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Celebrating a Community of Scholars April 9, 2014

Welcome to the 4th Annual Scholarship Day at Winston-Salem State University. Scholarship Day provides an opportunity to celebrate research on our campus and to recognize the scholars who produce the work. I am pleased and delighted to see this event continue to grow as it is truly an indication of our commitment to academic excellence. It is always stimulating to see the depth and the variety of work being produced by our faculty and students. This year we have work from 23 departments, including work by students, both undergraduate and graduate, as well as faculty across a wide range of disciplines. The scholarship presented originated in classrooms, laboratories and community settings and many of the projects have been prepared for presentation at regional, national and international conferences. As we come together to celebrate the power of research, we are also celebrating the vibrancy of the intellectual community that we strive to nurture. It is energizing to see the collaboration among students and faculty. This is an exciting day in the life of this university as we have the opportunity to see and to celebrate some of the very best work we have to offer.

Brenda Allen, Provost and Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs

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DEPARTMENT OF MASS COMMUNICATIONS Tuesday, April 9, 2013 1:30 - 7:00 PM 228 Hall-Patterson TIME

11:30 am or Noon

ACTIVITY DECONSTRUCTING MINORITY

WOMEN IN TELEVISED POPULAR CULTURE

THROUGH THE LENS OF INTERCULTURAL PRAXIS

LOCATION 218 Hall Patterson

1:30 pm – 3:30 pm

Speech Contest

4:00 pm

Habitat for Humanity of

209 Hall Patterson

Forsyth County Video Viewing

Television Studio

The “Rammies” Student Award Program

305 Hall Patterson

5:00 pm – 7:00 pm

Reception following

DECONSTRUCTING MINORITY WOMEN IN TELEVISED POPULAR CULTURE THROUGH THE LENS OF INTERCULTURAL PRAXIS

K.S. Cyrus, C.A. Crump, T.D. Lockamy, K.L. Martin, A.R. Patterson-Masuka, Department of Mass Communications; kcyrus110@rams. wssu.edu; pattersona@wssu.edu PURPOSE: This presentation examines the intersection of popular culture and images of minority women in the context of intercultural communication and globalization. The researchers will seek to investigate popular television shows that highlight African American women including “Scandal and Being Mary Jane,” as a potential instrument for encouraging public dialogue on popular culture’s impact on the perception of minority women. Using the conceptual framework of Intercultural Praxis (Sorrells, 2012), the presenters will deconstruct the role of media in terms of intercultural communication, popular culture, globalization, capitalism, and resistance. Furthermore, the audience will be engaged with key questions such as: “What are the larger implications of popular culture and images of minority women?” and “How do these implications impact African American college females? “

ENGAGING IN SOCIAL JUSTICE THROUGH SERVICE LEARNING: HABITAT FOR HUMANITY

M.J. Taylor, C.A. Crump, K.S. Cyrus, K.L. Martin, C.L. Russing, A.R. Patterson-Masuka, Department of Mass Communications; mtaylor111@rams.wssu.edu; pattersona@wssu.edu Taking a social justice approach, students were involved in a service learning experience in two classes in Fall 2013 – Interpersonal Communication (SPH 3340) and Electronic Media Practicum (MCM 4371). Students participated in the production of a video for Habitat for Humanity of Forsyth County. The purpose of the video was to inform potential Habitat participants of the process of becoming successful homeowners. Presenters will reflect upon how the project developed their interpersonal communication and electronic media production skills. The video will be screened for the university community and the Habitat for Humanity staff.

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DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC presents Scholarship Day Presentation April 9, 2014 at 11:00 AM Fine Arts Building Room 111

BATTI, BATTI from Don Giovanni

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)

Ms. Moriah Suber, soprano Mr. Aaron Mood, piano

SONG WRITERS SESSION

Ms.Tiffany Davis

Mr. Charles Scales

Mr.Wayne Carpenter

WOMEN IN SONG

Dr. Karen Rice, speaker

Class of Medieval to Modern Women in Music

“THE TARANTELKA: DANCING WITH SPIDERS”

Dr. Myron Brown, piano Lecture Recital

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DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE Elva Jones Computer Science Building April 9, 2014 9:00 am – 4:00 pm

TIME

ACTIVITY

LOCATION

9:00 am – 10 am

Registration and Corporate Fair

EJ Computer Science Bldg

10:00 am – 11:00 am

Keynote Speaker

EJ Computer Science Bldg, room 2200

11:00 am – 1:00 pm

WSSU Scholars Poster Session

DJR Student Activities Center, room 100

2:00 pm – 3:00 pm

Student Presentations

EJ Computer Science Bldg, room 2200

3:00 pm – 4:00 pm

Technical Workshops

EJ Computer Science Bldg

DEPARTMENT OF ARTS AND VISUAL STUDIES THE 2013 WSSU SENIOR THESIS ART EXHIBITION: On View in the Fine Arts Building The artwork of 17 graduating Art majors will be exhibited in the studios in the Fine Arts Building. A panel discussion with the exhibiting students will be held in Fine Arts 119 at 2 p.m.

POSTER PRESENTATION Diggs Gallery April 9, 12 - 2 pm Gallery talks with WSSU exhibiting art majors celebrating the power of research and creativity

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THE DEPARTMENTS OF BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES AND SOCIAL WORK & PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCES WEDNESDAY, APRIL 9, 2014 • THOMPSON 207A 8:30-8:55 Check-In 8:55-9:00 Welcome

Dr. Shannon Mathews Chair, Behavioral Sciences

9:00-9:15

Forgive Us Our Trespasses: Priming a Forgiving (But Not a Punishing) God Increases Unethical Behavior

9:15-9:30

Anti-Human Trafficking

9:30-9:45

Brief Interventions for Math Anxiety: Effects of Shaping and Fluency on Problem Solving

9:45-10:00

The Burdens I Must Bear: An Exploration of Chronic Burdens and Interpersonal Relationships Among African American Women

Tia Wheeler

10:00-11:00 Keynote Speaker The Recipe: Building Bridges + Community + Career 11:00-1:00

University-Wide Poster Session

1:00-1:45

Life After Graduation Workshop: A Focus on Career Paths

1:45-2:00

Student Presentation

2:00-2:15

A Comparison of Sexual Behaviors Among College Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Disabilities

2:15-2:30

Thank God! The Role of Prayer and Attributions for Successes and Failures on Self-Esteem

The Effect of Colorism on Mate Preference in Heterosexual Male and Female Undergraduate College Students

4:00-5:00 Professional Development Workshop 5:00 Closing Remarks

Theodore Akinyele & Daniqua Watkins Lisa Edmond

Dr. Kwesi Craig C. Brookins Associate Professor of Psychology & Africana Studies, NC State University DJR Student Activities Center

2:30-3:15 Student Poster Session 3:15-3:30 Student Presentation 3:30-3:45 Memories of Violent and Nonviolent Death in Provincial Philippines 3:45-4:00

Natarshia Corley

Ryan Hampton

Natarshia Corley & William Jones

LLS 1322 Instructor: Dr. Cecile Yancu Rose Anu, Lillyanna Sum, Ebonie Dockery, Marvin Lewis, & Destiny Robinson Jameika Matlock

Miles Winston WSSU Career Development Services

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Dr. Gary Bond Chair, Psychological Sciences

SCHOOL OF HEALTH SCIENCES SCHOLARSHIP DAY Promoting Scholarship and Interdisciplinary Research April 9, 2014 1. Morning Session 9:00am – 10:00am – Scholarly research presentations from both graduate and undergraduate students in room 102 (SOHS auditorium)

i. OT- Schweitzer Fellows – Hagar Abdel-Baky, Luke de Andrade: Fall Prevention and Community Mobility

Awareness Program

ii. PT- Schweitzer Fellows – Amaka Lawrence-Mitchell & Caryln Diaz:The Effects of Home Exercise Programs

and Motivational Coaching on Fall Risk in Diabetic African-American Older Adults in east Winston-Salem, NC

iii. Undergraduate Research – Provost Scholars, Destinie Chambers & Na’eema Crosswhite, Social Justice;

Daniel Crudup, Environmental; Corey Hopkins, Health Prevention, RAMS Know H.O.W.

iv. Update – SOHS faculty mentorship program, Dr.Vanessa Duren-Winfield

2. Workshop Sessions 10:15am – 11:15am – Roundtable Discussion

i. Bridges to the PhD – Dr. Lenora Campbell et al (Division of Nursing)

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iii. Health Equity & Heath Disparity Certificate Program Update – Dr.Vanessa Duren-Winfield (coordinator),

. Mental Health – Dr. Chinyu Wu & Dr. Jiangmin Xu

Dr. Sylvia Flack, Ms. Kineka Hull, Dr. Elijah Onsomu and Dr. Darlene Perez-Brown

iv. Affordable Care Act – Dr. Montrale Boykin

v. Dr. Lynne Millar – Women’s Health

3. Poster Session will begin at 11:30am – 1:00pm DJR Student Center Room 100 4. Afternoon Session – Symposium and Panel Discussion 2:00pm – 3:30pm FL Atkins Room 102 (SOHS auditorium)

i. Presentation on race and genetics led Dr. Georgia Dunston, director of the National Human Genome Center

in D.C (Howard University) flowed by panel discussion

ii. T he panel includes Reverend Dr. Dennis Leach, officer of the Minister’s Conference of W-S and Vicinity and

pastor, Morning Star Missionary Baptist Church, and Dr. Sylvia Flack, director of the Center of Excellence for the Elimination of Health Disparities

iii.

Q & A

iv. Meet and greet guests

v. Dismissal

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COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES IMPROVEMENTS IN TYPE II DIABETES UTILIZING ACUTE HEAT AND EXERCISE

ANNOTATION OF DROSOPHILA ANANASSAE FOSMID 2594O08 V.C. Alston, J.M. Porter-Kelley. Department of Life Sciences; valston110@rams.wssu.edu, porterkelleyj@wssu.edu

L. T. Belfield, A. B. Jeffers, A. A. Aileru, & T. D. Presley. Department of Chemistry; lbelfield113@rams.wssu.edu

PURPOSE: In collaboration with the Genomics Education Partnership at Washington University in St. Louis, we set out to annotate the Drosophila ananassae fosmid 2594O08 using various bioinformatics tools.

PURPOSE: Type II diabetes (T2DM) is a disease that is characterized by insulin resistance and hyperglycemia, which poses various complications including hypertension, obesity and cardiovascular instability. Many therapeutic treatments have been administered to control the effects of diabetic symptoms including diet, exercise and hyperthermia; however, each method has had limited effects.

METHODS: To discover genes and their characteristics in this fosmid, we used Flybase, Blast searches, and RNA seq data. Gene models were then constructed and verified using Gene Model Checker. Repetitous elements were accessed using Repeat Masker.

METHODS: We believe that a mechanism of combining both heat and exercise (known as heat acclimation) will further improve the problems associated with T2DM. Treatments of heat acclimation (HA) were used for a period of 14 days in a T2DM rodent model (Goto- Kakizaki, GK) to reduce blood glucose levels, regulate blood pressure and body mass, as well as improve cardiovascular stability. Animals were pair-fed, blood glucose levels were determined and tail-cuff blood pressure measurements were performed throughout the entire study. Furthermore, body mass, hematocrit and estimated plasma volume were monitored.

RESULTS: Here we show the genes and pseudogenes are present, homologues isoforms to D. melanogaster, gene density and repetitous elements in this 40 kb fosmid of D. ananassae.

Funding provided in part by the Department of Life Sciences at Winston Salem State University and Genomics Education Partnership at Washington University in St. Louis.

RESULTS: We found that in conditions of heat acclimation, blood glucose levels decreased compared to the control over the course of the 14 day treatment (275 ± 8.2 mg/dL vs 180 ± 9.3 mg/dL, n=3). Within five days of treatment, both the control and HA rodents gain body mass; yet, the HA rodents’ overall body mass gain is significantly lower (3.95 ± 0.45 g vs 2.07 ± 0.23 g, n=3). This data directly coincides with the HA rodents having a physiologic percent hematocrit after three days of treatment (~50%). However, HA does not appear to have a beneficial effect on the estimated plasma volume (EPV). In both the control and HA rodents, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) remained physiologic. CONCLUSIONS: From this we concluded that heat acclimation exhibits some positive effects on blood glucose, blood pressure and body mass in a type II diabetic rodent model.

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THE ROLE OF MATRIX E. COLI PROTEIN REQUIRED FOR METALLOPROTEINASE IN SHAPE TRANSFORMATION, CELL DIVISION, AND OPTIMAL GROWTH PERIODONTITIS A. Busuyi, L. Dunn, K. Martin, A. Clemons, M.M. Steed. AT LOW TEMPERATURE

Department of Life Sciences; abusuyi109@rams.wssu.edu, steedmm@wssu.edu

K. Brown, B. Hughes, T. Porter, J. Edwards, P. Jones. Department of Life Sciences. kbrown112@rams.wssu.edu, bhughes112@rams.wssu.edu, tporter112@rams.wssu.edu, jedwards213@rams.wssu.edu, jonesp@wssu.edu

PURPOSE: Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs as a consequence of the host immune inflammatory response to oral pathogens. Soft and hard tissue destruction during the progression of the disease reflects a cascade of events involving bacterial virulence factors, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and reactive oxygen species, and proteolytic enzymes. The use of saliva as a noninvasive diagnostic tool to assess oral health is promising. Specifically, saliva contains an abundance of biomarkers, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that play a key role in the associated tissue destruction in periodontitis.

A physiological change that occurs when Escherichia coli cells are shifted from 37oC to low temperature is a transformation in cellular shape from rods at 37oC to coccobacilli at low temperature. The aim of the research study is to understand the physiological basis for the alteration in cellular shape by identifying cellular factors required to facilitate the coccobacillus morphology at low temperature. In accordance with this goal, we have identified an E. coli mutant that fails to form coccobacilli at low temperature. In contrast to the normal growth and coccobacillus morphology of the wild-type, incubation of the mutant at 10oC resulted in cold-sensitive growth and the formation of long filamentous cells. However, introduction of a plasmid encoding a protein required for cell division in the mutant resulted in an increase in growth accompanied with the appearance of coccobacilli. Therefore, we have identified an E. coli protein essential for normal growth, cell division, and the coccobacillus morphology at low temperature.

METHODS: We examined the levels of MMP -2 and -9 activity in the saliva of young African American college students using 1% gelatin zymography. Interestingly, the amounts of detectable MMP activity varied from each sample donor. RESULTS: Our preliminary results confirm the need for comprehensive studies to measure and monitor MMP levels in saliva in this age group.

Funding provide in part by Winston Salem State Faculty Development Grant, Provost Summer Scholars Fellowship Program, and NSF HBCU-UP RAMS Scholars Program.

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STUDIES FOR THE PREPARATION OF SUBSTITUTED PYRIDINES

GONE TO SOON: INFANT MORTALITY IN AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN

Destini Butler, Shelby Keaton and Sezgin Kiren. Department of Chemistry; kirens@wssu.edu

D. Butler,a nd W. Boone. Department of English and Foreign Languages; dbutler209@rams.wssu.edu; boonewi@wssu.edu

PURPOSE: These studies aim to investigate the preparation of substituted pyridines via the aromatization of an adduct obtained from 1,2-addition of organocerium reagents to 2-substituted 2,3-dihydro-4-pyridones. Titanium (IV) chloride was found to promote the aromatization.

Infants born to black women are 1.5 to 3 times more likely to die than infants born to women of other races. Racial gaps are prevalent in today’s society: marital status, education and prenatal care are all part of this margin. Consequently, black and white disparities in infant mortality rate have continued to increase. This study explores the lived experiences of African-American women to identify factors in correlation to this racial gap in infant mortality. A significant portion of this black white gap in infant mortality is attributed to the nearly double increase in low birth weight and preterm pregnancy. In 2009 the IMR data showed 14.3% gap between blacks and whites. Scholars such as MacMahon believe that the factors that increase poor birth outcomes are also associated with marital status, educational attainment, stress an access to prenatal care.

REGULATION OF THE VITAMIN D PATHWAY IN HMSCS DURING OSTEOGENESIS. C. Chatman, J. Fleming, O. Turner,Y. Sturdivant, C. Kemmis. Department of Life Sciences; kemmisc@wssu.edu Human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hMSCs) are attractive candidates for regenerative medicine due to their potential to differentiate into multiple lineages. Osteogenic differentiation in vivo is mediated by multiple factors, such as cytoskeletal tension and growth factors. Of these, 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25D) regulates cell cycle and differentiation, including activation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. To elucidate the requirement for 1,25D during osteogenic differentiation, we differentiated hMSCs in medium supplemented with osteogenic factors (glycerol-2-phosphate, ascorbic acid and dexamethasone) for up to 14 days. At 0, 7 and 14 days post differentiation, cells were treated with a control, 10 nM 1,25D or 100 nM 25D. The medium was collected for metabolism assays and cells were harvested for gene and protein expression analysis. Differentiation of hMSCs was confirmed with fast blue and alizarin staining. Preliminary results suggest that basal expression of CYP24 decreased independent of differentiation. 1,25D treatment induced CYP24, with the effects being more potent in differentiating cells and Day 7. In differentiating cells, basal expression of VDR decreased and further declined with 1,25D treatment. A thorough understanding of the cellular requirement for 1,25D throughout the course of differentiation will allow us to develop optimized medium in vivo or customized medical treatment of injury. This work was supported by grants from WSSU RIP and WSSU PDC.

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THE IMPACT OF HEALTHCARE IN THE LATINO COMMUNITY OF WINSTON-SALEM A.T. Clemons and M. Brookshaw. Department of World Languages and Cultures; aclemons108@rams.wssu.edu, brookshawnm@wssu.edu PURPOSE: Latinos/Hispanics are both the largest minority in the United States of America and the fastest growing minority in the state of North Carolina. Moreover, Winton-Salem and the Piedmont Triad have over 125,000 Latino/Hispanic residents. These new individuals require all of the city’s social services and adequate healthcare has become one of the most important needs. The purpose of this proposal is to identify, evaluate and assesses the impact of the healthcare system on these new residents in conjunction with their traditional and alternative healthcare practices such as Curanderismo, a term used for Hispanic folk medicine which combines Catholicism and indigenous Indian traditions. Other alternative practices that affect the Latino/Hispanic community that are based in religious practices—candomblé, santería, lucumí, etc. will also be explored. Additionally, social service agencies, clinics, doctors and patients will be interviewed to determine their contributions and impact on this vital segment of Winston-Salem’s population.

THANK GOD! THE ROLE OF PRAYER AND ATTRIBUTIONS FOR SUCCESSES AND FAILURES ON SELF-ESTEEM N. Corley, W. Jones, A. DeBono. Dept of Psychological Sciences; NCorley112@rams.wssu.edu; WJones112@rams.wssu.edu; Debonoae@wssu.edu PURPOSE: Acknowledgement of God’s influence in religious people’s lives is at times quite apparent, especially when experiencing positive outcomes. At this point, psychological research tells us little about the types of people that are likely to attribute their successes to God, the types of situations in which God is deemed the cause of an event, and how believing that God is the cause of successes or failures can impact self-concepts such as self-esteem. These unanswered questions may be due to religion being one of the most understudied topics in psychology (Inzlict, 2009). According to Attribution Theory (Heider, 1958) and the self-serving bias (Miller & Ross, 1975), if people believe their successes are due to external causes such as God, this could negatively impact self-esteem. We predict that successes will be attributed to God and losses to the person who lost. Also, we predict that the more God is believed to be the cause of success, the more the individual’s self-esteem will decrease. METHODS: Christian undergraduate students (N = 106) were asked to play a game of Battleship which they won or lost. After the completion of the game, participants reported how well and how poorly they performed during the game. Afterwards, they reported how much they believed the outcome of the game was due to God or other causes. Lastly, through a questionnaire, we assessed self-esteem. RESULTS: Battleship winners attributed their success to God more than losers, t(104) = 2.43, p = .02 and Battleship losers took more credit for their losses, t(104) = 3.44, p = .001. Also, we found a trend that the more Battleship winners attributed the win to themselves the lower their state self-esteem was, B = -.12, S. E. = .07, t(43) = -1.63, p = .11. CONCLUSION: So far our results indicate that Christians took more credit for losses, but gave God significantly more credit for successes. We look forward to researching optimism and Godly attributions for wins and losses in the future.

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DECONSTRUCTING MINORITY WOMEN IN TELEVISED POPULAR CULTURE THROUGH THE LENS OF INTERCULTURAL PRAXIS K.S. Cyrus, C.A. Crump, T.D. Lockamy, K.L. Martin, A.R. Patterson-Masuka. Department of Mass Communications; kcyrus110@rams.wssu.edu; pattersona@wssu.edu PURPOSE: This presentation examines the intersection of popular culture and images of minority women in the context of intercultural communication and globalization. The researchers will seek to investigate popular television shows that highlight African American women including “Scandal and Being Mary Jane,” as a potential instrument for encouraging public dialogue on popular culture’s impact on the perception of minority women. Using the conceptual framework of Intercultural Praxis (Sorrells, 2012), the presenters will deconstruct the role of media in terms of intercultural communication, popular culture, globalization, capitalism, and resistance. Furthermore, the audience will be engaged with key questions such as: “What are the larger implications of popular culture and images of minority women?” and “How do these implications impact African American college females?”

DEVELOPMENT OF MOBILE APPLICATION FOR ACTIVE LEARNING IN THE COMPUTER SCIENCE CLASSROOM K. S. Davis, S., Whitaker, M. M. Fuad, D. Deb. Department of Computer Science; kdavis310@rams.wssu.edu, swhitaker111@rams.wssu.edu, fuadmo@wssu.edu, debd@wssu.edu PURPOSE: This project addresses a significant learning barrier experienced at many CS departments, especially at predominantly minority institutions, which is the problem of students’ inability to keep being engaged and interested in classroom. This project investigates the applicability of using mobile devices in the classroom and incorporation of interactive problem solving using those devices to increase class engagement and active learning for students. In this research, we present ongoing work on development of two interactive problem solving application intended for one sophomore and one junior level class in Computer Science. These applications and the associated classroom response system will allow students to actively participate in lecture materials using their mobile devices.

Funding provided by NSF grant # 1332531.

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THICK AND AT RISK Asia Dukes, Cecile N.Yancu, Ph.D. Department of Behavioral Sciences and Social Work adukes113@rams.wssu.edu, yancuc@wssu.edu PURPOSE: This study examines the association between body self-image of young adult African American females and risky sexual behavior. Based on current research African American adolescents who are dissatisfied with their body are less likely to use condoms for fear of abandonment by their partner. What remains unclear is the relationship between self-perception as thick or skinny, poor body self-image and risky sexual behaviors among African American young adult females. METHODS: A systematic review identified studies of risky sexual behavior and body self-image among young African American adults. Databases searched included Google scholar, ProQuest and Ebsco, between 2009 to present. Keywords specified were condom use, body image, risky sexual behaviors, African American, thick and skinny. To cast as broad a net as possible no other filters were used. Results: From twenty-six papers, six studies met the inclusion criteria. An additional eight studies addressed risky sex without specifying African Americans. No studies discussed the idea of thick or skinny among young African Americans. CONCLUSION: We know that female adolescents with poor body self-image are more likely to participate in risky sexual behavior, however we are unaware if this trend continues as African American young adult females grow older. Additionally the idea that poor body self-image is associated with being bigger may be a flawed assumption because not every culture views being bigger as a negative thing. In light of this gap in the research the next step will be to develop a study that assesses the association between body self-image of African American young female adults and risky sexual behavior that includes an understanding of the thick versus skinny phenomenon.

GROWTH INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF DIALLYL DISULFIDE IN A BRCA1/ P53-DEFICIENT MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR CELL LINE E.C. Evans, B. Justice, and S.T. Dance-Barnes. Department of Life Sciences; eevans110@rams.wssu.edu; dancest@wssu.edu Many chemotherapeutic agents have been used to treat breast cancer, with varied outcomes depending on the specific subtype of breast cancer. To date, various laboratories have identified five distinctive subtypes of breast tumors, with one being particularly aggressive, basal-like breast tumors (BBT). The focus of this work is to characterize mouse mammary tumors that mimic human BBT in order to develop improved therapies that are specific for this tumor subtype. We have utilized a mouse mammary tumor cell line (K14TRT) that our lab cultured from a “humanized� mouse model that has been shown to better mimic in mice the genetic alterations seen with BBT formation by using gene knock-out technology. In this study we investigate the effects of Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a component of garlic, on apoptosis in the K14TRT cell line. It is our hypothesis that DADS, which has been previously shown to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, would have a comparable affect in the K14TRT cells. K14TRT cells were treated for 24 h with doses of DADS ranging from 25-75mM. DADS appeared to induce apoptosis when viewed microscopically for morphological variations, which included condensed nuclear chromatin. This apoptotic event appeared to be dose dependent as demonstrated by trypan blue exclusion, when comparing the DADS treated to the untreated K14TRT cells. We also further validated apoptosis being due to DADS treatment by confirming DNA fragmentation and a caspase-3 assay in the K14TRT harvested cells. Additionally, we investigated DADS ability to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis by utilization of a BrdU cell proliferation assay. Apoptosis in this model was further substantiated by acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining. This study provides evidence that DADS does induce apoptosis in basal-like mammary tumor cells, and could possibly be used as a chemotherapeutic in targeting this specific subtype of breast cancer.

Funding provided in part by WSSU PDC Research Award and WSSU RIP Award

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BIOINFORMATIC ANALYSIS OF PRESENILIN-2 O. D. Franklin, D. B. Williams. Department of Life Sciences; ofranklin111@wssu.edu, williamsdb@wssu.edu PURPOSE: Presenilin 1 and 2 are genes commonly associated with Alzheimer’s disease; the proteins are part of the γ-secretase complex responsible for regulating the production and cleavage of amyloid-ß peptides that compose plaques. Mutations within the presenilin genes are shown to cause an accumulation of these plaques. METHODS: Two isoforms of the human presenilin-2 gene are predicted from sequence data. Isoform-1 contains 448 amino acids and isoform-2 has 447 amino acids. Presenilin-2 is made up of 12 exons; the alternative splice differencing the two isoforms is expressed by the removal of a glutamic acid, E, in exon 10. Exon 10 is within a large hydrophilic loop, present in both presenilin 1 and 2; this loop is one of the least conservative segments between the genes. Analysis of DNA and amino acid sequences in the hydrophilic loop of other species suggests that the alternative splice site is strictly mammalian. We also investigated potential effects this alternative splice will have on the presenilin-2 structure and how this change could lead to a change in function. RESULTS: Construction of 3D representations of this loop has shown slightly different structures between the two isoforms. In order to determine possible effects on function, proteins that commonly interact with this portion of presenilin-2 were analyzed for a corresponding sequence change. These proteins are highly conserved; no corresponding sequence differences were found. CONCLUSION: Current research is looking into specific changes this alternative splice has on the function of presenilin-2 as it relates to structure. So far, the reason for these alternative splice forms is unclear and the impact on structure and function has not been determined.

BIOMECHANICS OF A DUNK: USING MOTION CAPTURE TECHNIQUES TO ANALYZE ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE P. Gardin, L.C. Allen, N.I. Hristov. Department of Life Sciences and The Center for Design Innovation; pgardin112@rams.wssu.edu, nickolay.hristov@centerfordesigninnovation.org Most athletes excel in their corresponding sports and perform at a level that the general public cannot. For example, professional basketball players can dunk, score 80% from the free-throw line, and hit greater than 30% of their 3-point shots. One way that these athletes have such extraordinary abilities is that they continually refine their craft through practice. Further, many athletes utilize video recording to review their performances to pinpoint areas for improvement; this process has become more high-tech in recent years with the use of motion capture analysis. Motion capture (or MoCap) is a way to digitally record and reconstruct human movement. By using MoCap and biomechanic analysis an athlete’s performance can be observed and studied in fine detail. Studying the biomechanics of human movement allows athletes and their coaches to make fine adjustments that lead to greater athletic achievements. For instance, basketball involves many specific moves that can be captured, analyzed and improved upon by using MoCap analysis (e.g. free-throws, dunking). Dunking is one of the most spectacular displays of athletic performance and assertion of dominance over the opposing team. A typical dunk consists of four phases: 1: preparation, 2: takeoff 3: flight/ dunk and 4: recovery. In this preliminary study a dunking attempt of a college athlete was recorded and analyzed using 3D MoCap. Biomechanic analysis was used to identify the four phases and key factors in their timing as well as related speeds, accelerations and relevant distances, such as how high and long the athlete jumped. The data is compared against the performance of nonathlete dunking attempts as well as sources of individual variation among different athletes. Future work will focus on other sports – tennis, baseball, football and soccer – to inform safer and more rewarding athletic experiences.

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SMALL RNAS IN LEISMANIA BRAZILENSIS B.A. Hannible, L., Dixon, J.M. Porter-Kelley. Department of Life Sciences; bhannible109@rams.wssu.edu, porterkelleyj@wssu.edu PURPOSE: Leishmania braziliensis, the causative agent of leishmaniasis, is a New World pathogen and currently, the only Leishmania genome sequenced from the Vienna species group. Our goal is to understand how gene expression in these parasites results in the change in the morphological forms of the parasite during its life-cycle. In a previous study, we found, using bioinformatics, the presence of potential microRNAs in these parasites. To show these microRNAs experimentally we did deep sequencing of the small RNAs in L. braziliensis. Here we show our progress in discovering the sequences of this small RNA library.

Funding provided in part by: American Society for Cell Biology and Department of Life Sciences

EATING AWAY AT STRESS Jael Haskins, Cecile N.Yancu, Ph.D. Department of Behavioral Sciences and Social Work; jhaskins112@rams.wssu.edu yancuc@wssu.edu

PURPOSE: Undergraduates must learn to cope with chronic stress such as school work, personal lives, and relationships. Studies show that one stress-related coping mechanism is eating foods high in fats and sugar. METHOD: In 2010, this study gathered data on a convenience sample of 120 Winston-Salem State University students, including a daily food diary. This qualitative data was coded into 15 categories based on type of calorie consumed e.g., protein versus starch. Data was analyzed using SPSS. RESULTS: More students are consuming fat calories than sugar calories during their midday and evening meals. (Dinner: Fats= 25.2%; Sugar=5.3%; Midday: Fats= 40.8%; Sugar=13.4%). CONCLUSION: The fact that the diets of college students are high in fats is not surprising. However, in light of the large body of research relating the current obesity epidemic to sugar intake, the relatively low sugar consumption was unexpected. The next step will be to compare this high level of fat intake with perceived chronic stress levels of these students.

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POTENTIAL EFFECT OF VIBRATION THE IMPACT OF RAPE ON PRESCRIBED SOCIAL ROLES IN ON BACTERIAL GROWTH AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN’S ddavis111@rams.wssu.edu, jonese@wssu.edu J. T. Hayes, D. B. Williams. Department of Life Sciences; DRAMA jhayes111@rams.wssu.edu; williamsdb@wssu.edu PURPOSE: DNA structure can be influenced by low frequency (30 Hz) vibration. Still to be determined is if these vibrationinduced structural changes in DNA have any physiological effects. METHODS: As a first step, we investigated if a 30 Hz wave affected the growth of E.coli cultures. We placed 100 ml of LB cultures on 35oC hot plates, and set one surrounded by speakers hooked up to a wave producing program, set to 30 Hz. We measured the A600 approximately every 30 min for each culture until the readings plateaued, and then plotted the growth curves. RESULTS: We found no significant difference in the rate of growth or the maximal growth between the control and vibration exposed cultures; we have a good negative control for further experimentation. Our next step will be to expose the bacteria to different mutagens, such as UV light, with and without the 30 Hz vibration, and assay for protective effects of the vibration on the DNA, using bacterial growth or DNA damage assays.

J. Hodges, K. Robinson, C. Timberlake, T. Walker. Department of English; Jhodges112@rams.wssu.edu PURPOSE: This research highlights the correlation between political agendas on rape, social attitudes about rape, and the following texts written by black female playwrights: Georgia Douglas Johnson’s Blue Blood (1928), Shirley Graham’s It’s Mornin’ (1940), Adrienne Kennedy’s Funnyhouse of a Negro (1964), Ntozake Shange’s for colored girls who considered suicide when the rainbow is enuf (1975),Velina Hasu Houston’s Rain (1996), and Kia Corthron’s Breath, Boom (2001). The select playwrights use their works as platforms for bringing attention to the impact of rape on black women, particularly its influence on the performance of prescribed social roles (i.e. mother, wife, sister, daughter, etc.). METHODS: Using standpoint theory as a framework, this research draws upon resources such as newspapers, interviews, and research studies as well as black feminist thought to support the existence of these unapologetic tales of black women who attempt to survive in the aftermath of rape.

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CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE, HIGH RISK SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, AND HOW DEPRESSION MEDIATES THE TWO S.M. Howard, C.N.Yancu. Department of Behavioral Sciences and Social Work; showard113@rams.wssu.edu, yancuc@wssu.edu PURPOSE: To explore the relationship among childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and high risk sexual behavior (HRSB) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and how depression may act as a mediator between CSA and HRSB. This article is a review of the literature pertaining to MSM who were abused as children and their rates of high risk sex. METHODS: We used Google Scholar and Science Direct to find peer-reviewed articles that were written within the last five years. We used the following search words: risky sex; childhood sexual abuse; CSA; men who have sex with men; MSM; depression; risky sexual behavior; and childhood trauma. RESULTS: We found that multiple studies have shown that people that have experienced CSA have a higher risk of experiencing long term depression. Studies have also shown that depressed males may be more likely to engage in risky sex as a way to cope with their depression. DISCUSSION: Males are more likely to rely on maladaptive coping mechanisms, such as risky sex to deal with their depression from being sexually abused as children. CONCLUSION: Without a stable support system after news of CSA men are more likely to become depressed and rely on risky sex as a coping mechanism.

VASCULAR EFFECTS OF DIPHENYLMETHOXYPIPERIDINEDERIVED COCAINE ANTAGONISTS T. Hurley, J.J. Keith, Pulgar VM. Department of Life Sciences,Winston-Salem State University. thurley111@rams.wssu.edu, pulgarv@wssu.edu As a powerful sympathomimetic agent, cocaine exerts its rewarding activity by blocking the dopamine transporter (DAT). Diphenylmethoxypiperidine (DPP)-derived compounds share with cocaine the ability to inhibit DAT, and since they display diminished rewarding effects, these classes of compounds have the potential to serve as pharmacotherapies of addiction. Cocaine also exerts powerful effects on the cardiovascular system: i.e. cocaine increases contraction in isolated arteries and hearts. Thus an increased contraction of coronary arteries may be related to the myocardial infarction observed in acute cocaine intoxications. We will investigate whether DPP-derived compounds share some of the vascular properties with cocaine in vitro. In this study, the effects of cocaine, DPP and its analogs on vascular contraction will be tested. KCl- and noradrenaline (NA)-induced contractions of the rat mesenteric resistance artery (MRA) will be determined using wire myography (620M Multimyograph, DMT, USA). Oneway analysis of variance (ANOVA) will be used to deterÂŹmine significant differences.Vascular responses will be analyzed as maximal response and sensitivity to the agonists tested in the presence of cocaine, DPP and DPP-analogs. Results obtained with newly synthetized DPP-analogs will be presented.

Funding: NIH MD00232

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PROTEIN BACKBONE STRUCTURE STUDIES WITH MICROSOFT EXCEL

EFFECTS OF AT1 RECEPTOR BLOCKER IN A GENETIC FORM OF HYPERTENSION; AN EFFICIENT ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY

S. Jefferson, X. Tao. Deparment of Chemistry, sjefferson112@rams.wssu.edu, taoxi@wssu.edu

F. Jackson1, E. Flanders1, A. Jeffers2 and A. Aileru 1,2, Department of Life Sciences1, Biomedical Research Infrastructure Center2. fjackson112@rams.wssu.edu; eflanders112@rams.wssu.edu; ailerua@wssu.edu

PURPOSE: Bioinformatics is a new interdisciplinary field that in part develops methods to extract and analyze the ever-exploding biological data. METHOD: As a beginner to this field, sophomore chemistry major Samari learns to obtain protein data from Protein Data Bank, extract backbone atom coordinates, use Microsoft Excel to carry out calculations of bond lengths, bond angles and dihedral angles. Specifically, dihedral angles are studied in depth and their distributions are compared to the well-established Ramachandra Plot.

PURPOSE: The goal is to determine some of the mechanisms that may be involved in the genetic form of hypertension in a whole animal study. BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that a genetic predisposition to hypertension may be the underlying cause of this health disparity. Previous findings from our laboratory have shown that extracellular electrophysiological recordings of isolated superior cervical ganglia (SCG) from (mRen2)27 transgenic hypertensive rats, a genetic model of hypertension, have an increase in angiotensin (AngII) AT1 receptor mediated postganglionic excitability and plasticity compared to Hannover Sprague-Dawley (HnSD) normotensive rats. In an acquired form of hypertension, diet and exercise have been linked to the amelioration of sustained blood pressure via lipid metabolism and vascular compliance.

Funding provided by the WSSU Department of Chemistry’s RAMS Scholar Program.

METHODS: The (mRen2)27 strain was produced by transfecting the mouse ren2d gene into the genome of an outbred HnSD rat. Expression of this gene led to hypertension mediated at least, in part, dependent upon increased actions of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) associated with elevated brain angiotensin levels. The (mRen2)27 strain represents a tissue dependent hypertension in which there are elevated levels of brain and adrenal renin, but suppressed renal levels of renin when compared to normotensive control HnSD rats. RESULTS: Overall Mean Arterial Blood Pressure (MAP) is higher in (mRen2)27 rats compared to HnSD rats (126±3.0 mmHg vs 111.2±2.95 mmHg; p<0.05). There is also an increase in the amplitude of pulse pressure (PP) in hypertensive rats (34±1.6 vs 30±1 mmHg; p<0.05), attesting to an enhanced vascular compliance to sustained blood pressure without a significant change in the heat rate (HR) of both groups compared to baselines. Exercise or physical exhaustion neither decreases the MAP nor vascular compliance in either group. Candesartan and exercise significantly reduce the MAP and vascular compliance in the (mRen2)27 rat (129.2±3.4 vs 91.1.9 mmHg), suggesting that exercise and an AT1 receptor blocker may play a pivotal role in the amelioration of familial form of hypertension.

REPRESENTATIONS OF BLACKNESS IN 21ST CENTURY FILM D. Johnson and W. Boone. Department of English and Foreign Languages; djohnson109@rams.wssu.edu; boonewi@wssu.edu The presence of American-Americans in major motion picture roles and television has been a controversial topic. According to St. Clair Bourne, African-American roles in film have fallen into numerous stereotypical categories such as rags to riches, thug life, and segregation. Julia M. Bristor has argued that media portrayals of African-Americans reflect whites’ attitudes toward African-Americans. Stereotypes in film demonstrate how forms of systemic racism permeate our society. Today, American popular culture continues to project these stereotypes as seen in films such as The Help,The Butler, and Monster’s Ball. This research will track the development of negative and stereotypical images displayed in media and explore the continuity and discontinuity of the images in the twenty-first century.

Funding provided in part by MARC U*STAR GM070416 Grants.

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SEXUAL ATTITUDES AND SEXUAL DECEPTION AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN COLLEGE STUDENTS

QSAR AND SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL DOPAMINE TRANSPORTER INHIBITORS C.M. Link, K. Norris-Woods, J.J. Keith. Dept of Life Sciences; clink109@rams.wssu.edu harpj@wssu.edu Widespread cocaine and methamphetamine use is a substantial public health concern in the United States and around the world. The long-term effects of cocaine use include addiction, paranoia, irritability, restlessness, and auditory hallucinations. In 2012, The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) reported that eighteen percent of individuals aged twelve and over have used or currently use cocaine. Thus, our lab has been studying piperidines as possible pharmacotherapies for addicts and/or molecular tools for investigators. Cocaine acts as an inhibitor of the dopamine transporter (DAT), an integral protein that is found in the presynaptic terminals of dopamine neurons. The psychoactive effects of DAT inhibitors, like cocaine, are associated with drastic changes in the uptake of dopamine (DA) which leads to euphoria. Benztropine (BZT) and diphenylpyraline (DPP) are DAT inhibitors, and their analogs are potential pharmacotherapies and/or molecular tools. The class of compounds reported herein is derived from BZT and DPP. Using experimental IC50 values of our piperidines, and theoretical QSAR predictions we studied over twenty compounds. By employing an iterative approach we are synthesizing and biologically evaluating the top two candidates. The methods for this study are described herein.

Funding: NIH MD00232

C. Manley (Chancellor Scholars), and N.M. Hall-Byers. Department of Psychological Sciences. cmanley112@rams.wssu.edu and hallna@wssu.edu PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the sexual attitudes of African American college students attending an HBCU, and their self-reported engagement in sexually deceptive practices. We sought to specifically address the following: 1) Does sexual permissiveness influence deceptive practices individuals use in order to engage in sexual activity? and 2) Are their gender differences in the use of deceptive practices in order to engage in sexual relationships? METHOD: Three-hundred and twenty self-identified AfricanAmerican college students participated in a computer based study on the campus of Winston-Salem State University (age range 18-24). The three subscales of the Sexual Deception Scale were used (Blatant Lying, Self-Serving, Avoid Confrontation) and two subscales of the Brief Sexual Attitudes Inventory (Permissiveness and Instrumentality) were used in these analyses. RESULTS: There was a negative significant correlation between all subscales on the Sexual Deception Scale and the two subscales of the Brief Sexual Attitudes Inventory. Gender differences were found with the Blatant Lying, Self-Serving, and Permissiveness Subscales. CONCLUSIONS: Conclusions will be drawn from completed analyses and presented with the poster.

Funding provided by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development Grant #SC2HD068877.

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DETERMINING MICRO- AND MACRO ELEMENTS BY FLAME ATOMIC ABSORTION SPECTROMETRY AND INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA OPTICAL EMISSION SPECTROMETRY M.J. Massey, S. Walker, B. Stevenson, J. Peterson, A Bakarr Kanu. Dept. of Chemistry; mmassey110@rams.wssu.edu; kanuabb@wssu.edu PURPOSE: The monitoring of micro- and macro minerals in food and other samples is essential for protecting public health against hazards of metal toxicity. The micro- and macro minerals play a vital part in the human metabolic reaction. In this experiment flame atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry was used to analyze food, water, vitamins/dietary supplements, and toy samples. METHOD: Levels of Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mg, Fe, and Pb were determined by FAAS and levels of Hg and Pb determined by ICP OES. Combining the FAAS and ICP OES offers a unique advantage in that levels of metals in samples below the detection limit for FAAS were well within the detection limit range of the ICP OES. RESULTS: The limit of detection (LOD) determined for reference standards was 0.003-0.12 and 0.001-0.02 Âľg g-1 for the FAAS and ICP OES studies, respectively. The limit of quantification (LOQ) determined for reference standards was 0.01-0.94 and 0.21-0.85 Âľg g-1 for the FAAS and ICP OES studies, respectively. Some of the food and vitamins/dietary supplements showed levels of micro metals well above the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) value recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO).

DEVELOPMENT OF RHODIUM CATALYZED CARBON-CARBON BOND FORMATION AND APPLICATION TO THE SYNTHESIS OF BISTEPPOGENIN M.A. McGilvary, E. Pridgen, A. Harrison, F. Guo. Department of Chemistry and Physics; mmcgilvary113@rams.wssu.edu and guof@wssu.edu Heterocycles have continued to be the focus of intense synthetic activity both in academia and industry. Over 75% of the top 200 brand name drugs are heterocycles or contain heterocycle subunit. Heterocycles also account for more than 50% of all known organic compounds. Rhodium catalyzed carbon carbon bond formation is very valuable in forming the carbon skeletons of complex heterocycle synthesis. Rhodium catalyzed carbon carbon bond formation reactions using arylboronic acid/organometallic reagents in 4-quinolones and O-heterocycles such as benzopyrans have been developed. We are also interested in applying this new C-C bond formation strategy to the synthesis of some bioactive natural products such as flavonoids and biflavonoids, one of the most abundant classes of plant constituents, known for their rich biological/pharmacological activities including anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities.

Funding provided in part by WSSU start-up, RIP award.

CONCLUSION: The initial ICP OES data has determined that levels of Hg in shark specimen and Forever Arctic Sea were 99 and 391 times higher than the recommended PTWI. More studies will be conducted to confirm these result.

Funding provided in part by SURE Program at WSSU (NSF Award #: 0927905) and Professional Development Committee (PDC)

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GET ME BODIED: BLACK WOMEN, MEDIA AND BODY IMAGE S. Mcrae, and W. Boone Department of English and Foreign Languages; smcrae107@rams.wssu.edu; boonewi@wssu.edu The purpose of this research is to investigate the objectification of African American women in media. Dating back to colonial times, women such as Sarah Baartman were used for the (erotic) pleasures of the dominant white male culture. In pop culture today, African American women are targeted in the over usage of hyper-sexualized images in music videos and film. According to Marali Bulaji‘s, “black women have been ideologically controlled by the images presented in mass media.” Patricia Hill Collins also noted that “the nexus of negative stereotypical images applied to African American women has been fundamental to black women’s oppression.” The way black women are viewed in music videos, popular culture and in mass media illustrate the oppression of African American women.

CELLULAR SHAPE TRANSFORMATION OF E. COLI AT LOW TEMPERATURE T. Porter, B. Hughes, K. Brown, J. Edwards, P. Jones. Department of Life Sciences. kbrown112@rams.wssu.edu, bhughes112@rams.wssu.edu, tporter112@rams.wssu.edu, jedwards213@rams.wssu.edu, jonesp@wssu.edu A physiological change that occurs when E. coli cells are exposed to low temperature is a transformation in cellular shape from rods at 37oC to coccobacilli at low temperature. Required for optimal growth only at low temperature, cold shock protein CsdA is essential for the cells to alter shape at low temperature. The aim of the research study is to understand the physiological basis for the alteration in cellular shape by identifying additional cellular factors required to facilitate the coccobacillus morphology at low temperature. In accordance with this goal, we have identified another E. coli mutant that fails to form coccobacilli at low temperature. In contrast to the normal growth and coccobacillus morphology of the wild-type, incubation of the mutant at low temperature resulted in cold-sensitive growth and the formation of long filamentous cells. Furthermore, introduction of a plasmid encoding the wild type protein in the mutant resulted in normal growth accompanied with the appearance of coccobacilli. Therefore, E. coli has a set of proteins essential for the rod to coccobacillus shape transformation at low temperature.

GET ME BODIED: BLACK WOMEN, DETERMINING CAFFEINE CONTENT OF SOZO-LIFE COFFEEBERRY PRODUTS E. Pridgen, C. Drozdowski, T. Codio, A. Butler, D. Pollard, A Bakarr Kanu. Dept. of Chemistry. epridgen113@rams.wssu.edu; kanuabb@wssu.edu PURPOSE: In the last two decades, beverages designed to provide nutritional benefits have been increasingly marketed as a means to increase one’s physical and mental performance. The manufacturers of such beverages tend to differentiate their product from the vast array of “energy” drinks by minimizing the actual caffeine content while emphasizing non-caffeine content when marketing their product. The caffeine content of popular energy drinks has been previously studied and concentrations were determined to be in the range of ~40-140 mg/ serving. However, research on the caffeine content in beverages labeled as “nutritional” is less prevalent. To be certain that the theoretical performance benefits of nutritional beverages come from ingredients other than caffeine, it is important to study such beverages with an eye towards caffeine content. Two coffee-berry products Sozo “On the Go” and Sozo “Ignite” were evaluated and their caffeine content determined. METHOD: Caffeine was extracted from the products by liquidliquid extraction with dichloromethane. Samples were prepared by “standard addition method” and analyzed on a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). RESULTS: The results showed that Sozo “Ignite” contained (0.03 ± 0.01) µmol/mL or (5.92 ± 1.94) µg/mL. Caffeine content in Sozo “On the Go” was determined to be (0.02 ± 0.01) µmol/ mL or (5.27 ± 0.40) µg/mL. CONCLUSION: It was determined that a 237 mL serving container of Sozo “Ignite” contained 1401 ± 460 µg of caffeine. An 89 mL serving container of Sozo “On the GO” contained 469 ± 35.6 µg of caffeine.

Funding provided in part by Research Initiation Program (RIP) and RAMS Scholar.

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BLACK MARKET: THE DARKER SIDE OF AMERICAN MARKETING A.Raiford and W. Boone. Department of English and Foreign Languages; araiford113@rams.wssu.edu; boonewi@wssu.edu There is a strong link between how businesses market to consumers and the performance of blackface that was extremely popular during the 19th century. Since then, there has been a global fascination of African American culture and an even greater focus on Black celebrities and athletes. According to Jeffrey Ogbar, “The centrality of African Americans art to hip-hop helps contextualize the aesthetic symbols and creative expression found in the early hip-hop community and how they were inextricably tied to the era of the 1970’s, which saw the minstrel as anathema.” Most companies become successful by the way that they brand and market their products. Large corporations are emphasizing and increasing the use of African American figures in recent years. These popular figures are paid millions of dollars to endorse products. The power that these celebrities have in the black community is greater than the influence that these companies have to entice consumers based on marketing alone. Record executive and marketing consultant Steve Stoute began to sort through the issue of popular culture and its role in the corporate marketing. This research explores the link between blackface performance and corporate marketing, utilizing Stoute’s notion of the corporatized.

IS THERE A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELIGION/ SPIRITUALITY AND SOCIOSEXUAL ATTITUUDES AMONG BLACK COLLEGE STUDENTS? A. Robinson (Chancellor’s Scholar), and N. M. Hall-Byers. Department of Psychological Sciences. arobinson112@rams; wssu.edu and hallna@wssu.edu PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between a person’s religious beliefs and practices, their embodied spirituality, and their sociosexual orientation (willingness to engage in sexual activity outside of a committed relationship). METHOD: A sample of 304 self-identified Black Christian students at Winston-Salem State University (WSSU) participated in a confidential survey examining sexual attitudes, beliefs, and experiences. Scales used in these analyses include: Two subscales (Beliefs and Practices, and Social Support) of the Systems of Belief Inventory (SBI), Embodied Spirituality Scale (ESS), and the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (Revised). We were also interested in any possible gender differences. RESULTS: Both subscales of the SBI and the ESS were significantly (negative) related to Sociosexual Orientation. Additionally, significant gender differences were found on the ESS and Sociosexual Orientation Scales. More analyses will be conducted prior to poster submission. CONCLUSIONS: Conclusions will be drawn from completed analyses and presented with the poster.

Funding provided by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development Grant #SC2HD068877.

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PROTEOMIC COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND ORGANIC SPINACIA OLERACEA: BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW

THE ROLE OF PRE-TRANSCRIPTIONAL GENE REGULATION DURING INSERTION OF THE LTR RETROTRANSPOSON TF1 IN SCHIZOSACCHAROMYCES POMBE.

M. Sandlin-Williams and C.R. Bazemore-Walker. Department of Chemistry; msandlinwilliams113@rams.wssu.edu, bazemorewalkercr@wssu.edu

O.Y.K. Seshie, T.L. Singleton. Department of Life Sciences; singletont@wssu.edu

PURPOSE: Studies comparing the nutritional content of organic versus conventional foods have typically relied on assays that focus on one or a few select molecules. The overall goal of this work is to compare the entire set of expressed proteins, i.e. the proteome, obtained from Spinacia oleracea (spinach) cultivated using conventional cropping techniques and organic farming methods. A first step towards this goal is the systematic review of peer-reviewed literature related to this topic. DESIGN: Primary research articles, reviews, editorials, and perspectives were obtained by searching PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Search results were limited to approximately a 14-year period beginning January 1, 2000. Articles pertaining to the use of modern analytical techniques and those focused on the comprehensive analyses of grass-fed versus grain-fed meats were also mined for important content and insights. RESULTS: The view that organic foods are nutritionally superior is hotly contested. Nevertheless, proteomic methods have revealed differences in organic and conventional foods, and even organic foods grown under different conditions. CONCLUSION: No study has yet been conducted comparing the protein expression profile of S. olerace grown under different conditions. The proteomic approach is an appropriate way to begin to unravel these molecular differences.

This work was support in part by funding from the National Science Foundation.

PURPOSE: Retrotransposons are retroviral-like elements that replicates via an RNA intermediate. The life cycle is completed with integration of the cDNA into the host chromatin. When accessible, retroviral elements are able to integrate within the host chromatin, therefore attributing to the appearance of numerous diseases, e.g. cancers, tumors, and genetic disorders, among humans and animals. Chromatin is composed of two regions: euchromatin (regions of chromatin active in transcription and containing acetyl groups) and heterochromatin (regions of chromatin inactive in transcription and void of any acetyl groups). Acetyl groups are added to chromatin by histone acetylases and removed by histone deacetylases. Tf1 is an LTR retrotransposon that is endogenous to the fission yeast Schizosaccahromyces pombe. Integration into heterochromatic regions of the chromatin has been observed and analyzed (Cherry et al., 2014; in press). These insertions have produced colonies that are sensitive to Geneticin (G418). More interesting, we were able to detect transcription in 50% of the G418-sensitive/neo+ colonies. In order to investigate the possible role or pre-transcriptional regulation, a titration was performed treating all G418-sensitive/neo+ colonies using the histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA). METHODS: We hypothesized that treatment with TSA would inhibit deacetylation thereby allowing acetylation of the chromatin in and around selected sites for Tf1 integration. RESULTS: We found that treatment with various concentrations of TSA produced G418-resistant colonies in 50% of G418-sensitive/neo+ colonies. CONCLUSION: By further exploring these silencing mechanisms and Tf1â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s in vivo interactions with the cellâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s chromatin during integration, we come ever closer to unearthing new avenues of research involving the development of targeted therapeutics for preventing and controlling retroviral infection.

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THE ROLE OF MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE IN TRIPLE NEGATIVE BREAST CANCER

HOW REPRESENTIVE IS THE RAMACHANDRAN PLOT? A CASE STUDY

A. Seymour, D. Snipes, M.M. Steed. Department of Life Sciences; aseymour111@rams.wssu.edu, steedmm@wssu.edu

C. Shew, X. Tao. Department of Chemistry. cshew112@rams.wssu.edu, taoxi@wssu.edu

PURPOSE: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) have been implicated in promoting a favorable environment for breast cancer progression; including angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Although several cancer cell-expressed MMPs have been associated with the adverse outcomes in breast cancer, little is known about their role in triple negative breast cancer. The goal of this study was to measure the activity of secreted MMPs from a mimetic breast cancer cell line of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), K14TRT cells with and without diallyl disulfide (DADS). DADS, an organosulfur compound found in garlic, is a promising anticancer agent.

PURPOSE: Protein backbones have three kinds of dihedral (a.k.a. torsional) angles, φ, ψ, and ω around N-Cα, Cα-C, and C-N bonds, respectively. The angle ω has been found to be close to 180° normally. The other two angles, φ and ψ, are said to have their favored regions of values which can be visualized in the Ramachandran plot (J Mol Biol, 1963 Jul; 7:95-9). Exactly how representative is the Ramachandran plot?

METHODS: Medium was collected from normal mammary control cells and K14TRT cells and ran on 1% gelatin zymography. Control mammary cells treated with DADS had a dose dependent decrease in MMP-2 activity. K14TRT cells treated with DADS only had detectable active MMP -9.

METHODS: We use a protein structure obtained from the Protein Data Bank to exam it. Our work also checks the value of ω. Is it truly close to 180°? All calculations are carried out by Microsoft Excel, as an example to show that scientific computing can start with simple tools undertaken by college freshmen or sophomores.

Funding provided by the WSSU Chancellor’s Scholar Program.

RESULTS: Our analysis provides evidence for a more biological association between MMP activity and cancer growth to support the use of DADS as a therapeutic agent.

Funding provide in part by Winston Salem State Faculty Development Grant, Provost Summer Scholars Fellowship Program, and NSF HBCU-UP RAMS Scholars Program.

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ALTERNATIVE LEARNING CENTERS: CULPEPPER REBELLION BUILDING RELATIONSHIPS FOR ARCHAEOLOGY USING RADAR SUSPENDED YOUTH AND MAPPING SOFTWARE K. Skantz, Chancellor’s Scholars Program, D. X. Henderson, PhD. Department of Psychological Sciences, kskantz113@rams.wssu.edu, hendersondx@wssu.edu. PURPOSE: There exists a need to identify and develop alternatives to out-of-school suspension (OSS). In 2006, WinstonSalem/Forsyth County Schools implemented alternative learning centers (ALC) to mitigate risks associated with out-of-school suspension and promote graduation. Outside of its role as a “model of success” for alternative education, a scarcity of information is available on the type of students ALCs serve and how they meet the needs of suspended youth. The aims of this project seek to understand the characteristics of youth who are referred to ALCs and explore perceived impact of ALCs across two high schools. METHODS: To address the first aim, ALC data from 20122013 were collected and analyzed to obtain youth profiles across two high schools. To explore the perceived impact of ALCs on the lives of youth, qualitative data were collected from interviews with school principals and ALC coordinators. RESULTS: Youth referrals to ALCs are based on the discretion of assistant principals and Level 4 offense (e.g., repeat offenses, use of controlled substance, use of counterfeit items and under the influence of alcohol). ALCs primarily serve ethnic minority youth and 9th graders. ALCs are perceived as having an impact on youth’s ability to complete school, improve self-confidence and youth-adult relationships. CONCLUSION: Findings highlight an important alternative to suspension model and how ALCs assist youth in educational attainment.

Funding for this project provided by the Research Initiative Program (RIP).

Donquel Davis, CReSIS REU - Elizabeth City State University. Department of Computer Science, ddavis111@rams.wssu.edu The purpose of this study was to reveal whether any remains of earlier structures are currently present in specified locals. Aerial photos of the Elizabeth City area, made prior to and just after World War 2, were examined to determine the location of the original shoreline and any structures that may have contained elements of the original colonial era buildings. Modern Digital Orthographic Quarter Quad (DOQQ) aerial photographs will be used to provide geo-referencing of the early aerial photographs. The geographic coordinates of the structures formerly occupying the Cobbs Point site identified an area that allowed the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey to be used. Mapping of the area was accomplished using ENVI to find relative ground control points and superimposed the image onto the maps. The features appear to be present within the soil depth probed by GPR, their nature and exact location may be determined by a trained archaeologist using a probing device to penetrate the soil at locations revealed by the GPR survey.

RESEARCH: WHAT IS IT ALL ABOUT? Josiah Gilbert, Freshman (Computer Science) Taylor McCray, Freshman (Computer Science) E. Rebecca Caldwell, PhD, Assistant Professor In recent years there has been a significant decline in the number of college students choosing majors in computer science. There remains disparity in the number of under-represented minority students who earn graduate degrees as compared to majority students. There also exists an achievement gap in the United States between under-represented minority students and majority students at a time when underrepresented groups are becoming an increasing proportion of the national labor force. This reluctance to study Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines must be confronted and changed if the United States is to maintain a competitive position within the global market. Effective use of learning technologies is vital to solving many of our current STEM learning challenges. Robotics is a growing research area in computer science education. We use robotics as a technology tool captivate and engage students in research in robotics. However, most freshmen have never participated in research. This project developed (work in progress) a research orientation tutorial.

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ASSISTIVE ROBOTICS: USING THE FINCH ROBOT AS A MEDICAL ASSISTANT Amari Lewis, Sophomore (Computer Science), E. Rebecca Caldwell, PhD, Assistant Professor According to the Department of Health and Human Services, the American population age 65 and over will nearly double by 2030. The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts the country will need 70 percent more home aide jobs by 2020. However, the number of home aides are decreasing. Therefore, an alternative to the traditional caregiver is needed. Assistive robotics has been introduced as a solution to this problem but the high cost of the robot creates another problem for the elderly. The purpose of the study is to determine if lower cost educational robots can assume some of the responsibilities of caregivers. The Finch robot was initially designed at Carnegie Mellon for solely educational programming purposes. The purpose of this proof of concept study is to investigate the use of the Finch robot as an affordable medical assistant. The Finch was reprogrammed as a medication alert system. To determine whether or not the Finch robot would be a helpful device for the elderly, elderly within the community were given the opportunity to test the robot. This study will ultimately promote the use of affordable assistive robotics for the elderly in todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s society.

DEVELOPING AN EDUCATIONAL GAME: RECURSIVE RUNNER Emanuel Smith, Casey Lewis, Christopher Benson, Alex Alvarado Department of Computer Science, {esmith110, clewis113, aalvaradobeltran112, cbenson109}@rams.wssu.edu Advisor: Dr. Jinghua Zhang (zhangji@wssu.edu) Recursion is one of the most powerful problem-solving techniques in computer science, but most students in programming and data structures classes seem to struggle with the concept of recursion. In addition, the instructors find it hard to teach this concept using the traditional teaching method. This paper presents a game-like instructional module that aims to reinforce student understanding of recursion in a game. Four computer science undergraduate students developed the recursion game module with GameMaker Studio in three months. The game was designed to be played for about ten minutes and it does not require any prior experience in gaming. The objective of the game is to provide the students with a fun environment to visualize and follow the flow of execution of recursion functions. Students will learn and practice how to use recursion to find the numbers in the Fibonacci sequence and how to calculate the factorial of a natural number using recursion step by step in the game. The game also provides helpful guidance when students make mistakes. This poster presents the game design and implementation in detail. This game has been used in Computer Programming II and Data Structure classes in which students have given very positive feedback in terms of enjoyment and understanding the concepts. The module has been made available online to benefit students in other institutions.

Funding provided in part by National Science Foundation (NSFHRD-1137548) grant.

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ALMOST LIKE LOOKING IN A MIRROR: MOTHER-DAUGHTER RELATIONSHIPS IN HAMILTON’S SWEET WHISPERS BROTHER RUSH

MARXISM IN THE GRAPES OF WRATH

Myiesha Speight and Shirley Manigault PhD. Department of English, Mspeight110@rams.wssu.edu

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to examine Steinbeck’s use of Marxist concepts in The Grapes of Wrath. The central question is “How does Steinbeck use elements of the novel both to reflect capitalist oppression and to encourage resistance against it.” Steinbeck aligns the Oklahoma farmers with the Proletariat and explores how they fit into the economic machine.

PURPOSE: This study applies the critical concepts derived from Chodorow’s feminine Oedipus complex, including vicarious nurturance, autonomy, and heterosexual orientation, to the young protagonist in Virginia Hamilton’s Sweet Whispers Brother Rush. Chodorow asserts that in order for a daughter to develop properly, she must move her assignment of love-object from mother to father. The transition is imperative in order for the daughter to establish lasting heterosexual relationships and to learn to behave properly in society. The successful negotiation of the complex is crucial to the development of young adolescent girls, especially to the attainment of self-esteem. Conversely, the lack of successful negotiation of the complex accounts for low self-esteem, erratic behavior, and a plethora of other negative consequences. Chodorow’s feminine Oedipal complex provides a lens through which Tree, the young protagonist of Hamilton’s novel, can be viewed in order to understand her adolescence and hypothesize a possible trajectory. CONCLUSION: At the end of novel, Tree’s trajectory can only be speculated because the problem of the mother-daughter relationship is unresolved. Even so, the surrogate’s contribution to Tree’s confidence obviously sets the young girl on a better and safer path than previously occupied. Tree begins in shame; but having successfully negotiated the complex, she is able to reap the benefits, namely a happier demeanor, acceptance of her mother’s flaws and past, and a more positive view of herself and the world around her.

Brittany Spencer, Shirley Manigault, PhD. Department of English, bspencer111@rams.wssu.edu

The Marxist Theory, focusing as it does not the class struggles that exist within a capitalist society, encourages revolt. However, in order for the Proletariat to revolt, they first must become aware of their oppression and their place in society. In The Grapes of Wrath, John Steinbeck reveals how the Dust Bowl, and capitalism, force farmers in Oklahoma and the Midwest to leave their homes, to become migrant workers, amid their constant quest to discover who should be blamed for their plight. CONCLUSION: The Proletariat, the Oklahoma farmers and migrant workers, realize that their plight is not simply the consequence of pure misfortune and natural disaster. For most of the novel, they accept their condition. However, by the end of the novel they question their assumptions; and although they neither revolt nor successfully organize to resist, they see clearly that the capitalistic system, and the government, is their oppressor. KEYWORDS: Marxism, Dust Bowl, Capitalism, Proletariat, Bourgeoisie

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DELINQUENCY CONTACT AND EFFECTIVE DETERRENTS: A STUDY OF EFFECTIVE DETERRENTS AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN WINSTON-SALEM STATE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS Spencer, B. D., Monell, J.S. Department of Social Sciences, Justice Studies, spencer111@wssu.edu; monelljs@wssu.edu PURPOSE: This was a qualitative study that investigated Winston-Salem State University student’s participation in deviant/delinquent behaviors and the effective deterrents and alternative programs to detention that led them to continue academic pursuits. Participant demographics consisted of ten African American male and female full-time WSSU undergraduate students between the ages of 18-40. Deviant/delinquent behavior should have occurred between the ages of 10-17. Participants were interviewed twice and asked a series of thirteen open ended semi-structured questions during each interview. The findings suggested that juveniles received a thrill from the crimes that they committed. More than half of the juveniles interviewed had subsequent delinquency contact within the next two years. Students were more motivated to desist from crime because of fear of harsh punishments, such as jail and the influence of positive mentors and family members. This study concluded that low socioeconomic status was a motivator behind juvenile participation in delinquency and that each juvenile viewed higher education as vital to their economic success and a positive alternative to delinquency. KEYWORDS: juveniles, effective deterrents, delinquency, alternative programs, higher education, subsequent delinquency contact

CHARACTERICATION OF BRCA1-P53-DEFICIENT CLAUDINLOW MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR CELL LINE S. Stewart and S.T. Dance-Barnes. Department of Life Sciences; sstewart112@rams.wssu.edu, dancest@wssu.edu Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a very aggressive disease that lacks the markers that can be traditionally therapeutically targeted. Additionally, TNBC is a very heterogeneous disease which further contributes to the difficulties in identifying and treating patients with this form of cancer. Recently, a claudin-low TNBC subtype has been identified. Patients with subtype have a very poor prognosis, specifically young African-American females. The major focus of our study is to characterize a cell line we cultured from tumors that were derived from a “humanized” mouse model that is BRCA1/p53 deficient (K14TRT cell line). We have utilized histological, cell/molecular biology, and bioinformatics based techniques in order to elucidate some of the various genotypical and phenotypical properties of this novel K14TRT cell line. RESULTS: Hematoxylin and Eosin staining of the tissue that the K14TRT cells were derived demonstrated mammary tissue that possessed tumors that were highly penetrant, some with spindloid morphology while others were undifferentiated adenocarcinoams. The cells of these tumors also possessed enlarged nuclei and large areas of necrosis. This was supported by our cell culture microscopy analysis, as well. As compared to normal mammary cells, K14TRT cells possessed large variable shaped nuclei with a large nucleus to cytoplasm ratio. Genotyping of the K14TRT cells using primers specific for the floxed sequences of p53 and BRCA1 indicated that these cells were indeed p53 and BRCA1 deficient. Lastly, microarray analysis revealed that our K14TRT cell line consistently clustered with other known claudin-low cell lines. The microarray expression profile of the K14TRT cell line was highly proliferative, claudinlow, TP3-BRCA1 deficient, and typically ER, PR, HER2 negative. Therefore, we conclude that our current data has demonstrated that our K14TRT cell line is a good candidate for serving as a “humanized” TNBC claudin-low cell line that could be used in devising better diagnostic tools and chemotherapeutic strategies for this aggressive subtype.

Funding provided in part by WSSU PDC Research Award and WSSU RIP Award

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SUPPORTING ACCESSIBILITY OF WEBSITES USING XML TECHNOLOGIES: A CASE STUDY ON BBTUR WEBSITE A. Sumner, M. Atay. Department of Computer Science; asumner113@rams.wssu.edu, ataymu@wssu.edu With the wide-spread use of web and online technologies, there are growing numbers of materials delivered online such as educational, governmental and scientific. Despite all of the technology available today, there are still people with disabilities who are not able to fully benefit from these resources delivered online. Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of the Congress was legislated to eliminate barriers in information technology to make new opportunities available for people with disabilities. XML (Extensible Markup Language) technology can help facilitating accessibility through its transformable and semi-structured content. XML allows a set of flexible stylesheet transformations (XSLT) for different target audiences and devices. On the other hand, XML applications such as SMIL (Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language) are developed with features to eliminate barriers for people with sensory impairments. In this project, we firstly researched and explored the XML technologies available to help increase the accessibility of websites. Then, we chose some accessibility-enabled XML tools to apply to our test website previously developed in 2013 for the WSSU Chancellors’ Scholars research program called Building Bridges Through Undergraduate Research (BBTUR). Lastly, we implemented and incorporated features from the selected accessibility-enabled XML tools to our test website and shared our observations about the use of XML technologies to support accessibility of online content.

A PRELIMINARY DOSE RESPONSE OF INSULIN ON THE α1β2 GABAA RECEPTOR E. M.Vail, D. B. Williams. Department of Life Sciences; evail112@rams.wssu.edu; williamsdb@wssu.edu PURPOSE: It has previously been demonstrated that insulin, when co-applied with 1 µM GABA, elicits inhibition of applied currents on GABAA receptors. Isoforms comprised of various combinations of α, β, and γ subunits showed apparent dependence on the α subunit identity to illicit this response. This study evaluated the inhibitory response upon the α1β2 isoform independent of the γ subunit. METHODS: Xenopus oocytes were harvested and the α1β2 isoform was expressed. A dual electrode voltage clamp was used to determine current inhibition during 30s applications of 1 µM GABA and various nM concentrations of insulin. RESULTS: Preliminary data reveals a maximal effect of 67% current inhibition with the half maximal inhibitory effect (IC50) at 3.3 nM insulin. In previous studies the αβγ subunit isoforms produced elongated dose response curves, with multiple mid points along the curve implicating at least two IC50 concentrations. CONCLUSION: Our most recent data, despite being preliminary, from the α1β2isoform, produced a single point (3.3 nM) dose response curve indicating a potential notable effect of the γsubunit.

Funding provided in part by WSSU Chancellor’s Scholars Building Bridges through Undergraduate Research Program.

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THICK VERSUS THIN: THE NEW FORM OF WEIGHTISM

GENE EVOLUTIONARY SEQUENCE SIMILARITIES

Cruz Vargas-Sullivan, Cecile N.Yancu, Ph.D. Department of Behavioral Sciences and Social Work

M. S. Wall, D. B. Williams. Department of Life Sciences; mwall110@rams.wssu.edu, williamsdb@wssu.edu

PURPOSE: This study will examine differences in body image satisfaction among African American female undergraduates. A great deal of research shows that young African Americans prefer a more curvaceous body type. This study posits that the idea of a thick woman may erode body image satisfaction, and therefore self-confidence and acceptance, among those who fail to meet this standard of beauty. METHODS: A convenience sample was used on the campus of Winston-Salem State University. All participants were accepted regardless of their gender, age, or race (N=63). For the purpose of the study however, only African American female students data will be used, leaving 55 participants. Data was analyzed using descriptive data via SPSS. RESULTS: Each scale employed a system of averaging or summing up totals to score. The mode for the BWISE scale was 25. For the Body Appreciation Scale, the mode was 58. The mode was 70 for the Body Esteem Scale and 22 for the Fat Talk Questionnaire. CONCLUSION: Overall, body image satisfaction appeared high among nearly all of the participants.

PURPOSE: The comparison of DNA genetic sequences of organisms has revealed that organisms who are phylogenetically close have a higher degree of DNA sequence similarity than organisms who are phylogenetically distant. However, sometimes exceptions occur, such as in the â&#x20AC;&#x153;language gene,â&#x20AC;? FoxP2, where the human form is different from all other animals; and in presenilin-2, where a novel alternative splice form evolved at mammals. Many human unique genes are involved in brain development, or aging, so we screened a set of such genes to search for other unique patterns. These genes included SIRT-1, MADD, AKT3, PIK3R2, PIK3CA, and GPR56. METHODS: The coding sequences of these genes from Rattus, Arabidopsis, Homo, Pongo, Gallus, and Pan were obtained from PubMed and built into trees using CLUSTAL. RESULTS: For all these genes, human genes do align where they would be expected to be based on the accepted patterns of evolution. CONCLUSION: Further research looking into the promoter sequence of these genes are being studied to determine if potential differences in expression can account for physical and behavioral differences in humans.

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CULTURE, FAMILY, AND GENDER NONCONFORMITY IN CHILDREN D. M. Watkins and M. Lewis. Department of Psychological Science, dwatkins110@rams.wssu.edu, lewismi@wssu.edu PURPOSE: Children may express gender nonconformity at young ages. Gender nonconformity is the expression of behavior or identity that is inconsistent with social norms for a biological sex within a culture. The purpose of this study was to compare the interviews and documentaries of families including gender non-conforming and transgender children. METHODS: Two primary documentaries were viewed consisting of eleven families. The youth presented in the media ranged in age from five to twenty five. Length of documentaries was one hundred and fifty three minutes and forty eight seconds. The interviews contained in the documentaries included nine European American families and two African American families. Content analysis was conducted in order to obtain thematic information about the children and their families. RESULTS: Gender nonconforming children are a minority group in society. Their gender presentation causes disdain, and often initially, their parents believe it is just a phase. Parents face controversial decisions as it relates to their choice of parenting style and become afraid of how the community will judge the children. Nothing a parent does can change a child’s desire to be who they are, but parents have an impact on the child’s psychological well-being. CONCLUSION: Common issues arise when children’s gender expression violates the culture’s norms for their sex. For children, their desire to freely express their gender becomes a challenge due to community members’ lack of knowledge about gender nonconformity. Perhaps due to cultural reasons, some families (White transporting families) are more likely to be visible in the public via documentary features, public interviews, and panels. There is a lack of visible ethnic/racial diversity in media accounts of gender non-conforming children and their families. Further research is needed to explore gender nonconformity among racially/ethnically diverse children and their families.

THE ALPHA-2 SUBUNIT INFLUENCES A RAPID INHIBITORY EFFECT OF INSULIN ON GABA-A RECEPTORS Daniel B. Williams. Department of Life Sciences; williamsdb@wssu.edu Low concentrations and acute applications of insulin have a rapid, inhibitory effect on GABAA receptor currents in a putative neuronal isoform [α1β2γ2s]. Switching the α1 subunit for the α4 subunit caused significant changes; GABA currents at α4 containing receptors could occur at lower insulin concentrations. Also, insulin inhibited maximal GABA currents at α4 receptors but not α1. I experimented to determine if α2 subunits also influenced the rapid, inhibitory effect of insulin. α2β2γ2s and α2β3γ1 receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and currents were measured by two-electrode voltage clamp. Both α2 isoforms had typical GABA responses. For responses at maximal GABA, insulin (100 nM) was co-applied with1 mM GABA. These maximal GABA currents were inhibited with an average of -46% at α2β2γ2s receptors, and -45% at α2β3γ1 receptors. To obtain insulin dose response curves, various concentrations of insulin were co-applied with 1 μM GABA (approximate EC30). α2 containing receptors showed a maximal percent effect of -61% and -50% of 1 μM GABA currents at α2β2γ2s and α2β3γ1 isoforms respectively. The effect of insulin fit best as a two site model for each α2 isoform, with IC50’s of 0.08 nM and 18 nM for α2β2γ2s and 1.1 nM and 6 nM for α2β3γ1. These results indicate that α2 containing receptors showed a rapid insulin response that was intermediate between α1 and α4. When comparing the dose responses, generally the α2 containing receptors had percent effects and IC50’s that were between the values seen for α1 and α4 containing isoforms. An analysis of the α subunit intracellular loops revealed differing numbers of potential MAPK phosphorylation sites: none for α1, 1 for α2, and 3 for α4. The number of potential MAPK sites slightly correlates with the IC50’s and percent effects of insulin on the different α isoforms. Phosphorylation of the MAPK sites via the insulin receptor signaling pathway may explain different α subunit responses to low and acute doses of insulin. Originally presented at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting.

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GENDER DETERMINATION OF THE GINGKO TREES ON THE WSSU CAMPUS M.Woodruff, M. Charles, C. Hoke, A. Jenkins, N.A. Jenkins, M. Boylan. Department of Life Sciences; mwoodruff111@rams.wssu.edu, boylanm@wssu.edu Gingko biloba grows as separate male and females trees. The female trees produce seeds with a strong unpleasant odor. Unfortunately, young male and female trees cannot be distinguished by appearance. After 30 years, the females can be recognized due to the presence of the malodorous seeds. Several young Gingkos have recently been planted along the pedestrian mall on the WSSU campus. In this study, we were curious to see if these trees were males or females. Molecular markers have been developed that can distinguish male and female Gingkos at any age. We have used these markers to identify the gender of the young Gingko trees on the campus. The results of this analysis are presented in our poster.

MY COMMUNITY EATS HERE: EXPLORING FOOD COST AND QUALITY ACROSS THREE NEIGHBORHOODS M. B. Wright, D. X. Henderson. Department of Psychological Sciences; mwright110@rams.wssu.edu and hendersondx@wssu.edu PURPOSE: Community socioeconomic levels and racial composition can have an effect on individuals accessing quality and affordable foods. To explore this issue, this study aims to understand if food cost and quality varies in relation to one’s neighborhood composition (e.g., income and race/ethnicity). METHODS: Food cost and quality was explored using a quality rating and mean cost of selected food items (e.g. apples, bananas, and tomatoes) across three neighborhoods. A team of four coders evaluated “quality” on a three point scale (1 = high, 2 = medium, 3 = low) using surface pitting, bruising, and color. Racial and socioeconomic data were gathered from SimplyMap.com, geographic mapping software. RESULTS: Results revealed a significant difference in quality between Site 3 (M=2.7, SD=.03) and Site 1 (M=2.3, SD=.04), Site 2 (M=2.2, SD=.01); t (4) = -4.0, p <.01. A correlation analysis demonstrated a positive relationship between quality and income (r=.87, p=.33), location (r=.50, p=.67), and racial composition (r=.87, p=.33); however, the relationship was not significant. CONCLUSION: Findings have implications on understanding how providing higher “quality” food may attenuate barriers to accessing nutritious food among low-income minority populations. groups, χ2(3) = 8.40, p < .05.

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BLUFFING ABOUT EVIDENCE: KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTIONS OF LAYPERSONS J.Yancey, K. Satchell,Y. Wuo, J.T. Perillo. Department of Psychological Sciences; jyancey109@rams.wssu.edu, perillojt@wssu.edu PURPOSE: Previous research (Perillo & Kassin, 2011) has shown that bluffing about evidence increases risk for innocent suspects falsely confessing to crimes; however, it is unknown whether laypersons are aware of the risk posed by the tactic. The current research involved community members reading vignettes of a research study in which innocent and guilty participants were asked to confess to cheating. Community members were asked to predict how the individuals performed, predict how they would have behaved in the same scenario, and provide reasons for those decisions. Community membersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; responses were coded for major themes. RESULTS: Results show that laypersons exhibit little sensitivity of the risk the bluff technique poses to innocent suspects. These results speak to whether the psychology of confessions is known to juries as a matter of common knowledge.

SCHOOL OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS THE USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA AND COLLABORATIVE TOOLS FOR VIRTUAL TEAMING - A GLOBAL MARKET REACH OUT BY NAVIBANK Khoa Huynh and Alice Etim, PhD. Department of Accounting & Management Information Systems etima@wssu.edu The use of social media tools like Facebook in modern business communication, particularly project team communication, is becoming common. One reason for such use is that it allows for ease of information exchanges among virtual team members. In the U.S. many large software development companies increasingly rely on global software development and virtual teams that work across space, time and organizational boundaries to design and develop software products. The virtual project teams success depend on three main constructs: trust, communication and member performance. Some studies have used attributebased approaches to evaluate these constructs. In this study, the authors use a social network approach to evaluate the concepts of communication and trust as being relational. They apply the concepts to the case of Navibank in Vietnam and its use of collaborative tools and social media tools like Facebook and Skype for a global market reach out to Cambodia.

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SCHOOL OF EDUCATION AND HUMAN PERFORMANCE

THE EFFECT OF WELLNESS PROGRAMMING ON HEALTH HABITS AND WEIGHT MAINTENANCE IN RESIDENTIAL COLLEGE FRESHMEN

ADDRESSING THE TRANSITION FROM FOSTER CARE INTO EMERGING ADULTHOOD

K.N. Brass, A.A. Price. Department of Human Performance and Sport Sciences; kbrass111@rams.wssu.edu, priceaa@wssu.edu

M.E. Bowman, C.J. Betters. Department of Human Performance and Sport Sciences; mbowman112@rams.wssu.edu; bettersch@wssu.edu The demands of emerging adulthood are taxing under normal circumstances, yet for at risk populations such as youth facing emancipation from the foster care system the stakes are all the higher. With trends such as homelessness and underemployment being a reality for many, the interventions selected to curb these trends are of critical importance.Therefore research that seeks to correlate these interventions with more desirable outcomes is of great significance.

Emerging adulthood (ages 18-25) is an important phase for establishing long-term health behaviors and is a critical stage for weight gain that is marked by unhealthy eating patterns and a drastic decline in physical activity (PA). PURPOSE: To test the effectiveness of the BALANCE (Being Active Leaders who are Accountable, Nutritious, and Conscious Everyday) program in promoting weight maintenance, PA, positive nutrition habits, and psychological well-being in female college freshmen. METHODS: Participants (N=80) will be full time, first year, female college students, aged 18-22 years old, who live on campus. They will be split between intervention (n=40) and control (n=40) groups. The intervention will take place over the course of the full academic year with weekly sessions focused upon educating participants on concepts of health, PA, and nutrition. Physical, health, nutrition, and psychological measures will be taken at baseline and immediately after the intervention. KEY OBJECTIVE: The investigators are primarily interested in gaining the insight that this study may provide into developing a successful intervention program for managing weight and improving health in college students.

Funding provided by the Professional Development Committee and the Department of Housing and Residence Life at WinstonSalem State University.

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THE INFLUENCES OF CONTEXTUAL DOES TAKING A HEALTH COURSE FACTORS ON NASCAR FANSHIP CHANGE HEALTH LOCUS OF CONTROL? R.A. Emily, K.S. Chung, C.E. Harshaw. Department of Human Performance and Sport Sciences; erhodes113@rams.wssu.edu & chungk@wssu.edu PURPOSE: Several motorsport organizations have witnessed a steady decline in attendance, with no young group filling those vacated seats. Hence, this project is an exploratory study of identifying contextual factors that could bear on NASCAR fanship. METHODS: Using semi-structured questions, in-depth interviews were performed to delve into the interactions of college students in developing their NASCAR fanship. All interviews were transcribed verbatim. Based on the categorized contexts of environments, the researchers repeatedly scrutinized whole transcripts (on-going). RESULTS: Employing Bronfenbrennerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ecological model (1977), the study found the interactions of college students with their environment in developing NASCAR fanship and to apprehend how these interactions affected their NASCAR-related consumption. Substantial interactions were described by the systems of family, peers, geographical, and socio-cultural traits. More details will be provided at the presentation. DISCUSSION: Sport organizations often market substantially to university students. This is particularly true with motorsport organizations whose marketing initiatives aim to develop a more diverse and younger consumer base. The results confirmed that family, peers, media, social values, and regional characteristics were the influences on their fanship. It is highly suggested that motorsport marketers should customize their marketing accordingly.

D.E. Green, F.A. Kavas. Department of Human Performance and Sport Sciences; dgreen112@rams.wssu.edu, kavasay@wssu.edu PURPOSE: Health Locus of Control (HLC) is the outlook one has on his/her own health. Internal locus of control describes how one views and takes care of his/her health. Powerful other locus of control describes how much one trusts and takes into account the opinions of others including healthcare professionals. Chance locus of control indicates how much one believes that illness or health complications cannot be prevented and that becoming ill is inevitable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Health Locus of Control of Winston-Salem State University students, both male and female, before and after they had taken a college level health course. Our hypotheses were that 1) students who took a health course would be more able to control their own health and 2) that females would have a higher internal and powerful other Health Locus of Control. METHOD: In order to obtain the data to support our hypotheses we utilized the Health Locus of Control Survey which consists of 18 statements divided into three categories: Internal, powerful other, and chance. The 223 student taking the Concepts of Fitness and Health course at WSSU were asked to fill out the entire health locus of control survey however we focused on form B. The scale for each statement ranged from one (strongly disagree) to six (strongly agree) and was averaged for each student. T-Test was used to analyze the data and significance level was set at < 0.05. RESULTS: Generally students had higher internal locus of control than powerful other or chance locus of control. For all categories there was no difference between the averages for males and females. In most categories there was no difference in averages before and after taking the Concepts of Fitness and Health course. CONCLUSION: We were not able to support our hypotheses because our results indicated no change in all categories, between genders, and before and after taking the course. The course only lasted over one semester which may not be enough time to change the health locus of control of the students. Future studies pertaining to Health Locus of Control should be done over a longer period of time.

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EFFECTS OF DIETARY AND LIFESTYLE INTERVENTIONS ON CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK FACTORS IN AFRICAN-AMERICAN WOMEN

EFFECTS OF 1 MONTH OF CROSSFIT ON MARKERS OF AEROBIC FITNESS, ANAEROBIC FITNESS, AND TRADITIONAL CROSSFIT LIFTS R. P. Lau, M. J. McKenzie. Department of Human Performance and Sport Sciences; rlau111@rams.wssu.edu, mckenziemi@wssu.edu

K. Hiatt, C. Williams Brown. Departmnet of Human Performance and Sport Sciences; williamsc@wssu.edu

PURPOSE: CrossFit is a strength and conditioning program that combines varying high intensity and functional movements in short duration. Little research exists on fitness indicators following CrossFit training. The purpose of this investigation was to measure the effectiveness of one month of CrossFit training on VO2 max, Mean and Peak Power, as well as 1RM max for back squat, clean, and snatch.

INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be the leading cause of death in the United States. Rates of CVD and mortality from CVD are higher in African-American women than in the general population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary and lifestyle interventions on modifiable CVD risk factors in African-American women.

METHODS: Ten recreationally-trained males participated in this study (mean ± SEM, age: 26.6 ± 1.8 y, height: 178.0 ± 2.3 cm, weight: 90.4 ± 5.8 kg, body fat: 21.2 ± 3.3%). Subjects were pretested for VO2 max, peak and mean power using a Wingate Test, and performed 1 RM of the back squat, clean, and snatch lifts. Following pre-testing, subjects completed 4 weeks of CrossFit, attending at least 3 times per week. No subjects were currently participating in CrossFit. A Paired T-Test was used to analyze group means and significance was set a priori at 0.05 a priori.

METHODS: 163 African-American women were recruited to participate in a 12-week intervention that addressed heart disease education, nutrition, and physical activity. Data were collected from each participant prior to beginning the 12-week program and then again at the completion of the program. RESULTS: Analysis indicated significant (p<0.05) reductions in diastolic blood pressure and resting pulse as well as nonsignificant decreases in weight, blood glucose, triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure. However, there was a significant increase in total cholesterol. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that education, dietary modifications, and physical activity are effective targets to reduce CVD risk factors in African-American women.

RESULTS: Significant improvements were found in several measures following training (all are Pre/Post and mean + SEM): VO2 (46.7+2.7 ml/kg/min, 49.0+3.0ml/kg/min), back squat (128.9+8.8 kg, 142.7+9.8 kg), clean (82.5+6.2 kg, 92.7+5.8 kg), and snatch (59.3+4.4 kg, 69.1+5.3 kg). Mean power (680+46.1W, 703+48.4 W) and Peak Power (1206+106.1 W, 1283.6 +88.7W) as measured by the Wingate Test did not reach significance. CONCLUSION: These results suggest CrossFit is an effective training method. Subjects showed improvements in aerobic fitness, as well as various performance lifts. Peak and mean power showed no significant improvements, likely due to the high amount of variability the subjects displayed.

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PRE-HYPERTENSION AND RIGHT/ LEFT BLOOD PRESSURE DIFFENCES AND THEIR ASSOCIATIONS WITH MULTIPLE HEALTH INDICTORS IN AFRICAN-AMERICAN COLLEGE STUDENTS C. Okoro, A. Brown, A. Gaither, S. Mattson, P.A. McAuley. Department of Human Performance and Sport Sciences and Department of Physical Therapy; cokoro110@rams.wssu.edu; mcauleypa@wssu.edu PURPOSE: To assess prevalence of pre-hypertension, right/ left systolic blood pressure (SBP) difference, and multiple health indicators in African-American college students. METHODS: This study was a cross sectional analysis of students enrolled at Winston-Salem State University from February through April 2013. Of 79 total participants who signed informed consent forms and completed the study, 54 students who met our inclusion criteria (African American and aged 18-29 years) were included in the analysis. Measurements included neck, arm, waist, thigh, and hip circumferences, height, and weight. Blood pressure was measured bilaterally, simultaneously, with a five minute rest before initial measurement, and a two minute break between the next two measurements for a total of three readings. Participants also filled out health questionnaires. Students were grouped by pre-hypertension status for descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess cross sectional associations. RESULTS: Twenty two percent had pre-hypertension, 13% had a right/left SBP discrepancy of ≥10 mmHg, and 72% had family history of hypertension. BMI was highly correlated to hip and waist circumference, and SBP was moderately correlated to neck circumference.

THE EFFECT OF PARASOCIAL INTERACTION ON F1 FANSHIP M.A. Robbins, M.S. Beatty, K.S. Chung, C.E. Harshaw. Departmnet of Human Performance and Sport Sciences; mrobbins113@rams.wssu.edu & chungk@wssu.edu PURPOSE: F1 spectators’ media consumption and their parasocial interaction with a favorite racer work together to affect F1 fanship. Thus, the purpose of this study is to test a mediating effect of parasocial interaction on the relationship between media consumption and fanship. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to spectators in the grandstand areas of F1 event. All the items’ reliabilities were satisfactory, ranging from .77 to .93. Structural equation modeling examined the causal relationships, including mediating effects. RESULTS: Media consumption significantly affected parasocial interaction (γ1 = .29, C.R. = 4.47, p < .001) and F1 fanship (γ2 = .55, C.R. = 10.10, p < .001). F1 fanship was also influenced by parasocial interaction (β3 = .25, C.R. = 4.42, p < .001). Sobel’s test found that the mediating effect of parasocial interaction was significant at .001 levels. DISCUSSION: It is highly suggested that the media contents should include more stories about the F1 racers. Such storylines as personal history, previous racing achievement, or mere trivial facts will stimulate interest in the racer as well as in the sport. For this aim, social media would be the effective tool through which racers interact with the fans. The key is how to position the motorsport event according to the characteristics of the expected attendees.

CONCLUSION: Prevalence of right/ left SBP discrepancies was sizable in this population of young African-American adults, but our sample was not sufficiently powered to assess the influence of obesity and central obesity and R/L SBP difference of ≥10 mm Hg on pre-hypertension risk. Longitudinal data will be required to clarify these relations and assess changes over time.

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STEPS TO A HEALTHIER HEART: IMPROVING CHD KNOWLEDGE IN AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN

CORONARY HEART DISEASE (CHD) KNOWLEDGE TEST ITEM ANALYSIS IN THE S.T.E.P.S. PROGRAM

T. Spencer, K. Cummins, C. Williams Brown. Departmnet of Human Performance and Sport Sciences; williamsc@wssu.edu

T.A. Spencer, J.L. Pittsley. Human Performance and Sport Sciences; tspencer112@rams.wssu.edu, pittsleyj@wssu.edu

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is the leading cause of the death in women with a rate twice that of all forms of cancer combined. One in four American women dies of heart disease. Most women fail to make the connection between risk factors such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol and their personal risk of developing heart disease. As women age, the risk of developing CHD increases primarily due to serious risk factors and a decrease in estrogen production. According to the American Heart Association, African American women are at the highest risk for death from heart disease among all racial, ethnic, and gender groups. This is due to the fact that African American women have higher rates of obesity, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Sisters Together Empowered for Prevention and Success, (STEPS) to a Healthier Heart, is a culturally and gender appropriate heart disease education program that examines the changes in knowledge, behavior, and heart disease risk factors for African American women, aged 35- 65. Subjects consisted of 350 women who self-selected into either an intervention group (Program) (n = 169) that participated in the weekly events or a comparison group (Information) (n = 181) that received written information about general CHD facts. Women in the intervention group exercise twice per week for an hour and attend educational seminars bi-weekly for twelve weeks. Data were collected prior to beginning the 12-week program and then again at the completion of the program. One of the instruments used to test the participant’s knowledge of heart disease is the CHD Knowledge Test composed of 20 multiple choice questions. Data were analyzed to determine if the educational seminars helped to increase each participant’s knowledge of heart disease by comparing pre and post-test responses of the CHD Knowledge Test for the two groups. Data analysis indicated that there was a slightly greater improvement in CHD knowledge in the intervention group. Therefore, we were able to determine the impact the program had on the increase of knowledge pertaining to heart disease.

Sisters Together Empowered for Prevention and Success (STEPS) to a Healthier Heart was a culturally and gender specific heart disease education program that examined the changes in knowledge, behavior, and heart disease risk factors for African American women. PURPOSE: To examine the pretest responses and improvements for each of the 20 items in the Cardiovascular Heart Disease Knowledge Test. METHODS: In STEPS, 345 African-American women (age 52.0 ± 8.5 yrs) self-selected into either Participation (n = 165) or Information (n = 180) groups. The Participation group completed a formal, 12-week program consisting of health education, including nutrition and risk factor awareness (via twice-weekly seminars), and supervised exercise sessions (twice-weekly). RESULTS: Over 75% of the participants answered 6 of the 20 items correctly in the pretest—these items were removed. There was no difference in the pretest scores (Participation = 32.2% vs Information = 33.5%). Neither group significantly improved test scores as a result of their respective interventions (Participation p = 0.63; Information p = 0.07). The information group improved the in 9 of the 14 items. The Participation group improved in 7 of the 14 items. DISCUSSION: Six of the 20 knowledge items were unusable to assess improvements. Unfortunately, neither group improved the overall test performance as a result of the intervention. Furthermore, of more concern, CHD Knowledge decreased in a significant number of assessment items.

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SCHOOL OF HEALTH SCIENCES THE IMPACT OF EFFECTIVE EVIDENCE BASED TEACHING PLAN ON A PATIENT WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS

MOVEMENT AS A FALL PREVENTION STRATEGY

Adams, D.L., Islam, R.M., Quick, S.L. Department of Division of Nursing; dadams111@rams.wssu.edu, rislam112@rams.wssu.edu, squick110@rams.wssu.edu, muzeru@wssu.edu

PURPOSE: Falls are the leading cause of injury and death in the elderly over age 65 and are the third leading cause of chronic disability worldwide. Exercise is one of the most promising interventions to prevent falls, improve strength, endurance and body mechanics. The purpose of this review is to examine the relationship between exercises and falls in the geriatric population age 65 and older. The ultimate goal is to design an evidencebased exercise regimen that can offer fall prevention for our rapidly growing geriatric population. This literature review explores studies that test exercise regimens purported to decrease fall rates in the elderly.

PURPOSE: Cystic Fibrosis is a congenital Defect that primarily affects the respiratory and GI systems. Our patient is a 46 years old highly compliant white male admitted into the E.D with Hemoptysis and Dyspnea, with a past medical history of Pneumonia, Diabetes Mellitus, Pancreatic Insufficiency, Deep Vein Thrombosis, Protein Deficiency and Nutritional Deficiency. Proper use of the C-PAP machine, medical and health compliance, and dietary supplementation the patient would enhance restful sleep; improve their breathing pattern or gas exchange. In addition, he would gain the necessary calories and pancreatic enzymes to maintain balance between caloric intake and consumption. Our purpose is to analyze and present an evidence-based nursing teaching plan for a 46 year of age Cystic Fibrosis. METHODS: Teaching consisted of demonstrative videos, handouts, and illustrations. RESULTS: The goal was for the patient to demonstrate the use of C-PAP, continued medical treatment compliance and recite the purpose for adherence. The patient recalled 3 reasons for proper use of the C-PAP, in addition to reciting 3 reasons as to why compliance was beneficial as well as perform a reverse demonstration on how to use equipment effectively. Further, patient demonstrated effective use of pancreatic enzymes with food.

Rebecca J Reed RN FNP-S MSN Candidate, and Dr. JoAnn Banks. Division of Nursing; rreed110@rams.wssu.edu, wallacejb@wssu.edu

METHODS: Nine randomized control studies in this review required participants to perform specific exercises with an outcome measure of the number of falls when compared to the control group. Over 2000 participants, age 65-88 years old were screened for physical and cognitive deficits that would prevent them from participating safely in the global studies in Australia, Asia, Europe and the US. Each study focused on different forms of exercise. RESULTS: Four studies suggested that participants were less likely to fall with regular participation in exercises such as Tai Chi, geriatric attenuated calisthenics, and walking and hiking on appropriately leveled fitness trails and obstacle courses. CONCLUSION: Studies provided limited positive results specifically related to fall prevention. It therefore appears specific exercises may potentially prevent a life altering or life ending fall.

CONCLUSION: Patient teaching can have a positive impact on medical compliance and willingness to participate in ongoing treatment resulting in reduction of medical complications in patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

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EXPLORING THE PHYSICAL, SOCIAL, AND EMOTIONAL EFFECTS THE USE OF A THERAPEUTIC TRICYCLE HAS ON CHILDREN H. Abdel-Baky, K. Clays, T. Howell, L. Parkhomenko, K. Rountree, C. Bell. Department of Occupational Therapy; bellcs@wssu.edu PURPOSE: This qualitative study explored the benefits associated with the utilization of an AmTryke® for a child with special needs. METHODOLOGY: In-depth interviews were completed with both a parent and child. Data obtained from the interviews were transcribed, coded and analyzed. RESULTS: There were four main categories that emerged as therapeutic benefits associated with use of an AmTryke®. These categories included play, physical improvements, socialization, and environmental interaction. CONCLUSION: Based upon the perspectives shared, it appears that an AmTryke® may be utilized as a therapeutic tool in the clinical setting for children with special needs to improve functioning in these four areas.

USE OF SIMULATION IN OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY EDUCATION: A NATIONAL STUDY T.S. Austin, OTS; A.J. Crouch, OTS; C.L. Hicks, OTS; J.D. Joyner, OTS; M.C. Lamberth, OTS; D.P. Bethea, Ed.D., OTR/L. Department of Occupational Therapy; betheadp@wssu.edu PURPOSE: This study provides evidence-based research that identifies the type and use of simulation in occupational therapy undergraduate (OTA) and occupational therapy graduate (OT, OTD) academic programs in the United States. METHODS: Electronic survey with 24 qualitative and quantitative questions was sent to academic program directors and faculty on program demographics, current methods and benefits of simulation. The survey was administered to 310 academic programs, 245 programs (79%) responded and 168 programs (68%) utilize simulation. RESULTS: Results were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and NVivo for quantitative and qualitative data respectively. Results indicate types of simulation primarily used in OT programs are human simulation using actors (75.40%), video cases (69.60%), and human simulation with manikin (46.8%). Program’s main goals for using simulation experience are clinical reasoning (90%), and problem solving and decision making (90%). CONCLUSION: Research confirms that simulation is being implemented as a teaching strategy in over half of OTA, OT and OTD academic programs.

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PREVENTING SECONDARY PREGNANCY IN AFRICAN AMERICAN ADOLESCENTS

PREPAREDNESS FOR MEDICAL EMERGENCIES IN OFFICE PRACTICE

Danisha Barner, BSN, FNP-s, D. Sharpe. Division of Nursing, sharpeda@wssu.edu

A.H. Boles, K.M. Walker, A. Harper-Harrison. Division of Nursing; ahardy106@rams.wssu.edu; harrisonah@wssu.edu.

PROBLEM: 2010 National Vital Signs and Statistics data shows that out of the more than 367,000 births to adolescents, aged 15-19yrs 66,761 were repeat births. Disparities in subsequent adolescent births exist by race and ethnicity with one of the highest percentages found in African American adolescents. PURPOSE: The purpose of this literature review is to identify causative factors, barriers, behaviors, and themes associated with secondary pregnancies and outcomes in African American adolescents. FINDINGS: A total of thirty two articles relevant to risk factors, behaviors, and prevention associated with African American Adolescent pregnancy and subsequent pregnancy in individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ages 13-19 were reviewed. Findings included adolescent, family, and practice perspectives, compliance variances, financial and educational factors, cultural frameworks, developmental and stereotypical behaviors, and furthermore impediments to our current adolescent pregnancy prevention programs and initiatives.

Most primary care offices report at least one medical emergency per year presenting to the office. Some common emergencies seen in the office setting are dyspnea, seizures, anaphylaxis, shock, chest pain, cardiac arrest and diabetic emergencies. Most offices are not fully prepared to handle these types of emergencies. In this project we will establish a clearly defined plan to manage common office emergencies and recommend training and equipment for staff. Medical emergencies that arise in the office can be of great concern for providers and office staff. Proper planning can help alleviate anxiety within the office, improve patient safety and increase the likelihood of better patient outcomes.

CONCLUSION: Subsequent adolescent pregnancy in African Americans is one of many healthcare disparities. Multiple elements of adolescent pregnancy are modifiable. By identifying and understanding factors, behaviors, and themes linked to the disparity of subsequent adolescent pregnancies, families, communities, and health care providers will be able to provide intervention, develop and implement successful preventive strategies and programs that will aid in decreasing disparities and improving overall economic and health outcomes.

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TEACHING PLAN FOR A PATIENT WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE B.A. Boler, A.N. Crump, A.M. Knox & R. Muze. Department of Nursing; acrump110@rams.wssu.edu; muzeru@wssu.edu PURPOSE: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a combination of progressive lung diseases, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis. It affects over 24 million Americans across all 50 states and is most prevalent in Kentucky. Currently, smokers have the highest risk for COPD; however, air pollution and Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency are also risk factors. Our patient is a 79 year old female with a history of smoking, depression, pneumonia, and diabetes. She presented to the hospital with shortness of breath and anxiety. Our objective was to formulate a teaching plan to increase the patients understanding of COPD, the importance of rest, and ways to help enhance the quality of life.

OCCUPATIONAL THERAPISTSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; PERCEPTIONS OF COLLABORATION WITH TEACHERS IN SCHOOLS Boyd, Abigail OTS; Hills, Bridgette OTS; Mathews, Kathryn OTS; Miller, LeeAnn OTS; Powers, Kelley OTS; Research Advisor: Bethea, Dorothy Ed. D, OTR-L. Department of Occupational Therapy; betheadp@wssu.edu According to Hanft & Shepherd, occupational therapists and teachers should collaborate in order to provide optimal services to children with disabilities in schools (2008). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to understand the collaboration process between school-based occupational therapists and teachers in public schools in North Carolina, and to explore factors that facilitate or inhibit the collaboration process.

METHODS: We uses pictures, charts; show the proper technique for using an incentive spirometer, and deep breathing exercises to help promote healthy gas exchange.

METHOD: This study utilizes a non-experimental, descriptive research method using a 24-question online survey. The survey was sent to occupational therapy school-based practitioners in the state of North Carolina; approximately 350 OTs. There were n=129 responses with a 37% response rate.

RESULTS: The patient was able to successfully perform reverse demonstration, show adequate understanding of their treatment regimen, and verbalize proper nutrition. Their pulse oximetry goal is to maintain a minimum of 92%.

RESULTS: Four themes emerged that facilitate collaboration including having a professional relationship, OT factors, time, and teacher factors. Barriers to collaboration are time, teacher factors, and understanding the OTâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s role.

CONCLUSION: The patient should have an understanding of how COPD affects their body, the specialized therapeutic management, and community resources available to them. This knowledge is important because COPD is a non-reversible disease and the quality of life could depend on how they take their prescribed medications and perform activities of daily living. It is important that they have as much understanding about their disease process as possible to not rapidly reach end-stage COPD.

CONCLUSION: The implications for this research suggest that in-service training would be beneficial for occupational therapists and teachers to enhance professional relationships, understand OT role, and augment collaboration.

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FIGHTING THE BATTLE OF DIABETES: TEACHING THE PATIENT

PROMOTING A RESEACH SCIENTIST CAREER IN NURSING L.R. Campbell*., D. Brandon**, J. Collins-McNeil*,V. Curlee*, C. Dodson*, G. Harris*, E. Onsomu.* Division of Nursing; campbellr@wssu.edu

D. Carter, W. Matthews, and J. Adams;. Department of Nursing; dvernon109@rams.wssu.edu, muzeru@wssu.edu

The landmark Institute of Medicine report, The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health (2010) illuminated the necessity that the nation doubles the number of nurses with doctoral degrees by 2020 with an emphasis on diversity. Meeting this goal is essential to ensure enough faculty to prepare the next generation of nurses with the skills, knowledge, and experience to pursue science and discovery, as well as to provide high quality care to a larger population of patients in an increasingly complex, diverse and technology-driven health care system (RWJ, 2013). A great stride in the recruitment of underrepresented racial/ethnic (REM) minority nurses into research-focused doctoral programs has been made. However, the numbers of REM nurse scientists continue to be a significant problem. To address the underrepresentation of REM nurses in research-focused doctoral programs, Duke University School of Nursing (DUSON) and Winston-Salem State University (WSSU), Division of Nursing partnered to establish a Bridge-to-the-Doctorate program that prepares REM nursing students at WSSU to seamlessly transition into a PhD program at DUSON. This presentation highlights the need for increasing the number of REM nurse researchers and transition programs such as the Bridge-to the-Doctorate. Program design, curriculum, and role of scholarsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; role will be discussed. The inaugural Bridge scholars will discuss their experiences in their academic pursuits along two career paths, the advance practice nursing and nurse scientist National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health *WSSU Division of Nursing ** Duke University School of Nursing

PURPOSE: Diabetes Mellitus has become a prominent diagnosis over the past few years, affecting millions of people in the U.S. Our aim was to reduce complications and noncompliance through patient teaching. Our patient was a 68 year old male who presented to the ED with hyperglycemia (717 mg/dL) and a pancreatic mass. Two weeks prior he was diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus, with no prescription for medication. As he was a newly diagnosed diabetic our objective was to educate both him and his wife about his disease process, dietary needs, and selfcare management. METHODS: Using resources from Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center (i.e. books, videos, and insulin injection equipment and supplies) we were able to demonstrate and teach about the disease process, nutrition, exercise, foot care, monitoring blood glucose levels, and insulin administration. RESULTS: Overall, this patient went over our expected outcomes. This patient performed reverse demonstrations of insulin administration, foot care, and identified appropriate foods for his prescribed diet. CONCLUSION: Given the debilitating effects of Diabetes Mellitus, care of such patients demands an integration of teaching of patients affected by diabetes mellitus. Without such teaching, many patients are at risk for infection, injury, glaucoma/cataracts, amputations, kidney failure, and possibly death. Based on the potential impact of our teaching, teaching should be a integrated into the intervention and discharge plans by nurses and other involved health care providers.

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FRESH FOOD, NEW HOME: WINSTON-SALEM STATE UNIVERSITY AND EAST WINSTON-SALEM COMMUNITY COLLABORATIVE FOR ELIMINATING HUNGER AND RECYCLING NUTRITION D. Chambers, N. Crosswhite,V. Davis, G. Guillaume, T. Johnson, M. Zahir,V. Duren-Winfield. Department of Healthcare Management; dchambers113@rams.wssu.edu, winfieldva@wssu.edu INTRODUCTION: There is a need for food rescue and recycling in Winston-Salem, NC and in particular East WinstonSalem. Over 17,000 residents in East Winston live in a primarily African American community classified as poor and needy, and living 200% below the federal poverty line. In 2011East Winston was ranked being the worst metro area in the US in childhood hunger. Further, data suggests 60,660 Forsyth County residents were food insecure in 2011. BACKGROUND: There is a disparity of healthy food in many low-income areas much like the East Winston-Salem community. There are homeless and poverty stricken people who are in need of good wholesome meals. North Carolina restaurants throw away 270 tons of food annually. That is beyond ridiculous when there are mouths to feed. “Fresh Food, New Home” would be a great way to begin solving this problem of food insecure for these individuals. METHODOLOGY: Our project will partner with Aramark to provide “no cost” delivery of food to Charitable organizations surrounding East Winston-Salem. We propose a 7-day a week, 9 month food-recycling/rescue program that uses freshly cooked, but not served food from the WSSU campus dining hall. Food rescue includes the collection, preparation, cooking and same day transportation of perishable food that would otherwise be thrown away. Fresh food will be donated to community-based organizations (CBO) that serve poor and underserved residents. Local nonprofit organizations such as Bethesda Homeless Shelter, AIDS Care Service, the Samaritan Ministries and the Children’s Home will be recipients of the food.

HIV/AIDS: HEALTH MAINTENANCE PATIENT TEACHING D. R. Cline, K. Fowler, L. Harris. R. Muze. Department of Health Sciences: Division of Nursing; dcline112@rams.wssu.edu, muzeru@wssu.edu PURPOSE: There are over 1.1 million people in the United States that live with HIV on a daily basis. HIV can be transmitted from person to person through exposure to sexual reproductive secretions, breast milk, and blood. At this time there is no cure. People who live with HIV are at a greater risk to being more susceptible to other illnesses and infections. Depending on one’s lifestyle and health maintenance determines the person’s quality of life as they live dealing with the effects of HIV. Our patient is a 44 year old male with a health history as follows: HIV/AIDS, Cocaine/Alcohol abuse, HTN, Biventricular heart failure with reduced left ventricular heart function, and Pneumonia. Substance abuse, noncompliance, and ineffective health maintenance puts this patient at a higher risk for complications related to his health. Our patient teaching objectives are to enable the patient to maintain a healthy lifestyle and prevent complications (such as opportunistic infections and further progression of HIV/AIDS), related to being immunocompromised, by providing education in regards to diagnosis/disease process, proper health maintenance, and medications. Our teaching outcomes are to enable to patient to limit factors that increase their risk of obtaining an infection, adhere/comply to his medication regimen as ordered, and maintain an adequate nutritional status. METHOD: We used videos, handouts, displays, and demonstrations to facilitate the patient teaching. RESULT: Outcomes were measured by having the patient perform a reverse demonstration of proper hand hygiene and condom application, verbalize at least 5 health maintenance tips, describe his medications and how they should be administered, and list foods that should be included in his daily diet. CONCLUSION: The patient teaching for clients with HIV/ AIDS is enormously important. Not only is infection control important to preventing the spread of the infection but patients need to learn how to cope and live with the diseases that they themselves have. By providing education about the disease process and proper health maintenance, nurses can help provide patients with a much longer and better quality of life.

RESULTS: Volunteer student service and contributions of $1 monthly totaling $17,000 per academic year will fund the program with funds remaining to assist our CBO partners. We estimate that 600 pounds of food will be delivered per month resulting in 30 meals served daily CONCLUSION: This project is aligned with the strategic goal of the university which is to provide service to the community and will fill the void where fresh food is needed. 43

EFFECT OF EDUCATION ON CONTRACEPTION USE AMONG MARRIED AND UNMARRIED WOMEN IN KENYA U. C. Chukwuma1, E. O. Onsomu1, R. Muze1. 1 Division of Nursing; uchuk907@rams.wssu.edu; onsomue@wssu.edu BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between education and contraception use among married and unmarried women in Kenya. METHODS: Nationally-representative cross-sectional data from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008/09 were analyzed adjusting for the complex survey design. The analytic sample (n=2,531) consisted of women aged 15-49 who responded to contraception use questions; which allowed for the estimation of the association between education and contraception using multivariate multinomial logistic regressions analysis, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Stata version 13.1 was used for all analyses, reporting relative risk ratios (RRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), with study significance set at a two-tailed p-value of < 0.05. RESULTS: Among the women, 43% used injections, 15% used pills, and 42% used other types of contraception, with the majority of them (59%) having a primary or less than primary education. In the adjusted multinomial logistic regressions models – Other contraception being the base outcome, women who had a primary school and secondary education had RRR=3.83 (95% CI 1.36–10.8) and RRR=2.26 (95% CI 1.32–3.89) of using the pill contraception compared to those with less than primary or no formal education respectively. Also, women who had a post secondary/college/graduate education had RRR=0.76 (95% CI 0.61–0.95) of using the injection contraception compared to those with less than primary or no formal education. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that more women irrespective of education are more likely to use the pill as a method of contraception use; and well educated women were less likely to use injection contraception. More research is needed to understand Kenyan women source of information and salient factors that contribute to their choice of contraception use.

TEACHING A NONCOMPLIANT DIABETIC PATIENT B. Cogar, L. Dunkelberger, K. Peterson, M. Tabili. Department of Health Sciences; mtabili110@rams.wssu.edu, muzeru@wssu.edu PURPOSE: Living with Diabetes Mellitus requires lifelong behavioral and lifestyle change. The purpose of this project was to present a case study of our non-compliant patient in order to teach people about the importance of compliance in diabetes. Our patient is a 47 year old male who presented to the unit with painful swollen legs, shortness of breath, and abdominal pain with a past medical history of non-compliance and illicit drug use. Theoretically, out teaching was guided by the Nursing Diagnosis ‘Ineffective Tissue Perfusion Related To Decreased Venous Circulation as Evidenced by bilateral lower extremity edema’. Since our patient had a long history of medical noncompliance it was important to teach his wife as well. We expected our patient to adhere to proper diet, cut down on carbonated beverages and fast-foods. We anticipated that out patient would demonstrate the understanding of enhancing peripheral circulation to lower extremities and learn pain management alternative to medications. Teaching outcomes were for patient to understand the importance of maintaining a normal glucose levels and better health. METHODS: We used diabetic teaching charts on foot and skin care and therapeutic communication techniques to explain the importance of being compliant to his diet. He was encouraged to follow-up with the out-patient diabetic classes. RESULTS: The addition of family into this teaching was very strategic to effective patient teaching. The patient’s spouse identified ways of replacing carbonated beverages and adding water and fresh vegetables the patient’s diet. The spouse performed reverse demonstrations of diabetic foot and skin care. CONCLUSION: In cases of medical noncompliance, the inclusion of a family member can contribute to better health management as well as source of support after discharge.

KEYWORDS: Contraception, Education, Kenya, Women

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INCREASING THE AWARENESS AND ADOPTION OF SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES THROUGH THE CREATION OF GREEN ZONES AT A HBCU IN A SOUTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY D. Crudup, (S),V. Duren-Winfield. Healthcare Management Department; dcrudup111@rams.wssu.edu; winfieldva@wssu.edu BACKGROUND: Green living is any action or activity that results in a positive impact, to any degree, on the environment so that the planet can continue to support future generations. The goal and purpose of green living is preserving and improving the health of planet Earth for all who live here. Daniel Crudup was selected as the “GO Green” ambassador for Winston-Salem State University (WSSU) and was awarded a $500 grant from the United Negro College Fund and the Toyota Green Initiative (TGI) to develop and implement a campus sustainability project.

CONCLUSION: It is everyone’s responsibility for preserving and improving the health of planet earth. Adopting a green living philosophy simply means making choices and decisions that have the most positive effect possible for all environments.

Funding provided by the United Negro College Foundation and Toyota.

PROBLEM: WSSU students were not fully knowledgeable about green issues and needed a spokesperson with passion to get the word out about environmental issues and discuss ways students can get involved. PROJECT GOAL: To secure personal commitments (pledges) from HBCU students and alumni on the reduction of their ecological footprint and adoption of a green living philosophy; to introduce a “Green Zone” in a centralized location on campus were students, faculty and staff could come to learn more about sustainability, green jobs, and healthy choices; and to host fun educational programs to promote green initiatives. METHODOLOGY: Crudup will collaborate with campus organizations to raise awareness and promote the project. Recycling bins, shredding machines and bulletin boards providing sustainability tips and green jobs will be placed in a central location on the campus. Crudup will collaborate with Rams Go Green for a panel discussion on ”sustainability and college students;” Mass Communications Department on a mini-documentary about sustainability at HBCU’s; Campus Activity Board, the Student Government Association and Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity Inc., on community involvement. Email blasts and classroom visitations will be conducted to encourage students to sign the “GO Green” student pledge. RESULTS: Student pledges to “Go Green” will increase by at least 75%. Students, faculty and staff are motivated to create additional green zones campus-wide.

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MANAGING CELLULITIS OF LOWER LITERATURE REVIEW OF THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHILDHOOD EXPREMITIES: COMPREHENSIVE OBESITY PATIENT TEACHING A. Davis, B. Parks, and H. Taylor-Hampton. Division of Nursing School of Health Sciences; adavis210@rams.wssu.edu, muzeru@wssu.edu

Q.D. Duncan, BSN and L. Shepard, EdD. School of Health Sciences; qduncan109@rams.wssu.edu and shepardl@wssu.edu

PURPOSE: Cellulites can be described as an overwhelming infection that can disrupt the patientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s daily living, especially when accompanied by other chronic illnesses such as a cardiac condition. Our patient is a Caucasian male, 84 years of age diagnosed with cellulites of the right lower leg. Past medical history consist of a cardiac catheterization performed in 2005, Coronary Artery Bypass Graft, and a right below the knee amputation (BKA). The patient experienced swelling and lack of knowledge regarding the source of his infection. Given this knowledge deficit background our patient teaching objectives included facilitating better understanding on and ambulating 2-3 times during a clinical shift to increase circulation within the affected extremities, the use of the prescribed antibiotics and antifungal creams to formulate tissue regeneration. Lastly, an outcome for the patient was to refrain from scratching his lower extremities in order to decrease risk for reinfection due to bacteria. Our teaching outcomes were to promote his disease process knowledge, healing and prevent complications.

PURPOSE: Globally, childhood obesity affects low and middleincome countries, predominantly in urban settings. Worldwide nearly 43 million children are obese under the age of 5 and it is now the most common health issue-affecting children. Identification and management of overweight and obese children is important so understanding the epidemiology of childhood obesity is critical.

METHODS: We incorporated pictures, handouts, and demonstrations on wound cleaning and prevention of reinfection. RESULTS: The patient successfully met the goals designed for him: he was able to perform reverse demonstration of wound care. His swelling decreased and was able to ambulate without difficulty on the second day of teaching. He was also able to perform reverse demonstration of hand washing and was able to form the connection between hand washing and infection prevention. The patient expressed the importance of keeping nails trimmed to prevent bacteria from building under the nail. A week later lab results showed a significant decrease in White Blood cell count from 10,510 down to 10,020 and a decrease in infection.

METHODS: Studies selected included different geographic locations, which included: North America, United Kingdom, Denmark, Canada, and Europe. Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ages ranged from 2 to 17 years of age. The largest sample size was 91,642 and the smallest sample size was sixteen. A comprehensive review of literature was conducted ranging from single descriptive qualitative review to systematic reviews of randomized control studies. There were three studies that used the highest level of research design of randomized control trails, twelve systematic reviews, two retrospective studies, one longitudinal study, six-cohort study, one logistic regression study, and one descriptive study. RESULTS: Many factors have been examined as the possible cause of childhood obesity. Current research has found links between: genetics, basal metabolic rate, diet, activity level, and environmental that contributes to childhood obesity. As the home environment has been identified as a key etiology of childhood obesity parental inclusion is essential. CONCLUSION: Parents and guardians are role models that have significant influence over the behaviors and lifestyles of their children. Addressing the role of the family is paramount when tackling the issue of obesity. There can be more than one etiology for the weight of a child and education in nutrition and activity level is the key to success.

CONCLUSION: The teachings given to patients like such aids in preventing reoccurring infections. Our teachings can be used upon discharge and for future use.

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THE IMPACT OF NUTRITION TEACHING ON A PATIENT WITH OSTEOMYELITIS AND ULCERS Durroh, J., Huffman, A., Prince, J., R. Muze. Division of Nursing; jprince110@rams.wssu.edu, muzeru@wssu.edu lnesses can be a great challenge for a young paraplegic patient. Our patient was a 31 year old female who was diagnosed with paraplegia in which she sustained T10 and SCI injury. Additionally, she has acquired osteomyelitis and decubitus ulcers. Past medical history included; tobacco abuse, GERD, depression, anxiety, anemia, allergic rhinitis, asthma, uncontrolled DM, COPD, and UTI. Our teaching objectives were for the patient to better understand his dietary habits, healthier food choices, and better coping approaches. METHODS: To accomplish our teaching objectives, we used health-smart food charts, printed materials on effective coping with chronic illness, and demonstrations. We printed out various pictures of food groups and had her arrange them into healthy and not healthy categories. The expected outcomes were for the patient to return demonstration and identify appropriate foods for controlling diabetes and to promote healing of her wounds. RESULTS: The patient successfully performed return demonstration designing healthy menus, identified dietary food relevant for a low fat-low-calorie-high-protein diet using the food charts. CONCLUSION: Providing relevant patient teaching during hospitalization is an important resource any patient can use in promoting healing, quality health, and reduce the risk for complications, thus providing patients an important tools for better managing their health while living with chronic illness.

OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST’S EXPERIENCE WITH ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY IN PROVISION OF SERVICE TO PATIENTS WITH ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE RELATED DEMENTIA M. Edwards, PhD, OTR/L. Boring, A, OTS. DeAndrade, L, OTS. Godwin, K, OTS. Herring, J, OTS.Lemke, J, OTS. Smith, J, OTS. Department of Occupational Therapy; edwardsme@wssu.edu PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine how occupational therapists(OT’s) use assistive technology (AT) when treating patients with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementia (ADRD). This study utilized a qualitative phenomenological approach in which occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants were interviewed. The goal of this research study was to gain an understanding of the amount of assistive technology used with dementia patients, as well as the types of technology used. Findings suggest that some assistive technology devices work better for patients at different stages METHODS: A qualitative, phenomenological study employed the use of a pre-interview demographic survey for each participant in combination with an informal, audio-recorded interview. RESULTS: Four common themes emerged among the interviews: safety, education, common AT used, and selection process. CONCLUSION: Assistive technology is primarily used to address safety concerns with this population. These concerns include elopement, fall prevention, kitchen safety, and medication management. When working with this population and using AT, it is important that to consider the stage of dementia as well as the performance skills of the patient.

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PROVEN PROTECTIVE STRATEGIES TO REDUCE LYME DISEASE TRANSMISSION: AN INTEGRATIVE REVIEW

DOES MATERNAL DEATH INFLUENCE RISK FACTORS IN AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN? AN INTEGRATIVE REVIEW

L. A. Elmore & M. Hodge. Division of Nursing; lmcneilly109@rams.wssu.edu and hodgema@ wssu.edu

T. A. Ford. Dr. Lolita Chappel Aiken. School of Health Sciences, Division of Nursing; tford211@rams.wssu.edu, chappelaikenlo@wssu.edu

PURPOSE: Research conducted focuses on measures to reduce Lyme disease surfacing in individuals who come into direct contact with an infected tick. Literature obtained proves to show progression of Lyme disease among low incidence states. The remainder of literature review focuses on prevention of tick contact to eliminate Lyme disease transmission.

PURPOSE: Heart disease (HD) is the number one killer of African-American (AA) women and AA women have the highest mortality rates related to HD in the US. The purpose of this integrative literature review was to examine the reduction of modifiable risk behaviors of HD in AA women whose mother died from HD.

METHODS: Several methodologies to search the literature pertinent to factors relating to prophylactic strategies for preventing Lyme disease in adults were used. Search engines used included the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and PubMed databases using the combined key words prophylaxis, prevention, protection, incidence, behavior, geographic, location, health, tick-borne, and Lyme disease. Of the 50 articles reviewed in full, thirty included data about factors related to prophylactic strategies to prevent Lyme disease in adults; within this integrative literature review, these thirty articles are used.

METHODS: The literature was conducted between September 2010 and March 2014. Search terms included HD in AA women, behavioral risk factors, and maternal death from HD. Of the studies reviewed, the majority of AA women were unaware of the risk factors for HD that could be related to their understanding of the disease process. The literature did not suggest a correlation between AA womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s behavioral risk factors being influenced or reduced by maternal death from HD.

RESULTS: Studies selected identify prophylaxis antibiotic therapy, protective behavior, an increase rise of traveling animals, hypersensitivity, and progression of Lyme disease to bordering Southern states. Twelve studies identified protective behavioral strategies in preventing contact with tick. Seven studies identified Lyme progression from Northern to Southern states within the

CONCLUSION: Identifying and modifying behavioral risk factors and understanding the HD process is needed for AA women to reduce mortality rates and improve health outcomes of AA women diagnosed with HD.

U.S. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, a major finding in the review of literature included protective measures, antibiotic prophylactic therapy given after exposure with tick, and high epidemic areas of Lyme disease.

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CULTURAL DIFFERENCESâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; EFFECT ON ADHERENCE TO DIABETIC DIET AMONG AFRO-CARIBBEAN AND HISPANICS

LITERATURE REVIEW OF OBESITY IN WOMEN AND PREGNANCY

M. Foster-Bueno, J. C. Jean Sr., D.S. Roberts. Division of Nursing; millie9901@msn.com; robertsd@wssu.edu

PURPOSE: The key purpose of this project was to review the current literature on obesity in pregnant adolescents. This project examines the significance of healthcare providers in screening for obesity in adolescents and the associated complications and effects that it has on pregnancy outcomes.

K.S. Gallagher, S.T. Ramsey. Division of Nursing; kgallagher110@rams.wssu.edu; hallsu@wssu.edu

PURPOSE: The purpose of this integrative review is to describe cultural differencesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; effect on adherence to diabetic diet among Latinos and Afro-Caribbean communities and to identify key strategies that enhance adherence to nutritional intake treatment and maintenance.

METHODS: Information on obesity in pregnancy was found by searching with electronic searches in several databases. Some common key terms searched were obesity, overweight, obesity in pregnancy, obesity in adolescents, health risks for obese women, care guidelines, and risks of chronic disease with obesity in pregnancy. The search was narrowed to articles from the last five years.

METHODS: This review used 38 articles to compare and contrast the different strategies and self-management interventions available in literature that aim to improve glycemic control among Afro-Caribbean and Hispanics. In order to boost the methodological rigor of this integrative review, inclusion of studies for review prioritized those having a randomized controlled design. RESULTS: The analysis of the data established how diet and cultural barriers are associated with poor diabetes self-management among Afro-Caribbean and Hispanics. Studies reviewed suggest the significance of culture as a barrier towards realization of positive health outcomes. Culture differences among patients and health care provider has been recognized as a barrier which causes greater difficulty in understanding dietary instructions. Evidence also suggested that daily glucose monitoring is lower among Afro-Caribbean and Hispanic patients. This necessitates the need for strategies that enhance adherence to nutritional intake, treatment, and maintenance. CONCLUSION: A review of different studies made the case for the need of culturally-tailored and literacy-sensitive interventions to improve self-management or diabetes education for Afro-Caribbean and Hispanics. The various interventions have shown not only to be clinically effective but cost-effective as well. Overall, interventions involving community-based and comprehensive interventions tailored to fit local culture and attributes had the potential to improve diabetes care and outcomes.

RESULTS: One study found that age, education, marital status, race, insurance status, initiation of prenatal care, gestational diabetes and binge drinking before pregnancy (p < 0.0000), smoking (p < 0.0058), BMI (p < 0.0081) have significant risk for chronic diseases. African American women had the highest prevalence of obesity at 70% higher than White and Hispanic women did and obesity was 50% higher with women with Medicaid. Obesity was found to increase the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, diabetes, shoulder dystocia, cesarean birth, macrosomia, birth defects and preterm delivery. CONCLUSION: The major findings in this literature review include data on obesity and the effect it has on pregnancy and pregnancy complications, the effect of income on obesity, provider guideline adherence to guidelines with the care of obese women in pregnancy, and risk of childhood diseases in children whose mothers were obese in pregnancy.

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HYPERTENSION PATIENT TEACHING PLAN: LIFESTYLE CHANGE

MANAGING CELLULITIS OF LOWER EXPREMITIES: COMPREHENSIVE PATIENT TEACHING

B. Gallimore, C. Blodgett, A.Crotts, B. Scott. Department of Health Sciences; bgallimore112@rams.wssu.edu Faculty Advisor: muzeru@wssu.edu

WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP OF PREFERRED LEARNING STYLES ON QUESTIONING TAXONOMIES FOR OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY FACULTY?

PURPOSE: Hypertension is known to b e a silent killer, which calls for adequate knowledge on the part of the patient. Our patient is a 71 year old African-American female who presented to the E.D. with worsening chest pain and altered mental status also had a past medical history of hypertension (HTN), CAD (Coronary Artery Disease), HD (Heart Disease), stroke, and ESRD (End Stage Renal Disease). Given the medical background she was in need for comprehensive knowledge about her health status and to prevent impending complications. Our teaching goal was to address Lifestyle change. Our approach was guided by the following Nursing Diagnosis ‘Decreased Cardiac Output’. Desired outcomes for our teaching plan included the ability for the patient to monitor her own blood pressure, adhere to nutritional plan, and better manage stress and reduce the risk for complications.

A. Gordon, A. Lide, J. Hall, J. Unkiewicz, E. fain. Department of Occupational Therapy; fainae@wssu.edu

METHODS: We used an automatic wrist blood pressure cuff for taking own blood pressure, blood circulation charts on high blood pressure, food charts on high sodium and low sodium diets, and hand outs on stress management. RESULTS: The patient demonstrated how to correctly obtain a blood pressure and was able to identify a dietary plan based on DASH concept. The patient successfully demonstrated knowledge of the risky behaviors and lifestyle for hypertension complication based on the American Heart Association, identified ways to manage HTN: including the heart healthy diet, exercise, and the importance of taking his prescribed HTN medications. CONCLUSION: Considering the prevalence for high blood pressure among African Americans, such teaching should be enforced by nurses and other health care providers who provide care to such patients if risk factors and complications associated with hypertension are to be successfully reduced

PURPOSE: Since educational pedagogy is essential for meeting the societal demands it is crucial to understand the essential components of effective pedagogy. This study investigated the Occupational Therapy Faculties’ attributes that may contribute to the students’ subpar performance outcomes. Specifically this study investigated the correlation of Occupational Therapy Faculties’ preferred learning styles with their taxonomy levels of questioning in a correlational study design. Data obtained to support this theory could provide evidence to promote change. METHODS: Naturalistic, correlational study consisting of OT and OTA professors (8 total). Participants completed Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory(LSI) electronically to determine preferred learning style (Assimilator, Converger, Diverger, and Accommodator) engaged in a 60 minute lecture recording. Questions asked by professors were analyzed based on the classification of Aschner- Gallagher’s taxonomy levels. A double blind process was utilized throughout data collection. RESULTS: Scoring of the LSI indicated that there were 5 Divergers, and 1 each of the remaining categories. The correlational analysis between preferred learning style and the taxonomy level of questions indicate that there was a significant correlation (p=.917 (Creswell, 2005) between the assimilator learning style and the higher level taxonomy questions CONCLUSION: In result, preferred learning styles impacted taxonomy levels of questioning. Further investigation is warranted.

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INABILITY TO CARE FOR SELF AS RELATED TO SUBSTANCE ABUSE L. Gortman, A. Shelton, S. Waller, R. Muze. School of Health Sciences: Division of Nursing; lgortman112@rams.wssu.edu, muzeru@wssu.edu PURPOSE: The inability to care for self after a drug overdose was the health challenge for 21 year old female who suffered respiratory arrest due to overdose of poly-substance abuse. The patient’s mother died after an overdose of illicit drugs several weeks prior to patient’s own overdose. Our teaching goals were to enhance the patient’s self-care ability. Our expected outcomes were to enable our patient to understand enough about hear health challenges to the level of maintaining medical compliance, stimulate self-care interest, and, and to better understand the negative implications of using poly-substances as a way to cope. METHODS: We used pictures, demonstrations of active and passive range of motion prescribed braces to reverse contractures in hands. Discussion on Communicating the importance of her own vested interest in treatment of not only physical but also the psychosocial aspect as well. Communication skills were necessary regarding need for a positive social network after she is discharged. RESULTS: Patient was very receptive to teachings and is making marked progress in her recovery and self-awareness. She verbalized her feelings of helpless and dependency towards poly substance abuse and what led to her overdose. CONCLUSION: With continued teaching and care it is possible the patient could learn the importance of recovery and maintain a substance free lifestyle.

PERIPARTUM CARDIOMYOPATHY AMONG AFRICAN-AMERICAN WOMEN Graham, K.M., D. Sherrod, T., Anderson. Division of Nursing; Kgraham212@rams.wssu.edu PURPOSE: The purpose of this integrative review was to address factors that predispose African-American women to peripartum cardiomyopathy and identify treatment options. The literature discloses an abundance of articles proposing mechanisms for risk factors and etiology of peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). The main goal of the review was to focus on the role of the primary care provider, early detection, and interventions related to PPCM. METHODS: The analyzed research related to peripartum cardiomyopathy among African-American women and current treatment. Data was analyzed, reviewed and evaluated to identify influencing factors and treatment included in the research literature. RESULTS: Risk factors include African origin, multiparity, advanced maternal age, prolonged tocolytic use and multiple pregnancies. Treatment is comparable to other cardiomyopathies and includes evidence-based standard heart failure management strategies. CONCLUSION: Prevention, early identification and effective treatment of PPCM is paramount. The major goal is to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with PPCM. This can be accomplished by identifying women with the highest risk factors. A recommendation is for primary care providers to identify women age 36 and older, of African descent, with twin gestation and hypertensive disorders as high risk and implement PPCM precautions, which include prevention, early detection and intervention strategies.

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BARRIERS OF MEDICATION ADHERENCE S. Harris, BSN, RN and L. Chappel-Aiken. Department of Nursing; sharris207@rams.wssu.edu, chappelaikenlo@wssu.edu PURPOSE: The purpose of this integrative literature review was to identify barriers of medication adherence that negatively influence a person’s behavior. METHODS: An electronic search was conducted in the following electronic databases: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EBSCO host, and ProQuest. Fifty abstracts were reviewed; 30 of these articles were selected based on relevance to elderly, barriers of medication adherence and level of evidence. All databases were searched from January 2008 to November 2013, which included published articles from 2008-2013. Studies not published in English or published before 2008 were not included in the review. Only studies from the United States were included because of focus group and topic relevance. Key words used in the search were “Medicare”, “elderly”, “medications”, “social determinants”, “barriers”, and “adherence”. RESULTS: Overall, medication adherence is an issue affecting all areas of age, sex and race. Barriers to medication adherence was easily found in all thirty studies. Managing a medication regimen can be complex process. Medication cost was the most often occurring barrier identified. Lack of trust in provider and polypharmacy were among the top three barriers identified. CONCLUSION: The literature reveals barriers to medication adherence. However, fails to reveal barriers specific to races and cultures that contribute to adverse outcomes. This gap remains vital for future research. Identifying barriers that plague an individual race, culture or people group would give providers a larger target to aim for healthier outcomes.

RAMS KNOW H.O.W. MOBILE CLINIC: ADHEARING TO THE NEEDS OF A MEDICALLY UNDERSERVED COMMUNITY VIA A MOBILE CLINIC IN EAST WINSTON-SALEM NORTH CAROLINA C. M. Hopkins, Healthcare Management Intern, RAMS Know H.O.W. Mobile Clinic,V. D.Winfield, Assistant Professor of Healthcare Management,; Aaron Jackson, Assistant Mobile Clinic Coordinator, Chopkins110@rams.wssu.edu; winfieldva@wssu.edu; jacksonat@ wssu.edu. INTRODUCTION: In the East Winston community, over 17,000 residents live in a primarily African American community where the entire population is classified as poor and needy, living 200% below the federal poverty line. METHODOLOGY: Given the close proximity of the campus to this community, faculty, staff and students of the School of Health Sciences at Winston-Salem State University have been providing free wellness services via a mobile clinic that was donated by Forsyth Medical Center. RESULTS: Since 2010, over 1700 residents have received services. The need for assistance has been greater than initially anticipated, given the high unemployment rate, high rate of uninsured and high risk factors for diabetes, heart disease and stroke. The majority of residents were African American (93%) with a mean age of 49 years and nearly 40% were male. Although 48% were employed, many were employed only on a part-time basis (27%). Overweight and obesity were highly prevalent, affecting 70% of the residents. Similarly, over 60% were hypertensive, one in four were diabetic and one in three had high cholesterol levels, which placed them at risk for heart disease, kidney disease and stroke. While many indicated that they had a primary care physician, lack of health insurance (25%) kept them from regular health visits. CONCLUSION: This program is valuable to the East Winston community in many ways. Residents deemed high risk were referred to free and reduced health clinics in their community which some were unaware of. Further, the outreach to African American males who often delay preventive health care services was noted. Lastly, community outreach by faculty, staff and students expanded the university’s engagement goals, facilitated learning and provided an opportunity for faculty and staff development.

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MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY V.U. Ifedi, D. Sherrod, J. Barber. Division of Nursing; vifedi111@rams.wssu.edu PURPOSE: Childhood obesity continues to rise in the United States and has reached a significant high. This obesity epidemic is currently on the national policy agenda due to escalated incidents in youth ages 6-11 and 12-19 which have more than double and tripled in the past 20 years, respectively. METHODS: This integrative research review analyzed 30 studies focusing on causative factors of childhood obesity. As physical activity and nutrition are well-known primary factors, this review focused on identification of secondary factors and intervention strategies. RESULTS: Secondary causative factors include parental influence and lifestyle, financial resources, access to healthy foods, and race and ethnic background. Intervention themes identified included: early identification and treatment; cultural adaptations and legislative mandates related to food choices and physical activity in schools. CONCLUSION: A multi-pronged approach incorporating individuals, parents, and schools is recommended to combat obesity. Federal laws should define and provide guidelines for obesity prevention and intervention efforts.

CARING FOR A PATIENT WITH RENAL FAILURE RELATED TO DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY B. Jones, N. Nimo, & R. White. R. Muze. Department of Nursing; bjones411@rams.wssu.edu; muzeru@wssu.edu PURPOSE: Living with renal failure and diabetes mellitus calls for patient education that helps patients to cope with and better manage their illness. Renal failure is the failure of the kidneys to adequately filter waste. Diabetic nephropathy is a change in the kidney that reduces kidney function and leads to kidney failure. Our patient is a 76-year-old, Caucasian male with renal failure related to diabetic nephropathy and a past medical history of diabetes mellitus type II, hypertension, and congestive heart failure. Given his health background, our patient was at risk for several complications including decreased cardiac output, pulmonary edema, malnutrition, and other health problems. Our teaching objectives were to facilitate better understanding of the diet and nutritional requirements and restrictions associated with his illnesses. METHODS: To accomplish our objectives, we used renal failure pamphlets and brochures, food charts on renal diet and anatomical atlases of the kidney and the pancreas. RESULTS: Our patient successfully met the teaching goals; He performed reverse demonstrations of putting compiling dietary menus, meal plans, and identify the relevance of fluid restriction. CONCLUSION: While the impact of our teaching shows immediate result, future student researchers could examine the impact of such teaching long term.

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KENYAN WOMEN SOURCE OF INFORMATION AND CONTRACEPTION US

ADAPTING TO AND PREVENTING COMPLICATIONS OF ATRIAL FIBRILLATIONS

L. Jumawid1, M. Lizano1, E. O. Onsomu1, J. P. McClain1. 1 Division of Nursing; ljumawid111@wssu.edu; onsomue@wssu.edu

H. Leo, T. Holley, & C. Monger. School of Health Sciences. Division of Nursing; sleo112@rams.wssu.edu, bradleypb@wssu.edu

BACKGROUND: Contraception needs in Kenya continue to be challenging despite the counties efforts to manage its population growth. There is limited information available regarding the impact of mass media on contraception use.

PURPOSE: Living with a heart condition with Atrial Fibrillation can be debilitating especially for older adult patients can be challenging, as it puts them at risk for stroke. Our patient is a 73-year-old male who presented with a previous diagnosis of bronchitis and symptoms of shortness of breath and chest discomfort, and was also diagnosed with atrial fibrillation. Our patient being newly diagnosed, patient teaching was essential to enhance an adaptive lifestyle and recovery. Our teaching objectives were for the patient to demonstrate better understanding of atrial fibrillation, manifestations of an episode and the importance of safety during this episode, which include actions to take to avoid injury. Our patient would be able to identify methods of preventing complications associated with atrial fibrillation.

METHODS: Nationally-representative cross-sectional data from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008/09 were analyzed adjusting for the complex survey design. The analytic sample (n=2,531) consisted of women aged 15-49 who responded to contraception use questions. The main outcome variable was contraception use; main exposure variables were a total measure of media and four constituents: newspaper/magazines, radio, and television. For each of the five measures of media, we developed separate multivariable logistic regressions to assess the association between the media measures and contraception use while controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Stata version 13.1 was used for all analyses, reporting odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), with study significance set at a two-tailed p-value of < 0.05. RESULTS: Eighty seven percent of women used a modern contraception method of whom 6% read newspaper/magazines, 59% listened to radio, and 29% watched television almost every day. In the adjusted models, women who read newspapers/magazines at least once a week or less than once a week were 32%, p < 0.01 and 52%, p < 0.001 less likely to use modern contraception compared to those who did not read newspapers/magazines at all. Among those who listened to radio almost every day, at least once a week, or less than once a week were 32%, p < 0.01, 41%, p < 0.01 and 65%, p < 0.05 less likely to use modern contraception compared to those who did not listened to radio at all. For those who watched television at least once a week, they were 43%, p < 0.05 less likely to use modern contraception compared to those who did not watch television at all.

METHODS: We guided the patient through pamphlets describing atrial fibrillation and a heart model to show the patient the location of the problem within the heart with electrical impulses originating from places in the atria other than the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;SA node.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; We used pamphlets on aspirin regimens, use of Dabigatran, an anticoagulant to prevent stroke caused by atrial fibrillation RESULTS: Despite the difficulty to fully articulate ways in which atrial fibrillation affects the heart, our Patient successfully and accurately described his diseases process and how it may potentially affect him. He explained to us the importance of taking a daily low dose of aspirin and therapeutic effects of Dabigatran. CONCLUSION: Our method of teaching seemed to be quite effective for this patient. We recommend that a video instead along with pamphlets be used for such teaching. Pt teaching remains a critical strategy for preventing complications such as stroke and for promoting longevity in these Patients.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that various forms of media use among women in Kenya should be encouraged, particularly newspaper/magazines and television. Such media messages should include women health issues related to maternal and child health. KEYWORDS: Contraception, Kenya, Media, Women

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EFFECTS OF SUBSTANCE USE AMONG PREGNANT AFRICAN AMERICANS

EFFECTS OF EXPOSING CHILDREN TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE I. N. Machuki, D. Barber, G. Decelle. Department of Nursing; imachuki110@wssu.edu, barberd@wssu.edu, decellegi@wssu.edu

G. B. Matongo, D. Barber, D. Hartensia. Department of Nursing; gmogoi@rams.wssu.edu, barberd@wssu.edu PURPOSE: This project is meant to explore the use of substance abuse among pregnant African American women in the United States. The project examines factors that influence the use of substances in this group, the effects of substance use on the women, their pregnancies and their children. Treatment options are also discussed as well as the limiting factors in accessing treatment by Pregnant African Americans, including mistrust of the healthcare system, scarce of resources, and limited education. METHOD: An extensive search of the literature was performed using several electronic databases: CINAHL, Medline, and nursing journals. The search incorporated English-language, peer-reviewed literatures, evidence-based publications, female population, full text, and pre-CINAHL excluded. The initial search generated 372 literatures. Available abstracts and titles were reviewed and assessed using inclusion criteria: papers needed to address the prevalence of substance abuse among pregnant African America women, risk factors for substance use, effects of substance use, and possible solutions and interventions. The final screening left a total number of 30 studies that met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: The uses of substances are a lingering concern for pregnant African Americans due to various factors, including poverty, limited resources, sexual and physical abuse, limited access to medical care, and the mistrust of health system. Dealing with substance abuse problem in African American pregnant women the aforementioned factors need to be considered. CONCLUSION: Substance abuse by pregnant African Americans is historical, social, and economic in nature. In order to deal with substance abuse in pregnant African American effectively, efforts have to be made by all sectors in the society involving healthcare workers, community agencies, government agencies, and individuals themselves. With combined effort, the use and effects of drugs on Pregnant African Americans will be reduced.

PURPOSE: The aim of this integrated literature review is to show the correlation between exposure to domestic violence and the negative consequences it can have on children from birth to 17 years and the consequences on their adulthood 18-45 years of age. METHOD: A systematic comprehensive electronic search of databases which included CINAHL with full text, Ebscohost, ProQuest Nursing, Sage, PsycInfo, PsycArticles, Medline, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was conducted. A total of 34 articles were retrieved from these databases that had relevance to domestic violence exposure in children and its consequences however for this integrative literature review only 30 articles were used. RESULTS: There is a significant amount of evidence that supports the statement when children witness domestic violence it can have negative consequences on them. Studies conducted on the consequences to children who witness domestic violence suggest that children who experience domestic violence tend to have deficits in various aspects of life: behavioral, social, emotional and academic. Findings from these studies further indicate that children with childhood exposure to domestic violence tend to have significantly worse outcomes in life as opposed to children who did not witness domestic violence. Exposure children tend to have low self-esteem, inability to control their anger, act impulsively, have a low attention span and show physical aggression. Witnessing or exposure to domestic violence is an independent risk factor for depression in adulthood. Early exposure to domestic violence can lead to internalization of behavior and can have psychological problems such as anxiety and depression. These children can also externalize their behavioral problems through delinquency and perpetration of violence. CONCLUSION: Primary care providers play an important role of detecting domestic violence and providing individualized patient-centered care that will help reduce the negative effects of domestic violence.

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NONMEDICAL PRESCRIPTION THE IMPACT OF IV DRUG USE ON DRUG USE AMONG ADOLESCENTS THE HEART CAUSES INFECTIVE IN THE UNITED STATES: ENDOCARDITIS POTENTIAL PROVIDER Maynard, E., Freeman, M., Jones,V.,Vassar, M. Division of Nursing; Mooreas@wssu.edu INTERVENTIONS K. Massey, A. Harper-Harrison. Division of Nursing; massey109@rams.wssu.edu; harrisonah@wssu.edu. The Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Hospitals introduced the initiative to treat pain as the fifth vital sign in 2001. In an attempt to provide adequate pain relief, controlled medications have been prescribed at increasing rates. A direct correlation exists between the growing prevalence of narcotic prescriptions amongst all Americans and the diversion amid adolescents as the majority report obtaining the drugs from friends and family. This review examines the prevalence of adolescent prescription misuse. Methods to recognize potential misuse and intervention options to thwart the growing epidemic of prescription abuse are discussed. The summation is intended to promote the acknowledgement and provide insight to prescribers regarding their role in the abuse and diversion of prescription drugs.

PURPOSE: Infective endocarditis is an infection of the inner surface of the heart. This infection is serious and potentially lifethreatening. A microbial agent invades the heart valves and the mural endocardium which forms a bulk, friable vegetation and destroys the underlying cardiac tissues. Infection causes include: by bacteria primarily, and other agents such as fungi and chlamydiae. Our patient teaching sought to explore the effectiveness of patient teaching on IV drug use, medication therapy, and selfcare (diet, weight, smoking cessation, rest, exercise). We needed to facilitate better knowledge about the connection between IV drug use and causes this infection, how to manage the treatment, and the damage to the endocardial surface. Bacteria can directly enter the blood stream through dental or surgical procedures, contaminated substances by IV drug users, an obvious infection, or a trivial injury. Our patient would know about 1.leading causes of infective endocarditis being staphylococcal infections commonly the tricuspid valve, 2. the predisposing factors for infective endocarditis such as being neutropenic, immunodeficiency, malignancy, therapeutic immunosuppression, diabetes, and 3. alcohol or IV drug use. METHODS: We used chart displays of a normal heart and a heart with infective endocarditis and a video that shows how bacteria enter through IV drug use. RESULTS: The goal was met by the patient acknowledging that his substance abuse caused his infective endocarditis. The patient also acknowledges how serious infective endocarditis and understands the treatment plan. CONCLUSION: We supported the institutional recommendation for patient referral for a drug rehab center, Narcotics Anonymous, and to ensure that treatment is being followed out precisely.

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COMPARISON OF THE FMS AND Y-BALANCE SCORES IN COLLEGIATE ATHLETES D. Metzger, K. Williams, L. Millar, E. White, S. Eidson. Department of Physical Therapy; millaral@wssu.edu The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and the Y-balance test are predictive of injury with some athletes, though few have combined the use of both into pre-screening. These assess core strength and stability using simple movements, such as a squat and dynamic balance. PURPOSE: To determine if differences between FMS and Y-balance scores (both composite and cut-off groups) exist between athletes from 2 sports, based upon sport and previous injury. METHODS: All researchers participated in standardized training for improving inter-tester reliability (ICC = .83). Athletes from basketball and track at 2 universities agreed to participate in this study. After completing a health and injury history questionnaire, athletes were tested using the FMS and the Y-balance. Each athlete was given at least 3 practice trials, followed by scored trials. Both movement specific and composite scores were recorded for both tests. The Y-balance distances were normalized for leg length. RESULTS: 71 athletes (46 females;25 males) participated. Composite FMS scores ranged from 9 – 20 (max possible = 21) and Y-balance composite (normalized) scores ranged from 77 to 114 cm. There was a significant difference between the composite FMS scores by team, with the women’s basketball team scoring significantly lower than the women’s track team (14.7 vs 17, respectively). When categorized by the risk level of 14 or below, 46% of the basketball team were in the risk group, while only 10% of the track team were classified as having injury risk. Interestingly, 4 of the women b-basketball players also had a history of ACL tear, with reconstruction and rehabilitation. There was not a difference between the groups for the Y-balance tests by direction, but there was a significant difference for the left normalized composite scores, with men’s b-ball averaging 89cm versus 95cm for women’s track.

LOW SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND ITS LINK TO RISKY SEXUAL BEHAVIORS AMONG ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS H.F. Mitchell and T. Tyson. Department of Nursing and Health Science; hmitchell110@rams.wssu.edu, tysonta@wssu.edu PURPOSE: Sexually transmitted infections including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are one of the problems that plague adolescents and young adults ages 13-29. The purpose of this study is to conduct a review of nursing literature related to socioeconomic status and risky sexual behaviors among adolescents and young adults’ ages 13-24 years. METHOD: Thirty articles were selected and reviewed. Eight articles were randomized control trials, 2 were cross sectional studies, and 20 were qualitative or quantitative articles that included interviews, surveys, questionnaires, medical records, and other literature reviews. Study participants’ age range 13 to 29 years old; Ethnic groups included African American, White, and Hispanic. RESULTS: Findings highlight the importance of both secondary and primary prevention including early, skill based sex education which include Human papillomavirus vaccination of preadolescent girls and Chlamydia screening of all sexually active females. CONCLUSION: A comprehensive approach is needed to decrease HIV transmission among adolescents and young adults. This approach will help to ensure that all adolescents have access to sex education and sexual health care well before they initiate sexual activity.

CONCLUSION: Based upon previously identified levels of the FMS, the women’s basketball players are at a higher risk of injury. The men’s basketball players were at greater risk based upon the Y-balance.

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SCREENING FOR CHRONIC EXPLORING DEPRESSION AMONG KIDNEY DISEASE IN HYPERTENSIVE AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN AFRICAN AMERICANS C.Montague, C. D. Ussery, A. Harper-Harrison. K.A. Monger, D.S. Roberts. Division of Nursing; kmonger110@rams.wssu.edu, robertsd@wssu.edu PURPOSE: More than 26 million adults in the United States are living with chronic kidney disease (CKD) making it the ninth leading cause of death. African Americans are four times more likely to enter ESRD than Caucasians. This disparity has been mostly attributed to higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension; the two leading causes of ESRD. Screening and monitoring for CKD could lead to improved quality of life and better outcomes. Thus the purpose of the integrative review was to evaluate screening and monitoring methods for CKD in hypertensive African Americans. METHODS: An electronic search was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL plus, and Cochrane Library. The articles examined were peer reviewed with full text availability published from 2007 through 2013. Key words used in the search were “chronic kidney disease,” “end stage renal disease,” “screening,” “hypertension,” “metabolic syndrome,” and “African American.” A total of 92 articles were retrieved. Thirty articles met the inclusion criteria and were used for this review. CONCLUSION: The progression for CKD in hypertensive African Americans appears to have several contributing factors. Evidence is lacking on the benefits of screening for CKD by a specific screening tool as more longitudinal studies and randomized trials are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of screening for CKD. The literature supports timely identification and education on risk factors would be beneficial in the prevention of CKD and its progression.

Division of Nursing; cmontague109@rams.wssu.edu; harrisonah@wssu.edu. PURPOSE: Depression, a major health factor affecting many people, is a mental health disorder that is gaining prominence within the U.S requiring professional healthcare providers to address with a sense of urgency. Generally, African American (AA) women are oriented to coping strategies such as religious beliefs and are innately introverted when dealing with emotions and psychological problems (Nicolaidis, et al., 2010). The purpose of reviewing literary research was to determine the perceptions of depression among AA women and how to efficiently manage and treat depression within this population. METHOD: Multiple studies, both qualitative and cohort designed were reviewed to explain factors related to depression among AA women. RESULTS: Many AA women have the “strong black woman” mentality, which is culturally associated from many years of oppression, discrimination, and racism. It is also one of many stigmas associated with AA women who generally feel pressured by their own culture to be a “strong black woman” regardless of their inward feelings, past experiences, and life struggles. Depression only adds to adversely impact both their physical health, in conjunction with other comorbidities, and their emotional health as well. CONCLUSION: Depression among AA women is not just a phenomenon that will pass. New implications to move forward with researching depression among AA women is needed to gain insight on ways to improve coping mechanisms for depression.

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INCREASING HEALTH OUTCOMES OF BREAST CANCER SURVIVORS: THE BENEFITS OF AN INTEGRATED EXERCISE REGIMEN

INCIDENCE OF NEW HIV INFECTIONS AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN 25-44 WITH CURRENTLY OR PREVIOUSLY INCARCERATED PARTNERS

Cheryl Morris BSN RN CPN and Dr. Lolita Chappel Aiken. Division of Nursing; cmorris108@ramswssu.edu

K.G. Rawls-Dennison, R.H. Muze. Division of Nursing; krawls108@rams.wssu.edu, muzeru@wssu.edu

For many breast cancer survivors, challenges do not end on the last day of treatment. They continue to suffer from the after effects of the disease and its treatments.

PURPOSE: As the effects of HIV on the African American family continue to escalate, not enough is known regarding women ages 25-44 who accounted for the majority of new HIV infections in 2010. This review sought to better understand what is known and the gaps regarding HIV infections among African American women 25-44 of previously incarcerated partners in state of federal prisons. The goal was to explore literature that found a link between the incidences of HIV infection in African American women 25-44 with a previously incarcerated partner. This review assists in investigating the link between incarcerations, poverty, race, and rates of HIV infections in African American women.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this integrated literature review was to correlate the benefits of exercise post breast cancer diagnosis and treatment to improved health outcomes. METHODOLOGY: Two thirds of breast cancer patients report cancer complications that linger for many years after diagnosis and treatment. This could be because exercise is not an integral part of the treatment regimen. Although healthcare providers may tell breast cancer survivors to go home, exercise, and eat a well-balanced diet, deconditioning of the body continues to occur as a side effect of treatment. Thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not good enough! While 90% of breast cancer survivors need rehabilitative care, fewer than 30% are receiving the needed care. Of the literature reviewed, most patients and healthcare providers are unaware of this vital resource. Dates of literature reviewed occurred from September, 2012- March , 2014. Key search words for this literature review included: breast cancer, rehabilitative care, exercise, side effects, community based exercise programs, and health outcomes.

METHODS: The search strategy implemented included the use of CINAHL and ProQuest. Key words were HIV/AIDS and incarceration, African American women and HIV/AIDS, HIV prevention, HIV/AIDS and African American males, and HIV testing in prisons. Criteria for review included the following: (a) studies that used either quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods; (b) studies that examined HIV transmission in state and federal prisons; and (c) studies that examined HIV transmission in African American women.

RESULTS: The benefits of an exercise regimen attached to a survivorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s plan of care was clearly documented but not mandated in the literature. According to this literature review, exercise pans housed under rehabilitative care are covered by health insurance. For plans not covered by health insurance community based exercise programs are free of cost and have positive outcomes for survivors. CONCLUSIONS: The outcomes of rehabilitative care in the literature supported an increased survival rate and decreased reoccurrence in breast cancer survivors in the group reviewed. It is plausible to conclude that such findings could be replicated if rehabilitative regimens included exercise and were offered to appropriate women.

RESULTS: Findings suggest that incarceration is not a solitary link between HIV and the increased incidence of HIV in African American women. In the research reviewed education, access to healthcare and financial resources impact HIV incidence. CONCLUSION: The African American community needs to be a target area for HIV transmission reduction with the use of education, job training, and increased HIV testing.

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IMPACT OF RANGE OF MOTION EXERCISE ON PVD-RELATED INEFFECTIVE TISSUE PERFUSION D. Reynolds, A. Compton, M. Baldwin. R. Muze RN PhD. School of Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Group; acompton112@rams.wssu.edu muzeru@wssu.edu PURPOSE: Approximately 5% of patients that are over 50 have peripheral vascular disease and 12-20% of patients over 60 have PVD. A 59 year old male patient presented to our unit with a history of PVD. As a result of PVD the patient lost all of his right toes from gangrene. Our teaching goal was to educate the client on the importance of active ROM and the importance of complying with their medication regime. The expected outcome was that the patient will have increased circulation to the lower legs indicating tissue perfusion and increased supply of oxygen to the affected tissues. METHODS: To accomplish our goal, we used visual aids, including charts, and anatomical pictures of muscles and bones to create an atmosphere that can enhance learning the importance of exercises. These included circulatory system pictures displaying body circulation and demonstration of assessing capillary refill in the toes and hands. RESULTS: Our patient was quite receptive to the teaching and actively participated in the education. He was able to perform reverse demonstration of checking his leg circulation, feel peripheral pulses, and capillary refill by studying the picture that was taught to him. He was able to identify signs of improved peripheral vascular flow. Our patient successfully performed reverse demonstrations of active range of motion exercises including ankle pumps in bed, and identified reasons for complying to the prescribed medication.

PROTECTIVE FACTORS: TEENAGE PREGNANCY PREVENTION IN AFRICAN AMERICAN GIRLS AGES 11-16 N. Richardson and T. Tyson. Department of Health Sciences, Division of Nursing; nrichardson112@rams.wssu.edu, tysonta@wssu.edu, dodsonch@wssu.edu. PURPOSE: Teenage pregnancy has disproportionately affected teens in the African American community. The use of protective factors: Educational aspirations, mentoring, and communication are explored as viable interventions to close this disparity. METHODS: Thirty-one research articles were reviewed and included single randomized, single descriptive and anecdotal studies. RESULTS: Protective factors when cultivated and applied in a teenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life can serve as a protective mechanism in the reduction of pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Working together as a team; teenagers, their parents, and the nurse practitioner are paramount in the reduction of teen pregnancy.

No funding was provided for this scholarly project.

CONCLUSION: For continued impact of active range of motion teaching, we recommend repeated and reinforced teaching by health care providers.

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FACTORS THAT DECREASE/ INCREASE SYMPTOMS OF ASTHMA WITH PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES IN ADOLESCSENTS

INTEGRATIVE LITERATURE REVIEW: SAFETY AND THE COMMUNITY DWELLING GERIATRICS

R. D. Riddick, S. R. Brathwaite, M. Hodge. Division of Nursing; rriddick110@rams.wssu.edu, hodgema@wssu.edu.

A. Sheets & C. Holland. Division of Nursing; aneal749@rams.wssu.edu, hollandc@wssu.edu.

PURPOSE: The purpose for this literature review is to examine strategies that have been most effective in increasing or decreasing physical activity among asthmatic adolescents. Also to explore the different interventions implemented to improve the effectiveness of these interventions. The review of the literature identified explicate predominant concepts in the factors that increase and decrease physical activity symptoms of asthma in adolescents. Also the barriers that adolescents with asthma have related to physical activity and how it affects their quality of life. Asthma control and quality-of-life were simultaneously assessed in several studies. The barrier in the QOL that adolescents have when it relates to asthma in several studies reviewed was productivity loss, and activity impairment due to asthma. METHODS: An integrative review of the literature which was obtained from computerized database searches (CINAHL, CDC, ProQuest), peer reviewed, research articles Portable Document Format (PDF), English, and published date 2006 - 2012. Studies that were included focused on physical activity levels in adolescents with asthma. Key words used in the search engine were adolescence, asthma, physical, activity, and exercise. It generated a total of 13,686 studies and out of them 60 was selected. RESULTS: Showed that when overall goals for therapy were the same for all individuals with asthma they would be able to prevent troublesome symptoms and recurrent exacerbations and maintain normal or near normal lung function and activity levels while minimizing adverse effects.

PURPOSE: According to the Administration on Aging the census of the geriatric population, persons age 65 and older, was approximately 41.4 million people in 2011. This number is estimated to double over the next 20 years. The purpose of this literature review is to review current research with the main focus being on maintaining safety among the community dwelling geriatric population. Areas of safety that will be explored are falls, wandering/dementia, medication adherence, automobile safety, and nutritional safety. METHODS: An electronic search was conducted in the following databases: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Google Scholars, and ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health. Only 30 articles were used in this literature review and all articles used were retrieved from CINAHL. Articles reviewed were research-based, peer reviewed and published between 2006-2013. RESULTS: The results of this literature review were eleven articles on falls, four articles on safety in dementia, 3 studies on medication adherence, three studies on geriatric drivers, four studies on malnutrition, and five studies on home modification for safety. CONCLUSION: There are many safety concerns that can impact the community dwelling geriatric patient and many interventions that health care providers should implemented in practice.

CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity is one of the main methods in reducing asthma in adolescents.

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OBESITY: CONTRIBUTING FACRORS TO OBESITY IN AFRICAN AMERICAN CHILDREN WITHIN THE UNITED STATES

MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSION IN AFRICAN AMERICANS: A LITERATURE REVIEW D.M. Towery, M.A. Hodge, S. Pierce. Division of Nursing; dtowery110@rams.wssu.edu; hodgema@wssu.edu

Tashlyn L. Thomas, RN, BSN, FNP(s) AND Daphne K. Sharpe RN, DNP, FNP-BC. Department of Nursing; tthomas110@rams.wssu.edu PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature as it relates to the common causes of childhood obesity within the African American population, highlighting management strategies and their effectiveness as well as identifying relevant research gaps. The target population for this literature review is African American children with an age range of two to twelve years. The female African American children will compare with the males as well as the race of the Non-Hispanic Whites. Family attributes and income vary amongst African-Americans and whites, which has a great impact on consumer behavior (Podolsky et al., 2007). METHOD: 15 research articles chosen in this review of the literature which examine the relationship between obesity in African American children and factors such as physical inactivity, socioeconomic status, media influence, and food availability. Sample population students in kindergarten, third, and tenth grades. Overall, 36 elementary schools, 12 middle schools and 10 high schools, were involved in the evaluation process. A cluster sampling technique was utilized, examining the height and weight of the students (Vieweg, Johnston, Lanier, Fernandez, & Pandurangi, 2007). Public health nurses completed anthropometric measurements using electronic scales for student weight and stadiometers for height. The Nustat module of Epi Info was utilized in order to enter the data. Once calculated students were placed into one of the following categories: underweight (<5th percentile), normal weight (>5th and < 85th BMI percentile), risk for overweight (>85th and <95th percentile, overweight > 95th percentile. The data was examined by further categorization based on age, sex, race, grade, and race stratified by sex. Elementary and middle school children who received free or low cost lunches were identified as low socioeconomic status. High school students were assessed as low socioeconomic status, based on their family per capita income data from the 2000 Census (Vieweg et al., 2007).

The purpose of this scholarly project is to ascertain the management of hypertension in African Americans. The development of effective interventions for promoting hypertensive control among African Americans is imperative to decrease cardiovascular risk among this population. Major findings in this integrated literature review include: the impact of faith-based organizations on African Americans, the improvement of physician/patient communication, willingness and ability of individuals adherence and evaluation of trust of medical providers among African American people. This review of literature provided a foundation to indicate that patients are more receptive to listening and receiving treatment when they can relate to the interviewer providing the information. The research indicates that the older African American women are more apt to follow a medication regimen to manage hypertension than younger counterparts. Hypertension may be more manageable if education is provided at an earlier age. CONCLUSION: In order to experience a reduction in medical costs and prevalence, one must consider making the investment now in education to successfully manage hypertension in the future.

RESULTS: Results of the data show that there needs to be more research conducted to develop appropriate interventions to treat obesity in African American children. Research was limited on how genetics affects African America childhood obesity.

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ELDER ABUSE AND NEGLECT: A LITERATURE REVIEW V.Vang, RN, BSN, C. Cody-Connor , PHD, RN, APN, S. Thornton, Ed. MS, MED, LNC. School of Health Sciences â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Division of Nursing; vvang109@rams.wssu.edu; connorcc@wssu.edu PURPOSE: Elder abuse and neglect has been a problem that has been on the rise for decades but still underreported. The purpose of this project is to conduct a literature review on the reasons for elder abuse and neglect, characteristics of the abusers, and the most common types of abuse. METHODS: Thirty-one articles were reviewed that were associated with elder abuse and neglect. The participants in the articles ranged from 57-104 years old. All ethnic groups and both male and female were included. RESULTS: The most common reasons for elder abuse and neglect were due to caregiver burden and stress. Most abusers were found to be male caregivers. The majority of them had mental health problems and physical abuse dominated the different types of abuse that took place in the elderly population. CONCLUSION: Exploring the details of why abuse and neglect occurs, characteristics of abusers, and most common forms of abuse will help identify and assist with early intervention.

FACTORS INFLUENCING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN AFRCIAN AMERICAN WOMEN L. D. Williams, D. Sherrod, T. Mauldin. Division of Nursing; lwillams112@rams.wssu.edu. PROBLEM: The problem that African American women face today is having inadequate knowledge about cardiovascular disease (CVD), the associated risk factors, and how they can be adjusted to prevent the burden of illness. PURPOSE: The purpose of this scholarly project was to conduct an integrative literature review of factors influencing CVD in African American women. The emphasis of the research was to identify risk factors associated with CVD and knowledge required to increase health-promoting behaviors to reduce susceptibility to CVD. FINDINGS: Thirty articles were reviewed and the factors identified factors influencing CVD in African American women were obesity, lack of knowledge, smoking, diet, diagnosis of hypertension and diabetes, and a positive family history of CVD. Increasing the knowledge and awareness in African American women in regards to CVD can significantly reduce associated behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular disease in African American women continues to rise greatly worldwide. By applying health promotion programs, encouraging physical activity, and increasing awareness of behaviors associated with CVD can help prevent modifiable risk factors. Community health fairs that provide blood pressure screening, BMI measurements, assessing for diabetes detection, and high cholesterol can provide the individual with base line information. Physical activity such as swimming, bicycle riding, or a brisk daily walk for at least 30 minutes daily can help decrease the risk for CVD. For risk factors that are nonmodifiable, yearly physical examinations with education is the key. By providing education in regards to lifestyle changes such as incorporating healthier food choices in their diets, increasing physical activity daily, and maintaining a healthy weight can lower African American womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s risks of CVD.

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PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AS A COPD MANAGEMENT STRATEGY Catrina Worthy-Feaster and D. Sherrod. Master of Science in Nursing Program; cworthyfeaster111@rams.wssu.edu PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of physical activity interventions on males and females 6575 years of age diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Articles were retrieved from the CDC, PubMed, ProQuest, CINAHL, and Medline databases. Studies in English published from 2009-2013 were included if they focused on interventions to increase physical activity in COPD clients. Search terms included “COPD,” “physical activity and COPD,” and “interventions for COPD.” RESULTS: Walking interventions yielded the greatest benefit. Walking at least 1,200-8,800 steps per day for 20 to 30 minutes, at least three to four days a week is recommended. Patients experienced increases in endurance, lung capacity, lower leg muscle strength, along with less dyspnea and fatigue. Patients preferred walking because they were able to perform this intervention without worries of cost and walking was less strenuous. CONCLUSION: Physical activity of walking at least 1,2008,800 steps per day for 20 to 30 minutes, at least three to four days a week is recommended for individuals diagnosed with COPD. A decline of physical activity among individuals with COPD places them at risk for increased complications and exacerbations related to inactivity. Steps per day are a simple metric of physical activity that is meaningful to persons trying to increase their activity and is recommended for patients with COPD.

PATIENT/FAMILY EDUCATION: IMPACT OF LEWY BODY DEMENTIA ON PATIENT SAFETY A.J. Wright, N. Widener, J. Brown. P. Bradley, RN, MSN, Faculty Advisor. School of Health Sciences. Division of Nursing; awright112@rams.wssu.edu, bradleypb@wssu.edu. BACKGROUND: 81 yr. old female diagnosed with Lewy Body Dementia had a past medical history of peripheral artery disease, hypertension, coronary artery disease, venous thromboembolism, general anxiety disorder, and chronic diarrhea. Our teaching goal was for the patient, and or her sister, to demonstrate sufficient knowledge of her illness through verbal repetition or physical demonstration. Given her current and past medical history, theoretical, our teaching was guided by the Nursing Diagnosis ‘High Fall Risk, and Self-Care Deficit’. METHODS: To accomplish our goal, we used verbal discussions, visual displays, print outs and demonstration of constructive communication skills. RESULTS: Given the patient’s declining mental status, all education and teaching focused on the family care giver. The caregiver demonstrated full understanding of the techniques of passive and active range of motion exercises, its impact on increasing circulation, and communication skills that encouraging patient cooperation. Along with our patient teaching, we consulted for possible Home Health care for continuous monitoring in order to reduce fall risk and injuries. In addition, physical therapy arranged with the family, would provide the client rehabilitation to enhance her strength and ambulatory abilities for when she returns home. CONCLUSION: Patient teaching can be an essential and powerful weapon if used strategically to enhance the knowledge of the patient and the family. Integrated in routine patient care and discharge planning, patient and family education can help to facilitate quality health and reduce complications.

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Notes

Special thanks is extended to the members of the 2014 Scholars Day Planning Committee. Mike McKenzie, Chair

David Kump

London Mickle

Amber Debono

Andy Meixner

Dawn Henderson

Vanesa Duren-Winfield

Paul McAuley

Wanda Lawrence

Clay Harshaw

The committee accepted the broad charge of designing an event to celebrate scholarship at Winston Salem State University and created a substantive program with very broad participation. I commend their effort and congratulate them on a wonderful product. Brenda Allen, Provost and Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs


WSSU Scholars Day 2014