Y-SAV Country report Sweden, 2012
In 2010, a European project addressing Youth Sexual Aggression and Victimization (Y-SAV) was launched. Y-SAV is a three-year project co-financed by the European Union in the framework of the Health Programme to address the issue of sexual aggression and victimization among young people.
h COUNTRY REPORT SWEDEN December 1, 2012 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 INTRODU UCTION In 2010,, a Europea an project addressing a Y Youth Sexuall Aggression and Victim mization (Y-S SAV) was launched d. Y-SAV is a three-year project co-ffinanced by the Europea an Union in tthe framewo ork of the Health P Programme to t address th he issue of s exual aggresssion and vic ctimization aamong young g people. The projject aims to build a multtidisciplinaryy network off European experts in varrious membe er states, bring to ogether the knowledge on youth se exual aggresssion and vic ctimization iin a state-o of-the-art database e, develop a more harmonised way of measuring these issue es and provi de recomme endations for strattegic action to t address th he problem oof youth sex xual aggressio on under diff fferent circumstances in different EU mem mber states. ort is part off the Y-SAV knowledge k b base. The knowledge basse presents innformation regarding r This repo youth se exual aggresssion and viictimization for each EU E member state. This report pressents the current situation in Sweden reg garding policcies, legislation, organisations, prev evalence, risk factors dence-based interventio ons in the a rea of youth h sexual agg gression andd victimization. Each and evid topic is ccovered by a comprehen nsive chapte er. The appendices conta ain more dettailed inform mation on the diffe erent organissations and studies. s mpiled by Pro of. Dr. Chrisstian Diesen, Dr. Katrin Lainpelto, L a nd Ms. Eva F. F Diesen This report was com aw, Stockholm m Universityy, in collaboration with the Y-SAV p rincipal inve estigators at the Faculty of La ers WPF (The e Netherlands) and the U University of Potsdam (Ge ermany). at Rutge This report arises from th e project Yâ€“SAV which has receiveed funding from the n in the fram mework of the Health Pro ogramme. Eurropean Union Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 TABLE O OF CONTENT TS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Govvernment and policies ....................................................................................... 1 Leggal situation ................................................................................................... 5 Insttitutions, org ganisations and a services ..................................................................... 10 Ressearch studie es on prevale ence .............................................................................. 13 Riskk factors and d outcomes .................................................................................... 14 Evid dence-based d interventions ................................................................................ 16 Sum mmary/concllusions.......................................................................................... 17 nd services ........................................ 18 Appendixx I. Informattion on instittutions, orgaanisations an Appendixx II. Researcch on prevale ence, risk facctors and ev vidence based interventioons .................. 29 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 1. GOV VERNMENT AND POLIC CIES 1.1 Miniistries There is no sexual health departtment or You uth Departm ment in Swed den and the YYouth Ministter in the governm ment is respo onsible for otther matterss as well. Alll questions about a healthh and youth questions q are –if not handled by b the Justic ce Departme ent-1 matterss for the Min nistry of Heaalth and Social Affairs epartemente et).2 This ha as always be een a very big ministry y, with morre than one minister (Socialde responsible (and a division d of th he mandate,, e.g. betwe een health, gender g equaality, social insurance i U the departmentt lies the Swedish S Boa ard of Heallth and Soc cial Care and soccial care). Under (Socialsttyrelsen),3 th hat directs the t political decisions in nto action, controls the ffunctioning of health and sociial services, but also makes m regulaations for th he practice and do reseearch in the ese fields (mostly evaluations)). In the late e 90s Socialsttyrelsen laun nched a projject (called KUB) to exa amine the exual abuse and the prooject resulte ed in a serie es of meta-sstudies perfo ormed by problem of child se ychology, me edia and othe er disciplines. In commoon was the sttandpoint scientistts in law, psyychiatry, psy that child sexual ab buse had be een a hidde en form of criminal c beh haviour for a long time e, that it ally has been n almost a taboo to makke these crim mes public when w the peerpetrator is a family historica memberr or an acqu uaintance. Only O when p paedophiles committed the abusess it could become b a matter ffor criminal investigation n. Now (from m the 80ies)) the situatio on had changged; incest and a child sexual a abuse was re eported in a much highe er extent, thanks to the e public atteention this issue i had gotten. Still it was estimated e th hat only arou und 10% of the t abuses were w reporteed. The metta-studies d that most abuses probably not are e committed by paedoph hiles but by men who are ‘sexual revealed opportun nists’. he Ministry of o Health and d Social Affaairs or anoth her departme ent (or someetimes directly under Under th the govvernment) there are so ome govern nment agencies working with issuues involving sexual victimiza ation and trreatment forr crime victiims, but all these agenc cies have a bbroader agenda: The Children n´s Ombudsm man (Barnom mbudsmannen vising the rig ght of the chhild accordin ng to the n)4 is superv UN Child d convention n, and prom motes publicc interest re egarding key y issues for children, but is not allowed to interfere in individua al cases. edish Nation nal Board fo or Youth Afffairs (Ungdo omsstyrelsen)5 is a goveernment age ency that The Swe works to o ensure thatt young peop ple have acccess to influe ence and welfare, produuce and comm municate knowled dge about yo oung people e´s living coonditions. Th he target grroup is decission-makers and the edits a lot of o publicatio ons on diffe erent youth subjects, but since 20006 there has been a agency e certain focus on vio olence again nst young woomen and on o the theme Youth, Seex and Interrnet. The has also pinp pointed problems like ho nour based violence v and d forced marrriages. agency h me Victim Compensatio C on and Supp port Authorrity (Brottsoffermyndighheten)6 is a national The Crim agency tthat promottes assistance for crime victims in general g and provide com mpensation for f crime victims o of unknown perpetratorss (or when pe erpetrators fail to pay th he compensaation to the victim). 1 http://w www.regering gen.se/sb/d/1 1476 2 http://w www.regering gen.se/sb/d/1 1474 3 http://w www.socialstyyrelsen.se/ 4 http://w www.barnomb budsmannen.sse/ 5 http://w www.ungdomsstyrelsen.se/ /main/ 6 http://w www.brottsofffermyndighetten.se/ 1 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 The age ency is also performing research oon the impa act of crime e victimizatiion - every convicted c person in n Sweden ha as to contribute to that rresearch witth a fine of approximatel a ly 50 euros. (A major part of tthe funds fo or the Swedish participaation in the Y-SAV Y project comes froom the Crim me Victim Compenssation and Support S Auth hority). In 20011 the Auth hority presen nted a study,, in cooperation with 7 other EU-countrie es, on ‘Child Victims in n the Union n - Rights an nd Empowerrment’, prom moting a holistic perspective e on child victims and d special trraining for all professiionals work king with ed children. victimize dia Council (Statens ( Med dieråd)7 is a governmenttal institution that studi es the impact of the The Med media a and it has pe erformed some studies on how med dia influence es young peeople. Among gst these studies tthere is one (Svedin 200 07) on the im mpact of porrnography, showing that 27% of the boys and 5% of th he girls betw ween 18 and d 24 years cconsumed in nternet porn no on a reguular basis. How H that consump ption influen nces their sex xual life hass not been po ossible to ev valuate, but young boys who look a lot at porno and sttep by step choose c more e extreme fo orms (child, animal a and ssadistic porn nography) endency to express e more e violent opiinions on how w sex should d be perform med. have a te B of In nstitutional Care (Statens Instituttionsstyrelsee)8 is admin nistrating Swedish National Board compulsory care forr young peop ple, but alsoo gives grantts for scientific researchh on this cattegory of people. Amo ongst the on n-going studiies is one on o sexual ‘rrisk-taking’ bby young de etainees, young p another one on the importance i of o ethnicity and gender in that population. wedish Priso on and Probation Servvice (Krimin nalvården)9 handles thhe prisons and the The Sw rehabilittation of offfenders. Whe en sex offen nders are co onvicted in Sweden S therre are no mandatory m treatment programmes, but a voluntary one (of Canadian C oriigin) called ROS (Relation och or women-ba atterers as w well. The pro ogramme, wh hich started in 2002, hass still not Samlevnad), used fo operly evalu uated, but according to Canadian sttudies the re elapses are reduced (fro om 20 to been pro 10%). ucation is a responsibility of the D Department of Educatio on (Utbildninngsdepartem mentet).10 Sex edu Since 19 955 there ha as been a mandatory m se ex education for pupilss in Swedishh schools, sttarting in upper grrammar scho ool. Since th he first World d War there has been a movement iin Sweden for sexual rights an nd sexual en nlightment, free f abortion ns and easy access to co ontraceptivees. The sex education e at schoo ol is a produ uct of that movement m an nd there hass never been n a strong oopinion (e.g. amongst religiouss groups) aga ainst it (exc cept on the issue of abo ortion). As a consequencce of this po olicy it is possible for pupils to o get free co ontraceptive es from the school s nurse e and there aare Youth Re eceptions (Ungdom msmottagning gar) in every y local districct (kommun) for individu ual advice, m medicine and d help. 1.2 Policcies On a gen neral level the t Governm ment commun nication Chilld policy - a policy for thhe rights of the child (Govt. ccommunication 2007/08::111) reportts on the direction and priorities oof child polic cy in the next few w years and d a strategy is formed iin Strategy To Strength hen Childrenn’s Rights in n Sweden (Prop. 2 2009/10:232,, Strategi fö ör att stärkaa barnets rä ättigheter i Sverige).11 T The governm ment bill containss a number of principle es that shou ld be the basis b for the e parliamentt, government, state agenciess, regions an nd municipallities in thei r work to en nsure childre en’s rights. T The bill also contains the Govvernment’s own o initiativ ves to stren gthen childrren’s rights and a repoort from an on-going effort o of a numberr of priority y areas of cchild rights policy. The bill was paassed on th he 1st of Decembe er 2010. On n a more sp pecific level - concerning g sexual vic ctimization - the Government (in Decembe er 2007) deccided on an updated u actiion plan agaiinst sexual exploitation e oof children. 7 http://w www.statensm medierad.se/ 8 http://w www.stat-instt.se/ 9 http://w www.kriminallvarden.se/ 10 http:// /www.regerin ngen.se/sb/d/1454 11 http:// /www.regerin ngen.se/sb/d/12168/a/1487701 2 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 It contaiins new mea asures to discourage th e sexual exploitation off children inn Sweden an nd in the world. T The aim of the action n plan is th hat no child d in Sweden n should bee exposed to t sexual exploitation, that no n child fro om another country sho ould be exp posed to sexxual exploittation by dren who arre victims off sexual exp ploitation shhould receive all the Swedish persons and that child support and help they t need. The plan allso declaress that Sweden will conntribute to effective e issue. international cooperration on the ntains new interventionss to complem ment on goiing work, am mong other things to The actiion plan con discoura age the sexu ual exploitattion of child dren in tourrism, identiffy and map intervention-actions concerniing perpetra ators, increa ase cooperaation at a national n and internationnal level and review current legislation. The T Governm ment has alsoo assigned th he Foundatio on of Childreen’s Welfare Funds to and distribute e knowledge e about sexu al exploitatiion of childre en. The Founndation has proposed gather a that a sspecial know wledge centtre should b be establish hed with the e purpose tto support research, r distributte knowledg ge of child sexual s explooitation to professionals p such as poolice, social services, schools, child and adolescent a psychiatry, p and NGOs. This proposal is currenntly managed d by the Ministry.. 1.3 Currrent discussion In the ovverall progre essive Swedish legislatioon on sex crimes there iss still an excception, a prroduct of an olderr tradition. The T exceptio on -which is quite rema arkable consiidering the ccontext- is rape r law. Swedish rape law is still regardin ng rape as an n assault, an nd not a crim me against thhe personal integrity. i That me eans that sex xual intercou urse withoutt the other party p being willing w cannoot be punish hed if the demand for proven threat t or vio olence cannoot be fulfilled. When rap pe is viewed as a form off assault, it is natu ural when in nvestigating offences to look for eviidence of injjury. And thhe offence iss difficult to prove e if there are no injuries. This also means that the point of o departure is that wom men must resist so o that the re equirements for rape are e met and th his in its turn means thaat there is a risk that each rep port withoutt evidence of o resistance is regarded d as a false report. r The alternative requisite that hass been intro oduced through the staatutory amen ndment in 2005 2 -that thhe exploitattion of a person iin a helplesss state should also be regarded as a rape- doe es not differrentiate in terms of evidence e except in situations where w it caan be conclu uded that th he woman w was in a co ompletely obliviouss state. The criterion is not met if she was sufficiently con nscious to bee able to un nderstand some of what occurrred. A major, and increaasing, propo ortion of rape e reports re late to cases that lie on the b border betw ween threats and helplesssness, but cannot be proved p as thhe man relie es on the defence of consent and claims that he beliieved that th he woman was w going aloong all the way. w The only pro oper solution n -to assert the t sexual se elf-determin nation of a woman w and her integrity y- would, accordin ng to the pub blic opinion that is hearrd, be to introduce legisslation basedd on punishin ng sexual acts tha at occur ‘unllawfully’. Su uch a law waas proposed in an Inquiry by the Juustice Deparrtment in October 2010 and can c be put into i legislattion within a year or tw wo if the pooliticians agree. It is actually not certain that such a law would iincrease the number of prosecutionss, but in the e long run it could potentially have h such a signal effectt that the nu umber of actual rapes wiill be reduce ed. n of 2 years 6 months in prison for rrape) are reg garded as The penalties for sex crimes (wiith a median nient in Swe eden, but th he opinion in n favour of more m harsh punishment p is not very strong. A quite len certain d discussion ha as been goin ng on about sex purchasse and the fa act that no oone has gottten more than a ffine (never prison), eve en if they ab bused traffic cked girls, and a that disscussion has led to a change o of law wherre it may be e possible too use impriso onment in se evere cases.. In the mosst famous case in cconnection with w sex purchase -whe re the crime e series starrted with buuying sex fro om young girls, we ent on with very v violent sex with the e young sex sellers and later on endded up in a couple c of rapes off children- th he perpetrattor was a Ch hief of Police e (in the city y of Uppsalaa). In Decem mber 2010 he was cconvicted to o 6 years in prison. p A pa radox of the e case was that he was kknown as a promoter p of gende er equality (and therefore nick-name ed Captain Frock F by his colleagues).. This case made m the public re ealise that perpetrators can be found d in the mosst unexpecte ed environmeents. 3 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Another debate concerns the po ossibilities too protect ch hildren from sex offendeers. Offende ers of sex crimes a against children are regisstered and e everyone who applies for a non-privaate job with h children is checkked with the e register. A case of a fformer athle ete who rece ently revealeed that he had h been abused by his trainer started a discussion about wide ening that â€˜alarm syste mâ€™. There are a some es on the in nternet and some magaazines that publish p names and phottos of conviicted sex webpage criminals, but the public majority seems to be against such s a policy y. One reasoon appears to o be that ople realise the difficultty of identifyying non-convicted perpe etrators. most peo 4 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 2. LEG GAL SITUAT TION 2.1 Law w and legal definitions The lega al issues at stake s in Swe eden are con nnected botth to law and legal pracctice. During g the last decades there have e been quite e many chan nges in the laws on sex xual crime aand in many y aspects Sweden now can be e said to hav ve a progresssive and up p to date leg gislation in tthe field. There is a strong belief of the legislator (e especially in times of a social-democ s cratic governnment) that laws can p attitudes and be ehaviour. Th his is certainly a valid staatement whe en sexual be used to change people´s crimes a and protection of the youth is conssidered. Forr a long periiod legislatioon has been n used to signal va alues in pro otection of the vulneraable, e.g. th he prohibition of child smacking (1979) ( or purchase e of sexual services s (199 98). The main n purpose off these laws is not to punnish the perpetrators but to cconstitute a norm. With h an open d debate, a strong wome en’s liberatioon movement and a legislato or willing to take progresssive steps tto protect th he integrity of o women, yyouth and ch hildren, a new clim mate has enttered. Earlie er taboos havve faded. Ass a consequence there haas been an enormous e increase e in reported relational crimes. c e law was ch hanged in 20 005, adding ‘helpless stage’ to the possible reqquisites for rape r (i.e. The rape that the e victim is not n –because e of e.g. ha ndicap, into oxication– ca apable of giiving consen nt).12 The inquiry tthat the refo orm was base ed on, rejectted a legisla ation with no on-consent ass a general platform, p and the law was critticised from the beginni ng for that lack l of a more radical chhange. A new w inquiry was soon n established d and in Octtober 2010 laaunched a ne ew proposal with a less severe crime –sexual abuse– b based on non n-consent as a compleme ent to rape by b coercion. As said abovve (1.3): whe ether the new proposal will be e accepted or o not is uncllear. xual abuse off children (u under 15, the age of leg gal consent) was also ch hanged in The law against sex 2005, in ntroducing sttatuary rape e. Before it was possible e to conside er consent w when early teenagers t (12-14 yyears) had in ntercourse with w someone e older - now w it is irrele evant; to havve sex with a person under 15 5 is always considered rape of a cchild (which is the labell of the crim me). Some offenders o though a are excluded d from punib bility: if the perpetratorr and the vic ctim are cloose in age (13-14 and 15-17 ye ears) and th he act is do one without coercion prosecution p shall s not bee made. In case the perpetra ator is older (18-25 years) and th ere is volun ntarity from m the youngger the crim me is not considerred rape of a child, butt child abuse e (a less sev vere crime). There has been some criticism against tthe Supreme e Court in this interpretaation of the law, as the free will of the so much h younger can be q questioned in n these circu umstances. c connected to se exual contac cts between older men and children, is the A moderrn form of crime, ‘seductio on’ via inte ernet, mostly y through cchat-sites, ca alled ‘groom ming’. Thesee contacts, with the intention n to abuse children c sex xually, were criminalised in 2009. And A last yeaar Sweden got g a law against stalking -a law that prrobably has more relev vance and application for adults than for es it possible e to prosecu ute harassing g persecutio on, a type oof acting not so rare children- that make phy, trafficking and sex purchase ha ave been amongstt ex-partnerss. The laws against chilld pornograp modified d, made morre effective, during the llast years. These T examples show thaat the legisla ator has a strong atttention to the t field of sexual s crime es. ary on definiitions in Swe edish law: A summa Rape e: gender-ne eutral (both perpetrator and victim), coercion (fforce or threeat) or helplless state (victtim not cap pable of giv ving consen nt), intercou urse or ‘co orresponding act’ (all forms of pene etration - oth her act: sexu ual coercion ); child d sexual abuse: under 15 5 (under 18 w within depen ndent relatio ons), penetraation rape of a child, othe er forms reg garded as ch hild sexual aabuse, separate regulattions for groooming and involving child dren in sexua al posing (an nd buying sexx from a perrson under 18 8); sexu ual harassme ent: touching g a person w with sexual intent or inv volving a chhild in an ac ct of sex, inclu uding exhibittion and verb bal sexual haarassment off any person. 12 https:/ //lagen.nu/19 962:700 5 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 2.2 Officcial statistic cs The Swe edish Counciil on Crime Prevention (Brottsföreb byggande råd det (BRÅ))13 handles the e official crime sttatistics, butt also perforrms criminollogical studies on crime patterns annd crime pre evention. Several studies have e been made on rape aand sexual abuse a and Ra apport 2008 :13 pointed out that c of victims thatt has demonsstrated the biggest b increease in police reports teenage girls is the category on rape during the beginning b of the 2000s. In 2008 approx. 1.600 ra apes with vicctims under 18 years were reported. The e latest repo ort on youth h sexual victimization, Rapport 20111:6, a stud dy of 378 hat for children under 112 years most of the cases wiith rape victims under the age of 18 shows th perpetra ators are fatthers or step p-fathers, an nd for childrren aged 12--17 most of the perpetrators are boy-frien nds or acqua aintances jusst somewhatt older than the t victim. Another A signiificant findin ng is that physical violence selldom was use ed. e 70s and on n there has been b a signifficant raise of o the reportting rate of rrape and chiild sexual From the abuse. In n 1975 367 rapes r and atttempted rap pes (all ages)) were reported, in 19900 1.410, in 20 000 2.026 and in 2 2008 5.379 - the latter representing r g an increase over 260% %. The numbber of reports is still rising an nd there are e no signific cant changess of law tha at explains that t developpment (although the definitio on of rape wa as somewhatt widened in n 2005, see 2.1). 2 1.385 of o the victim ms in 2008 we ere under 15 yearss (legal age)), compared to 300 in 22000, repressenting a raise by 461% % in eight ye ears, also signifyin ng that a certtain part of the increase e of reported d rape has oc ccurred in thhat age range e. al crimes aga ainst children n under 15 were w reporte ed, includingg 1.214 rape against a In 2007, 3.771 sexua child. Th he number of o reported other o sexual abuses agaiinst children was 890, off which 55% occurred in a fam mily relation n. In additio on there werre 1.530 rep ports on sex xual harassm ment againstt minors, which m makes the tottal of 3.771 reports on se exual crimess against children under 15. As a whole there has not been such an a immense increase off reporting as a for adult rape, but tthe change of o law in aking statua ary rape a co oncept- has had the imp pact that there has beeen a flow fro om ‘child 2005 -ma sexual a abuse’ to ‘ra ape of a chilld’, increasin ng the rape cases from 12% to 32% of the severe sexual crimes a against a chiild. A minorr part of the ese reported d crimes, deals with inceest but the reported incest ca ases had a peak p in the beginning off the 90s wh hen the public discussio n about it was w at its heat. An n explanation of that pe eak may be tthe fact thatt many adults then repoorted abuse they had suffered d as children.. d in Swedish official crim minal statistic cs, but in The age groups 15-18 and 18-25 are not gen erally found 2003 a rreport (BRÅ 2005:7)14 sta ated that 299% of the reported rape cases conceerned childrren under 18 yearss. Many signss indicate th hat the perce entage is sig gnificantly hiigher today. Another rep port (BRÅ 2008:13))15 found tha at the median age of rep porting rape had sunken from f 27 yearrs in 2000 to o 22 years in 2005. on of the general increaase of rape reports r is tha at the willinngness to rep port rape The main explanatio wn step by sttep, shown also a by the ffact that a decreasing pa art of the reeports expresss violent has grow acts. But this does not n fully exp plain the devvelopment during d the la ast 5 years, w when there has been an ‘explosion’ of reportts. One impoortant facto or can be the media foccus on rape that has almost a been pre evalent durin ng this perio od, probablyy also creatin ng concepts of rape not corresponding to the actual le egislation, i.e. that lack of consent iis constitutin ng the crime e. But it cannnot be exclu uded that the raise e of reports mirrors a fac ctual raise off rape, especially among gst young peeople. 13 http:// /www.bra.se/ / 14 http:// /www.bra.se/ /download/18 8.cba82f7130f4475a2f1800012829/2005_07 7_valdtakt_kaartlaggning.pd df 15 http:// /www.bra.se/ /bra/publikatiioner/arkiv/p ublikationer/2008-12-31-va aldtakt-mot-ppersoner-15-arr-ochaldre.htm ml 6 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 2.3 Lega al studies Legal stu udies in Swe eden demonsstrate that l egislation iss not sufficie ent for deali ng with crim me within relationsships, that subsequent s prosecutions p s have not increased at the same rrate as the reporting and thatt many casess are disconttinued owingg to a lack off resources, prejudice orr difficultiess in terms of evidence. This is more due to o attitudes, on views of women and children, thhan on the substance s penal legislattion. It is no onetheless im mportant tha at comprehe ensive legislaation is impllemented of the p to prote ect against abuse, as suc ch legislation n drives deve elopment forward. In thhe long run, statutory amendm ments can ressult in a changed and lesss conciliatory approach to the probllems and thu us also to a reducttion in the nu umber of crimes of abuse e. nvestigate these crimes the situatio on is not tha at favourablle. Investigations are When it comes to in often su uperficial and d restricted,, only 10-20% % of the rep ports lead to o prosecutionn. With olde er victims m’ still are in vigour, bia ases that haave been rev vealed by prejudicces like ‘reall rape’ and ‘ideal victim some fe eminist legal studies (Su utorius 2003,, Andersson 2004, Westterstrand 20008).16,17,18 With W child ate skills are scarce. On ne of the main m reasons for this is tthat in Swed den more victims tthe investiga regard iss taken to ‘tthe best inte erest of the child’ than is done in otther countriees. In practice this is interpreted as keep ping the ch hild away frrom the inv vestigation in i order to reduce the e risk of o the state ement that pproceedings in abuse secondary traumatissation. This policy is paartly based on ust be quick, that it is unreasonable e for the victtim -and partticularly chilldren- to hav ve to live cases mu for months and mayybe years in n uncertaintyy about the e outcome of the proceeedings. But with the g the child from f the prooceedings, positive p results from invvestigations are rarer policy of protecting ess regard iss taken of th he child’s need of securiity. If one is satisfied than in tthose countrries where le with one e or two sho ort video que estionings off the child, the t statement made by the child wiill not be strong e enough to sta and up again nst the deniial of an adu ult. For this reason, exttensive corro oborative evidence e is required to back up u the child d’s statemen nt and the preconditionns seldom prevail p to acquire such inform mation. One reason is tthat most child c abuse with knownn perpetrato or is only erwards. In other wordss, children, and in partiicular small children, ha ave little brought to light afte opportun nity of obta aining redre ess. Howeve er, if evide ence cannot be acquireed from the e child’s statement and corro oborative ev vidence, the ere is -if abu use has occu urred- a sourrce that is incredibly S nam mely the susspect. Other countries achieve a m much higherr level of underesttimated in Sweden, success by basing their prosecution for sexuaal abuse of a child on ad dmissions. Thhis may partly be due dmission sign nificantly mitigating the e penalty -w which not is the case in Sweden- , but even to an ad more on n having clea ar and distin nct strategie es for how to o conduct qu uestionings w with those suspected of these e offences. In other co ountries, it is assumed that the su uspect may admit to th he abuse occurred d - in Sweden it is assum med that he w s In conclu usion, resultss will not im mprove as will not do so. long as the strategies for the investigation n are not im mproved, as these cases in general are most ate and prove e (Diesen & D Diesen 2009).19 difficult to investiga 16 Sutoriu us, H., Kaldal, A. (2003). Be evisprövning vvid sexualbrottt. (Evidence in i sexual offe nce). Norsted dts juridik. 17 Anderssson, U,. (20 004). Hans (o ord) eller hennnes? - en kö önsteoretisk analys a av straaffrättsligt skydd s mot sexuella ö övergrepp. (H His (Word) or her? h - a gendeer theoretical analysis of crriminal-law prrotection against sexual assault). Bokbox förlag g. Andersson n, U,. (2004).. Hans våld eller e hennes vvilja? - en disk kussion om de en rättsliga pprövningen av v våldtäkt. His or herr will? - a disccussion of the legal review oof rape). Juridisk tidskrift. 18 Westerrstrand, J. (20 008). Mellan mäns m händer - kvinnors rätttssubjektivite et, internatioonell rätt och diskurser och prosttitution och trafficking. t (B Between the m men's hands - women's lega al personality,, internationa al law and discourse es and prostitu ution and traffficking). Unive versitetstrycke eriet i Uppsala a 19 Diesen n, C., Diesen,, E.F. (2009). Övergrepp mot kvinnor och barn. (V Violation of W Women and Children). Norstedtss juridik. 7 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 When itt comes to o sexual aggression agaainst a cattegory of victims v betw ween childh hood and adolesce ence, the yo oung teenage ers (15-17 yyears), there e are other investigationn problems. In many cases th he victim doe es not consiider herself as a victim of rape, bu ut a victim oof circumsta ances and gender p patterns, and d does not re eport promp ptly. If she re eports later it i is often coonsidered a weakness w (the rape is a ‘fruit of conclusio on’) and mig ht as well be e so if evide ence is lost i n the meanttime. If a er himself ass an offende er, but as report iss made and the suspect is interrogaated, he will not conside someone e who did no ot understan nd she was n not willing. In such a ca ase -where itt is her word against his- it w will be imposssible to pro ove rape or sexual abuse. The claim med lack of mens rea cannot be counter proved and the case will soon be cllosed. In thiss area a new w rape law bbased on non n-consent could he elp a bit, bu ut most of th he evidence problems re emain (Leijo onhufvud 20009).20 The sa ame goes with the e problem when w the vic ctim is unde er 15 years (13-14) and the perpettrator claimss that he thought she was olde er (and it wa as not reckle ess in making g that conclu usion). p the legal cchain, a ten ndency towards greater restrictivene ess could As regarrds procedurres higher up be obse erved in the e 2000s whe en assessing the issue of prosecutiion of sexuaal crime ca ases. The discussio on about errroneous conv victions, a n umber of ac cquittals in Supreme S Couurt and the following demand for stronge er corrobora ative, have resulted in prosecutors becoming more cautio ous when bringing charges in these t cases. This particu ularly appliess to cases of date-rape aand incest. As A regards other ch hild sexual ab buse cases, there are otther circumsttances that restrain prossecution. Th he quality of the in nvestigation -and thereb by the rate of prosecutiion- dependss to a large extent on local l and more transient circcumstances, e.g. the in nterrogation quality and d the use oof coercive measures m ( & Diesen 2009).221 against tthe suspect (Diesen t the rece ent focus is on the issue e of corroborrative evidennce: such ev vidence is In court it appears that referred d to when ma aking a conv viction, and the lack of such evidence is mainlyy the justific cation for an acquittal.. The meanin ng of ‘corrob borative evid dence’ is still extremelyy unclear, ev ven in the making a Supreme e Court (HD). It also app pears to be tthe case that evidence that t is acceppted as corro oborating in the ca ase of conviction (in casses without directly inte errelated eviidence) is geenerally wea aker than lacking ccorroborativve evidence in case of aacquittal. In the case of a convictioon, it may be e enough that the aggrieved party p has talked to a clossely related person abou ut the abusee, but witnessses, DNA quested whe en acquitting g. This sugge ests that thee courts wish h to make and/or ttechnical eviidence is req the outccome clear and a well justified for th hose reading the judgme ent, althoughh the evalua ation can be assum med to be based b mainly y on an asssessment of the aggrieved party’s ccredibility (L Lainpelto 2012).22 Together wiith the observation thatt the reasonss for judgme ent are oftenn scanty, nott least as regards the assessm ment of the parties’ staatements, this t can be a sign thatt a more meticulous analysis of the stattement has not been coonducted (SSchelin 2008).23 Probablyy as a result of the debate a about corrob borative evid dence there has been a decrease d of convictions,, from 22% in n 2006 to 34% in 20 010 (Diesen & Diesen 2013).24 20 Leijonh hufvud, M. (20 008) Samtycke esutredningenn. Thomson fö örlag. 21 See notte 19. 22 Lainpellto, K. (2012) ‘Stödbevisnin ng I brottmål’ (diss.), Stock kholm. 23 Schelin n, L. (2008) ‘V Värdering av utsagor u i brotttmål’ (diss.) Stockholm. S 24 Diesen,, C. & Diesen,, E. (2013) ‘Öv vergrepp mot kvinnor och barn’. b Stockho olm. 8 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 2.4 More e legal studiies Author(s) Tiitle Publisher Yearr of publlication 2001 Andersson n, U. Th he Unbounded d Body of the Law of Ra ape - the Intru usive Criterioon of NonCo onsent In: Responsib ble Selves: Woomen in the Nordic Legal Culturee (eds. Nousiainen, K., m, K., Gunnarsson, Å., Lundström Niemi-Kiesilä äinen, J.) Aldershot, Asshgate Andersson n, U. De et gränslöst fe eminina. Kvinnnliga krroppar och sex xualiteter i räättslig ha antering av vå åldtäkt (T The boundless feminine. Feemale bo odies and Sexu ualities in thee legal ha andling of rape) In: Mord, missshandel och sexuella överrgrepp. Historriska och kulturella perspektiv ppå kön och våld.. (Killings, beaatings and sexual ab buse. Historica cal and cultural persp pectives on seex and violence) (ed. Lövkrona, I..), Nordic Acade emic Press 2001 Berglund,, K. Sttraffrätt och kön k (C Criminal law and a gender) Iustus förlag 2007 7 Andersson n, U. Th he Unbounded d Body of the Law of Ra ape - the Intru usive Criterioon of NonCo onsent Ashgate 2007 7 Berglund,, K. Ha arm and Gend der Scandinavian Studies in Laaw 2009 9 Kaldal, A., Lainpelto o, K. Nyya sexualbrottsprejudikat?? Ne ew sex-crime precedent? Juridisk tidsk krift 2009 9/10 Diesen, C C. Se ex Crime Legisslation - Proa ctive and An nti-Therapeuttic effects International Journal of Laaw and Psychiatrry 2010 0 Asp, P. Se ex och samtyccke (SSex and consen nt) Iustus förlag 2010 0 Eriksson, M. De efining Rape - Emerging Ob bjekctives fo or States Unde er Internationnal Law Martinus Nijh hoff Publisherss 2011 9 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 3. INST TITUTIONS,, ORGANISA ATIONS AND D SERVICES S 3.1 Victim-oriented d institutionss, organisatiions and serrvices ational levell 3.1.1 Na As descrribed under Government G level (2.1.) there are se everal institutions underr the directio on of the governm ment that -am mongst othe er tasks- perrform survey ys and publiish informattion on youtth sexual aggressio on and victimization. Th here is also one, already y mentioned d institution,, The Nation nal Board of Healtth and Welfa are (Socialstyrelsen) thaat supervisess all local ac ctivities conccerning supp port/care for offen nders and vicctims (medic cal care, psyychiatric trea atment, instiitutional carre, etc.). national leve el there is a homepage, UMO,25 finan nced by the governmentt. The site is ‘a youth On the n friendly clinic for young people e’ aged 13 tto 25 years, where they y can find reelevant, currrent and quality a assured information abo out sex, heallth and relattionships. Th his homepagge is a nation nal cyber equivale ent to the loccal youth centres. w with h children´ss rights and child support, BRIS (Chiildren´s Right in the Amongstt the NGOs working Society),26 and their hot-line for children up to 18 years, should d be mentiooned. Anothe er is the organisation Rädda Barn nen (Save th he Children)),27 working for childrenn´s rights an nd better charity o living co onditions aro ound the wo orld. The orgganisation has 87.000 members m andd 244 local offices o in Sweden and runs a centre c for ch hildren and yyoung people e in crisis, bu ut also perfoorms studies on youth sexual abuse. ECPAT T Sweden wo orks against ccommercial exploitation of children (up to 18 ye ears), has e for reporting child porn nography and d makes cam mpaigns against sex touriism.28 a hotline 3.1.2 Re egional/local level The health and social services in Sweden arre organised d in landsting g (regional llevel) and ko ommuner palities, loca al level), botth coordinate ed in policy matters on a national leevel by SKL (Sveriges (municip kommer och landstiing).29 The regions are responsible for health care and thhe municipa alities for social se ervices and care c for elderly. here are You uth Centres, Ungdomsmo ottagningar, in each muunicipality (a and in big On the llocal level th cities se everal), provviding free information and advisorry psychosocial services in all dimensions of young life for perso ons (mostly) between 122 and 25 yea ars. They also have speecial feature es for the dical examin nation (for ve enereal diseases) and provide contraaceptives. sexual life, with med GOs in Swed den working with the sup pport of crim me victims: w with a generral target There arre several NG group th here is BOJ,30 the natio onal organisaation for criime victims, coordinatinng the work k of local support groups. Morre specialise ed are the ttwo national organisatio ons for coorrdinating the e women KR.31,32 Both organisation ns have speciial shelters ffor young girrls. There shelters in Sweden; ROKS and SK are also some local NGOs that have shelte ers and supp port for certtain groups, e.g. Terrafe em,33 for immigrant women off all ages, offfering a help pline in 43 la anguages. 25 http:// /www.umo.se e/ 26 http:// /bris.se/ 27 http:// /www.rb.se/P Pages/default.aspx 28 http:// /www.ecpat.sse/index.php 29 http:// /www.skl.se/ 30 http:// /boj.se/ 31 http:// /roks.se/ 32 http:// /www.kvinnojjouren.se/ 33 http:// /www.terrafem.org/ 10 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 All the shelter orga anisations are a independ dent but ha ave substanttive financiaal support from f the ment and govvernment age encies. governm a some orrganisations working witth victims of o child sexxual abuse and a their In addittion there are parents, some with local departments. On ne of them, HOPP (Hop pe),34 workss with impro oving the ave been su ubjected to sexual abuse e. The organnisation has a multirehabilittation of vicctims that ha disciplinary perspecctive on inv vestigation aand treatme ent and will soon publlish a hand--book on use. Anotherr organisatioon, ATSUB,355 focuses on the familiees of abused children survivingg sexual abu and works with inforrmation, legal aid and re ehabilitation n for both vic ctim and its relatives. There also 3 s in n women sub bjected to in ncest, RSCI,36 to give suppport to women that is an orgganisation, specialised experien nced sexual abuse a in their childhood . 3.2 Perp petrator-orie ented institutions, orgaanisations an nd services On the rregional leve el there are special psycchiatric unitts, PBU or BUP, organiseed for young g people, providing voluntary psychiatric care c for perssons under the t age of 20 0. Many of tthese units have h staff ment of victims of sexuall abuse, but there is only y one unit inn this segment that is specialissed in treatm specialissed in treatiing paedophiles; Centru m för Andro ologi och Sex xualmedicin in Huddinge (in the 3 Stockhollm region).37 It can alsso be noted d that one region, Landstinget i V Västernorrlan nd,38 has 39 introducced a Canadian tool to asssess the ris k of perform ming sexual violence. v T These guidelines were created by Boer, Ha art, Kropp & Webster, in British Colo ombia (Canad da) and are ddesigned forr forensic use. 20 factors in three areass - psychosoccial and sex x crime bac ckground, fuuture (e.g. negative attitude to treatmen nt) - are analysed from aas many sourrces as possib ble. 3.3 Proffessional tra aining, healtth education n and researrch A govern nmental inittiative has been b to creaate the Natiional Centre e for Womenn’s Peace (N Nationellt centrum m för kvinnoffrid (NCK))40 formed in 22004 and situ uated in Upp psala. The ceentre is a prroduct of the wom men’s peace reform in th he late 90s w when a new crime, c gross violation of women’s pe eace, was made law w. This gend der-related crime c constrruction is loo oking upon women-batte w ering as a co ontinuum and a co ontrol mecha anism, worth h a more sevvere punishm ment than a number n of aassaults. The e function of the N NCK is to be e a national knowledge centre on relational r violence, butt also a help p-line for battered d women. So ome of the studies s of th he centre ha ave certain values v for yooung women, but the main tarrget group iss adult wome en. In 2008 N NCK launched d a hand-boo ok for victim ms of sexual crimes. c universities of o Linköping and Stockhoolm there arre special un nits for childd research within w the At the u area of b behavioural sciences, pe erforming stu udies on e.g. sexual habits amongst young peoplle and on sexual aggression and victimiization, butt also givin ng special courses forr students and for onals. Amon ngst the courses there i s a mandato ory educatio on for policee officers th hat make professio child intterrogations. 34 http:// /www.hopp.org/ 35 http:// /www.atsub.sse/ 36 http:// /www.rsci.nu/ / 37 http:// /www.karolinsska.se/Verksa amheternas/K Kliniker--enhetter/Endokrink kliniken/Centrrum-Andrologii-Sexualme edicin/ 38 http:// /www.lvn.se/ 39 Belfragge H., Strand S., Ekman L., and Hasselboorg A. (2012) Assessing risk k of patriarchaal violence wiith honour as a motive: six yearss’ experience using the PA ATRIARCH che ecklist. International Journnal of Police Science & Managem ment: March 20 012, Vol. 14, No. N 1, pp. 20--29. 40 http:// /www.nck.uu..se/ 11 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 On the N NGO side th here are two o organisatioons that worrk specificallly with sexuual issues. The major 41 one is R RFSU (IPPF member), m The T Nationall Association n for Sexual Education, established in 1933. The aim of the organisation is to o spread an open and kn nowledge-based view upoon sexual isssues, and the orga anisation wo orks with education and d lobbying, both b nationw wide and intternationally y. During 2009-201 11 ‘the sexu uality of the child’ was a special theme - the platform is thhat children´s sexual curiosityy about sex should s be met with unde erstanding. The other national orgaanisation, RFSL,42 The Swedish Federation for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexu ual and Tran nsgender Rights, works tto make LGB BT people have the e same rightss as others. 41 http:// /www.rfsu.se/ / 42 http:// /rfsl.se/ 12 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 4. RESEARCH STU UDIES ON PREVALENCE E There ha as been many prevalence studies oon child sex abuse perfo ormed and published in n Sweden during tthe last deccades. The results r are quite simila ar, and the differences probably are a to be explaine ed by differences in de efinitions (e..g. what is meant by ‘sexual ‘ haraassment’) more than differencces in scientific quality. Swedish p revalence and incidence e surveys in dicate that 7-14% of the girlss and 3-6% of the boys are a forced too intercourse e before the e age of 18. There are also a some studies w with a widerr concept, more focused on young pe eople´s lives. ent study (Danielsson et al 2009) ab out experien nces of emottional, physiical and sexu ual abuse One rece amongstt young peop ple (15-23 ye ears) showed d that young women are more often exposed to all forms of sexua al violence: 14% 1 of all yo oung women and 4.7% off the men sttated that thhey had been n subject to sexua al abuse (mild, moderate, severe) d during the pa ast 12 months. And 6% of the young women had been n exposed to o penetrating g violence d uring the pa ast 12 months (corresponnding figure for f young men 0,4 4%). In both young men and women sexual abusse was heavily overlappeed by emotiional and physical abuse. The negative efffects of the sexual abuse e during the last 12 monnths were assessed as more se evere by the e young wom men for the e mild and moderate m fo orms, while assessmentss for the severe fo orms were equal e for both sexes. l prev valence of cchild sexual abuse a (Prieb be 2009) is baased on a po opulation A study focused on lifetime 9 high-schoo ol seniors, asking a them questions about a their experiencess in being forced f to of 4.339 differentt sexual actts (e.g. exhibition, touc hing, masturbation of another a persson, genital sex, oral sex, ana al sex). 44.8% % of the girlls had experrienced conta act sexual abuse withouut penetratio on, 13.5% penetratting sexual abuse a (corre esponding 133.0% respecttively 5.5% for f boys). C Compared to o the 35% (girls) orr 77% (boys) who had no ot experiencced any abusse the popullations of thhe penetratin ng victim groups d differed and contained more m immigraants, bigger city inhabita ants and theey had paren nts with a lower so ocioeconomicc status. Of those who re eported sexu ual abuse 2.6 6% had beenn filmed in an n abusive situation n and alcoho ol/drugs we ere involved in 42.0% off the cases. There was a correlation found between n early sex debut and sex s abuse vvictims, but -assessing the risk of rre-victimizattion-most abuses o occurred afte er the sex de ebut. 13 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 5. RISK K FACTORS AND OUTC COMES 5.1 Risk k factors of perpetration p n A minor study on pe erpetrators (Tidefors 20010), with 45 5 young sex offenders (113-22 years)), studies the psycchological background b factors for committing g sexual abu use. The finndings are that the offenderrs estimated d depression n, anger and d anti-social behaviour higher and empathy an nd sexual openness lower than n the contro ol group. Th e boys in th he group had d been earlyy sexually ac ctive and bed a rigid image of sexuality. s Ma any of the boys had separated s sexually advanced, but describ parents, lived in fosster care and/or (68%) h had contact with the so ocial servicees already be efore the many (40%) had h experien nced sexual abuse themselves and 50% 5 had learrning difficullties (25% abuse, m of them with ADHD-diagnosis). Similar S findin ngs are foun nd in a study y from 1999 (Långström), with 46 young se ex offenders (12-20 years) subjective e to forensic c medical eva aluation. Th e sex offend ders were 3-4 time es more like ely to be declared insan ne to young non-sex offenders and adult sex offenders, signifyin ng that expe erts might consider c a yyoung individ dual´s sex offending o beehaviour in itself as w hyperacttive or inatte tentive in sch hool, had indicativve of a serious psychiatriic disorder. A majority was speech o or language problems and a more th han a third had been diagnosed wi th severe conditions affectingg the centrral nervous system. Loow family economic e sttatus, disha rmonious upbringing conditions and sep parations fro om parents were common examp ples of psycchosocial ad dversities nced during childhood. A majority had been bullied b and non-sexual antisocial acts a were experien prevalen nt. (Regardin ng this study y it should be noted th hat only app prox. 10% off the prosec cuted sex offenderrs are suspeccted to have e a psychiatrric disorder and therefore subjectedd to forensic c medical evaluatio on). pants in Swe eden and Noorway, exam mines the A Nordicc study (Setto et al 2010), with 4.0000 particip hypothessis that exp periencing sexual s coerccion is asso ociated with h engaging iin sexually coercive behaviou ur. The findiings are thatt youths whoo had experiienced sexua al coercion aare three tim mes more likely to o engage in coercive c sex xual behavioour than those without that t experieence (10-12% % vs. 4%). The asso ociation rem mained signifficant when controlling for e.g. non nsexual antissocial behav viour and substancce use, whicch means that the find dings support a robust link betweeen experien nced and performe ed sexual co oercion. 5.2 Vuln nerability factors for vic ctimization A study with the ma ain aim was to investigaate trauma and a dissocia ation among Swedish ado olescents ed that girls (10-19 yearrs) scored sig gnificantly hiigher than bboys in both a clinical (Nilsson 2007) showe and a no ormative group, and thatt girls in the age range of o 14-15 gave e the significcantly highesst scores. The stud dy used psycchometric in nstruments (llike A-DES) to t evaluate the trauma status and it can be noted th hat Swedish adolescents a gave lower main scores than have been b reporteed in other countries, c but the same mean for the clin nical group, where the girls g with kn nown experieenced traum ma/sexual ave the highe est scores. abuse ga evalence stu udy (Priebe 2010), conccentrated on n sexual abu use and psyychosocial asspects of In a pre heath, 6 67% of the girls and 27% of the boys (in a population of 1.107 7 adolescentts with the mean m age 18.3) rep ported some e form of sex xual abuse exxperience. The T mean age e of the abu se was 14.0 years for girls and d 14.7 for bo oys. The perrpetrator on n the first ab buse occasio on was at leaast 5 years older for 50% of tthe girls and 38% of the boys. Sexuaal abuse wass related to more emotioonal and behavioural problems and lowerr self-esteem m when com mpared with non-abuse and the moore severe abuse a the h. But, whe en adjusted for socio-d demographicc and family y-related poorer tthe psychossocial health variabless, most of th he weaker he ealth variablles disappeared. actor for being a victim of sexual agggression is selling s sex. Some S studiess have been n made in A risk fa Sweden on the issue e, one (Svedin et al 20044) is focused d on young people´s p habbits, showing g that 1% of the giirls and 1.8% % of the boys (1.4% of the e population, 4.343 persons mean agge 18) had so old sex at least on nce (the first transaction at the me edian age off 15.9 yearss). Comparedd to the resst of the ere more affflicted with asocial behaaviour and had h more population the sex-sselling boys and girls we ems. The sex x-sellers had d a ‘sexualise ed’ life (with an early ddebut, many partners psycho-ssocial proble and adva anced sex) and a were lesss controlled (smoking, drinking, abussing drugs). 14 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 5.3 Outccomes A study on (152) wo omen subjec cted to child d sexual abu use in their childhood c (JJonzon 2006) showed evealed the abuse durin ng their chilldhood (befo ore the age of 18) and that the that onlly a third re average delay of diisclosure wa as 21 years. Lacking self-esteem and social suupport were strongly related tto both psycchological an nd psychosoccial health, but also the nature/exteent of the abuse a and the influ uence of othe er negative life l events p played a major part as well. udy dealing with male e victims off rape (Knutag책rd 20099) showing that the There iss also a stu experien nce of rape drained their emotiona l energy. Th his put these e men in a pposition whe ere there were no o words and d without words w they aare invisible e in society and not abble to process their experien nce of rape by b seeking prrofessional h help. 15 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 6. EVID DENCE-BAS SED INTERV VENTIONS 6.1 Perp petration A study focused on treatment, was publish hed recently y by Swedish Council onn Health Te echnology Assessme ent (SBU). Seven S expertts, most of tthem from the t psychiatric field, haas assembled d Swedish and inte ernational da ata on child sexual s abuse e, with meth hods for prev vention as thhe main obje ect of the study (Lå ångström et al 2011). First of all the e report conffirms the esttimation thaat only 10% of o the sex crimes in Sweden arre reported to the authoorities (polic ce or social service) andd that the fig gure may be even lower when it comes to children as victims. dings on prevvention and treatment t arre summarise ed as followss: The find o knowledge e about efficcient method ds for treatm ment of childd sex abuserrs. This is therre is a lack of serio ous as the aim of the trreatment is to prevent new n abuses. More reseaarch is necesssary and such h research be ecomes even n more impoortant if the e European Council C Convvention on protection of ch hildren from sexual exploitation and d abuse is implemented; the scientific base b is not sufficient tto evaluate if there iss a treatmeent that can n reduce divism amon ngst adult sex x offenders; recid for yyoung sex offfenders therre is limited support thatt multi-syste em therapy pprevents rela apses; for children (un nder 13) witth sexual be ehaviour dirrected towa ards other cchildren therre is not ugh of scien ntific evidence of the re esult of cog gnitive behav viour therappy, nor is it possible enou toda ay to assess other o methods; for cchildren and adolescentss who have n not committted sexual offfenses againnst children but is at risk of doing so there t is a lac ck of researcch on preven ntive method ds. 6.2 Victimization entioned stu udy by Jonzoon (2006), with adult wom men subjecteed to sexuall abuse in The earllier (5.3.) me childhoo od or youth, showed that the influen nce of family y and social support andd inventions by social services and psychologists (e.g. through the erapy) had a limited influence on thhe life quality of the victims. This can alsso be a reaso on why these e women had d turned to the organisaation that formed the population for the study. Insttead the be est outcome e was often n related too the findin ng of an anding life partner. understa n and young people victiimized by se exual abusess oftentimes have to meeet a lot of different Children professio onals to havve the crime e investigate ed and to ge et psychosoc cial rehabilittation. One practical disadvan ntage with th hese multi-ttask interven ntions is thatt these serviices are not coordinated d and are found in n different places (police e stations, hoospitals, clin nics, social centres, c etc..). A solution n is Child Advocaccy Centres an nd 27 such centres c have e been estab blished in Sw weden since 2005. The main m idea erican origin) of these institutions iis that a ch hild (under 18) 1 suspecteed to be a victim v of (of Ame violent o or sexual criimes should get all the help and inv vestigation resources r ‘unnder the sam me roof’, meaningg that they go to a special centre where polic ce, prosecutors, social w workers, pae ediatrics, child pssychiatrists and a child psychologists p s are gatherred to coop perate in thhe investiga ation and treatment of the ch hild. The Sw wedish child ccentres werre evaluated in 2006 andd 2010 and the main ure, that the e (not suspec cted) parentts are satisffied, that findings are that the child feelss more secu the coop peration bettween differrent disciplin nes is impro oved and tha at the psych osocial interventions come at an earlier sttage comparred to tradit ional organissation. other hand the t prosecutiions were noot more freq quent in the CAC districtts than in the control On the o group. O One reason for f the lack of differen ce in prosec cutions is th hat the role of the prossecutor is essential for the ou utcome of th he process; with a prossecutor that is ‘present’’ the odds are a much Cs the proseecutors were e absent. better tthan with a prosecutor that is ‘disttant’ - and in some CAC Another problem wiith the CACss in Sweden today is tha at the very young victim ms (under 4)) and the teenagers (13-18 yea ars) -though belonging too the target group- seldo om get accesss to the serv vices. 16 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 7. SUM MMARY/CON NCLUSIONS Youth se exual aggresssion and victimization coonstitutes a major problem in Swedden. 7-14% of all girls and 3-6% % boys are -a according to o recent prevvalence stud dies- forced to intercourrse before th he age of 18. In a survey of 18 1 years olds 14% of the e girls and 4.7% 4 of the boys stated that they had h been subjecte ed to some kind k of sexual abuse durring the past 12 monthss. Another siign is that th he police reports on rape hass increased immensely, i y (2000-2 2008, all agees), and tha at almost 260% in 8 years a reported each year. 2.000 rapes of childrren (under 15, including attempts) are 8 the pub blic and scientific interest has been focused on violence For a longer period -since the 80swomen and on child se exual abuse, but lately the issue off sexually aabused teena agers has against w entered the agenda.. Still there is i no answerr to the quesstion why the e frequency of reported rape has increase ed that much h; if it is a result of a higher tend dency to rep port or if it is a factuall raise of occurred d abuses. Ce ertainly, the e willingnesss of the vic ctim to make a police rreport has increased i during tthe last deccade, due to t a change e of attitude to rape victims v (by the police and the environm ment), but it i may also be a fact tthat sexual and a culturall habits (som me related to t drugs, others to o Internet) amongst a teen nagers have risen the risk of sexual victimization v n. mportance (at ( least forr the high level of repo orts) is the never endin ng public Another factor of im attention and media a debate on rape in Swe eden, not selldom connec cted to the w weaknesses in law or edish law on n sexual crim mes is up to date, d but as the old definition of law pracctice. In general the Swe rape -as coercion- remains, the ere is a lot of criticism m against the e lack of m modernisation n of that paragrap ph. Now and d then there e are single e cases that draw the public p attenntion, re-starting the discussio on about cha anging the rape r law or expressing frustration about a the ddifficulties to o convict child sexx abusers. Th hese debatess have creatted some com mmon insights by the pu blic, e.g. that not all child sexx abusers arre paedophile es and that the possibilities for an incest victim m of gaining ‘justice’ are scarrce if years have h passed when the aabuse is disc closed. There is also genneral accepttance for the sayin ng ‘a no is allways a no, no n matter hoow late it is expressed’. p intere est in the m matter there e are many GOs G and NG GOs working with the As a mirrror of the public problems of sexual victimizatio on. There haave also bee en a lot of studies s perfoormed in Sw weden on udes and crim mes. Lately there have been b some studies s on rissk and on prrevention sexual habits, attitu egarding tre eatment for offenders no rehabilittation or as well,, but the fiindings are limited. Re preventiion method has been fo ound efficien nt, but a reason for tha at could be that too few w efforts have bee en made in that field (iin Sweden oor elsewhere e). Finally, itt should be noted the age a range between n 20 and 25 years has not got any sspecial atten ntion yet (as this categoory in Sweden is not regarded d as ‘youth’,, but ‘adults’). 17 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 APPEND DIX I. INFOR RMATION ON O INSTITUT TIONS, ORG GANISATION NS AND SER RVICES d institutionss, organisatiions and serrvices 1. Victiim-oriented 1.1 Nattional level C on and Supp port Authoriity (Brottsofffermyndigh heten) The Crime Victim Compensati Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.brotttsoffermyndiigheten.se/ Nation nal Agency, G GO. The Crime Victim Compensatiion and Supp port Authoritty promotes support for crime victims in general and a provide compensatio c on for crime victims nknown perrpetrators (or ( when perpetrators p fail to pay p the of un compe ensation to the victim). The agency y also perforrms research h on the impac ct of crime victimizatio on and a prioritised areea is psychical and sexual violence aggainst women and children. ational Organ nisation for Women’s an nd Young Women’s W She elters (ROKS)) The Na Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description www.roks.se NGO. ROKS is based on a feminist id deology, and d is the bigggest organisa ation for wome en´s shelterss in Sweden and has around 100 shhelters all over o the country. The aim m is to prottect women and childreen who hav ve been ct to violencce or rape. The T work of the nationall organisatio on is not subjec limite ed to supporrt the local shelters (that have finaancial suppo ort from the lo ocal commun nity, but are e independen nt) - a majorr task is to promote p preventive effortss. Within the organisation there aree approxima ately 30 ers specialise ed in the nee eds of young girls (Tjejjoourer). shelte em Terrafe Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.terraafem.org/ NGO. Terraffem works ffor the rightt of women of all ages to live in a society without the violen nce and abuse of men. Terrafem T waas founded in March who earlier had worked d with a sheelter for immigrant 2000 by women w en, the first of its kind in Sweden. Terrafem´s work is base ed on a wome perspe ective of booth gender and a ethnicity y. Terrafem runs Sweden n’s only nation nal helpline for immigrant women of all ages. T The helpline (020-52 10 10) offers supp port in 43 languages. Terrafem’s alsoo gives legal advice o women shelter, a shelter s for girls g and apaartments with daily and offer suppo ort. uellt utnyttjjade barn) (The Associaation of fam milies of ATSUB (Föreningen för anhörriga till sexu sexuallly abused ch hildren) Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.atsub b.se/index.p php NGO. ATSUB B is an orga nisation that works with h sexually aabused children and their parents. The ey offer a he elp phone, support for cchildren and parents vate and/or in groups, legal l aid and d activities ffor abused children c in priv (summ mer camps, oopen house, etc.). 18 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 i (RSCI) Stödcentrum mot incest Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description www.rsci.nu NGO. RSCI is i an organissation forme ed in 1981 which w gives support to women who have h been subjected to t incest in the childhoood or youtth. The suppo ort in given iin therapeuttic groups. It also organnises worksho ops and inform mation meetiings. wedish Asso ociation of Women’s W Sh helters and Young Women’s Empoowerment Centres C The Sw (Sverigges Kvinno- och o tjejjourrers riksförb bund (SKR)) Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description www.kvinnojour.ccom NGO. SKR iss a nationall association n of women’’s shelters ((kvinnojour), young wome en’s empowe erment centtres (tjejjou ur), relativees’ associatio ons and other organisation ns working to o prevent an nd put a stopp to men’s violence v againsst women. T The association is not afffiliated to anny political party p or religio on. SKR has aabout 90 me ember-organiisations. ofridslinjen Kvinno Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //kvinnofridsslinjen.se/ NGO. Kvinno ofridslinjen is a nation nal helpline e for womeen who hav ve been subjec cted to threaats and viole ence. The lin ne is open arround the clock and free of o charge. S Association (Brrottsofferjou uren (BOJ)) The Crime Victim Support Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //boj.se/ NGO. BOJ iss a non-profiit organisatio on that work ks with victim ms of crime and the work is based on n internation nal conventions on hum man rights. BOJ B coates the worrk of local su upport group ps and theree are over 10 00 local ordina Victim m Support Ce entres in Swe eden. uren.se Tjejjou Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.tjejj ouren.se/ NGO. Tjejjo ouren.se is a nationall young wo omen´s em powerment centre intern net portal aim med at 12-2 20 year olds and is a wayy to reach all young wome en who are in n need of support. The website w conttains contactt details of ove er 60 empow werment ce entres all ov ver Sweden. Young wom men can pose questions oon-line whiich will be e answered within 48 hours. ected to the e website th here is also an intranet where the women Conne working at the ce ntres can ex xchange thou ughts and expperiences. uset Novahu Website e Type off organisatio on http:/ //www.novaahuset.com/ Non-p profit organissation, NGO.. 19 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Short d description The target t group p is adolesce ents betwee en 12-25 yeaars who hav ve been sexually victimize ed. Novahuse et offers support via teleephone, onliine chat apy groups and a support in contact with w the and e-mail, counsselling, thera a spread information n about authorities. Theyy also offerr lectures and S sexual victimizatioon and rightt now (2012) there is a ccampaign in Swedish ernet’. schools regarding ‘Youth, Sex and the Inte 1.2 Reggional/local level n’s Shelters (Kvinnojourrer) Women Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description Wome en´s Shelterrs that are members of o The Sweddish Associa ation of Wome en’s Shelterss and Young g Women’s Empowermeent Centres can be found via this linkk: //www.kvinn nojouren.se/ /node/3706 http:/ NGO. The Swedish S movvement of women´s w sh helters has bbeen an im mportant driving force in m making men n´s violence against woomen visible and in cting and su pporting wo omen who ha ave been subbjected to viiolence. protec There e are about 140 local wo omen´s shellters in Swedden supportting and helpin ng women su ubjected to violence. Most M shelterss offer coun nselling, advice e, safe accoommodation and support in contacct with the police, social services, faamily court and a the legal system. mpowermen nt Centres (T Tjejjourer) Young Women’s Em Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description Young g Women’s E mpowermen nt Centres ca an be found vvia this link http:/ //www.tjejj ouren.se/ko ontakta-en-jo our NGO. There e are about 60 young women´s w empowerment centres in Sweden and 25 2 of these are members of the Sw wedish Assocciation of Women’s W Shelte ers and You n’s Empowe erment Centtres. Many of the ung Women Empow werment Ce entres are attached a to a women´ss shelter bu ut their work is i different ffrom the wo ork of the she elters. The bbiggest difference is that the t Empowerrment Centrres meet girlls who have questions about all kinds of things, n not just abou ut violence, e.g. relatioonships, sex,, sexual assaullt, bullying and substance abuse. Another difference is that Empow werment Ce entres work more with outreach annd preventio ons than wome en´s shelterss do. The tarrget group varies from ccentre to cen ntre but is usually girls an d young wom men from 13 3 to their eaarly twentiess. Some es have a tellephone help pline. centre Victim Supp port Centres Crime V Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description All Criime Victim SSupport Centtres can be found f via thi s link http:/ //boj.se/?c==4&pg=73 NGO. There e are over 100 local Crime C Victim m Support C Centres in Sweden, S organised by the C Crime Victim m Support Associations (BBOJ). efanten BUP-Ele Website e Type off organisatio on http:/ //www.lio.se e/Verksamhe eter/Narsjuk kvarden-i-ceentralaOsterg gotland/BUP P-kliniken-i-L Linkoping/BU UP-Elefantenn/ Region nal health caare with national tasks. 20 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Short d description In the e region of Östergötland d, at the Un niversity Hosspital in Lin nköping, there is a speciall unit for ch hildren and adolescents a up to 18 ye ears old subjec cted to sexu ual abuse an nd children and a adolesceents up to 18 years old who w have co mmitted sex xual abuse. BUP-Elefantten prioritisses high availa ability and early interrvention in terms of support and d crisis manag gement, an nd if nece essary, lon nger-lasting psychotherrapeutic contact. The tre eatment me ethods are support, ccrisis interve entions, dual and faamily counse elling, child d therapy, EEMDR and traumat individ focuse ed cognitive e behavioural therapy. BUP-Elefannten interac cts with Barnahusteamet, a specialised d team work king with chi ld abuse and d sexual abuse. u is also responsible e for the national n chilld- and ado olescent The unit psychiatric netwoork concernin ng child sexu ual abuse andd sexual abu use. The ork spreads information n about policies, legislaation, investtigation, netwo treatm ment and e education to o members from the Swedish child and adolesscent psychiiatry. The unit u is also a member oof The Intern national Societty for the P Prevention off Child Abusse and Negleect (ISPCAN),43 The Ameriican Professiional Society y on the Abuse of Childdren (APSAC),44 and The British B Associiation for th he Study of Prevention of Child Abu use and Neglect (BASPCAN N).45 u also con arch in collaboration w with the Division of The unit nducts resea Child and Adolesscent Psychiatry at the e Departmeent of Clinic cal and Experimental Med dicine (IKE) at a the Linköp ping Universiity. Ungdom MariaU Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.mari aungdom.se/ Region nal health caare. MariaU Ungdom (MU U) is a countty council´s drive regardding health care c for person ns under 20 years who have h och are likely to deevelop an alc cohol or drug addiction. There are psychiatrissts, psychollogists and family pists workin ng in the outpatient o care and tthey offer a more therap specia alised treatm ment for you ung people who w have beeen sexually abused, young g people wit h suicidal th houghts and young peopple who sufffer from other traumatic e experiences. Möjligheter 1000 M Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.10000mojligheter.se/ Non-p profit organissation, NGO.. 1000 Möjligheter is a recentt established organisatiion and the e target ents betwee en 13-25 ye ears. The pprimary worrk is to group is adolesce ort and emp power youth h. They offe er counsellinng and supp port via suppo teleph hone or an online chat and therap py groups. T They can alsso offer suppo ort in contaact with th he authorities and/or health care e. 1000 Möjlig gheter also works preve entively thrrough educaation, lobbyiing and opinio on work. 43 http:// /www.ispcan.org/ 44 http:// /www.apsac.o org/ 45 http:// /www.baspcan.org.uk/ 21 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 petrator-orie ented institutions 2. Perp 2.1 Nattional level nTell Preven Website e Type off organisatio on http:/ //preventell .se/ GO. Short d description PreventTell is a national helpline h for persons eexperiencing sexual nctions, se exual deviations and hyper-sexu al disorderrs (sex dysfun addicttion). The h helpline was established by the Cenntrum för An ndrologi och Se exualmedicin n at Karolinsska Universitty Hospital. B of Insttitutional Caare (Statenss institutionssstyrelse) Swedissh National Board Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.stat--inst.se/ Goverrnment auth hority superrvised by th he Swedish National Bo oard of Health h and Welfarre (Socialsty yrelsen). The Swedish Nati onal Board of Institutional Care (SiSS) is administrating compu ulsory care e for youn ng people demonstraating psycho-social proble ems, substan nce abuse an nd criminal behaviour. SSiS also givess grants for scientific rese arch on this category of young peoplle. d Probation Service (Krriminalvårde en) Swedissh Prison and Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.krim inalvarden.sse/ GO. The Swedish Prisoon and Proba ation Service e is part of the judicial system prisons and the t rehabilitation of offeenders. The aims of and handles the p r crim minality and increase sa afety in the criminal poliicy are to reduce societty. The Prisoon and Proba ation Service e’s main taskks are to imp plement prison n sentencess and proba ation, reduc ce relapse in crime through treatm ment progrrams, to be b responsiible for thhe supervission of condittionally rele eased perso ons, to im mplement seentences re egarding comm munity servicce and to carry c out pre-sentence reports in criminal c cases.. 2.2 Reggional/local level um för Andro ologi och Sex xualmedicin n Centru Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.karo linska.se/Ve erksamhetern nas/Kliniker--enhetter/Endokrin kliniken/Cen ntrum-Andro ologi--Sexuallmedicin/ Region nal health caare. Centrum för And rologi och Sexualmedic S cin was estaablished in 2006 2 at al. The centre combiness both medical and Karolinska Univerrsity Hospita psychological treaatment. Within the centtre there is a clinic that treats a women with e.g. disturbances d s in their seexual develo opment, men and paraphilias, sexuaal compulsiv vity and sexu ual violence.. Patients, with w any e asked if the t initial innvestigation can be form of sexual d eviance, are mented. The e aim is to create a basis b for diaagnosis, trea atment, docum measu urement of treatment effects an nd contributte new kno owledge conce erning sexua l deviance as a a form of preventivee work. The e centre servess also as a kn nowledge-ce entre for GOss, NGOs and the health-c care. 22 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 efanten BUP-Ele Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.lio.se e/Verksamhe eter/Narsjuk kvarden-i-ceentralaOsterg gotland/BUP P-kliniken-i-L Linkoping/BU UP-Elefantenn/ Region nal health caare. In the e region of รstergรถtland d, at the Un niversity Hosspital in Lin nkรถping, there is a speciall unit for children- and adolescents up to 18 ye ears old subjec cted to sexu ual abuse and children- and adolesceents up to 18 1 years old who w have co mmitted sex xual abuse. BUP-Elefantten prioritisses high availa ability and early interrvention in terms of support and d crisis manag gement, an nd if nece essary, lon nger-lasting psychotherrapeutic contact. The tre eatment me ethods are support, ccrisis interve entions, dual and faamily counse elling, child d therapy, EEMDR and traumat individ focuse ed cognitive e behavioural therapy. BUP-Elefannten interac cts with Barnahusteamet, a specialised d team work king with chi ld abuse and d sexual abuse. u is also responsible e for the national n chilld- and ado olescent The unit psychiatric netwoork concernin ng child sexu ual abuse andd sexual abu use. The ork spreads information n about policies, legislaation, investtigation, netwo treatm ment and e education to o members from the Swedish child and adolesscent psychiiatry. The unit u is also a member oof The Intern national Societty for the P Prevention off Child Abusse and Negleect (ISPCAN),46 The Ameriican Professiional Society y on the Abuse of Childdren (APSAC),47 and The British B Associiation for th he Study of Prevention of Child Abu use and Neglect (BASPCAN N).48 u also con arch in collaboration w with the Division of The unit nducts resea Child and Adolesscent Psychiatry at the e Departmeent of Clinic cal and Experimental Med dicine (IKE) at a the Linkรถp ping Universiity. essional training, health h education and researc ch 3 Profe 3.1 Nattional level ational Board d of Health and Welfare e (Socialstyrrelsen) The Na Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.sociaalstyrelsen.se/ A gove ernment age ency under the Ministry of o Health andd Social Affa airs. Superv vises all loccal activitiess concerning g support/caare for victiims and offend ders (medicaal care, psyc chiatric trea atment, insttitutional care etc.) The board b gives support, exerts e influe ence and ssupervises in n many different ways: ccollect, com mpile, analy yse and passs on information, op standard s based on legislation and a the infoormation collected, develo exerciise supervisiion to ensurre that the standards s arre observed, and to minim mise risk and d improve patient p safetty. The boaard also und dertakes other official du uties such as a maintainiing health ddata registe ers and officia al statistics. 46 http:// /www.ispcan.org/ 47 http:// /www.apsac.o org/ 48 http:// /www.baspcan.org.uk/ 23 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 UMO Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.umo..se/ The developmen d t of UMO has been financed bby the Miniistry of Integrration and Ge o of the site is financed ender Equaliity and the operation by the e county cou uncils and mu unicipalities. UMO is i a national web-based youth friend dly clinic forr young peop ple aged 13 to 25 years. T The purpose of the site is to make it easier for young people e to find re elevant, currrent and qua ality assuredd information about sex, health h and re elationships. UMO is dedicated to inccrease and enhance e empow werment and n young peop ple’s lives. U UMO is develloped in d equality in co-ope eration with h young peop ple in Swede en, youth cliinics, school health servic ces, NGO: s aand professio onals working with youngg people. mbudsmanne en (The Omb budsman fo r Children) Barnom Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.barn ombudsmannen.se/ The Ombudsman O for Children n is appointe ed by the Sw wedish Gove ernment for a term of six years. The Ombudsman O ’s main dutyy is to prom mote the ung people aas set forth h in the rights and interessts of childrren and you United d Nations Coonvention on the Rights of o the Child (CRC). In Sweden, childrren and young people up u to the agge of 18 hav ve their o The agency monitors the implementtation of the e CRC in own ombudsman. Swede en. For insstance the Ombudsman n submits bbills for leg gislative chang ges to the Sw wedish Goverrnment and promotes p thee application n of the CRC in i the workk of governm ment agenciies, municippalities and county counc cils. The agen ncy also dissseminates information onn the Conven ntion. A key duty of the O Ombudsman for Children n in Sweden is to particiipate in c debate, p promote pu ublic interesst regardingg key issue es, and public influe ence the atti tudes of dec cision-makerrs and the puublic. Each year y the Ombudsman for C Children in Sw weden submits a report tto the Goverrnment. This report r addre esses the situ uation of children and yyoung people e in the country. uncil (Staten ns Medieråd d) Swedissh Media Cou Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.state ensmedierad d.se/ Nation nal authorityy. The Sw wedish Medi a Council is working with children’s and young people’s p media a situation, w with an aim m to reduce the risks off harmful efffects of the media and to empower th he children in n their mediaa use. The Sw wedish Natio onal Council for Crime P Prevention (Brottsföreb byggande råd det (BRÅ)) Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.bra.sse/bra.html Nation nal agency u under the Min nistry of Justtice. The Swedish S Nattional Counc cil for Crim me Preventioon is a cen ntre for researrch and devvelopment within w the judicial sysstem and primarily works to reduce crime and d improve levels of saafety in soc ciety by producing data and dissem minating kno owledge on crime and d crime prevention work. The counc cil also prod duces Swedeen´s official crime ms, conductts research to develo op new statisttics, evaluaates reform knowlledge and p provides support to loca al crime preevention work. The resultts of the Cou uncil’s work are a basis for decisionn makers witthin the judicial system, t he Parliament and the Government. G . The Counse el often h other org ganisations and public sector works in collabooration with agenc cies. 24 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 wedish Natio onal Board fo or Youth Afffairs (Ungdo omsstyrelsen n) The Sw Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.ungd domsstyrelsen.se/main/ Goverrnment agen cy. The Sw wedish Natioonal Board fo or Youth Affairs works too ensure tha at young people e have acccess to influence and welfare. It produces and comm municates kn nowledge about a young g people´s living con nditions, follow ws up the oobjectives se et for national youth ppolicy and supports s munic cipalities in ttheir youth policy p work. It also distrributes funds to the civil society in tthe form of o support of o organisattions, projec cts and national co-ooperation. The target grroups are deecision-make ers, civil intern servan nts and orrganisations working with w young people, women, w homossexual, bise exual and transgender people, nnational min norities, ethnic c minorities,, etc.). Since e 2006 the agency a has w worked with certain specia al tasks givven by the government, includingg forced marriage, violen nce against young wom men and on n the them me Youth, Sex S and Intern net. al Centre fo or Knowledg ge on Men’s Violence Against A Women (NCK) Th he National Centre Nationa for Women’s Peace e (Nationellt centrum fö för kvinnofriid (NCK)) Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.nck.u uu.se/ Funde ed by the govvernment. NCK is a knowled dge and reso ource centre e based at Uppsala Uniiversity. a is to inccrease knowlledge of men´s violencee against wo omen in The aim Swede en, and to d develop meth hods for the treatment and care of women subjec cted to viole ence. The centre has a clinic for w women subje ected to violen nce at Uppsaala Universitty Hospital. The centre is also resp ponsible for Kv vinnofridslin njen, a national helplin ne for womeen who hav ve been subjec cted to threaats and viole ence. ational Assoc ciation for Sexual S Educaation (RFSU)) The Na Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description www.rfsu.se NGO. RFSU, National A Association for Sexual Education, is an organisation promoting se exual educattion and sex policy information. founded in 1933 p a of the orrganisation is i to spread an open annd knowledge e based The aim view upon sexuaal issues. RFSU works with educattion and lo obbying, y, nationwid de and intern nationally. locally wedish Federation for Le esbian, Gay , Bisexual and Transgen nder Rights ((RFSL) The Sw Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.rfsl.sse/ NGO. RFSL is a non-proofit organisa ation that wo orks with annd for the rights of an, gay, bise exual and tra ansgender pe eople (LGBT T). It is non-p partisan lesbia and not affiliated d with any religious orga anisation. RFFSL was founded in 1950 and is one oof the world d’s oldest LG GBT organisaations. RFSL’’s vision u goa l is a societty that is ch haracterised by respect for and and ultimate accep ptance of p people’s diffferences on such a sw weeping sca ale that organisations such h as RFSL arre no longerr necessary. RFSL’s obje ective is t same righ hts, opportu unities and obligations wiill be applica able for that the LGBT people as th hey are for everyone e else e in society. 25 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 RFSL works to im mprove the quality of life for LG BT people through cal lobbyingg, informatio on dissemina ation, and tthe organisa ation of politic social and suppoort activitie es. Internatiionally, RFSSL works with w the national Lesb bian and Ga ay Associatio on (ILGA) annd also colla aborates Intern with other o LGBT oorganisationss in neighbou uring countriies. en´s Rights in i the Socie ety (BRIS) Childre Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //bris.se/ NGO. BRIS supports s chilldren in disttress and is a link betweeen children, adults and the communiity. All supp port servicess build on vvolunteer wo ork and cial support , primarily from corporate co-opeeration and private financ person ns, and to a small extent governmen nt grants. vices is to sttrengthen thhe rights of children c The goal of BRIS’ support serv oung people and improve e their living g conditions,, which is do one with and yo the UN U Conventioon on the Rights R of the Child as a guide. BR RIS shall suppo ort vulnerablle children and a young pe eople in partticular, and provide opporrtunities for children and d young peo ople to conduuct a dialogue with adultss. ore of the su upport servic ces is the Ch hildren’s Helppline, the BR RIS-mail The co and the BRIS-chaat, which children and young y peoplle from arou und the up to age 18 to safely, anonymously a y and free off charge country can use u c and e-m mail adults att BRIS. call, chat he Children Sweden (Rä ädda barnen n) Save th Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.rb.se e/Pages/default.aspx NGO, Charity orgaanisation. Save the children n in a non-governmental organisatioon. The basiis of its onvention on n the Rightss of the Child (CRC) work is the Uniteed Nations Co Nations’ Dec claration on Human Righhts. These build b on and the United N c havve special rig ghts and the prrinciples thaat all people are equal, children everyo one has a responsibility - but governments g s have a special obliga ation. o decision makers -from local Save the Childre n exert an influence on e United Na ations- to see to the beest interestss of the authorities to the blic opinion n and spread knowledgge about ch hildren’s child, arouse pub n influence on o legislationn for the be enefit of needss and rights aand exert an childrren. ECPAT Sweden Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.ecpaat.se/ NGO. ECPAT T is a nation nal branch of o an interna ational organnisation working for the right of chilldren not to t become victims of commercial sexual exploiitation, in fform of e.g. trafficking g, child sex tourism an nd child pornography. It iis primarily a lobby orrganisation ppromoting tools t to prevent this explooitation. The e focus is on n the demannd, on the bu uyers of o make a pro ofit from it. ECPAT Sweden has child sex and the people who peration witth the Swedissh police to block Intern net sites establlished a coop with child c pornog raphy and with w the bank ks to stop crredit card pa ayments to the e distributorss of child pornography. 26 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 n mot sexue ella övergrep pp (HOPP) Riksorgganisationen Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.hopp p.org/ NGO. HOPP is a non-pollitical and a non-religious organisatioon working with w the prevention of ssexual abusse. HOPP also a strivess to improve the rehabilitation of vvictims that have been subjected to abuse. HOPP works e improvingg knowledg ge and with a multi-d isciplinary perspective ucation, pub blishing, lobbbying and opinion investtigation quaality by edu work. onal (Swede en) Amnestty Internatio Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.amne esty.se/ NGO. Amnesty Internattional is a global g move ement of m ore than 3 million orters, mem mbers and activists in more than 150 countries and suppo territo ories who caampaign to end e grave ab buses of hum man rights. Amnesty A Intern national wor ks with e.g. sexual and reproductivve health and right, violen nce against w women and trafficking. In 2009 Am mnesty Intern national publisshed the sttudy ‘Case closed’ concerning raape in the Nordic countries (Sweden n, Finland, Norway N and Denmark). D es Kvinnolob bby (SKL) Sverige Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.sveriigeskvinnolobby.se/web/ /page.aspx?ssid=5579 NGO. SKL iss an umbrellaa organisatio on working to t strengthenn women´s position in soc ciety and hass 35 membe er organisatio ons. SKL is tthe Swedish section within n the Europ pean Women n´s Lobby (EWL), the European umbrella organisations for n national and d European women´s w orgaanisations. ational Asso ociation You uth for Soccial Health (Riksförbun ndet Ungdom m för Socia al hälsa The Na (RUS)) Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.rus-rriks.se/ NGO. RUS iss an umbrell a organisatio on for young g people up tto 30 years old o with experiences of psychologica al or social problems.. RUS work ks with inform mation and lobbying an nd the mem mber organissations offers peer suppo ort. mar.se Ungdom Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //ungdomar..se/ Privatte organisatioon Ungdo omar.se was established in 2000 and is an internnet-based ve ersion of youth receptions (ungdomsmo ottagningar) open at alll hours. It iss one of the la argest infor mation-sitess for health and well-bbeing with 100 000 unique e visitors pe er week. Th he website turns to youuth between 15-24 years old. An exp pert-panel an nswers questtions posed oon the site and the website also offe ers articles, forums, pho oto albums, blogs and personal p ort. suppo 27 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 wedish Natio onal Centre for f Child He ealth Promotion (Nation nellt centrum m för främja ande av The Sw god hälsa hos barn n och ungdom m (NCFF)) Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description http:/ //www.oru.sse/NCFF/ GO. In 200 04 the Swedi sh Governme ent approved d a bill to esstablish the Swedish S Nation nal Centre P Promoting Physical Activ vity among C Children and d Youth (NCFF F) at the Öre ebro Universsity. In 2006 the mandatte of the NC CFF was extended to prom mote healthy y eating hab bits and othher aspects of good h in childre en and ado olescents. In conjunctiion with th his, the health centre e´s name w was changed to The Swe edish Nation al Centre fo or Child Health h Promotion . The NCFF is i established d at the Öreebro University. 3.2 Reggional/local level Youth Receptions (Ungdomsmottagningarr) Website e Type off organisatio on Short d description All the e youth rece eptions in Sw weden can be e located viaa this link http:/ //www.umo .se/Ungdom msmottagning gar/ Region nal health caare. On th he local levvel there arre Youth ce entres in eaach municipality in Swede en providingg free inform mation and advisory psycchosocial serrvices in all dimensions off young life for personss (mostly) bbetween 12 and 25 er medical examination n (for veneereal disease es) and years.. They offe provid de contracep ptives. 28 Country Reportt Sweden, 2012 A APPENDIX II. RES SEARCH ON PRE EVALENCE, RISK K FACTORS AND D EVIDENCE BAS SED INTERVENTIONS In nclusion criteria: Studies from 200 00 onwards; onlyy studies reportin ng youth sexual aggression a (exclud ding cases of childhood sexual ab buse, as defined by le egal age of consent). For exceptions, see individuall studies. No. Author Year of public. Study characteristic cs Prevalence data Incidence data Perpetration Data Victtimizattion da ata Heterosexual aggression Not specified Same-sex aggression Risk factors mes Outcom Not specified x - - - - x x - - Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified - - - x - - 1. Långström, N., 1999 - - X - 2. eimer, G., Westerstrand, J., Lundgren, E., He A-M. Kalliokoski, A 2001 x - - x 3. Edgardh, K. 2002 x - - x 4. K Hilden, M., Wijma, B., Scchei, B., Swahnberg, K., Offerdal, K., Pikarinen, U., Sideniu us, K., et al. 2003 x - - x 5. Svedin, C.G., Nilsson, D., Lindell, C. C 2004 x - - x 6. Dünkel, F., Gebauer, D., Grzywa, J. J & Kestermann, C. 2006 x - - x 7. Jonzon, E. 2006 x - - x x - - x Not specified x - - findings f on disclosure d - x x x - Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified x - x - x - - - x - x 8. Svedin, C.G., & Priebe, G. (NOVA Report) R 2007 x - X x Not specified 8a. Priebe, G., Svvedin, C.G. 2008 - - - x - 8b. Priebe, G., & Svedin, C.G 2009 - - - x 8c. Priebe, G., Hansson, K., Svedin, C..G. 2010 - - - x 8d. G Mossige, S., Seto, M.C., Kjjellgren, C., Priebe, G., Svedin, C.G., Långström, N. 2010 - - X - 8e. Svedin, C.G., Åkerman, I., Priebe, G. 2011 - - X - 9. Danielsson, I., Blom, H., Nilses, C., Heimer, G., Högberg, U. 2009 x - - x 10. Kjellgren, C.,, & Priebe, G., & Sved din, G.C. 2010 - - X - 11. Tidefors, I. 2010 - - X - x x x - Not specified x - 3 9 2 12. Tikkanen, R.H H., Abelsson, J., Forsb berg, M. Total 2011 x - - x Not specified 9 0 6 1 12 5 29 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 1. ng sex offen nders: Individ dual characteristics, ageency reaction ns and Långström, N. (1999). Youn criiminal recidiivism. Retro Print, Stockkholm. Year off data collectiion Type off sample Sample e compossition Design Measurrement of sexual aggresssion Type off data collecte ed 1988-1997. Adolescent and a young se ex offenderss (YSO; 12-20 0 years) whoo were subje ected to forensic med dicine evaluaation. Total N = 56. m n = 2 fe emale. n = 54 male, Retrospectiv ve cohort sttudy with follow-up, f a cross-sectioonal approa ach was used in the analysis of medico-lega al assessments. The aim was to construct a preliminary typology b based on offence-related characteeristics and d assess validity in terms t of baackground an nd clinical properties, p aas well as criminal c recidivism. Legal definittion of rape and sexual abuse. a Examination n of forensicc records (ffile analysis) by a fore nsic psychia atrist, a clinical psy ychologist aand a socia al worker of each ccase, follow w-up on reconviction ns: men and d women as p perpetratorss; men and d women as vvictims. nd perpetrato or: Sex constellation betwee en victim an heterose exual: male perpetrator - female vic ctim; heterose exual: femalle perpetrato or - male vic ctim; same-se ex men. Relatio onship(s) betwee en victim and perrpetrator Inciden nce Prevale ence Findinggs regardiing risk factors ex constellattion between victim and d perpetratoor included, by not Note: all se reflected in the result re egarding risk k factors. All (strangerr, family mem mber, (ex-)p partner, friend). elationship in ncluded, by not reflectted in the reesult regard ding risk Note: all re factors. N/a N/a YSOs were 3-4 3 times moore likely to be declared insane comppared to you ung nonsex offenderrs and adult sex offenders. mple had at least one conviction for any Recidivism: 65% of the studied sam crime after the index c rime, 20% fo or a sexual offence. o Riskk factors rellated to individual characteristic c cs were com mmon amon ng the youn g sex offen nders. A majority we ere hyperactiive or inatte entive in school, half of them had a genetic risk of psychiatric disorrder, slightly y fewer had d speech or language problems and more th han a third h ad been diagnosed with severe condditions affecting the central nerv vous system ; motor con ntrol deficie encies, epileepsy with re ecurrent seizures or absence atttacks, and visual and hearing h disaabilities. Few w cases ntelligence, psychopath hy, and were diagnosed with borderline or lower in buse. substance ab a extensivve separations from Low family economic sstatus, familly conflict and ere commoon example es of variious psychoosocial adv versities parents we experienced d during chilldhood and adolescence e. A majoritty had been bullied and several presented w with social sk kill deficiencies. 30 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Findinggs regardiing mes or outcom consequences Additio onal findingss Observa ations 2. Finally, previous non-se exual antiso ocial acts including pro perty offenc ces and olence were prevalent. YSOs were more oftenn declared medicophysical vio legally insan ne than oth her young delinquents and a adult seex offenderrs. YSOs known for se exually abussive behaviou urs by sociall services, m mental health h or law enforcement agencies b before the in ndex crime had seldom been handled with y co-operatioon or with a focus on th he offendingg behaviours per se. inter-agency The factors predictive oof sexual crim minal reconv victions were re mainly asssociated with pronounced sexual deviance. N/a This sample e very similaar to popula ations previo ously describbed in reporrts from North American and UK settings. It must be noted that all individua als in the sttudy were suuspected to have a whereas the e common rate is appprox. 10% among psychiatric disorder (w o off sexual crimes). prosecuted offenders esterstrand, J., Lundgre en, E., Heim mer, G., & Kalliokoski, K A-M. A (2001).. Slagen dam m. Mäns We vå åld mot kvvinnor i jäm mställda Svverige - en omfångsunde o ersökning. The Crime Victim Co ompensation and Suppo ort Authorityy (Brottsofffermyndighetten, 2001) (Battered woman w Me en’s violence e against women in equaal opportunitty Sweden - a prevalencee study). htttp://www.b brottsoffermy yndigheten.sse/Filer/B%C C3%B6cker/Slagen%20dam m.pdf Year off data collectiion Type off sample Sample e compossition Design Measurrement of sexual aggresssion Type off data collecte ed Relatio onship(s) betwee en victim and perrpetrator Inciden nce Prevale ence 1999-2000. A representa ative populaation sample of women. Total N = 6.926 wom men. 18-24 n = 934. Age rang ge 15-24, 18 -24. Cross-sectional. Questions on n sexual exp eriences: unwante ed sexual atttention from m men, sexua al harassmennt, sexual viiolence, rape; how ofte en, where itt happened, who was th he perpetrato tor if they su ustained any inju ury, if they had contactt with health h care, if thhey reported d to the police. Lifetime e prevalence e. One-yea ar prevalence e. Victimizzation repoorts from women in heterosexxual relatio onships/ encountters. Specified in unwanted ssexual acts experienced d outside/wiithin, from husband h x-partner. and from ex N/a Summary off prevalence e findings re egarding victtimization Findinggs regardiing risk factors n aged 18-24 4 have been n exposed too sexual hara assment 63.6% off 934 women during their life time e. t have b been expose ed to sexual harassmentt during the last 12 37% of these months. N/a 31 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Findinggs regardiing mes or outcom consequences 3. N/a 002). Sexuall behavior in a low-incom me high school setting in Stockholm. Edgardh, K. (20 J of ST TD & AIDS, 113, 160-167. Intternational Journal Year off data collectiion Type off sample Sample e compossition Design Measurrement of sexual aggresssion Type off data collecte ed Relatio onship(s) betwee en victim and perrpetrator Inciden nce Prevale ence 1999. A convenien nce sample: two high schools in a lo ow income m multiculturall suburb of Stockholm m. Total N = 258 (onlyy N = 257 were w taken into analysees regarding g sexual abuse). n = 134 male and n = 123 female e. ge: M = 17, aage range 15--20. Mean ag Cross-se ectional. Part of a series of sttudies on ado olescents’ se exual behavi our in Swede en. 124 question ns designed by the National Institute of Publicc Health con ncerning sexual expe eriences and d non-consen nsual sexuall experiencees). Non-con nsensual and abusiv ve sexual experiencess were ask ked with 8 question ns. The questionnairre comprised d questions on CSA, pe eer sexual aabuse and physical abuse. o them inc cluded bodyy contact with w the Sexual acts were speccified; all of exception off ‘flashing’. Prevalen nce (time fraame not spec cified). Victimizzation reportts from boys and girls. Sex consstellation be etween victim m and perpetrator: o hete erosexual; o same-sex men; n. o same-sex women Defined as peer p abuse, b but not expliicitly reflectted in the reesults. N/a Summary off prevalence e findings re egarding victtimization Findinggs regardiing risk factors Findinggs regardiing mes or outcom consequences N/a Sexual abuse: a 7.4% ((n = 19): o 2.2% % (n = 3) of tthe boys and 13% (n = 16) of the girlss. Same-se ex contact: 33.1% - 3 boyss and 5 girls. N/a 32 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 4. hei, B., Swahnberg, K., Hilden, M., Offerdal, K., Pikarinen, U., Sideniuss, K., et Wiijma, B., Sch al.. (2003). Em motional, phy ysical, and ssexual abuse e in patientss visiting gynnaecology cllinics: A No ordic cross-se ectional stud dy. Lancet, 3361, 2107–13 3. Year off data collectiion Type off sample Sample e compossition Design Measurrement of sexual aggresssion Type off data collecte ed Relatio onship(s) betwee en victim and perrpetrator Inciden nce Prevale ence 1999-2001. A selected sample: s gynaaecological patients from five Norddic university y clinics (Glostrup DK K, Helsinki F,, Linköping S, S Reykjavik I, Trondheim m N). Only Sw wedisch data are rep ported here. Total N = 838; only ffemale (Swe edish sample). er: Age: 18 years or olde o < 20 0 = 5 (0.6%); o 20-3 34 = 347 (41..4%); o 35-4 49 = 266 (31..7%); o >= 50 5 = 220 (26. 3%). Cross-se ectional Part of multicentrre study off women atttending fivve departments of gynaeco ology in Denm mark, Finland d, Iceland, Norway, N Sweeden. NorAQ (Swah hnberg & Wi jma, 2003). The Norvold d Abuse Quesstionnaire. n NorAQ on se exual abuse experience: Questions in ‘has any ybody, again st your will, touched pa arts of your bbody other than t the genitals in a sexuall way or forc ced you to touch t other parts of hiss or her body in a sexual wayy?’; ‘have yo ou in any oth her way bee en sexually humiliated; ee.g. by being g forced to watch h a porno m movie or simiilar against your y will, foorced to parrticipate in a porrno movie orr similar, forrced to show w your body naked or fo orced to watch when w someboody else show wed his/her body naked??’; ‘has any ybody, again nst your will, touched yo our genitals,, used your body to satisfy him/herselff sexually or o forced you y to tou ch anybody y else’s genitals??’; ‘has any ybody, again nst your willl put, his pe enis into youur vagina, mouth m or rectum or o tried any of this; put in or tried to put an objject or otherr part of the body y into your vvagina, moutth or rectum?’. ual victimizaation: Type of sexu items 1-2: mild, no ggenital conta act; items 3: moderate, genital contact; netration. items 4: severe, pen Prevalen nce (lifetime e). Victimizzation reportts from women. Sex consstellation be etween victim m and perpetrator not sppecified. Not specified. N/a Summary off prevalence e findings re egarding victtimization gures ‘< 18 yyears’ includ de all experiences up to the age of 18, 1 i.e., Note: the fig also cases off child sex a buse (below the age of consent). c % <18 years >= 18 years Both mild 1.7 1.5 0.1 moderate 4.1 1.2 0.4 severre 3.5 3.5 0.6 33 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Findinggs regardiing risk factors Findinggs regardiing mes or outcom consequences 5. N/a N/a edin, C. G., Nilsson, D., D & Lindelll, C. (2004). Traumatic c experience ces and dissociative Sve sym mptoms amo ong Swedish adolescentss. A pilot study using Diis-Q-Swedenn. Nordic Jou urnal of Psyychiatry, 58, 349-355. Year off data collectiion N/a Type off sample Sample e compossition Design Measurrement of sexual aggresssion Type off data collecte ed Relatio onship(s) betwee en victim and perrpetrator Inciden nce Prevale ence The sam mple consiste ed of random mly chosen four classess of pupils frrom 9th grade in n the compu ulsory schooll system; additionally fivve classes frrom the upper se econdary sch hool. The con ntrol group consisted of o adolescents from psyychiatric outtpatient clinics. Non-clinical group: Total N = 208; n = 104 male and n = 104 female e; mean ag ge M = 16.3, SD = .95, range 15-19. up: Clinical grou Total N = 30; n = 5 ma ale and n = 225 female; mean ag ge M = 16.4, SD = 1.57, range r 14-19. Cross-se ectional. The stud dy considerss different trraumas (amo ong others seexual victim mization) ever ex xperienced, therefore the t data prresented beelow might include experien nces of child d sexual abu use. The stu udy focuses on the dissociative symptom ms and theiir relation to t reported traumatic experiences among adolesce ents. There is no explicit desscription how the autho ors asked abbout experie ences of sexual victim mization. Prevalen nce (time fraame not spec cified). Victimizzation reportts from boys and girls. Sex consstellation be etween victim m and perpetrator not sppecified. Family mem mbers and n non-family members m (results not brroken down by the different vic ctim - perpettrator conste ellation). N/a Summary off prevalence e findings re egarding victtimization Non-clinical group: sexual abuse a as trau umatic experrience was re eported by 22.9 (n = 3) fe emales; none of male particiipants reported such trauma. Findinggs regardiing risk factors up: Clinical grou sexual abuse a was re ported by 19 9 participantts. N/a 34 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Findinggs regardiing mes or outcom consequences 6. Summary off findings re egarding con nsidered con nsequences ween traum matic experieences and reported The results regarding tthe link betw dissociative symptoms w were not rep ported for th he differentt types of tra aumatic experiences. ünkel, F., Ge ebauer, D., Grzywa, G J. & Kestermann, C. (2006). Self-reportted delinque ency and Dü exxperiences of o violence among juveniiles in the Ba altic Sea Reg gion: The Maare-Balticum m-YouthSu urvey. In B. Bykowskiej & M. Szulcaa (Eds.), Zag grozenia wsp póczesnej moodziezy polsskiej (S. 97 7-126). Gdan nsk: Fundacja a Rozwoju U Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego. Year off data collectiion Type off sample Sample e compossition Design Measurrement of sexual aggresssion 2002. A convenience sample oof adolescentts of the city y of Uppsala.. Total N = 918. n = 450 male and n = 467 female e. M = 15.2 29 age, SD (. 528). Cross-se ectional. A part of o a larger ccomparative study aboutt self-reporteed delinquency and experien nces of viollence among g juveniles in the Baltiic Sea Regio on: The Mare-Ba alticum-Youth h-Survey. Participating countries: Germany, Estonia, Finland, Lithuania, P Poland, Russsia, and Swed den. Measurement of sexuall aggression//victimizatio on q e originally y Modified questionnaire Forschungsin nstitut Niede ersachsen. develope ed by thee Kriminolo ogisches bout sexual violence: ‘Someone ‘ fo orces you -thhrough viole ence or Question ab being seriou usly threaten ned with violence- to endure or conddone sexual actions that you do o not wantt (for example rape orr someone putting the eir hand between you ur legs).’ Type off data collecte ed Relatio onship(s) betwee en victim and perrpetrator Inciden nce Prevale ence ed whetherr they had ever been victims off sexual Respondentss were aske violence and d how often this occurre ed in the lasst twelve moonths leadin ng up to the survey. Victimizzation reportts from women and men.. Lifetime e prevalence e. One-yea ar prevalence e. Sex consstellation be etween victim m and perpetrator not sppecified. N/a N/a Summary off prevalence e findings re egarding victimization Findinggs regardiing risk factors Findinggs regardiing mes or outcom consequences N/a Lifetime e prevalence e overall: 4.3 3%: o amo ong girls: 6.99%; o amo ong boys: 1.66%; One-yea ar prevalence e: 3.4%. N/a 35 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 7. onzon, E., (2006). Child Sexual Abusse - Disclosurre, Social Su upport and SSubjective Health in Jo Ad dulthood. Un niversitetsserrvice, Stockh holm Universsity htttp://www.cchildcentre.info/archive//research/ab bused/swede en/dbaFile133390.pdf (Ja anuary 8, 20 013) Year off data collectiion Type off sample Sample e compossition Design Measurrement of sexual aggresssion Type off data collecte ed Relatio onship(s) betwee en victim and perrpetrator Inciden nce Prevale ence N/a Selected sam mple: particcipants recru uited by advertisements in a magaziine of a national organisation forr sexually ab bused women n. N = 152 female victiims of abuse. Mean ag ge M = 41 yeaars, age rang ge 20-60. 91% Swe edish subjectts. Retrospectiv ve survey ab bout abuse and a disclosurre as well aas on currentt health and social support. Thre ee studies based b mostly y on interview ews, one bassed on a m Checklist 90 used to t measure subjective mental questionnairre. Symptom health and The Copingg Wheel (inttroduced by Shalit and Carlstedt) used to ping. measure cop N/a Prevalen nce before th he age of 18 8. Victimizzation reportts from wom men in heterosexual connstellations (female victim, male m perpet rator). Sexually abu used by some eone close. N/a Summary off findings re egarding prevalence Abuse characteristics: number of perpetrattors: o 1 (40 0%); o 2 (40 0%); o 3 or more (30%);; age on onset o of abusse: o 0-6 years y (74%); o 7-14 4 years (20%)); duration n: o 0-4 years y (30%); o 0-4 years y (30%); o 5 or more years (64%); type of abuse: a o conttact (23%); o pene etration (75% %); frequenc cy: o once e (3%); o few times a yea r (30%); o everry week (30% %); use of viiolence: o thre eat of violencce (34%); o physsical violence e (41%). Findinggs regardiing risk factors gures include e all experie ences up to the t age of 188, i.e., also cases c of Note: the fig child sex abuse (below tthe age of co onsent). N/a 36 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Findinggs regardiing mes or outcom consequences Additio onal findingss 8. Summary off findings re egarding con nsequences On disclosurre: All women, except one e, had told someone ab bout at leastt one abuse e event. Slightly lesss than a thi rd disclosed d during childhood (befo fore the age e of 18) while the majority m waitted until ad dulthood. The average ddelay was 21 1 years. Overall two thirds receivved a positiv ve reaction, but a majorrity of all 89 women who had told their motther got a negative n rea action. (A reeason for dissclosure 9 was perrhaps due to o a media hy ype about cchild sexual abuse). during the 90s Over time itt has been m more common n with a positive reactionn. ve health: On subjectiv Self-esteem and social ssupport were e strongly re elated to botth psychological and psychosomatic health iin the regre ession mode els. Self-esteeem was th he most ariable, folloowed by social support, the index off physical ab buse and important va negative life e events. Th e final mode el explained 64% of the ssystematic variance v in psycholog gical symptom ms. Creating an n identity based on the abuse, as the concept ‘ssurvivor’ presupposess, could even ntually turn out o unnecesssary and neggative. edin,C. G., & Priebe, G. (2007). Th he Baltic Sea a Regional Sttudy on Adoolescents’ Se exuality. Sve Na ational reporrts for Swed den. In: S. M Mossige, M. Ainsaar, & C. G. Svedi n, (159-177)), NOVA Ra apport 18/07 7. htttp://www.childcentre.in nfo/projectss/abused/db baFile15312.p pdf (Januaryy 4, 2013) Year off data collectiion April 2003-January 20044. Type off sample A representtative comm munity and high schoo ol students sample (fro om five Swedish citie es of differe ent sizes). Total N = 4.139. Mean ag ge: M = 18.2,, age range: 17-19. Participa ants at 17: n = 467, at 18: n = 2.943, at 19: n = 7738. Cross-se ectional. Part of a larger sttudy: The Baltic B Sea Regional R Stuudy on Adolescents Sexuality. Experiences of being exp posed to sex xual activitie es against youur will: somebod dy has expossed him/hersself indecenttly towards yyou; somebod dy has touch hed your body in an indec cent way; you expo osed yoursellf masturbating towards somebody; you have e had sexuall intercourse e; you have e had oral se ex; you have e had anal se ex. Sample e compossition Design Measurrement of sexual aggresssion haviour (rep ported in th his report, but in a different d Sexually aggressive beh edin, C. G. EExperiences with sexuall abuse, sellling sex, and d use of chapter: Sve p pornography y): participa ants were assked whethe er they had drawn, d persuuaded, presssured or forced someone intoo sexual activities. Type off data collecte ed Additional question/aspe ects: age of victim at firstt sexual assa ault; erence betw ween offende er and victim m. age diffe Lifetime e prevalence e. Victimizzation reportts from women and men.. Perpetra ation reportss from wome en and men. 37 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Sex consstellation be etween victim m and perpetrator: o hete erosexual; o same-sex men. Relatio onship(s) betwee en victim and perrpetrator Inciden nce N/a Prevale ence Summary off prevalence e findings re egarding victtimization N/a Additional in nformation: sexually y victimized girls were yo ounger than the sexuallyy victimized boys at first sex xual assault; (14.27 vs.15 5.17 years); among the majoritty of the sexually vic ctimized paarticipants the t age difference between offender and the victim was five yeears or less. ormation reggarding charracteristic off unwanted sexual expe eriences Further info (reported in n: 8b. Priebe e, G., Svedin n, C.G. (2009). Prevalennce, characteristics, and associattions of sexu ual abuse with w socio-demographics and consenssual sex in a populattion-based saample of Sw wedish adolescents. Jourrnal of Child d Sexual A Abuse, 18, 19-39.) een the victim and perpe etrator (in thhis paper un nwanted Sex constellation betwe oncontact, contact c and ppenetration)): sexual experriences cate gorized in no female victims: v o offe enders almosst always male; male vic ctims: o male e offender – non-contactt: 81%, conta act: 26.%, peenetrating: 18%; 1 o female offenderr – non-conta act: 18.4%, contact: c 73.55%, penetratting: 82%.. 38 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Relationship p victim-offe ender Family/relative Friend/acqu uaintance Unknown to o victim Noncontact n = 150 0.8 6.3 93.0 Females Contact C n = 1042 3.4 30.1 66.5 Perrpetrating n = 313 7.4 64.1 6 28.5 2 Nonncontacct n = 844 2.00 24.00 74.00 males Contact n = 262 2.6 40.4 57.0 Perpetrating n = 111 5.7 56.6 37.7 Kind of coerrcion %yess Deceived Took advanttage of his/her position Talked into it Threatened to turn away Held victim in a grip Hit or hurt victim v physically Gave victim alc. or other drugs other Fema ales con ntact 6.4 19.2 Perpe etratin ng 17..6 30..0 Noncontact 9.5 4.8 0 0 6.1 1.2 36..7 4..8 1.3 17.7 0.7 Noncoontact 2.7 5.3 males contact 6.5 12.6 Perpetrating t 6.3 16.2 0 0 5.7 0.8 27.7 2.7 30..0 1.2 11.5 5.4 1.4 8..9 0 0 0.9 0.7 1.2 13..7 0 3.1 4.5 46.7 41.7 14..7 31.0 31.3 13.5 u Substance use: alcohol or drugs werre involved in i 42% of the e cases and w were used either by m (3.6%), or both b (19.7%) . the offender (18.6%)), the victim e findings re egarding perrpetration Summary off prevalence d only for the 18 year-old boys annd girls; N = 2.934, Note: resultts presented n = 1.571 girrls and n = 1 .363 boys. ported that they t had beeen sexually abusive 10.1% of boys and 2.4% of girls rep meone else. towards som Findinggs regardiing risk factors evant findinggs regarding perpetratio on in Seto, M M.C., Kjellgren, C., Further rele Priebe, G., Mossige, S., Svedin, C.G G., & Långstrröm, N. (20110). Sexual coercion c a sexuallyy coercive be ehavior - a population p sttudy of Swed dish and experience and Norwegian male m youth, Child Maltre eatment, 15, 219-228 (reesults based on only male sample e: n = 1.978; age range: 17-20, M = 18.1): 1 221 (11.2%) reported d ever coerc ced other person to sexuaal acts; 51% of these t 221 ind dicated the behaviour b oc ccurred onlyy once, wherreas 12% reported d sexually cooercive beha aviour on more than fivve occasions. At the first coe ercive act, 55% committe ed penetratiive acts; 77% y or % were 15 years older an nd 37% were under the in nfluence of alcohol a or drrugs. Summary of o findings regarding risk marke ers/risk facctors of sexual victimizatio on wanted experiences incre eases with agge. Age: The number of unw boys reporte ed forced exposure e annd/or touchiing and Sex: More girls than b penetrative experiencess 39 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Further sociio-demograp phic risk ma arkers/risk factors for ssexual victim mization were reported in: din, C.G. (2009). Pre evalence, ccharacteristics and 8b. Priebe, G., Sved s aphics and cconsensual sex s in a associations of sexual aabuse with sociodemogr population-b based samp le of Swedish adolesce ents. Journaal of Child Sexual A Abuse, 18, 19-39. Risk facttors linked too consensual sexual behaviour: o more sexually viictimized adolescents reported conseensual sexua al n non-victim mized youth; intercourse than er age of at tthe time of the first sexual intercou rse by sexua ally o lowe victiimized than by non-victimized. G Hansson,, K., Svedin, C.G. (2010)). Sexual abuuse and asso ociations 8c. Priebe, G., with psycho osocial aspeccts of health. A popula ation-based sstudy with Swedish adolescents.. Nordic Jourrnal of Psych hiatry, 64, 40-48. 4 Risk facttors: o strength and Diffficulties Que estionnaire (SDQ, ( Priebee & Svedin, 2008): 2 avioural scre eening comprising emotio onal aspectss, conduct beha prob blems, hyperractivity and d peer proble ems; o sensse of coheren nce (Antonov vsky, 1991); o addiitional covarriates: socio-demoggraphic facto ors, family structure s annd parental bonding (educationa l program, immigrant ba ackground, pparents emplloyment status, fami ly structure,, and the Parental Bondiing Instrument). Summary of findings: contact and penetrrating sexual abuse werre related to more em motional problem ms, lower sen nse of coherence and low wer self-esteeem comparred with non-abuse; more sev vere abuse w was related to t poorer psy ychosocial hhealth; when ad djusted for socio-demo ographic and d family-relaated variablles, the associations betwee en penetratting experiences and m most of the health d or disap ppeared. Lo ow sense oof coherenc ce was variables weakened associated with e experience penetrating g sexual aabuse even n after adjustment. egarding risk k markers/risk factors off perpetratiion Summary off findings re Note: reporrted in: 8d.. Seto, M.C., Kjellgren, C., Priebee, G., Mossige, S., Svedin, C.G.., & Långströöm, N. (2010 0). Sexual co oercion expeerience and sexually s coercive beh havior – a poopulation stu udy of Swed dish and Norw wegian male e youth, Child Maltre eatment, 15,, 219-228. Experience of o sexual vicctimization Youths who had experie enced sexual coercion were w approxiimately thre ee times more likely to engage i n sexually coercive c behaviour than those witho out such experience (10%-12% vss. 4%); (risk remained significant s aafter controllling for a b behaviour, substance s use, u and nnon-coercive sexual nonsexual antisocial behaviour). Relationship p between p pornography use and perrpetration (rreported in: Svedin, C.G., Åkerm man, I., Priiebe, G. (2 2011). Frequ uent users of pornogra aphy. A population based b epidem miological study of Swedish male aadolescents. Journal of Adolescen nce, 34, 779 -788.) 40 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Results for the male saample only: frequent ussers (n = 2000) and a re eference 1 consi sting of non n-users and low l frequenccy users). Different D group (n = 1.661; types of po ornography w were included (e.g. sex between an adult man m and women; sex between ad dults of the same s sex; sex with violennce or force). Findinggs regardiing mes or outcom consequences Additio onal findingss oercive behaaviour (penetration) was w more thhan 3 time es more Sexually co common am mong frequen nt users than n among boyss with no or very low fre equency of pornograp phy use. N/a Extensive re eport on the adolescents’ disclosuress of sexual viictimization in: 8a. Priebe, G., Svedin, C.G. (2008). Child sexual abuse is llargely hidde en from ociety - An eepidemiologic cal study of adolescentss’ disclosures. Child the adult so A Abuse & Neg glect, 32, 10095-1108. ons about dissclosure of any abuse inc cident were aasked: Two questio ‘could you talk to soomeone abou ut what happ pened?’ (ansswers: yes/no o); ‘If yes, whom did yyou talk to??’ (e.g. frien nd of my agge, mother, father, professio onal, police)). c aims of tthis study were w to inv vestigate diisclosure rattes and The specific disclosure patterns aassociated with recip pients of disclosure, abuse demographic variables, perception of parents when characteristics, socio-d growing up and a current perceived mental m health h, separatelyy for boys an nd girls, to examine predictors off non-disclossure, separate for boys aand girls. Main results: disclosure rate: or girls and 69% for boyys) was high h in the o the disclosure rrate (81% fo dy of adolesscents compared to re etrospectivee reports off adults stud pressenting child dhood disclossure rates be etween 31%-442%; o the disclosure rate for boys b was higher h than in other studies. ertheless, th he pattern in all studiess is that thee rates for boys b are Neve lowe er than those e for girls; o it was w more likkely that girrls who had been expoosed to non--contact abusse disclosed compared to girls exposed to conntact abuse with or with hout penetraation; disclosures conceale ed from adullts: e was high, CSA C was largeely hidden from the o although the dissclosure rate Boys and girlls were by far f most likeely to disclo ose to a adullt society. B frien nd of their oown age and as many as 42% had onlly talked to a friend of th heir own age e and nobody else. Even if they percceived their parents as supportive, s tthose who disclosed d in late adolesscence prefe erred to talk to friends aabout sexual abuse; gender differences: d o therre were seve eral differen nces in the disclosure d paatterns of girls g and boyss. Even whe en boys rep ported experriences of ssexual abuse e, many were e hesitant too answer folllow-up questtions about tthe abuse, resulting r in a high nu umber of non-completters. Male completerss were significantly moore likely than girls not to havve disclosed their erience to aanyone and less likely to talk to their mother or a expe frien nd. Boys froom vocationa al training programs p weere overrepresented amo ong non-discclosers. For girls, disclo osure was nnot associate ed with educ cational stattus; o the results migh ht indicate that t boys ma ake other chhoices or en ncounter er difficultie s than girls when w disclossing experiennce of sexual abuse; othe 41 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 9. the proffessional systtem: o few adolescentss exposed to sexual abuse reported tthat they had d talked to a professionaal about the abuse (9% of o the girls aand 3% of th he boys) or th hat the incid dent had bee en reported to social ageencies or the e police (7% of the girls aand 4% of the e boys); een exposed to penetratting abuse haad more ofte en been o girlss who had be in contact with a profession nal than girlls exposed tto less severre forms a Only one out of the 52 boyss exposed too penetrating abuse of abuse. had been in con tact with a professional; p ; predicto ors of non-dissclosure: o girlss were less liikely to discllose when: the severitty of the sexual con ntact was greater (c contact/ penetration vs. non-contact abuse); by single ab use occasion n; mber/friend was the perpetrator p (compared to the family mem stranger); they perceivved their parrents as non--caring whenn growing up p; o boyss were less liikely to disclose when: they particip pated in a vo ocational educational prrogram; oth parents; they were li ving with bo hem as eithe er caring nor overprotecttive; perceived th mpared to otther types off parent-child bonding, young perso ons who o com had perceived their parentts as caring g and not ooverprotectiv ve were most likely to diisclose; mental health: h o girlss and boys w who had dissclosed to so omebody reeported signiificantly bettter health th han those who w had not (but when ddata were analysed a sepa arately for n on-contact, contact and d penetratingg abuse the findings coulld not be con nfirmed). anielsson, I., Blom, H., Nilses, N C., He eimer, G., & Högberg, U. U (2009). Geendered Patterns of Da Higgh Violence e Exposure Among SSwedish Youth. Acta Obstetriciaa et Gyneccologica Sca andinavica, 88, 528-35. Year off data collectiion Type off sample Sample e compossition Design Measurrement of sexual aggresssion 2007. Nationally re epresentativve sample fro om nine youtth health cenntres in Swe eden. Total N = 3.170. es 920 and n = female 2.250. n = male Age rang ge: 15-23 yeaars. Cross-se ectional. Prevalen nce and gen nder differen nces in relattion to emottional, physiical and sexual abuse a amongg young men and women attending yyouth health centres in Sweden, the currrent adverse e effects of the t abuse annd the perpetrators of the abuse. The questio ons about ab buse were taken t from a validated questionnaire, the NorVold (Sw wahnberg, He earn, & Wijm ma, 2009; Sw wahnberg & W Wijma, 2003), abuse questionnairre (with th hree identically structtured sectioons with detailed d questions ab bout experie ences of emo otional, physical and sexxual abuse, ranging from mild to o severe abu se and durin ng different age a periods. Sexual abusiive acts was categorised as: mild, moderate, sevvere. 42 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Type off data collecte ed Relatio onship(s) betwee en victim and perrpetrator Prevale ence One-yea ar prevalence e. Victimizzation reportts from women and men.. Sex consstellation be etween victim m and perpetrator: o hete erosexual; o same-sex men; n. o same-sex women x constellatioon included,, but not diffferentiated iin the results. Note: all sex Specified in:: (ex)-parrtner; friend/sschoolmates;; family member. m Summary off findings re egarding prevalence There were w pronoun nced gender for sexual abuse: a womeen were morre often exposed to all form ms of sexual violence (se ee Table V : 14% of all women and 4.7% % of the men n stated tha at they had been b abusedd during the past 12 months. a effec cts from all types of abuse and Women reported moore severe adverse were mo ore often abu used by a pe erson close to them. 6% of th he women rreported hav ving been ex xposed to ppenetrating violence v during the past 12 m months (corre esponding fig gure for menn 0.4%). gative effeccts of the sexual s abuse e experiencced in the past 12 The neg months were reportted as more e severe by women whoo experienced mild derate form s, while asssessments for the severee forms werre equal and mod for both sexes. In both men and women, se exual abuse was stronggly co-morb bid with emotion nal and physsical abuse. While the majority off physically abused women were w also exxposed to em motional and d/or sexual aabuse, a majjority of physically abused m men were solely s expossed to physiical abuse. Of the a 11%, respectively, haad been exp posed to abused men and woomen, 5.5. and nal, physical and sexual violence, v wh hile 29% of bboth sexes ha ad been emotion exposed to emotionaal and physic cal violence.. Table VI presents tthe perpetra ators of diffe erent formss of violence e during ers and schoolmates/ffriends were most the passt 12 montths. Strange common nly reported as perpetrattors by both men and woomen. 43 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Findinggs regardiing risk factors Findinggs regardiing mes or outcom consequences Observa ations N/a N/a These estim mates must b be considered with cautiion due to t he small number of male victimss of severe ssexual abuse. ellgren, C., Priebe, G., Svedin, C.G G., Långströ öm, N. (2010 0). Sexual cooercive behavior in 10. Kje ma ale youth: population p survey s of ggeneral and specific rissk factors. A Archives off Sexual Behavior, 39, 1161-69. 1 Year off data collectiion Type off sample Sample e compossition Design Measurrement of sexual aggresssion Type off data collecte ed Relatio onship(s) betwee en victim and perrpetrator Inciden nce Prevale ence April 2003-January 20044. Sample of hiigh school sttudents. Total N = 1.933, on nly male you uth: at 17 n = 193 (10% %), at 18 n = 1.328 (68.7%), at 19 n = 3553 (18.3%), at a 20 n = 59 (3%). Mean ag ge M = 18.14,, SD = .62, age a range 17--20. Cross-se ectional. Part of a larger stu udy. Sub-sam mple of the 2003-2004 Baltic Sea Regional R n Adolescentt Sexuality. Study on Focus in this summaary on risk fa actors of perp petration. The measure ement of sexxual aggressiion described in: Svedin,, C.G., & Priiebe, G. (2007). The Baltic Sea R Regional Stud dy on adolesc cents’ sexuaality. nduct proble ems were ad ddressed with six typicall indicators of ruleNon-sex con breaking or aggressive b behaviour. Prevalen nce lifetime.. Perpetra ation reportss from men. Sex consstellation be etween victim m and perpetrator not sppecified. N/a N/a Summary off prevalence e findings re egarding perrpetration ercive behaviiours: 5.2% male m (n = 101). Sexually coe duct problem ms: 6.8% (n = 132). Additional fiinding: Non- sexual cond 44 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Findinggs regardiing risk factors Summary off findings re egarding risk k factors for perpetratioon ed into: Participants were divide sexually y coercive yoouth (forcing somebody to t sexual acttivities); non-sex conduct prooblem (stealiing car, bike e, committingg burglary); comparison youth (n neither sexua ally coercive e nor conducct problems).. r factors: Considered risk the Pare ental Bondin ng Instrumen nt (PBI; Park ker, Tuplingg, & Brown, 1979) measure ed parental ooverprotection/control (e. ( g. they hhave tried to control everythiing I have doone) and pa arental care (e.g. they hhave not hellped me as much as I had nee eded); gender stereotypic s aattitudes (ite ems from Burt, 1980)- e.. g. a woman n should be a virg gin when she e marries; rape my yths (Burt, 1 980) - e.g. a girl who fo ollows a guyy home after a first date imp plies that sh e is willing to t have sex. described in n the study as a scale; prrobably singe e items: Further risk factors not d ever a victim v of pe netrative se exual victimization (defi ned as havin ng been exposed to anal or ooral sexual penetration or o intercoursse against on ne’s own will); sexual lu ust all the ti me (from ne ever to almost daily); pornogra aphy use (ge eneral& viole ent) Uses porrn almost daaily; sexual activity a (age e at the firsst sexual inttercourse; m more than 6 sexual partnerss) & sexual liifestyle (sellling sex). Findinggs regardiing mes or outcom consequences k factors forr sexual coerrcion among g male youthh (sexually coercive c Specific risk youth > non--sex conductt problem yo outh > contro ol youth): neglectfful parental care combiined with in ntrusive, rejjecting and abusive control; endorsement of gen der stereoty ypic attitudes and rape m myths; penetrattive sexual vvictimization n; more sex xual desire ((continuous experiencing e g of sexual luust); frequentt use of gene eral and viollent pornogra aphy; younger age at first sexual interrcourse; 6 or morre sexual parrtners; Engaging g in sex for m money; pro-rape e cognitions and sexual preoccupatio p on. N/a defors, I. (2 2010) ‘Det känns som m jag inte har haft nåt n riktigt liv än’ - fy yrtiofem 11. Tid ton nårspojkar so om har begå ått sexuella öövergrepp. Swedish S Natiional Board oof Institution nal Care (Statens Institu utionsstyrelse) (It feels llike I haven’t really had d a life yet - Forty-five teenage t mitted sexua al abuse’). boyys who comm htttp://www.sttat-inst.se/pagefiles/42440/det-kannss-som-jag-inte-har-haft- nat-riktigt-liivan..pdf Year off data collectiion Type off sample 2003-2007. Selected d sample: 45 young sex offenders in chilld and ado olescent psychiattry. Compariison sample of 61 males.. 45 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Sample e compossition Design Measurrement ual of sexu aggresssion N = 45 males m (plus ccomparison sample of N = 61 males). Age rang ge: between n 13-22 yearss old (M = 16 6,2 years) (thhe sexual ab buse was committted before tthe age of 18 8. 25 of the boys were 114 years or younger y at the tiime of the fiirst sexual abusive act) (comparison ( sample 13-2 20 years old (M = 16,4 years) ). Cross-se ectional. The purrpose of the e study was to describe and analysee the psychological background factors d distinguishin ng the YSO frrom the com mparison sample. Documented backgrround factorrs, self-estim mating scaless (Beck et al. a 2001 and Adolescent Sexu ual Abuse Pro oject ASAP), control grooup, semi-strructured interview ws. Table 1. Sex xual acts com mmitted by the t YSO Type of sex xual abuse Penetration (vaginal, orall and/or anal)) Fondling Exhibition N = 45 27 17 1 use Table 2. Durration of abu Duration Isolated incident Duration up to six monthss Duration ove er six months Type off data collecte ed Relatio onship(s) betwee en victim and perrpetrator Inciden nce Prevale ence Findinggs regardiing risk factors N = 45 26 3 16 Perpetration n reports froom male sex offenders en victim an nd perpetrato or: Sex constellation betwee 22 of the e boys comm mitted sexual abuse against female vvictims; 9 of the boys commiitted sexual abuse against male victiims; 14 of th he boys com mmitted sex xual abuse against a bothh male and female victims. 21 boys committed ssexual abuse e against one e or more sibblings. 3 of the boys commiitted sexual abuse against children ((other than siblings) s at least 5 years youn nger than themselves. 12 boys committed ssexual abuse e against perrsons of the ssame age. 1 boy co ommitted sexxual abuse against a an old der woman. 8 boys committed c se exual abuse against younger personss as well as persons of the sa ame age. N/a N/a Summary off findings re egarding risk k factors for perpetratioon s abuse e. Background factors for ccommitting sexual t comparisson group, th he YSOs: Relative to the reported d higher rate es in depresssion, anger and a antisociaal behaviour;; estimate ed empathy,, sex educatiion and sexual openness as less impo ortant; were mo ore sexually active and had h an earlie er sexual debbut; reported d a rigid imaage of sexua ality, some had h no sex aand others sex s with many pa artners. Thiss was partic cularly evide ent among tthe boys wh ho were Muslims;; differed in backgroound factorss and issuess concerningg upbringing g: were kely to com e from brok ken homes, to have beeen placed in n foster more lik care and d have more siblings; 46 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Findinggs regardiing mes or outcom consequences Observa ations Before the t sexual aabuse was re evealed a majority m (68% %) of YSO ha ad been known to social servvices and ma any of them had had prooblems with absence a from sch hool; 29% of the YSO rep ported that one or both parents hhad alcohol or drug ms (national ffigure=10%); problem About 40 0% of YSO re eported to ha ave been sex xually abusedd; There were w no siggnificant diffferences co oncerning thhe types off abuse between n boys with llearning diffficulties/neuropsychiatricc diagnoses and the boys witthout such diifficulties/diiagnoses. N/a The resu ults are bassed on a small sample of o perpetrattors and the e author describe es difficultiess recruiting participants. The author discusse es the ethnic c composition of the sam mple but the ere is no descripttion of this c omposition. H., Abelsson n, J., Forsb berg, M. (2 2011). UngKA KAB09 - Kunskkap, attityd der och 12. Tikkkanen, R.H sexxuella hand dlingar bland d unga. Uniiversity of Gothenburg. G (UNGKAB 009 - Young people’s p knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behaavior). /gupea_2077 7_25017_2.pddf htttps://gupea.ub.gu.se/biitstream/20777/25017/2/ Year off data collectiion Type off sample Sample e compossition Design Measurrement of sexual aggresssion Type off data collecte ed Relatio onship(s) betwee en victim and perrpetrator Inciden nce Prevale ence 2009. Representattive sample aand self-sele ected sample e. Representative samp ple N = 5.673 (3.135 fem male, 2.467 m male) from four f age group: 16, 20, 24, an nd 28 years of age. ected samplle: N = 9.9 942 (4.562 female, 4.6671 male, 440 4 not Self-sele reported d) aged betw ween 15 and 29 years. Cross-se ectional surve ey. Question nnaire: a sellf-report surv vey via mail--Internet hom me page. Considered unwanted u se exual acts: intercou urse as well aas fondling of o genitals/breasts (sexu al harassment). One-yea ar prevalence e. Lifetime e prevalence e. Victimizzation reportts from women and men.. Sex consstellation be etween victim m and perpetrator not sppecified. N/a N/a Summary off prevalence e findings re egarding victtimization One-year prevalence: p had experie enced sexua al acts againnst their will during 22% of participants the last year (25% off the women n and 20% of the men). evalence: Lifetime pre 46% had experience ed sexual actts against their will (60% % of the wom men and 30% of the men). 47 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 Findinggs regardiing risk factors Findinggs regardiing mes or outcom consequences Summary off findings re egarding risk k factors for victimizatioon ences of Sexual habitts: persons with early sex debut, many partneers, experie earlier sexu ual abuse, d drug use and d lower selff-esteem weere more at risk of unwanted se exual contacct. N/a 48 Coun ntry Report Sw weden, 2012 References m (U Unraveling th he mystery of o health). SStockholm: Natur N och Antonovsky A. (1991). Hälsans mysterium ultur. Ku Burt, M. (1980). Culturalmyths and a supportss for rape. Journal J of Pe ersonality annd Social Psy ychology, 8, 217–230. 38 Mossige, S., Ainsaar, M., & Sv vedin, C.G. 2007. The Baltic Sea Regional Stuudy on Ado olescents’ exuality. NOV VA Rapport 18/07. 1 Se Parker, G., Tupling,, H., & Brow wn, L.B. (19979). A pare ental bonding instrumennt. British Jo ournal of edical Psychology, 52, 1––10. Me Svedin, C.G, Priebe e, G. (2008)). The Stren ngths and Difficulties D Questionnaire Q e as a scree ening inournal of strument in a communitty sample oof high school seniors in Sweden.. Nordic Jo 2, 225–32. Pssychiatry, 62 Swahnbe erg I.M., & Wijma W B. (2003). The N NorVold Abusse Questionn naire (NorAQ Q): validation of new measures of emotional, e physical, an nd sexual ab buse, and abuse in thee health care system mong women n. European Journal of P Public Health h, 13, 361-6. am Swahnbe erg, K., Hearn, J., & Wiijma, B. (20009). Prevale ence of perc ceived experriences of em motional, ph hysical, sexu ual, and hea alth care ab buse in a Swedish male e patient saample. Viole ence and Viictims 24, 27 75-86. 49