India in a Time of Globlization: A Photo Essay by Indian Youth
A project of WKCD and Adobe Youth Voices, edited by Barbara Cervone "How do you make the camera snap?” asked 14-year-old Prakash, a student at Government High School-Cotton Pet in Bangalore. Over the next several months, Prakash and his classmates in Bangalore, along with some 30 youth in New Delhi, took close to 5,000 photographs capturing daily life around them. They also gathered over 50 interviews. India in a Time of Globalization provides a unique window into the push and pull Indians face as their country becomes a global power.
INDIA IN A TIME OF GLOBALIZATION A PHOTO ESSAY BY INDIAN YOUTH NEXT GENERATION PRESS India in a Time of Globalization A Photo Essay by Indian Youth a project of adobe youth voices and what kids can do, inc. Edited by Barbara Cervone India in a Time of Globalization India in a Time of Globalization A Photo Essay by Indian Youth a project of adobe youth voices and what kids can do Edited by Barbara Cervone Providence, Rhode Island Contents Copyright © 2007 by What Kids Can Do, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, in any form, without written permission from the publisher. foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1x introduction contrasts echoes ................................................3 ....................................................9 Printed in Hong Kong by South Sea International Press, Ltd. Distributed by National Book Network, Lanham, Maryland ISBN 0-9762706-9-2 CIP data available. Book design by Sandra Delany. Next Generation Press, a not-for-profit book publisher, brings forward the voices and vision of adolescents on their own lives, learning, and work. With a particular focus on youth without economic privilege, Next Generation Press raises awareness of young people as a powerful force for social justice. Next Generation Press, P.O. Box 603252, Providence, Rhode Island 02906 U.S.A. www.nextgenerationpress.org 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 everyday moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 maps of india . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 . . . . . . 76 acknowledgments about adobe youth voices and wkcd Foreword T he youth photographers whose work you will see in this book are part of a new generation of young people willing and eager to change their world for the better. These young people are contributing hope, creativity and a fresh perspective on their communities. We are very proud to present this photo essay book to you as part of the first year of our global philanthropy initiative, Adobe Youth Voices. Through our collaboration with What Kids Can Do and other youth media organizations, Adobe has created a global network of educators and youth program leaders who are empowering youth to engage with their communities by sharing their ideas, concerns and aspirations through the use of cutting-edge multimedia tools. By encouraging youth to explore issues they care about and enabling them to bring their perspectives to life, Adobe Youth Voices is empowering these youth to think creatively, communicate effectively and work collaboratively – critical skills for the 21st century, for school, career and life. By harnessing the energy and innate sense of optimism of youth, and empowering them to express themselves, Adobe Youth Voices aims to inspire a dialogue for change in their communities. It seems fitting and important to enlist the next generation as social documenters of a changing India in this time of rapid globalization. They come with an open mind and fresh opinions – and this is the world they are inheriting. foreword vii This new generation is growing up in a digital age, creating possibilities never imagined before. They are not only the consumers of content, but also creators. The photos and interviews in this book, all from students, are a stunning example of the power of young people as producers of new knowledge in today’s digital world. Young people have lots to say. . . it’s time for us to listen. Introduction H ow do you make the camera snap? ” asked 14-year-old Prakash, a student at Government High School-Cotton Pet in Bangalore. “I have never known a camera before,” he told us, with his teacher translating into English from Kannada, the city’s most common language. Over the next several days, Prakash and his classmates took close to 2,000 photographs with the digital cameras we gave them, capturing daily life in their neighborhood and in the city’s largest open market and park. Just minutes after learning how to “snap,” the students were producing photos that took our breath away. An 87-year-old Naresh Gupta Senior Vice President (PCPBU) & Managing Director, Adobe India Ann Lewnes Senior Vice President Corporate Marketing great-grandmother doing her family’s laundry in the small courtyard of their school. Pushcart workers straining in front of the Krishna Rajendra market. A vegetable seller taking an afternoon nap. A finely dressed family picnicking in Cubbon Park. These new young photographers in Bangalore were part of a larger documentary photo project, which What Kids Can Do (WKCD) carried out in 2006 and 2007 with student teams in Noida and New Delhi, generously supported by Adobe Systems Incorporated and its international initiative, Adobe Youth Voices. Students at Noida Public Senior Secondary School spent the year gathering photographs and interviews that showed the contrasts globalization now produces at every turn in India: between old and new, Eastern and Western, rich and poor, traditional and viii india in a time of globalization introduction ix progressive, multinational and local. Animals from a traveling circus grazing next to a shiny mega-mall. A corporate lawyer whose career has blossomed with the globalized economy. A freight-forwarder who feels engulfed by the demands of a 24 / 7 world. In New Delhi, youth leaders in the Bal Panchayat program of Plan InternationalIndia took cameras to the slum neighborhoods they know intimately, putting a human face to their passionate campaign for children’s rights in India. A mother bathing a contented infant. A girl fetching water from a pump, against a backdrop of rags. An eleven-year-old boy carrying a bag as big as he is. Two young friends with joyous smiles. All told, students snapped more than 5,000 photographs by our project’s end. They got as close to their subjects as they dared – which was often very close. They brought to their work the eagerness and fresh vision of youth. Though each group had its own assignment, which yielded its own multimedia products, we thought that this remarkable mosaic of images belonged together in a book. India in a Time of Globalization is the result. Students took all the photographs in this book. The accompanying text by WKCD, mostly for the benefit of Western readers, combines our own research with the perspectives of the youth and educators who worked with us. In some instances, we include direct quotes from the interviews students gathered as part of the project. Throughout, we sought a balance between fact and interpretation, between what seemed interesting to non-Indians and what felt true to our Indian collaborators. The challenges India faces as a rising global power are as immense as its population of 1.12 billion, one-sixth of the world’s people. “We are a country of contradictions,” said one student from New Delhi. “We are the world’s oldest democracy, but we are divided by caste. We are one of the world’s fastest growing economies, but one of its poorest. We are filled with national pride, but see so much that needs correction.” India in a Time of Globalization, we hope, gives a glimpse of the complexities of Indian life, at a time when understanding among the world’s people, young and old, could not matter more. Barbara Cervone, President What Kids Can Do, Inc. Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.A. x india in a time of globalization introduction xi Contrasts C ontrasting images show up everywhere in today’s India. Turn onto a city street, whether in Delhi or Bangalore. Buses, trucks, cars, rickshaws, pedes- trians, pushcarts, and cows all share the road, surrendering the right of way at one moment and blaring horns at the next. Other contrasts are not quite so loud. In front of a store selling mobile phones, a sidewalk vender sells vegetables. In a 24-hour pharmacy, Ayurvedic medicine and aspirin share the shelves. It’s not that one is giving way to the other, West replacing East or modern ending traditional. Rather they co-exist, side by side. “Combining different worlds and cultures at the same time, this is today and this is our future,” says 15-year-old Ashish. “New and old, we try to balance.” contrasts 1 In India, mega-malls have become a symbol for globalization and wealth. From this busy Noida street, eager customers enter the shiny three-level Spice World Mall. Spread over 1.5 million square feet, it contains dozens of stores and a multiplex cinema with eight screens. Just a few steps away, animals from a small traveling circus graze in the rocks and dirt of an open field. Not very long ago, traveling circuses like this were a big event, employing as many as a thousand people and attracting huge crowds.1 2 india in a time of globalization contrasts 3 Sitting on the sidewalk in the Cotton Pet sector, near downtown Bangalore, a woman makes and sells masala dosa, a pancake with spicy vegetables and sauce. Traditional street foods like this cost a fraction of the food sold in restaurants – and attract a steady flow of customers. Pizza is a new food option. Pizza Hut came to India in 1996 with a restaurant in Bangalore, and now has branches in many Indian cities. Pizza-topping choices match local food preferences, like chicken tikkas, lamb korma, and tandoori. Kentucky Fried Chicken and McDonald’s are popular, too. 4 india in a time of globalization contrasts 5 Delhi is one of three Indian cities with a subway system, opened in 2002 and expanding each year. By 2021, planners expect it to carry 10.8 million passengers a day over distances averaging 15 kilometers. For now, buses provide 90 percent of public transport – for those with patience and the money for a ticket.2 For shorter trips, bicycle-rickshaws offer Indians of all ages and social classes efficient, pollution-free transport. For some students, these pedal-powered vehicles take the place of a school bus. But they share the road with fast-moving mixed traffic, a danger to all. Delhi’s master plan for 2021 calls for special lanes for cycle-rickshaws.3 6 india in a time of globalization contrasts 7 Still, one finds oases of green. Here, bamboo trees form a canopy in Bangalore’s 250-acre Cubbon Park. India has the second-largest reserve of bamboo in the world, next to China. On two wheels, four, or more – when drivers clog city streets like this one in downtown Bangalore, tempers and fumes rise. The number of vehicles across India is growing 5 percent a year and now stands at over 40 million. Congestion and air pollution threaten to destroy the quality of life in most Indian cities, despite stricter standards on exhaust and fuel.4 Bamboo is environmentally friendly (it grows easily and fast) and has become a popular replacement for wood. Indian economists regard it as “green gold” that could play a key role in the country’s economy.5 8 india in a time of globalization contrasts 9 Five minutes away, women browse in a toy store filled with stuffed animals and other playthings from around the world. India had 500 such stand-alone toy stores in 2007, and retail associations expect that number to triple by 2010.6 From a busy Noida street, people turn onto a pedestrian lane lined with small shops and stalls offering goods and services. This variety store, of which there are many thousands across India, offers household items like candles or batteries, along with snacks. 10 india in a time of globalization contrasts 11 The majority of Indian females wear the traditional sari or salwar kameez, colorful draped outfits made of silk or cotton. But Indian males, especially in the cities, have long worn Western clothing. In this small market in Noida, inexpensive jackets and pants await local shoppers. Elsewhere, street stalls sell surplus clothing from the US, an affordable option in a country where the per capita income in 2005 was Rs 12,416 ($286 USD).7 India’s rising young professionals, on the other hand, seek sophisticated styles. This billboard advertises fresh fashion for men at the Great India Place mall. The retailer, Pantaloon Limited, began as a small garment manufacturer in 1987, with its own brand of jeans called “Bare.” It is now the country’s number one retailer, with stores across India.8 12 india in a time of globalization contrasts 13 These music CDs, hanging at a nearby stand, strike a different note. The biggest form of Indian pop music is filmi, or songs from Indian musical films. India’s best-known music store, Planet M, gets about 15,000 visitors a week. 9 Framed art portraying favorite deities finds a place in the homes of Indians of all social classes, and in offices of all sorts. Here, craftsmen make frames by hand in a store that has passed through three generations. 14 india in a time of globalization contrasts 15 Echoes I n the visual kaleidoscope of present-day India, the similarities between images – what one student called “echoes” – can be as striking as the contrasts. These echoes often reveal themselves in photographs. The apples stacked in pyramids at one marketplace stand may mirror the cones shaped from face powders at another; signs and scenes might run in parallel. These pages present some of those echoes, whether they are colors and shapes that go together, services that pair up, or private and public worlds that support each other. In 21st century India, old and new, Eastern and Western sometimes show up in the same breath. Who would have thought that samosas, a fried dumpling originating in the tenth century, go better with Coke? The Coca-Cola company has 52 bottling plants in India, causing some communities to protest that the Coke plants are using more than their fair share of water, a scarce resource.10 16 india in a time of globalization echoes 17 In the Cotton Pet sector of Bangalore, B. R. Ambedkar looks out from a large billboard. Ambedkar, who came from India’s lowest caste, rose to become a famous jurist and scholar and spent his life working for economic and social justice. He wrote the text of India’s Constitution, which was adopted in 1949, and has been revered by many ever since. Fifty meters away, India’s movie industry advertises its own action figure – in this case, a man of violence, not peace. The Indian film industry, born in the 1930s, is the largest in the world in terms of ticket sales and the number of films produced annually. Its bestknown product is “Bollywood,” Hindi-language movies that often combine melodrama and music.11 18 india in a time of globalization echoes 19 These buildings in central Bangalore date to the nineteenth century. Indian architectural features like the stupa (temple mound), sikhara (temple spire), and pagoda (temple tower) have become widespread in Southeast and East Asia as symbols of Hindu culture. A student snapped this photo from the window of a bus. A traveling exposition in Noida takes the “global village” as its theme, promoting the architecture, crafts, cultures, and cuisines of different countries. The Times of India newspaper brought these architectural replicas from Dubai to Noida for a month. Another student snapped this picture through a bus window, too. 20 india in a time of globalization echoes 21 With 154,000 post offices, India has the biggest government postal service in the world. (China is next, with 57,000.) Stamped letters and small packages go into these large barrels, to be picked up by the Indian Postal Service and distributed within Delhi and countrywide. In rural areas, the post office also acts as a bank, offering financial services like savings accounts. 12 Today’s business world has little patience, though, for slow-moving mail. DHL, the global leader in international express mail, is booming in India, with over 30,000 commercial customers and 250 vehicles.13 Private couriers like DHL extract a high price, however. It costs Rs 1,220 ($30 USD) to express mail a 170-gram (8 ounce) letter or package from Delhi to New York City. 22 india in a time of globalization echoes 23 In a New Delhi neighborhood, a mural painted by youth from Bal Panchayat asks, “How safe are your children?” It cautions parents against fighting or smoking in front of their children or leaving them alone, and against hazards like exposing children to hanging electrical wires. In central Bangalore, a government-sponsored billboard warns: “Liquor starts as joy but ends as destruction. The easiest path to the doorstep of DEATH is alcohol.” While diseases like malaria, typhoid, and diarrhea continue to afflict India, as they do all of South Asia, alcohol abuse is a rising health concern. 24 india in a time of globalization echoes 25 Fruit venders in this Bangalore market follow an age-old practice, stacking their fruits in a pyramid. India produces 14 percent of the world’s fruit and vegetables.14 Fruit is a significant part of the Asian diet and is usually eaten as a dessert with lunch or dinner. Indians enjoy fruit not only for its sweetness and juice, but also for its healthful qualities. Many Hindus adorn their faces with bright powders, which in market stalls are shaped into cones like these. Placed as a dot between the eyebrows, the bindi is said to retain energy and strengthen concentration, as well as protect against bad luck. Traditionally, it also indicates a person’s religious beliefs, position in society, or marital status.15 26 india in a time of globalization echoes 27 Work G India is the birthplace of Hinduism and it echoes throughout daily life in India. Many Hindu homes include a sacred space for worshiping the gods. It may be large and impressive or simply a tiny corner. During puja (prayers), the god or goddess is believed to be present within the home, protecting the family and promising a positive future.16 In Hindu temples, lifelike images called murtis – made of granite or marble – provide a direct link to the deity. They also embody qualities to which their worshippers aspire. Murtis are made according to strict prescriptions and then installed by highly trained priests in a ceremony.17 lobalization has transformed the work lives of many Indians. For others, little has changed. For some, it feels like the new economy has made their life harder than ever. “We fear that globalization will widen the gap between rich and poor,” says 14-year- old Shashank. “In my opinion, it is the businessman and multinational company that are benefiting most. The people with smaller jobs, like an auto-rickshaw driver or a small shopkeeper, they are benefiting the least.” 28 india in a time of globalization work 29 India is a country of small retailers, with fifteen million shops for over one billion people. They are part of the “informal economy,” which accounts for 90 percent of India’s labor force. T.S. Nanda owns a stationery shop in a small Noida market. “I like selling stationery goods,” he says. “I get about fifty customers a day.” 19 18 With the technology boom in India, hundreds of private computer institutes have opened up. Shailesh Kumar has taught computer education since 1998. The Internet, he says, has affected his teaching and his students. “We come across new subjects and new techniques to teach the students,” he says. “Depth of knowledge about any subject is possible, so a teacher can help a student know the details of his queries. With online courses, students are free to choose their subjects and their careers.” 20 30 india in a time of globalization work 31 Sewing skills offer a way for men and women with little education to make a small income, since most clothing in India is still hand cut and sewn. Independent tailors of inexpensive clothes often set up shop on the sidewalk or in a storefront. Yusuf has worked as a tailor for 18 years. “I sew only gents’ clothes, shirts and pants,” he says. “This small machine is my living.” The rent he must pay for his tiny “boutique” keeps rising. 21 While India’s share in the world animation market is fairly small, the potential is large. Digital graphics are part of a new wave in film and television. “When you see a news channel, you see the person who is telling you the news,” explains Kanhaiya Krishna Kumar, an animator with Sahara India Television. “You see lots of things on the scroll bar, going up and down – the segment name, the program name. Those things, I do in graphics.”22 32 india in a time of globalization work 33 For many young Indians, jobs in call centers promise a secure salary and English practice. But the hours are hard. A call center worker in Delhi explains: “I work five days a week, from 5:30 in the evening till 4:00 a.m. [This is 7:00 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. in New York City.] All night I work. In the morning I sleep from 5:00 or 5:30 a.m. and wake up at 2:00 p.m. I get ready for my office, and my cab arrives at 4:30 p.m. My lifestyle has changed completely.”23 Radiologists in India are in great demand. “My department has been equipped with the latest technology,” Dr. Kanchan Verma at Kailash Hospital says. “All our machines are calibrated in such a way that they give minimum radiation, but the image quality is not compromised. They provide beautiful images, and it is safe for the patient.”24 A worldwide shortage of radiologists has led hospitals in the United States, Europe, Singapore, and the Middle East to turn to India for “off-shore” X-ray reporting services.25 34 india in a time of globalization work 35 For generations, Indians have shopped for food and groceries at open markets and from street venders. This vender specializes in dried chili peppers and rice. Another spice vender explains: “Our spices are sourced from rich soils. I also sell a secret mix of masala (a blend of spices) and curry powder. The Indian people, they like food with sweet aromas.” Over 90 percent of all women workers in India are vegetable and garment venders, in-home seamstresses, bidi (cigarette) rollers, paper pickers, construction workers, incense stick makers, and agricultural workers. An organization called the Self-Employed Women’s Association seeks to help vegetable sellers, like this woman, form cooperatives and bargain for a living wage.26 36 india in a time of globalization work 37 The auto-rickshaw business provides a major source of employment in India and a chief form of transport for medium distances. “From childhood, I wanted to become a pilot,” says Kailash Mishra, who had to give up this dream to find employment in Delhi. “Twelve years now I have been working as an auto-driver in this area. I am completely satisfied. It is a good place, and there is a lot of work to do. And for me, an auto-driver is also a pilot.” 27 Street venders, like this man selling handmade brooms, make up two percent of India’s urban population. They provide cheap goods to the poor, but are not recognized legally as workers. “Lucky days are few and far between,” says one street hawker. “Some days, I make no sales. Some see me as a troublemaker who causes congestion. I say I am just trying to feed my family, the only way I can.”28 38 india in a time of globalization work 40 Anand Prasand is a corporate lawyer in Delhi, practicing a kind of law foreign to India fifteen years ago. “Before the opening of the Indian economy in 1991, the work we now do in corporate law did not exist in India,” he says. “Global business involves contracts that cross borders, which was not permitted then. Now, foreign companies make investments in India, or set up a transport relation with them, or make an acquisition of an Indian company. And Indian companies are also doing their business outside of India.”29 India employs two million teachers. Seventy percent teach in rural schools, 85 percent teach at the primary or middle level, and 21 percent are women.30 Rita Rana has been teaching English and social studies for 25 years. Teaching is a “noble job and it is good for women because women have a noble heart,” she says. “We have to take the student carefully. We have to have a lot of patience. These days, things like media and mobile phones can have some bad effects on the students. Teachers need to give the right path, the right guidelines.” 31 40 india in a time of globalization work 41 Everyday Moments A s people go about their daily lives , they often show us more about their country than any statistics can. In these photographs, students caught such unguarded moments, giving us a glimpse of everyday India. For all the talk of globalization, daily life has changed little for most Indians. The majority still struggle to make ends meet. They sacrifice one thing to have another, like food for a mobile phone. They enjoy small pleasures when they can. They live day to day. Banti Singh, age 21, has worked as a shoemaker for five years. “I learned making shoes from my father; it’s a family occupation,” he says. Has the growing popularity of machine-made shoes and sneakers affected his work? “No, we are not affected by it. We are artists, we can make any type of shoe. We are designers, we can make shoes to order. Factory-made shoes have their own place in the market and we have our place. People can make their choice. But I think handmade things are better. They are long-lasting.”32 42 india in a time of globalization e v e ry day m o m e n t s 43 Fetching clean water from a public truck . . . and enjoying a cold drink on a hot day. 44 india in a time of globalization e v e ry day m o m e n t s 46 Catching a quick lunch on a work day . . . and picnicking in the park on summer holiday. 46 india in a time of globalization e v e ry day m o m e n t s 47 Doing the family laundry at age eighty-seven . . . and at age seven. 48 india in a time of globalization e v e ry day m o m e n t s 49 Taking an afternoon nap on park benches . . . and at the central market. 50 india in a time of globalization e v e ry day m o m e n t s 51 Socializing at the public water fountain . . . and while sorting curry leaves. 52 india in a time of globalization e v e ry day m o m e n t s 53 Making friends in school . . . and around the neighborhood. 54 india in a time of globalization e v e ry day m o m e n t s 55 Studying for an exam . . . and playing volleyball during recess. 56 india in a time of globalization e v e ry day m o m e n t s 57 Children A Sitting and passing the time. country’s well-being is often measured by the well-being of its children. Usually, we turn to statistics to tell the story, describing education levels, health, poverty and exploitation, equality between boys and girls, access to opportunities. In India, these statistics offer hope along with despair. “We have lots of problems like child labor, poverty, discrimination with the girl child,” says Savita, a university student who works with the Child Rights Information Centre in New Delhi. “But these days, the government and other groups are fighting to remove these problems.” And behind the statistics lie hearts. Rich or poor, urban or rural, children thrive when they feel they belong and they matter, to their family and their friends. 58 india in a time of globalization children 59 With almost 40 percent of India’s population under the age of eighteen, education is a national priority. Since 1986, India’s Constitution has called for free and compulsory education up to the age of fourteen. In 2005, 72 percent of Indian children attended primary school, which serves ages five to eleven. (Ninety percent were enrolled.)33 Keeping poor children in school remains a challenge, however. Among the poorest 20 percent of Indian children, one-third did not attend primary school in 2000. Two-thirds did not attend secondary school.34 Many poor families count on older siblings to look after younger ones and help with household chores. 60 india in a time of globalization children 61 Eleven percent of India’s population is under five; a mother’s love provides their best start in life. Still, 2006 figures show that 63 of every 1,000 newborn babies in India died in their first year of life. Most deaths resulted from low birth weight, birth injury, diarrhea, and upper respiratory tract infections.35 Over the past fifty years, the fertility rate in India dropped from 5.7 to 2.7 children per woman – a positive statistic. Population experts consider the ideal family size to be two children. For economic reasons, though, more Indian parents are choosing to have sons. Only 927 girls are born for every 1,000 boys, the latest figures from India show.36 62 india in a time of globalization children 63 Most Indian children do household chores every day. In poor neighborhoods, one often sees children filling containers with water from public pumps and carrying the water home to use for drinking, cooking, and washing. Some children stay home from school to help their families with this work. At this school in a poor neighborhood of Bangalore, a ninth-grade student brings coffee to his teachers and their foreign visitors. Students must pay fees to attend public secondary schools in India. This school, like many others, turns to local sponsors to pay for books, uniforms, and healthful lunches for students. 64 india in a time of globalization children 65 Recent laws in India ban children from working in factories, mines, and other dangerous jobs. However, as many as 44 million children ages five to fourteen years take work of any sort, often working twelve-hour days for little pay. Poverty, family debts, or the migration of their parents force them to do so.37 As in so many developing countries, the education of girls has lagged behind the education of boys in India. At the secondary level, the 2005 attendance rate for girls was 47 percent, versus 59 percent for boys.39 To combat these inequities and family preferences for sons, in 2005 the Indian government offered a free high school education to all girls of single-child families. 66 india in a time of globalization children 67 National and state board exams at the end of forms (grades) 10 and 12 determine which students will have a chance for further education. The pressure to do well is intense. With 250 universities and 8 million students, India has the world’s second-largest system of higher education – but the students enrolled account for barely 6 percent of the population of the relevant age group (compared to 60 to 70 percent in North America). New government investments in higher education should help. 39 Students with the fortune to continue their education hope for good positions in India’s new economy. Some want to work as engineers in the information technology sector. Some imagine a career in law or pharmaceuticals. Others want to start their own businesses. A few dream of fame as musicians or athletes. “I want to become a doctor to help poor people,” says Sapna, a 10th standard student at Noida Senior Public Secondary School. “I want to become a journalist,” says her classmate, Pratima. 68 india in a time of globalization children 69 These children gather for the camera in front of a friend’s doorway in Bangalore. Their home and streets are crowded, but the bonds among them are strong. This band of girls in blue lives in an ashram (a spiritual community) in southwestern India. Fights between local insurgents and the government have torn them from their families. Like their country, they are at a crossroads where challenge and hope meet. 70 india in a time of globalization children 71 Notes 1 20 Interview by Alok Anand, Noida Public Senior Secondary School, March 2007 Interview by Arti Kumari, Ashish Dhiman, and Sapna Chauhan, Noida Public Senior Secondary School, September 2007 Interview by Shanshank Verma, Noida Public Senior Secondary School, March 2007 Interview by Shikha Tyagi, Noida Public Senior Secondary School, March 2007 Interview by Alok Anand, Payal Chauhan, Sapna Chauhan, Nisha Maurya, and Shikha Tyagi, Noida Public Senior Secondary School, March 2007 “Now US Radiology Jobs for India,” March 28, 2006, http://www.rediff.com/money/2006/mar/ 28bpo.htm Interview with Ela Bhatt, Founder of the Self Employed Women’s Association (SEWA), http:// www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/ebhatt_int1. html Interview by Rahul Kothari, Noida Public Senior Secondary School, March 2007 “India’s Vendors: Silent Service Providers,” May 9, 2006, http://www.ipsterraviva.net/TV/ Bangkok/ viewstory.asp?idnews=623 Interview by Payal Chauhan, Ashish Dhiman, Pratima Mishra, Shikha Tyagi, and Shashank Verma, Noida Public Senior Secondary School, March 2007 30 21 Report of the Education Commission 964-66, Ministry of Education, http://www.education. nic.in/cd50years/g/Z/9G/0Z9G0A01.htm Interview by Arti Kumari and Ashish Dhiman, Noida Public Senior Secondary School, September 2007 Interview by Ashish Dhiman, Noida Public Senior Secondary School, October 2007 International Education Statistics, Friedrich Huebler, September 25, 2005, http://huebler.blogspot.com/ 2005/08/primary-school-attendance-in-india.html International Education Statistics, Friedrich Huebler, September 25, 2005, http://huebler.blogspot. com/ 2005/09/secondary-school-attendance-in-india.html UNICEF, 2005, http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/india_india_statistics.html UNICEF, State of the World’s Children, 2007, http://www.unicef.org/sowc07/index.php “India’s latest move to stop child labor,” Christian Science Monitor, October 10, 2006, http://www. csmonitor.com/2006/1010/p07s02-wosc.html UNICEF, 2005, http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/india_india_statistics.html “Higher Education in India – Seriously Challenged,” International Higher Education, Spring 2002, http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/soe/cihe/ newsletter/News27/text011.htm 31 “Circus culture is fast fading in India,” November 19, 2005, http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/9-182005-77048.asp “Urban Transport Crisis in India,” J. Puchera, N. Korattyswaropama, N. Mittala, N. Ittyerahb, Transport Policy 12 (2005) Delhi Development Authority, Master Plan for Delhi, 2021, http://www.dda.org.in/planning/ draft_master_plans.htm “Pollution challenge in Indian cities more severe today,” Press Release, Centre for Science and Environment, April 19, 2006, http://www.cseindia.org/campaign/apc/press_20060419.htm “The Green Gold: Under Exploited Wealth of the North East India,” December 2003, http://www. asthabharati.org/Dia_Oct03/jayant.htm http://in.biz.yahoo.com/070728/203/6ir15.html Central Statistical Organization, 2005, http://in. rediff. com/money/2005/jun/30income.htm “Pantaloons Retail (India), Limited – The Retail Giant,” ICFAI Center for Management Research, http://www.icmr.icfai.org/casestudies/catalogue/M arketing/MKTG094.htm 9 “India’s Music Industry Perks Up,” BBC News, May 28, 2001, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/2012099.stm Voice of America News, March 8, 2006, http://www.voanews.com http://library.thinkquest.org/11372/data/film.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Postal_Service India Brand Equity Foundation, December 27, 2006, http://www.ibef.org/artdisplay.aspx?cat_ id=391&art_id=14397 “World Fresh Fruit Market,” http://www.fas. usda. gov/ htp/Presentations/2004/World%20 Fresh %20Fruit%20Market%20(08-04).pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bindi_(decoration) http://kaladarshan.arts.ohio-state.edu/exhib/ meetgod/worship/worshhome.htm http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murtf “Walmart in India,” May 12, 2005, http://www. indiadaily.com/editorial/2655.asp 22 32 2 10 23 33 11 12 13 24 3 34 25 4 35 14 26 36 5 15 16 37 27 6 7 17 18 28 38 8 39 19 29 Interview by Arti Kumari, Ashish Dhiman, and Sapna Chauhan, Noida Public Senior Secondary School, September 2007 72 india in a time of globalization notes 73 Acknowledgments Noida Public Senior Secondary School Government High School | Cotton Pet Child Rights Information Centre | Bal Panchayat Noida students Arti Kumari Alok Anand Ashish Dhiman Kirti Sisodia Naveen Mishra Nisha Maurya Payal Chauhan Pratima Mishra Priyanka Chauhan Rahul Kothari Sapna Chauhan Shashank Verma Shikha Tyagi Bangalore students Bhagya Raj Manjunath Prakash Praveen T. Rajesh Ranjith Sanjay Raj Shanta Raj Amreen Gideon Saravana New Delhi students Harsh Vardhan Hemlata Rawat Mirmala Mehta Poonam Singha Renuka Satya Prakash Crantum Savita with special thanks Kathleen Cushman, WKCD senior writer Sandra Delany, graphic designer Miguel Salinas, Adobe Systems Incorporated, USA Rashmi Soni, Adobe Systems India Private Limited educators Prabhakar B., teacher Poovamma A.K., teacher Bhargavi, teacher Tarannum, computer teacher N.G. Chandan, American India Foundation Shravan, volunteer, Chitra Kala Parishath Map, geology.com, 2007 Satellite image, geology.com, 2006 educators Rajsri Ram Mohan, teacher Rinkoo Bahrani, teacher 74 india in a time of globalization ac k n ow l e d g e m e n t s 75 adobe youth voices Adobe Youth Voices is a global philanthropic initiative to empower youth in underserved communities. Demonstrating the power of technology to engage middle- and high-schoolage youth, Adobe Youth Voices provides breakthrough learning experiences using video, multimedia, digital art, web, animation, and audio tools that enable youth to explore and comment on their world. Adobe Systems Incorporated Corporate Headquarters 345 Park Avenue San Jose, California 95110, USA www.adobe.com Adobe Systems India Private Limited Adobe Towers I-1A, City Centre, Sector: 25A Noida 201301 (UP), India www.adobeindia.com what kids can do, inc. What Kids Can Do, Inc. (WKCD) is a U.S.based nonprofit organization founded in 2001 for the purpose of making public the voices and views of adolescents. On its website, WKCD documents young people’s lives, learning, and work, and their partnerships with adults both in and outside school. WKCD also collaborates with students and educators around the world on books, curricula, and research to expand current views of what constitutes challenging learning and achievement. What Kids Can Do, Inc. P.O. Box 603252 Providence, Rhode Island 02906, USA www.whatkidscando.org next generation press Next Generation Press is the book publishing arm of WKCD. With a particular focus on youth without economic privilege, Next Generation Press raises awareness of youth as a powerful force for social justice. Next Generation Press P.O. Box 603252 Providence, Rhode Island 02906, USA www.nextgenerationpress.org 76 india in a time of globalization