritis ses high availa ability and early inter rvention in terms of support and d crisis manag gement, an nd if nece essary, lon nger-lasting psychother rapeutic contact. The tre eatment me ethods are support, c crisis interve entions, dual and fa amily counse elling, child d therapy, E EMDR and traumat individ focuse ed cognitive e behavioural therapy. BUP-Elefan nten interac cts with Barnahusteamet, a specialised d team work king with chi ld abuse and d sexual abuse. u is also responsible e for the national n chil ld- and ado olescent The unit psychiatric netwo ork concernin ng child sexu ual abuse and d sexual abu use. The ork spreads information n about policies, legisla ation, invest tigation, netwo treatm ment and e education to o members from the Swedish child and adoles scent psychi iatry. The unit u is also a member o of The Intern national Societ ty for the P Prevention of f Child Abus se and Negle ect (ISPCAN),43 The Ameri ican Professi ional Society y on the Abuse of Child dren (APSAC),44 and The British B Associ iation for th he Study of Prevention of Child Abu use and Neglect (BASPCAN N).45 u also con arch in collaboration w with the Division of The unit nducts resea Child and Adoles scent Psychiatry at the e Departme ent of Clinic cal and Experimental Med dicine (IKE) at a the Linköp ping Universi ity. Ungdom MariaU Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.mari aungdom.se/ Region nal health ca are. MariaU Ungdom (MU U) is a count ty council´s drive regard ding health care c for person ns under 20 years who have h och are likely to de evelop an alc cohol or drug addiction. There are psychiatris sts, psychol logists and family pists workin ng in the outpatient o care and t they offer a more therap specia alised treatm ment for you ung people who w have bee en sexually abused, young g people wit h suicidal th houghts and young peop ple who suff fer from other traumatic e experiences. Möjligheter 1000 M Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.1000 0mojligheter.se/ Non-p profit organis sation, NGO. . 1000 Möjligheter is a recent t established organisati ion and the e target ents betwee en 13-25 ye ears. The p primary wor rk is to group is adolesce ort and emp power youth h. They offe er counsellin ng and supp port via suppo teleph hone or an online chat and therap py groups. T They can als so offer suppo ort in conta act with th he authorities and/or health care e. 1000 Möjlig gheter also works preve entively thr rough educa ation, lobbyi ing and opinio on work. 43 44 45 http:// /www.ispcan.org/ http:// /www.apsac.o org/ http:// /www.baspcan.org.uk/ 21 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 petrator-orie ented institutions 2. Perp 2.1 Nat tional level nTell Preven Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //preventell .se/ GO. PreventTell is a national helpline h for persons e experiencing sexual nctions, se exual deviations and hyper-sexu al disorder rs (sex dysfun addict tion). The h helpline was established by the Cen ntrum för An ndrologi och Se exualmedicin n at Karolins ska Universit ty Hospital. sh National Board B of Inst titutional Ca are (Statens s institutions sstyrelse) Swedis Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.stat-inst.se/ Gover rnment auth hority super rvised by th he Swedish National Bo oard of Health h and Welfar re (Socialsty yrelsen). The Swedish Nati onal Board of Institutional Care (SiS S) is administrating compu ulsory care e for youn ng people demonstra ating psycho-social proble ems, substan nce abuse an nd criminal behaviour. S SiS also gives s grants for scientific rese arch on this category of young peopl le. sh Prison and d Probation Service (Kr riminalvårde en) Swedis Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.krim inalvarden.s se/ GO. The Swedish Priso on and Proba ation Service e is part of the judicial system prisons and the t rehabilitation of offe enders. The aims of and handles the p icy are to reduce r crim minality and increase sa afety in the criminal poli societ ty. The Priso on and Proba ation Service e’s main task ks are to imp plement prison n sentences s and proba ation, reduc ce relapse in crime through treatm ment progr rams, to be b responsi ible for th he supervis sion of condit tionally rele eased perso ons, to im mplement se entences re egarding comm munity servic ce and to carry c out pre-sentence reports in criminal c cases. . 2.2 Reg gional/local level um för Andro ologi och Sex xualmedicin n Centru Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.karo linska.se/Ve erksamhetern nas/Kliniker-enhet ter/Endokrin kliniken/Cen ntrum-Andro ologi--Sexual lmedicin/ Region nal health ca are. Centrum för And rologi och Sexualmedic S cin was esta ablished in 2006 2 at rsity Hospita al. The centre combines s both medical and Karolinska Univer psychological trea atment. Within the cent tre there is a clinic that treats a women with e.g. disturbances d s in their se exual develo opment, men and paraphilias, sexua al compulsiv vity and sexu ual violence. . Patients, with w any e asked if the t initial in nvestigation can be form of sexual d eviance, are mented. The e aim is to create a basis b for dia agnosis, trea atment, docum measu urement of treatment effects an nd contribut te new kno owledge conce erning sexua l deviance as a a form of preventive e work. The e centre serves s also as a kn nowledge-ce entre for GOs s, NGOs and the health-c care. 22 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 efanten BUP-Ele Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.lio.se e/Verksamhe eter/Narsjuk kvarden-i-ce entralaOsterg gotland/BUP P-kliniken-i-L Linkoping/BU UP-Elefanten n/ Region nal health ca are. In the e region of รstergรถtland d, at the Un niversity Hos spital in Lin nkรถping, there is a special l unit for children- and adolescents up to 18 ye ears old subjec cted to sexu ual abuse and children- and adolesce ents up to 18 1 years old who w have co mmitted sex xual abuse. BUP-Elefant ten prioritis ses high availa ability and early inter rvention in terms of support and d crisis manag gement, an nd if nece essary, lon nger-lasting psychother rapeutic contact. The tre eatment me ethods are support, c crisis interve entions, dual and fa amily counse elling, child d therapy, E EMDR and traumat individ focuse ed cognitive e behavioural therapy. BUP-Elefan nten interac cts with Barnahusteamet, a specialised d team work king with chi ld abuse and d sexual abuse. u is also responsible e for the national n chil ld- and ado olescent The unit psychiatric netwo ork concernin ng child sexu ual abuse and d sexual abu use. The ork spreads information n about policies, legisla ation, invest tigation, netwo treatm ment and e education to o members from the Swedish child and adoles scent psychi iatry. The unit u is also a member o of The Intern national Societ ty for the P Prevention of f Child Abus se and Negle ect (ISPCAN),46 The Ameri ican Professi ional Society y on the Abuse of Child dren (APSAC),47 and The British B Associ iation for th he Study of Prevention of Child Abu use and Neglect (BASPCAN N).48 u also con arch in collaboration w with the Division of The unit nducts resea Child and Adoles scent Psychiatry at the e Departme ent of Clinic cal and Experimental Med dicine (IKE) at a the Linkรถp ping Universi ity. essional training, health h education and researc ch 3 Profe 3.1 Nat tional level ational Board d of Health and Welfare e (Socialstyr relsen) The Na Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.socia alstyrelsen.se/ A gove ernment age ency under the Ministry of o Health and d Social Affa airs. Superv vises all loc cal activities s concerning g support/ca are for victi ims and offend ders (medica al care, psyc chiatric trea atment, inst titutional care etc.) The board b gives support, exerts e influe ence and s supervises in n many different ways: c collect, com mpile, analy yse and pas ss on information, op standard s based on legislation and a the info ormation collected, develo exerci ise supervisi ion to ensur re that the standards s ar re observed, and to minim mise risk and d improve patient p safet ty. The boa ard also und dertakes other official du uties such as a maintaini ing health d data registe ers and officia al statistics. 46 47 48 http:// /www.ispcan.org/ http:// /www.apsac.o org/ http:// /www.baspcan.org.uk/ 23 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 UMO Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.umo. .se/ The developmen d t of UMO has been financed b by the Mini istry of Integr ration and Ge ity and the operation o of the site is financed ender Equali by the e county cou uncils and mu unicipalities. UMO is i a national web-based youth friend dly clinic for r young peop ple aged 13 to 25 years. T The purpose of the site is to make it easier for young people e to find re elevant, curr rent and qua ality assured d information about sex, health h and re elationships. UMO is dedicated to inc crease and enhance e empow werment and n young peop ple’s lives. U UMO is devel loped in d equality in co-ope eration with h young peop ple in Swede en, youth cli inics, school health servic ces, NGO: s a and professio onals working with young g people. mbudsmanne en (The Omb budsman fo r Children) Barnom Website e Type of f organisatio on http:/ //www.barn ombudsmannen.se/ The Ombudsman O for Children n is appointe ed by the Sw wedish Gove ernment for a term of six years. The Ombudsman O ’s main duty y is to prom mote the sts of childr ren and you ung people a as set forth h in the rights and interes United d Nations Co onvention on the Rights of o the Child (CRC). In Sweden, childr ren and young people up u to the ag ge of 18 hav ve their o The agency monitors the implement tation of the e CRC in own ombudsman. Swede en. For ins stance the Ombudsman n submits b bills for leg gislative chang ges to the Sw wedish Gover rnment and promotes p the e application n of the CRC in i the work k of governm ment agenci ies, municip palities and county counc cils. The agen ncy also diss seminates information on n the Conven ntion. A key duty of the O Ombudsman for Children n in Sweden is to partici ipate in c debate, p promote pu ublic interes st regarding g key issue es, and public influe ence the atti tudes of dec cision-maker rs and the pu ublic. Each year y the Ombudsman for C Children in Sw weden submits a report t to the Gover rnment. This report r addre esses the situ uation of children and y young people e in the country. Short d description sh Media Cou uncil (Staten ns Medieråd d) Swedis Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.state ensmedierad d.se/ Nation nal authority y. The Sw wedish Medi a Council is working with children’s and young people’s p media a situation, w with an aim m to reduce the risks of f harmful eff fects of the media and to empower th he children in n their media a use. The Sw wedish Natio onal Council for Crime P Prevention (Brottsföreb byggande råd det (BRÅ)) Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.bra.s se/bra.html Nation nal agency u under the Min nistry of Just tice. The Swedish S Nat tional Counc cil for Crim me Preventio on is a cen ntre for resear rch and dev velopment within w the judicial sys stem and primarily works to reduce crime and d improve levels of sa afety in soc ciety by producing data and dissem minating kno owledge on crime and d crime prevention work. The counc cil also prod duces Swede en´s official crime tics, evalua ates reform ms, conduct ts research to develo op new statist knowl ledge and p provides support to loca al crime pre evention work. The result ts of the Cou uncil’s work are a basis for decision n makers wit thin the judicial system, t he Parliament and the Government. G . The Counse el often oration with h other org ganisations and public sector works in collabo agenc cies. 24 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 wedish Natio onal Board fo or Youth Aff fairs (Ungdo omsstyrelsen n) The Sw Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.ungd domsstyrelsen.se/main/ Gover rnment agen cy. The Sw wedish Natio onal Board fo or Youth Affairs works to o ensure tha at young people e have ac ccess to influence and welfare. It produces and comm municates kn nowledge about a young g people´s living con nditions, follow ws up the o objectives se et for national youth p policy and supports s munic cipalities in t their youth policy p work. It also distr ributes funds to the civil society in t the form of o support of o organisat tions, projec cts and national co-o operation. The target gr roups are de ecision-make ers, civil intern servan nts and or rganisations working with w young people, women, w homos sexual, bise exual and transgender people, n national min norities, ethnic c minorities, , etc.). Since e 2006 the agency a has w worked with certain specia al tasks giv ven by the government, including g forced marriage, violen nce against young wom men and on n the them me Youth, Sex S and Intern net. al Centre fo or Knowledg ge on Men’s Violence Against A Women (NCK) Th he National Centre Nationa for Women’s Peace e (Nationellt centrum fö för kvinnofri id (NCK)) Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.nck.u uu.se/ Funde ed by the gov vernment. NCK is a knowled dge and reso ource centre e based at Uppsala Uni iversity. a is to inc crease knowl ledge of men´s violence e against wo omen in The aim Swede en, and to d develop meth hods for the treatment and care of women subjec cted to viole ence. The centre has a clinic for w women subje ected to violen nce at Uppsa ala Universit ty Hospital. The centre is also resp ponsible for Kv vinnofridslin njen, a national helplin ne for wome en who hav ve been subjec cted to threa ats and viole ence. ational Assoc ciation for Sexual S Educa ation (RFSU) ) The Na Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description www.rfsu.se NGO. RFSU, National A Association for Sexual Education, is an organisation promoting se exual educat tion and sex policy information. founded in 1933 p a of the or rganisation is i to spread an open an nd knowledge e based The aim view upon sexua al issues. RFSU works with educat tion and lo obbying, y, nationwid de and intern nationally. locally wedish Federation for Le esbian, Gay , Bisexual and Transgen nder Rights ( (RFSL) The Sw Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.rfsl.s se/ NGO. RFSL is a non-pro ofit organisa ation that wo orks with an nd for the rights of an, gay, bise exual and tra ansgender pe eople (LGBT T). It is non-p partisan lesbia and not affiliated d with any religious orga anisation. RF FSL was founded in 1950 and is one o of the world d’s oldest LG GBT organisa ations. RFSL’ ’s vision u goa l is a societ ty that is ch haracterised by respect for and and ultimate accep ptance of p people’s diff ferences on such a sw weeping sca ale that organisations such h as RFSL ar re no longer r necessary. RFSL’s obje ective is t same righ hts, opportu unities and obligations wi ill be applica able for that the LGBT people as th hey are for everyone e else e in society. 25 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 RFSL works to im mprove the quality of life for LG BT people through cal lobbying g, informatio on dissemina ation, and t the organisa ation of politic social and suppo ort activitie es. Internati ionally, RFS SL works with w the national Lesb bian and Ga ay Associatio on (ILGA) an nd also colla aborates Intern with other o LGBT o organisations s in neighbou uring countri ies. en´s Rights in i the Socie ety (BRIS) Childre Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //bris.se/ NGO. BRIS supports s chil ldren in dist tress and is a link betwe een children, adults and the communi ity. All supp port services s build on v volunteer wo ork and cial support , primarily from corporate co-ope eration and private financ person ns, and to a small extent governmen nt grants. vices is to st trengthen th he rights of children c The goal of BRIS’ support serv oung people and improve e their living g conditions, , which is do one with and yo the UN U Conventio on on the Rights R of the Child as a guide. BR RIS shall suppo ort vulnerabl le children and a young pe eople in part ticular, and provide oppor rtunities for children and d young peo ople to condu uct a dialogue with adults s. ore of the su upport servic ces is the Ch hildren’s Help pline, the BR RIS-mail The co and the BRIS-cha at, which children and young y peopl le from arou und the up to age 18 to safely, anonymously a y and free of f charge country can use u c and e-m mail adults at t BRIS. call, chat he Children Sweden (Rä ädda barnen n) Save th Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.rb.se e/Pages/default.aspx NGO, Charity orga anisation. Save the children n in a non-governmental organisatio on. The basi is of its ed Nations Co onvention on n the Rights s of the Child (CRC) work is the Unite Nations’ Dec claration on Human Righ hts. These build b on and the United N rinciples tha at all people are equal, children c hav ve special rig ghts and the pr everyo one has a responsibility - but governments g s have a special obliga ation. o decision makers -from local Save the Childre n exert an influence on e United Na ations- to see to the be est interests s of the authorities to the blic opinion n and spread knowledg ge about ch hildren’s child, arouse pub s and rights a and exert an n influence on o legislation n for the be enefit of needs childr ren. ECPAT Sweden Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.ecpa at.se/ NGO. ECPAT T is a nation nal branch of o an interna ational organ nisation working for the right of chil ldren not to t become victims of commercial sexual exploi itation, in f form of e.g. trafficking g, child sex tourism an nd child pornography. It i is primarily a lobby or rganisation p promoting tools t to prevent this explo oitation. The e focus is on n the deman nd, on the bu uyers of o make a pro ofit from it. ECPAT Sweden has child sex and the people who lished a coop peration wit th the Swedis sh police to block Intern net sites establ with child c pornog raphy and with w the bank ks to stop cr redit card pa ayments to the e distributors s of child pornography. 26 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 ganisationen n mot sexue ella övergrep pp (HOPP) Riksorg Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.hopp p.org/ NGO. HOPP is a non-pol litical and a non-religious organisatio on working with w the prevention of s sexual abus se. HOPP also a strives s to improve the victims that have been subjected to abuse. HOPP works rehabilitation of v e improving g knowledg ge and with a multi-d isciplinary perspective tigation qua ality by edu ucation, pub blishing, lob bbying and opinion invest work. ty Internatio onal (Swede en) Amnest Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.amne esty.se/ NGO. Amnesty Internat tional is a global g move ement of m ore than 3 million orters, mem mbers and activists in more than 150 countries and suppo territo ories who ca ampaign to end e grave ab buses of hum man rights. Amnesty A Intern national wor ks with e.g. sexual and reproductiv ve health and right, violen nce against w women and trafficking. In 2009 Am mnesty Intern national publis shed the st tudy ‘Case closed’ concerning ra ape in the Nordic countries (Sweden n, Finland, Norway N and Denmark). D es Kvinnolob bby (SKL) Sverige Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.sveri igeskvinnolobby.se/web/ /page.aspx?s sid=5579 NGO. SKL is s an umbrella a organisatio on working to t strengthen n women´s position in soc ciety and has s 35 membe er organisatio ons. SKL is t the Swedish section within n the Europ pean Women n´s Lobby (EWL), the European umbrella organisations for n national and d European women´s w orga anisations. ational Asso ociation You uth for Soc cial Health (Riksförbun ndet Ungdom m för Socia al hälsa The Na (RUS)) Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.rus-r riks.se/ NGO. RUS is s an umbrell a organisatio on for young g people up t to 30 years old o with experiences of psychologica al or social problems. . RUS work ks with inform mation and lobbying an nd the mem mber organis sations offers peer suppo ort. mar.se Ungdom Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //ungdomar. .se/ Privat te organisatio on Ungdo omar.se was established in 2000 and is an intern net-based ve ersion of youth receptions (ungdomsmo ottagningar) open at all l hours. It is s one of the la argest infor mation-sites s for health and well-b being with 100 000 unique e visitors pe er week. Th he website turns to you uth between 15-24 years old. An exp pert-panel an nswers quest tions posed o on the site and the website also offe ers articles, forums, pho oto albums, blogs and personal p ort. suppo 27 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 wedish Natio onal Centre for f Child He ealth Promotion (Nation nellt centrum m för främja ande av The Sw god hälsa hos barn n och ungdom m (NCFF)) Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.oru.s se/NCFF/ GO. In 200 04 the Swedi sh Governme ent approved d a bill to es stablish the Swedish S Nation nal Centre P Promoting Physical Activ vity among C Children and d Youth (NCFF F) at the Öre ebro Univers sity. In 2006 the mandat te of the NC CFF was extended to prom mote healthy y eating hab bits and oth her aspects of good h in childre en and ado olescents. In conjuncti ion with th his, the health centre e´s name w was changed to The Swe edish Nation al Centre fo or Child Health h Promotion . The NCFF is i established d at the Öre ebro University. 3.2 Reg gional/local level r) Youth Receptions (Ungdomsmottagningar Website e Type of f organisatio on Short d description All the e youth rece eptions in Sw weden can be e located via a this link http:/ //www.umo .se/Ungdom msmottagning gar/ Region nal health ca are. On th he local lev vel there ar re Youth ce entres in ea ach municipality in Swede en providing g free inform mation and advisory psyc chosocial ser rvices in all dimensions of f young life for persons s (mostly) b between 12 and 25 . They offe er medical examination n (for vene ereal disease es) and years. provid de contracep ptives. 28 Country Report t Sweden, 2012 A APPENDIX II. RES SEARCH ON PRE EVALENCE, RISK K FACTORS AND D EVIDENCE BAS SED INTERVENTIONS In nclusion criteria: Studies from 200 00 onwards; only y studies reportin ng youth sexual aggression a (exclud ding cases of childhood sexual ab buse, as defined by le egal age of consent). For exceptions, see individual l studies. No. Author Year of public. Prevalence data 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 8a. 8b. 8c. 8d. 8e. 9. 10. 11. 12. Långström, N., eimer, G., Westerstrand, J., Lundgren, E., He A-M. Kalliokoski, A Edgardh, K. chei, B., Swahnberg, K., K Hilden, M., Wijma, B., Sc Offerdal, K., Pikarinen, U., Sideniu us, K., et al. Svedin, C.G., Nilsson, D., Lindell, C. C Dünkel, F., Gebauer, D., Grzywa, J. J & Kestermann, C. Jonzon, E. Svedin, C.G., & Priebe, G. (NOVA Report) R Priebe, G., Sv vedin, C.G. Priebe, G., & Svedin, C.G Priebe, G., Hansson, K., Svedin, C. .G. jellgren, C., Priebe, G., G Mossige, S., Seto, M.C., Kj Svedin, C.G., Långström, N. Svedin, C.G., Åkerman, I., Priebe, G. Danielsson, I., Blom, H., Nilses, C., Heimer, G., Högberg, U. Kjellgren, C., , & Priebe, G., & Sved din, G.C. Tidefors, I. Tikkanen, R.H H., Abelsson, J., Forsb berg, M. Total 1999 2001 2002 2003 2004 2006 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2010 2011 2009 2010 2010 2011 x x x x x x x x x 9 Incidence data 0 Perpetration Data X X X X X X 6 Study characteristic cs Vict timizat tion da ata x x x x x x x x x x x x 1 12 Heterosexual aggression Not specified x x Not specified Not specified Not specified x Not specified x Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified x Not specified 5 Same-sex aggression Not specified x Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified x Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified x Not specified 3 Risk factors x x findings f on disclosure d x x x x x x x 9 mes Outcom x x 2 29 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 1. ng sex offen nders: Individ dual characteristics, age ency reaction ns and Långström, N. (1999). Youn iminal recidi ivism. Retro Print, Stock kholm. cri 1988-1997. Adolescent and a young se ex offenders s (YSO; 12-20 0 years) who o were subje ected to forensic med dicine evalua ation. Total N = 56. m n = 2 fe emale. n = 54 male, Retrospectiv ve cohort st tudy with follow-up, f a cross-sectio onal approa ach was used in the analysis of medico-lega al assessments. The aim was to construct a preliminary typology b based on offence-related characte eristics and d assess validity in terms t of ba ackground an nd clinical properties, p a as well as criminal c recidivism. Legal definit tion of rape and sexual abuse. a Examination n of forensic c records (f file analysis) by a fore nsic psychia atrist, a clinical psy ychologist a and a socia al worker of each c case, follow w-up on reconviction ns: men and d women as p perpetrators s; men and d women as v victims. nd perpetrato or: Sex constellation betwee en victim an heterose exual: male perpetrator - female vic ctim; heterose exual: femal le perpetrato or - male vic ctim; same-se ex men. ex constellat tion between victim and d perpetrato or included, by not Note: all se reflected in the result re egarding risk k factors. All (stranger r, family mem mber, (ex-)p partner, friend). elationship in ncluded, by not reflect ted in the re esult regard ding risk Note: all re factors. N/a N/a YSOs were 3-4 3 times mo ore likely to be declared insane comp pared to you ung nonsex offender rs and adult sex offenders. mple had at least one conviction for any Recidivism: 65% of the studied sam crime after the index c rime, 20% fo or a sexual offence. o Risk lated to k factors rel individual characteristic c cs were com mmon amon ng the youn g sex offen nders. A majority we ere hyperacti ive or inatte entive in school, half of them had a genetic risk of psychiatric disor rder, slightly y fewer had d speech or language problems and more th han a third h ad been diagnosed with severe cond ditions affecting the central nerv vous system ; motor con ntrol deficie encies, epile epsy with re ecurrent seizures or absence att tacks, and visual and hearing h disa abilities. Few w cases ntelligence, psychopath hy, and were diagnosed with borderline or lower in buse. substance ab status, famil ly conflict and a extensiv ve separations from Low family economic s ere commo on example es of vari ious psycho osocial adv versities parents we experienced d during chil ldhood and adolescence e. A majorit ty had been bullied and several presented w with social sk kill deficiencies. Year of f data collecti ion Type of f sample Sample e compos sition Design Measur rement of sexual sion aggress Type of f data collecte ed Relatio onship(s) betwee en victim and per rpetrator Inciden nce Prevale ence Finding gs regardi ing risk factors 30 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Finding gs regardi ing mes or outcom consequences Additio onal findings s Observa ations Finally, previous non-se exual antiso ocial acts including pro perty offenc ces and olence were prevalent. YSOs were more often n declared medicophysical vio legally insan ne than oth her young delinquents and a adult se rs. YSOs ex offender known for se exually abus sive behaviou urs by social l services, m mental health h or law enforcement agencies b before the in ndex crime had seldom been handled with y co-operatio on or with a focus on th he offending g behaviours per se. inter-agency The factors predictive o of sexual crim minal reconv victions were re mainly ass sociated with pronounced sexual deviance. N/a This sample e very simila ar to popula ations previo ously describ bed in repor rts from North American and UK settings. It must be noted that all individua als in the st tudy were su uspected to have a whereas the e common rate is ap pprox. 10% among psychiatric disorder (w o of f sexual crimes). prosecuted offenders 2. esterstrand, J., Lundgre en, E., Heim mer, G., & Kalliokoski, K A-M. A (2001). . Slagen dam m. Mäns We vå åld mot kv vinnor i jäm mställda Sv verige - en omfångsunde o ersökning. The Crime Victim Co ompensation and Suppo ort Authority y (Brottsoff fermyndighet ten, 2001) (Battered woman w Me en’s violence e against women in equa al opportunit ty Sweden - a prevalence e study). htt tp://www.b brottsoffermy yndigheten.s se/Filer/B%C C3%B6cker/Slagen%20dam m.pdf 1999-2000. A representa ative popula ation sample of women. Total N = 6.926 wom men. 18-24 n = 934. Age rang ge 15-24, 18 -24. Cross-sectional. Questions on n sexual exp eriences: unwante ed sexual att tention from m men, sexua al harassmen nt, sexual vi iolence, rape; how ofte en, where it t happened, who was th he perpetrato tor if they su ustained any inju ury, if they had contact t with health h care, if th hey reported d to the police. Lifetime e prevalence e. One-yea ar prevalence e. Victimiz zation repo orts from women in heterosex xual relatio onships/ encount ters. Specified in unwanted s sexual acts experienced d outside/wi ithin, from husband h x-partner. and from ex N/a Summary of f prevalence e findings re egarding vict timization f 934 women n aged 18-24 4 have been n exposed to o sexual hara assment 63.6% of during their life time e. t have b been expose ed to sexual harassment t during the last 12 37% of these months. Year of f data collecti ion Type of f sample Sample e compos sition Design Measur rement of sexual sion aggress Type of f data collecte ed Relatio onship(s) betwee en victim and per rpetrator Inciden nce Prevale ence Finding gs regardi ing risk factors N/a 31 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Finding gs regardi ing mes or outcom consequences N/a 3. 002). Sexual l behavior in a low-incom me high school setting in Stockholm. Edgardh, K. (20 ternational Journal J of ST TD & AIDS, 1 13, 160-167. Int 1999. A convenien nce sample: two high schools in a lo ow income m multicultural l suburb of Stockholm m. Total N = 258 (only y N = 257 were w taken into analyse es regarding g sexual abuse). n = 134 male and n = 123 female e. ge: M = 17, a age range 15-20. Mean ag Cross-se ectional. Part of a series of st tudies on ado olescents’ se exual behavi our in Swede en. 124 question ns designed by the National Institute of Public c Health con ncerning sexual expe eriences and d non-consen nsual sexual l experience es). Non-con nsensual and abusiv ve sexual experiences s were ask ked with 8 question ns. The questionnair re comprised d questions on CSA, pe eer sexual a abuse and physical abuse. cified; all of o them inc cluded body y contact with w the Sexual acts were spec f ‘flashing’. exception of Prevalen nce (time fra ame not spec cified). Victimiz zation report ts from boys and girls. Sex cons stellation be etween victim m and perpetrator: o hete erosexual; o same-sex men; n. o same-sex women Defined as peer p abuse, b but not expli icitly reflect ted in the re esults. N/a Summary of f prevalence e findings re egarding vict timization Sexual abuse: a 7.4% ( n = 19): o 2.2% % (n = 3) of t the boys and 13% (n = 16) of the girls s. Same-se ex contact: 3 3.1% - 3 boys s and 5 girls. Year of f data collecti ion Type of f sample Sample e compos sition Design Measur rement of sexual sion aggress Type of f data collecte ed Relatio onship(s) betwee en victim and per rpetrator Inciden nce Prevale ence Finding gs regardi ing risk factors Finding gs regardi ing mes or outcom consequences N/a N/a 32 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 4. ijma, B., Sch hei, B., Swahnberg, K., Hilden, M., Offerdal, K., Pikarinen, U., Sidenius s, K., et Wi al. . (2003). Em motional, phy ysical, and s sexual abuse e in patients s visiting gyn naecology cl linics: A No ordic cross-se ectional stud dy. Lancet, 3 361, 2107–13 3. 1999-2001. A selected sample: s gyna aecological patients from five Nord dic university y clinics (Glostrup DK K, Helsinki F, S Reykjavik I, Trondheim m N). Only Sw wedisch , Linköping S, data are rep ported here. Total N = 838; only f female (Swe edish sample). er: Age: 18 years or olde o < 20 0 = 5 (0.6%); o 20-3 34 = 347 (41. .4%); o 35-4 49 = 266 (31. .7%); o >= 50 5 = 220 (26. 3%). Cross-se ectional Part of multicentr re study of f women at ttending fiv ve departments of gynaeco ology in Denm mark, Finland d, Iceland, Norway, N Swe eden. NorAQ (Swah hnberg & Wi jma, 2003). The Norvold d Abuse Ques stionnaire. n NorAQ on se exual abuse experience: Questions in ‘has any ybody, again st your will, touched pa arts of your b body other than t the genitals in a sexual l way or forc ced you to touch t other parts of his s or her body in a sexual way y?’; ‘have yo ou in any oth her way bee en sexually humiliated; e e.g. by being g forced to watch h a porno m movie or simi ilar against your y will, fo orced to par rticipate in a por rno movie or r similar, for rced to show w your body naked or fo orced to watch when w somebo ody else show wed his/her body naked? ?’; ‘has any ybody, again nst your will, touched yo our genitals, , used your body to satisfy him/herself f sexually or o forced you y to tou ch anybody y else’s ?’; genitals? ‘has any ybody, again nst your will l put, his pe enis into you ur vagina, mouth m or rectum or o tried any of this; put in or tried to put an obj ject or other r part of the body y into your v vagina, mout th or rectum?’. ual victimiza ation: Type of sexu items 1-2: mild, no g genital conta act; items 3: moderate, genital contact; netration. items 4: severe, pen Prevalen nce (lifetime e). Victimiz zation report ts from women. Sex cons stellation be etween victim m and perpetrator not sp pecified. Not specified. N/a Summary of f prevalence e findings re egarding vict timization gures ‘< 18 y years’ includ de all experiences up to the age of 18, 1 i.e., Note: the fig also cases of f child sex a buse (below the age of consent). c % <18 years >= 18 years Both mild 1.7 1.5 0.1 moderate 4.1 1.2 0.4 sever re 3.5 3.5 0.6 Year of f data collecti ion Type of f sample Sample e compos sition Design Measur rement of sexual sion aggress Type of f data collecte ed Relatio onship(s) betwee en victim and per rpetrator Inciden nce Prevale ence 33 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Finding gs regardi ing risk factors Finding gs regardi ing mes or outcom consequences 5. N/a N/a edin, C. G., Nilsson, D., D & Lindel ll, C. (2004). Traumatic c experience ces and dissociative Sve sym mptoms amo ong Swedish adolescents s. A pilot study using Di is-Q-Sweden n. Nordic Jou urnal of Psy ychiatry, 58, 349-355. N/a The sam mple consiste ed of random mly chosen four classes s of pupils fr rom 9th grade in n the compu ulsory school l system; additionally fiv ve classes fr rom the upper se econdary sch hool. The con ntrol group consisted of o adolescents from psy ychiatric out tpatient clinics. Non-clinical group: Total N = 208; n = 104 male and n = 104 female e; mean ag ge M = 16.3, SD = .95, range 15-19. up: Clinical grou Total N = 30; n = 5 ma ale and n = 2 25 female; mean ag ge M = 16.4, SD = 1.57, range r 14-19. Cross-se ectional. The stud dy considers s different tr raumas (amo ong others se exual victim mization) ever ex xperienced, therefore the t data pr resented be elow might include experien nces of child d sexual abu use. The stu udy focuses on the dissociative symptom ms and thei ir relation to t reported traumatic experiences among adolesce ents. There is no explicit des scription how the autho ors asked ab bout experie ences of sexual victim mization. Prevalen nce (time fra ame not spec cified). Victimiz zation report ts from boys and girls. Sex cons stellation be etween victim m and perpetrator not sp pecified. Family mem mbers and n non-family members m (results not br roken down by the different vic ctim - perpet trator conste ellation). N/a Summary of f prevalence e findings re egarding vict timization Non-clinical group: sexual abuse a as trau umatic exper rience was re eported by 2 2.9 (n = 3) fe emales; none of male partici ipants reported such trauma. up: Clinical grou sexual abuse a was re ported by 19 9 participant ts. N/a Year of f data collecti ion Type of f sample Sample e compos sition Design Measur rement of sexual sion aggress Type of f data collecte ed Relatio onship(s) betwee en victim and per rpetrator Inciden nce Prevale ence Finding gs regardi ing risk factors 34 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Finding gs regardi ing mes or outcom consequences Summary of f findings re egarding con nsidered con nsequences the link betw ween traum matic experie ences and reported The results regarding t dissociative symptoms w were not rep ported for th he different t types of tra aumatic experiences. 6. ünkel, F., Ge ebauer, D., Grzywa, G J. & Kestermann, C. (2006). Self-report ted delinque ency and Dü ex xperiences of o violence among juveni iles in the Ba altic Sea Reg gion: The Ma are-Balticum m-YouthSu urvey. In B. Bykowskiej & M. Szulca a (Eds.), Zag grozenia wsp póczesnej mo odziezy pols skiej (S. 97 7-126). Gdan nsk: Fundacja a Rozwoju U Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego. 2002. A convenience sample o of adolescent ts of the city y of Uppsala. . Total N = 918. n = 450 male and n = 467 female e. M = 15.2 29 age, SD (. 528). Cross-se ectional. A part of o a larger c comparative study about t self-reporte ed delinquency and experien nces of viol lence among g juveniles in the Balti ic Sea Regio on: The Mare-Ba alticum-Youth h-Survey. Participating countries: Germany, Estonia, Finland, Lithuania, P Poland, Russ sia, and Swed den. Measurement of sexual l aggression/ /victimizatio on q e originally y Modified questionnaire Forschungsin nstitut Niede ersachsen. develope ed by the e Kriminolo ogisches Year of f data collecti ion Type of f sample Sample e compos sition Design Measur rement of sexual sion aggress bout sexual violence: ‘Someone ‘ fo orces you -th hrough viole ence or Question ab being seriou usly threaten ned with violence- to endure or cond done sexual actions that you do o not want t (for example rape or r someone putting the eir hand between you ur legs).’ s were aske ed whether r they had ever been victims of f sexual Respondents violence and d how often this occurre ed in the las st twelve mo onths leadin ng up to the survey. Victimiz zation report ts from women and men. . Lifetime e prevalence e. One-yea ar prevalence e. Sex cons stellation be etween victim m and perpetrator not sp pecified. N/a N/a Summary of f prevalence e findings re egarding victimization N/a N/a Lifetime e prevalence e overall: 4.3 3%: o amo ong girls: 6.9 9%; o amo ong boys: 1.6 6%; One-yea ar prevalence e: 3.4%. Type of f data collecte ed Relatio onship(s) betwee en victim and per rpetrator Inciden nce Prevale ence Finding gs regardi ing risk factors Finding gs regardi ing mes or outcom consequences 35 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 7. onzon, E., (2006). Child Sexual Abus se - Disclosur re, Social Su upport and S Subjective Health in Jo Ad dulthood. Un niversitetsser rvice, Stockh holm Univers sity htt tp://www.c childcentre.info/archive/ /research/ab bused/swede en/dbaFile13 3390.pdf (Ja anuary 8, 20 013) N/a Selected sam mple: partic cipants recru uited by advertisements in a magazi ine of a national organisation for r sexually ab bused women n. N = 152 female victi ims of abuse. Mean ag ge M = 41 yea ars, age rang ge 20-60. 91% Swe edish subject ts. Retrospectiv ve survey ab bout abuse and a disclosur re as well a as on current t health and social support. Thre ee studies based b mostly y on interview ews, one bas sed on a re. Symptom m Checklist 90 used to t measure subjective mental questionnair health and The Coping g Wheel (int troduced by Shalit and Carlstedt) used to ping. measure cop N/a Prevalen nce before th he age of 18 8. Victimiz zation report ts from wom men in heterosexual con nstellations (female victim, male m perpet rator). Sexually abu used by some eone close. N/a Summary of f findings re egarding prevalence Abuse characteristics: number of perpetrat tors: o 1 (40 0%); o 2 (40 0%); o 3 or more (30%); ; age on onset o of abus se: o 0-6 years y (74%); o 7-14 4 years (20%) ); duration n: o 0-4 years y (30%); o 0-4 years y (30%); o 5 or more years (64%); type of abuse: a o cont tact (23%); o pene etration (75% %); frequenc cy: o once e (3%); o few times a yea r (30%); o ever ry week (30% %); use of vi iolence: o thre eat of violenc ce (34%); o phys sical violence e (41%). gures include e all experie ences up to the t age of 18 8, i.e., also cases c of Note: the fig child sex abuse (below t the age of co onsent). N/a Year of f data collecti ion Type of f sample Sample e compos sition Design Measur rement of sexual sion aggress Type of f data collecte ed Relatio onship(s) betwee en victim and per rpetrator Inciden nce Prevale ence Finding gs regardi ing risk factors 36 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Finding gs regardi ing mes or outcom consequences Summary of f findings re egarding con nsequences re: On disclosur All women, except one e, had told someone ab bout at least t one abuse e event. Slightly less s than a thi rd disclosed d during childhood (befo fore the age e of 18) while the majority m wait ted until ad dulthood. The average d delay was 21 1 years. Overall two thirds receiv ved a positiv ve reaction, but a major rity of all 89 women who had told their mot ther got a negative n rea action. (A re eason for dis sclosure 9 was per rhaps due to o a media hy ype about c child sexual abuse). during the 90s Over time it t has been m more common n with a positive reaction n. ve health: On subjectiv Self-esteem and social s support were e strongly re elated to bot th psychological and psychosomatic health i in the regre ession mode els. Self-este eem was th he most ariable, follo owed by social support, the index of f physical ab buse and important va negative life e events. Th e final mode el explained 64% of the s systematic variance v in psycholog gical symptom ms. Creating an n identity based on the abuse, as the concept ‘s survivor’ presupposes s, could even ntually turn out o unnecess sary and neg gative. Additio onal findings s 8. edin,C. G., & Priebe, G. (2007). Th he Baltic Sea a Regional St tudy on Ado olescents’ Se exuality. Sve Na ational repor rts for Swed den. In: S. M Mossige, M. Ainsaar, & C. G. Svedi n, (159-177) ), NOVA Ra apport 18/07 7. htt tp://www.childcentre.in nfo/projects s/abused/db baFile15312.p pdf (January y 4, 2013) April 2003-January 2004 4. A represent tative comm munity and high schoo ol students sample (fro om five Swedish citie es of differe ent sizes). Total N = 4.139. Mean ag ge: M = 18.2, , age range: 17-19. Participa ants at 17: n = 467, at 18: n = 2.943, at 19: n = 7 738. Cross-se ectional. Part of a larger st tudy: The Baltic B Sea Regional R Stu udy on Adolescents Sexuality. Experiences of being exp posed to sex xual activitie es against you ur will: somebod dy has expos sed him/hers self indecent tly towards y you; somebod dy has touch hed your body in an indec cent way; you expo osed yoursel lf masturbating towards somebody; you have e had sexual l intercourse e; you have e had oral se ex; you have e had anal se ex. haviour (rep ported in th his report, but in a different d Sexually aggressive beh edin, C. G. E Experiences with sexual l abuse, sell ling sex, and d use of chapter: Sve p pornography y): participa ants were as sked whethe er they had drawn, d persu uaded, press sured or forced someone into o sexual activities. Additional question/aspe ects: age of victim at first t sexual assa ault; erence betw ween offende er and victim m. age diffe Lifetime e prevalence e. Victimiz zation report ts from women and men. . Perpetra ation reports s from wome en and men. 37 Year of f data collecti ion Type of f sample Sample e compos sition Design Measur rement of sexual sion aggress Type of f data collecte ed Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Relatio onship(s) betwee en victim and per rpetrator Inciden nce Prevale ence N/a N/a Sex cons stellation be etween victim m and perpetrator: o hete erosexual; o same-sex men. Summary of f prevalence e findings re egarding vict timization Additional in nformation: sexually y victimized girls were yo ounger than the sexually y victimized boys at first sex xual assault; (14.27 vs.15 5.17 years); among the majorit ty of the sexually vic ctimized pa articipants the t age ears or less. difference between offender and the victim was five ye ormation reg garding char racteristic of f unwanted sexual expe eriences Further info (reported in n: 8b. Priebe e, G., Svedin n, C.G. (2009). Prevalen nce, characteristics, and associat tions of sexu ual abuse with w socio-demographics and consens sual sex in a populat tion-based sa ample of Sw wedish adolescents. Jour rnal of Child d Sexual A Abuse, 18, 19-39.) een the victim and perpe etrator (in th his paper un nwanted Sex constellation betwe riences cate gorized in no oncontact, contact c and p penetration) ): sexual exper female victims: v o offe enders almos st always male; male vic ctims: o male e offender – non-contact t: 81%, conta act: 26.%, pe enetrating: 18%; 1 o female offender r – non-conta act: 18.4%, contact: c 73.5 5%, penetrat ting: . 82%. 38 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Relationship p victim-offe ender Noncontact n = 150 0.8 6.3 93.0 Females Contact C n = 1042 3.4 30.1 66.5 Per rpetrating n = 313 7.4 64.1 6 28.5 2 Non ncontac ct n = 84 4 2.0 0 24.0 0 74.0 0 males Contact n = 262 2.6 40.4 57.0 Perpetrating n = 111 5.7 56.6 37.7 Family/relative Friend/acqu uaintance Unknown to o victim rcion Kind of coer %yes s Deceived Took advant tage of his/her position Talked into it Threatened to turn away Held victim in a grip Hit or hurt victim v physically Gave victim alc. or other drugs other Nonco ontact 2.7 5.3 0 0 1.3 0.7 0.7 46.7 Fema ales con ntact 6.4 19.2 6.1 1.2 17.7 1.4 1.2 41.7 Perpe etratin ng 17. .6 30. .0 36. .7 4. .8 30. .0 8. .9 13. .7 14. .7 Noncontact 9.5 4.8 0 0 1.2 0 0 31.0 males contact 6.5 12.6 5.7 0.8 11.5 0 3.1 31.3 Perpetrating t 6.3 16.2 27.7 2.7 5.4 0.9 4.5 13.5 u Substance use: alcohol or drugs wer re involved in i 42% of the e cases and w were used either by ), the victim m (3.6%), or both b (19.7%) . the offender (18.6%) f prevalence e findings re egarding per rpetration Summary of ts presented d only for the 18 year-old boys an nd girls; N = 2.934, Note: result n = 1.571 gir rls and n = 1 .363 boys. ported that they t had be een sexually abusive 10.1% of boys and 2.4% of girls rep meone else. towards som evant finding gs regarding perpetratio on in Seto, M M.C., Kjellgren, C., Further rele Priebe, G., Mossige, S., Svedin, C.G G., & Långstr röm, N. (201 10). Sexual coercion c a sexually y coercive be ehavior - a population p st tudy of Swed dish and experience and Norwegian male m youth, Child Maltre eatment, 15, 219-228 (re esults based on only male sample e: n = 1.978; age range: 17-20, M = 18.1): 1 221 (11.2%) reported d ever coerc ced other person to sexua al acts; 51% of these t 221 ind dicated the behaviour b oc ccurred only y once, wher reas 12% reported d sexually co oercive beha aviour on more than fiv ve occasions. At the first coe ercive act, 5 5% committe ed penetrati ive acts; 77% y or % were 15 years older an nd 37% were under the in nfluence of alcohol a or dr rugs. Summary of o findings regarding risk marke ers/risk fac ctors of sexual victimizatio on wanted experiences incre eases with ag ge. Age: The number of unw boys reporte ed forced exposure e an nd/or touchi ing and Sex: More girls than b s penetrative experiences Finding gs regardi ing risk factors 39 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Further soci io-demograp phic risk ma arkers/risk factors for s sexual victim mization were reported in: din, C.G. (2009). Pre evalence, c characteristics and 8b. Priebe, G., Sved abuse with sociodemogr s aphics and c consensual sex s in a associations of sexual a population-b based samp le of Swedish adolesce ents. Journa al of Child Sexual A Abuse, 18, 19-39. Risk fact o consensual sexual behaviour: tors linked to o more sexually vi ictimized adolescents reported conse ensual sexua al n non-victim mized youth; intercourse than er age of at t the time of the first sexual intercou rse by sexua ally o lowe victi imized than by non-victimized. G Hansson, , K., Svedin, C.G. (2010) ). Sexual abu use and asso ociations 8c. Priebe, G., with psycho osocial aspec cts of health. A popula ation-based s study with Swedish adolescents. . Nordic Jour hiatry, 64, 40-48. 4 rnal of Psych Risk fact tors: o strength and Dif fficulties Que estionnaire (SDQ, ( Priebe e & Svedin, 2008): 2 avioural scre eening comprising emotio onal aspects s, conduct beha prob blems, hyper ractivity and d peer proble ems; o sens se of coheren nce (Antonov vsky, 1991); o addi itional covar riates: socio-demog graphic facto ors, family structure s an nd parental bonding (educationa l program, immigrant ba ackground, p parents empl loyment , and the Parental Bondi ing Instrument). status, fami ly structure, Summary of findings: contact and penetr rating sexual abuse wer re related to more em motional problem ms, lower sen nse of coherence and low wer self-este eem compar red with non-abuse; more sev vere abuse w was related to t poorer psy ychosocial h health; when ad djusted for socio-demo ographic and d family-rela ated variabl les, the associations betwee en penetrat ting experiences and m most of the health d or disap ppeared. Lo ow sense o of coherenc ce was variables weakened associated with e experience penetrating g sexual a abuse even n after adjustment. f findings re egarding risk k markers/risk factors of f perpetrati ion Summary of rted in: 8d. . Seto, M.C., Kjellgren, C., Priebe e, G., Mossige, S., Note: repor Svedin, C.G. ., & Långströ öm, N. (2010 0). Sexual co oercion expe erience and sexually s coercive beh havior – a po opulation stu udy of Swed dish and Norw wegian male e youth, Child Maltre eatment, 15, 219-228. Experience of o sexual vic ctimization Youths who had experie enced sexual coercion were w approxi imately thre ee times more likely to engage i n sexually coercive c behaviour than those witho out such experience (10%-12% vs s. 4%); (risk remained significant s a after control lling for a b behaviour, substance s use, u and n non-coercive sexual nonsexual antisocial behaviour). Relationship p between p pornography use and per rpetration (r reported in: Svedin, C.G., Åkerm man, I., Pri iebe, G. (2 2011). Frequ uent users of pornogra aphy. A population based b epidem miological study of Swedish male a adolescents. Journal of Adolescen nce, 34, 779 -788.) 40 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Results for the male sa ample only: frequent us sers (n = 20 00) and a re eference 1 consi sting of non n-users and low l frequenc cy users). Different D group (n = 1.661; types of po ornography w were included (e.g. sex between an adult man m and women; sex between ad dults of the same s sex; sex with violen nce or force). oercive beha aviour (penetration) was w more th han 3 time es more Sexually co common am mong frequen nt users than n among boys s with no or very low fre equency of pornograp phy use. N/a Finding gs regardi ing mes or outcom consequences Additio onal findings s Extensive re eport on the adolescents’ disclosures s of sexual vi ictimization in: 8a. Priebe, G., Svedin, C.G. (2008). Child sexual abuse is l largely hidde en from ociety - An e epidemiologic cal study of adolescents s’ disclosures. Child the adult so A Abuse & Neg glect, 32, 10 095-1108. ons about dis sclosure of any abuse inc cident were a asked: Two questio ‘could you talk to so omeone abou ut what happ pened?’ (ans swers: yes/no o); ‘If yes, whom did y you talk to? ?’ (e.g. frien nd of my ag ge, mother, father, professio onal, police) ). c aims of t w to inv vestigate di isclosure rat tes and The specific this study were disclosure patterns a associated with recip pients of disclosure, abuse demographic variables, perception of parents when characteristics, socio-d growing up and a current perceived mental m health h, separately y for boys an nd girls, to examine predictors of f non-disclos sure, separate for boys a and girls. Main results: disclosure rate: rate (81% fo or girls and 69% for boy ys) was high h in the o the disclosure r dy of adoles scents compared to re etrospective e reports of f adults stud pres senting child dhood disclos sure rates be etween 31%-4 42%; o the disclosure rate for boys b was higher h than in other studies. ertheless, th he pattern in all studies s is that the e rates for boys b are Neve lowe er than those e for girls; o it was w more lik kely that gir rls who had been expo osed to non-contact abus se disclosed compared to girls exposed to con ntact abuse with or with hout penetra ation; disclosures conceale ed from adul lts: ely hidden from the sclosure rate e was high, CSA C was large o although the dis lt society. B Boys and girl ls were by far f most like ely to disclo ose to a adul frien nd of their o own age and as many as 42% had onl ly talked to a friend of th heir own age e and nobody else. Even if they perc ceived their parents as supportive, s t those who disclosed d in late adoles scence prefe erred to talk to friends a about sexual abuse; gender differences: d o ther re were seve eral differen nces in the disclosure d pa atterns of girls g and boys s. Even whe en boys rep ported exper riences of s sexual abuse e, many were e hesitant to o answer foll low-up quest tions about t the abuse, resulting r in a high nu umber of non-complet ters. Male completers s were ore likely than girls not to hav ve disclosed their significantly mo erience to a anyone and less likely to talk to their mother or a expe frien nd. Boys fro om vocationa al training programs p we ere overrepresented amo ong non-disc closers. For girls, disclo osure was n not associate ed with educ cational stat tus; o the results migh ht indicate that t boys ma ake other ch hoices or en ncounter er difficultie s than girls when w disclos sing experien nce of sexual abuse; othe 41 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 the prof fessional syst tem: o few adolescents s exposed to sexual abuse reported t that they had d talked to a professiona al about the abuse (9% of o the girls a and 3% of th he boys) or th hat the incid dent had bee en reported to social age encies or the e police (7% of the girls a and 4% of the e boys); s who had be een exposed to penetrat ting abuse ha ad more ofte en been o girls in contact with a profession nal than girl ls exposed t to less sever re forms a Only one out of the 52 boys s exposed to o penetrating abuse of abuse. had been in con tact with a professional; p ; predicto ors of non-dis sclosure: o girls s were less li ikely to discl lose when: the severit ty of the sexual con ntact was greater (c contact/ penetration vs. non-contact abuse); by single ab use occasion n; mber/friend was the perpetrator p (compared to the family mem stranger); they perceiv ved their par rents as non-caring when n growing up p; s were less li ikely to disclose when: o boys they particip pated in a vo ocational educational pr rogram; oth parents; they were li ving with bo hem as eithe er caring nor overprotect tive; perceived th mpared to ot ther types of f parent-child bonding, young perso ons who o com had perceived their parent ts as caring g and not o overprotectiv ve were most likely to di isclose; mental health: h o girls s and boys w who had dis sclosed to so omebody re eported signi ificantly bett ter health th han those who w had not (but when d data were analysed a sepa arately for n on-contact, contact and d penetrating g abuse the findings coul ld not be con nfirmed). 9. anielsson, I., Blom, H., Nilses, N C., He eimer, G., & Högberg, U. U (2009). Ge endered Patterns of Da Hig gh Violence e Exposure Among S Swedish Youth. Acta Obstetricia a et Gynec cologica Sca andinavica, 88, 528-35. 2007. Nationally re epresentativ ve sample fro om nine yout th health cen ntres in Swe eden. Total N = 3.170. es 920 and n = female 2.250. n = male ars. Age rang ge: 15-23 yea Cross-se ectional. Prevalen nce and gen nder differen nces in relat tion to emot tional, physi ical and sexual abuse a among g young men and women attending y youth health centres in Sweden, the curr rent adverse e effects of the t abuse an nd the perpetrators of the abuse. The questio ons about ab buse were taken t from a validated questionnaire, the NorVold (Sw wahnberg, He earn, & Wijm ma, 2009; Sw wahnberg & W Wijma, 2003), abuse questionnair re (with th hree identically struct tured sectio d ons with detailed questions ab bout experie ences of emo otional, physical and sex xual abuse, ranging from mild to o severe abu se and durin ng different age a periods. ive acts was categorised as: mild, moderate, sev vere. Sexual abusi Year of f data collecti ion Type of f sample Sample e compos sition Design Measur rement of sexual sion aggress 42 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Type of f data collecte ed One-yea ar prevalence e. Victimiz zation report ts from women and men. . Sex cons stellation be etween victim m and perpetrator: o hete erosexual; o same-sex men; n. o same-sex women Relatio onship(s) betwee en victim and per rpetrator Prevale ence x constellatio on included, , but not diff ferentiated i in the results. Note: all sex Specified in: : (ex)-par rtner; friend/s schoolmates; ; family member. m Summary of f findings re egarding prevalence There were w pronoun nced gender for sexual abuse: a wome en were mor re often exposed to all form ms of sexual violence (se ee Table V : 14% of all women and 4.7% % of the men n stated tha at they had been b abused d during the past 12 months. ore severe adverse a effec cts from all types of abuse and Women reported mo were mo ore often abu used by a pe erson close to them. 6% of th he women r reported hav ving been ex xposed to p penetrating violence v during the past 12 m months (corre esponding fig gure for men n 0.4%). gative effec cts of the sexual s abuse e experienc ced in the past 12 The neg months were report ted as more e severe by women who o experienced mild derate form s, while ass sessments for the severe e forms wer re equal and mod for both sexes. In both men and women, se exual abuse was strong gly co-morb bid with emotion nal and phys sical abuse. While the majority of f physically abused women were w also ex xposed to em motional and d/or sexual a abuse, a maj jority of physically abused m men were solely s expos sed to physi ical abuse. Of the omen, 5.5. and a 11%, respectively, ha ad been exp posed to abused men and wo nal, physical and sexual violence, v wh hile 29% of b both sexes ha ad been emotion exposed to emotiona al and physic cal violence. . Table VI presents t the perpetra ators of diffe erent forms s of violence e during st 12 mont ths. Strange ers and schoolmates/f friends were most the pas common nly reported as perpetrat tors by both men and wo omen. 43 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Finding gs regardi ing risk factors Finding gs regardi ing mes or outcom consequences Observa ations N/a N/a These estim mates must b be considered with cauti ion due to t he small number of male victims s of severe s sexual abuse. ellgren, C., Priebe, G., Svedin, C.G G., Långströ öm, N. (2010 0). Sexual co oercive behavior in 10. Kje ma ale youth: population p survey s of g general and specific ris sk factors. A f Sexual Archives of Behavior, 39, 1161-69. 1 Year of f data collecti ion Type of f sample Sample e compos sition Design April 2003-January 2004 4. Sample of hi igh school st tudents. Total N = 1.933, on nly male you uth: at 17 n = 193 (10% %), at 18 n = 1.328 (68.7%), at 19 n = 35 53 (18.3%), at a 20 n = 59 (3%). Mean ag ge M = 18.14, , SD = .62, age a range 17-20. Cross-se ectional. Part of a larger stu udy. Sub-sam mple of the 2003-2004 Baltic Sea Regional R n Adolescent t Sexuality. Study on Focus in this summa ary on risk fa actors of perp petration. The measure ement of sex xual aggressi ion described in: Svedin, , C.G., & Pri iebe, G. (2007). The Baltic Sea R Regional Stud dy on adolesc cents’ sexua ality. nduct proble ems were ad ddressed with six typical Non-sex con l indicators of rulebreaking or aggressive b behaviour. Prevalen nce lifetime. . Perpetra ation reports s from men. Sex cons stellation be etween victim m and perpetrator not sp pecified. N/a N/a Summary of f prevalence e findings re egarding per rpetration ercive behavi iours: 5.2% male m (n = 101). Sexually coe inding: Non- sexual cond duct problem ms: 6.8% (n = 132). Additional fi Measur rement of sexual sion aggress Type of f data collecte ed Relatio onship(s) betwee en victim and per rpetrator Inciden nce Prevale ence 44 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Finding gs regardi ing risk factors Summary of f findings re egarding risk k factors for perpetratio on ed into: Participants were divide sexually y coercive yo outh (forcing somebody to t sexual act tivities); g burglary); non-sex conduct pro oblem (steali ing car, bike e, committing comparison youth (n neither sexua ally coercive e nor conduc ct problems). . r factors: Considered risk the Pare ental Bondin ng Instrumen nt (PBI; Park ker, Tupling g, & Brown, 1979) measure ed parental o overprotection/control (e. ( g. they h have tried to control everythi ing I have do one) and pa arental care (e.g. they h have not hel lped me as much as I had nee eded); gender stereotypic s a attitudes (ite ems from Burt, 1980)- e. . g. a woman n should be a virg gin when she e marries; rape my yths (Burt, 1 980) - e.g. a girl who fo ollows a guy y home after a first date imp plies that sh e is willing to t have sex. described in n the study as a scale; pr robably singe e items: Further risk factors not d ever a victim v of pe netrative se exual victimization (defi ned as havin ng been exposed to anal or o oral sexual penetration or o intercours se against on ne’s own will); sexual lu ust all the ti me (from ne ever to almost daily); pornogra aphy use (ge eneral& viole ent) Uses por rn almost da aily; sexual activity a (age e at the firs st sexual int tercourse; m more than 6 sexual partners s) & sexual li ifestyle (sell ling sex). k factors for r sexual coer rcion among g male youth h (sexually coercive c Specific risk youth > non-sex conduct t problem yo outh > contro ol youth): neglectf ful parental care combi ined with in ntrusive, rej jecting and abusive control; endorsement of gen der stereoty ypic attitudes and rape m myths; penetrat tive sexual v victimization n; more sex xual desire ( (continuous experiencing e g of sexual lu ust); frequent t use of gene eral and viol lent pornogra aphy; younger age at first sexual inter rcourse; 6 or mor re sexual par rtners; Engaging g in sex for m money; pro-rape e cognitions and sexual preoccupatio p on. N/a Finding gs regardi ing mes or outcom consequences defors, I. (2 2010) ‘Det känns som m jag inte har haft nåt n riktigt liv än’ - fy yrtiofem 11. Tid ton nårspojkar so om har begå ått sexuella ö övergrepp. Swedish S Nati ional Board o of Institution nal Care (Statens Institu utionsstyrelse) (It feels l like I haven’t really had d a life yet - Forty-five teenage t ys who comm mitted sexua al abuse’). boy htt tp://www.st tat-inst.se/pagefiles/424 40/det-kanns s-som-jag-inte-har-haft- nat-riktigt-li ivan. .pdf Year of f data collecti ion Type of f sample 2003-2007. Selected d sample: 45 young sex offenders in chil ld and ado olescent psychiat try. Compari ison sample of 61 males. . 45 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Sample e compos sition Design Measur rement ual of sexu aggress sion N = 45 males m (plus c comparison sample of N = 61 males). Age rang ge: between n 13-22 years s old (M = 16 6,2 years) (th he sexual ab buse was committ ted before t the age of 18 8. 25 of the boys were 1 14 years or younger y at the ti ime of the fi irst sexual abusive act) (comparison ( sample 13-2 20 years old (M = 16,4 years) ). Cross-se ectional. The pur rpose of the e study was to describe and analyse e the psychological background factors d distinguishin ng the YSO fr rom the com mparison sample. Documented backgr s (Beck et al. round factor rs, self-estim mating scales a 2001 and Adolescent Sexu ual Abuse Pro oject ASAP), control gro oup, semi-str ructured interview ws. Table 1. Sex xual acts com mmitted by the t YSO Type of sex xual abuse Penetration (vaginal, oral l and/or anal) ) Fondling Exhibition N = 45 27 17 1 ration of abu use Table 2. Dur Duration Isolated incident Duration up to six months s Duration ove er six months N = 45 26 3 16 Type of f data collecte ed Perpetration n reports fro om male sex offenders en victim an nd perpetrato or: Sex constellation betwee 22 of the e boys comm mitted sexual abuse against female v victims; 9 of the boys commi itted sexual abuse against male victi ims; 14 of th he boys com mmitted sex xual abuse against a both h male and female victims. 21 boys committed s sexual abuse e against one e or more sib blings. 3 of the boys commi itted sexual abuse against children ( (other than siblings) s at least 5 years youn nger than themselves. 12 boys committed s sexual abuse e against per rsons of the s same age. 1 boy co ommitted sex xual abuse against a an old der woman. 8 boys committed c se exual abuse against younger persons s as well as persons of the sa ame age. N/a N/a Summary of f findings re egarding risk k factors for perpetratio on committing sexual s abuse e. Background factors for c t comparis son group, th he YSOs: Relative to the reported d higher rate es in depress sion, anger and a antisocia al behaviour; ; estimate ed empathy, , sex educati ion and sexual openness as less impo ortant; were mo ore sexually active and had h an earlie er sexual deb but; reported d a rigid ima age of sexua ality, some had h no sex a and others sex s with many pa artners. This s was partic cularly evide ent among t the boys wh ho were Muslims; ; differed in backgro ound factors s and issues s concerning g upbringing g: were kely to com e from brok ken homes, to have bee en placed in n foster more lik care and d have more siblings; Relatio onship(s) betwee en victim and per rpetrator Inciden nce Prevale ence Finding gs regardi ing risk factors 46 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Finding gs regardi ing mes or outcom consequences Observa ations N/a Before the t sexual a abuse was re evealed a majority m (68% %) of YSO ha ad been known to social serv vices and ma any of them had had pro oblems with absence a from sch hool; 29% of the YSO rep ported that one or both parents h had alcohol or drug ms (national f figure=10%); problem About 40 0% of YSO re eported to ha ave been sex xually abused d; There were w no sig gnificant dif fferences co oncerning th he types of f abuse between n boys with l learning diff ficulties/neuropsychiatric c diagnoses and the boys wit thout such di ifficulties/di iagnoses. The resu ults are bas sed on a small sample of o perpetrat tors and the e author describe es difficulties s recruiting participants. The author discusse es the ethnic c composition of the sam mple but the ere is no tion of this c omposition. descript kkanen, R.H H., Abelsson n, J., Forsb berg, M. (2 2011). UngKA KAB09 - Kunsk kap, attityd der och 12. Tik sex xuella hand dlingar bland d unga. Uni iversity of Gothenburg. G (UNGKAB 0 09 - Young people’s p knowledge, attitudes, and sexual beha avior). tps://gupea.ub.gu.se/bi itstream/207 77/25017/2/ /gupea_2077 7_25017_2.pd df htt Year of f data collecti ion Type of f sample Sample e compos sition Design Measur rement of sexual sion aggress Type of f data collecte ed 2009. Representat tive sample a and self-sele ected sample e. Representative samp ple N = 5.673 (3.135 fem male, 2.467 m male) from four f age group: 16, 20, 24, an nd 28 years of age. ected sampl le: N = 9.9 942 (4.562 female, 4.6 671 male, 440 4 not Self-sele reported d) aged betw ween 15 and 29 years. Cross-se ectional surve ey. Question nnaire: a sel lf-report surv vey via mail-Internet hom me page. Considered unwanted u se exual acts: intercou urse as well a as fondling of o genitals/breasts (sexu al harassment). One-yea ar prevalence e. Lifetime e prevalence e. Victimiz zation report ts from women and men. . Sex cons stellation be etween victim m and perpetrator not sp pecified. N/a N/a Summary of f prevalence e findings re egarding vict timization One-year prevalence: p had experie enced sexua al acts again nst their will during 22% of participants the last year (25% of f the women n and 20% of the men). evalence: Lifetime pre 46% had experience ed sexual act ts against their will (60% % of the wom men and 30% of the men). Relatio onship(s) betwee en victim and per rpetrator Inciden nce Prevale ence 47 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Finding gs regardi ing risk factors Finding gs regardi ing mes or outcom consequences Summary of f findings re egarding risk k factors for victimizatio on ts: persons with early sex debut, many partne ers, experie ences of Sexual habit earlier sexu ual abuse, d drug use and d lower self f-esteem we ere more at risk of unwanted se exual contac ct. N/a 48 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 References m (U Unraveling th he mystery of o health). S Stockholm: Natur N och Antonovsky A. (1991). Hälsans mysterium ultur. Ku Burt, M. (1980). Culturalmyths and a supports s for rape. Journal J of Pe ersonality an nd Social Psy ychology, 8, 217–230. 38 Mossige, S., Ainsaar, M., & Sv vedin, C.G. 2007. The Baltic Sea Regional Stu udy on Ado olescents’ exuality. NOV VA Rapport 18/07. 1 Se Parker, G., Tupling, , H., & Brow wn, L.B. (19 979). A pare ental bonding instrumen nt. British Jo ournal of edical Psychology, 52, 1– –10. Me Svedin, C.G, Priebe e, G. (2008) ). The Stren ngths and Difficulties D Questionnaire Q e as a scree ening inty sample o of high school seniors in Sweden. . Nordic Jo ournal of strument in a communit sychiatry, 62 2, 225–32. Ps Swahnbe erg I.M., & Wijma W B. (2003). The N NorVold Abus se Questionn naire (NorAQ Q): validation of new measures of emotional, e physical, an nd sexual ab buse, and abuse in the e health care system mong women n. European Journal of P Public Health h, 13, 361-6. am Swahnbe erg, K., Hearn, J., & Wi ijma, B. (20 009). Prevale ence of perc ceived exper riences of em motional, ph hysical, sexu ual, and hea alth care ab buse in a Swedish male e patient sa ample. Viole ence and Vi ictims 24, 27 75-86. 49