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VOICES OF CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA

Arts fest preview PAGE 23

July / August 2013

Politics and Economics

Voter choice act ignored in senate

Page 3

Community

Beloved preschool teacher retires

Page 6

Environment

Uncommon livestock living next door PA G E 9

Independent News Since 1993

Friends and Farmers co-op makes strides

Page 9

Columns and Opinion:

Deutsch, Hertert, Birdwatch, Cosmo and more!

Gays in the BSA letter

Page 29

Thoughtful. Fearless. Free.

2 Thoughtful. Fearless. Free. © 2013 Voices of Central Pennsylvania, Inc.

July / August 2013

BOARD OF EDITORS

contact the editor in chief at voiceseditor11@gmail.com

Editor in Chief Elizabeth Timberlake-Newell Politics and Economics open

Community and Lifestyles Kelly Johnson Environment Allison Robertson Education Marilyn Jones

Arts and Entertainment open Opinion William Saas Webmaster Bill Eichman

ART and DESIGN

Lauri Kline, cover photo

Mali Campbell, Graphics

CIRCULATION

Kevin Handwerk circulation@voicesweb.org

ADVERTISING INQUIRIES Marisa Eichman advertising@voicesweb.org

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

president Elaine Meder-Wilgus webstersbookstorecafe@gmail.com secretary Arthur Goldschmidt Jr. axg2@psu.edu treasurer Julia Hix juliahix3@gmail.com

board members at large Bill Eichman 4bille@windstream.net Chip Mefford cpm@well.com Peter Morris

Jesse Barlow

Your name goes here Welcome to our July / August edition, the annual food and farms issue. In the past, we’ve covered Monsanto, the hidden costs of cheap food, and a slew of other topics that really speak to the importance of food and where it comes from. This issue is no different, despite that the cover story isn’t really about food. Farming historically has been not just a way of life in central Pa., but something that everyone did. Unless you lived in a city, you were growing vegetables, chasing chickens and grazing your cow on the village green or in your own pasture. Clearly today we don’t all farm (though vegetable gardening and keeping chickens is becoming increasingly popular), but farming itself has also changed in that farms can specialize in an activity such as breeding goats for young 4-H goat handlers, a project that is only profitable in terms of the satisfaction. We on the Voices staff were fascinated by LETTERS POLICY Voices encourages letters and opinions commenting on local issues. Letters should be a maximum of 250 words, opinion pieces 600 to 800 words. Include phone number for verification. We reserve the right to edit letters for length and to reject those deemed beyond the limits of good taste. Due to space limitations, we cannot guarantee publication of all letters. Letters become the property of Voices of Central Pennsylvania. E-mail to oped@voicesweb.org.

ADVERTISING POLICY Write to advertising@voicesweb.org for rate information. Voices reserves the right to refuse any advertising deemed incompatible with a socially responsible publication. Only publication signifies acceptance of an ad by Voices. Publication of an ad does not imply endorsement or recommendation by Voices of any product or service. Deadline to reserve space is the 15th of the month. Cancellation of an ad by the customer after the 15th incurs full charge. Voices accepts advertisements from all political candidates regardless of their party or viewpoint. Rates are standard for all ads. Inquiries to advertising@voicesweb.org. Voices of Central Pennsylvania Calder Square, P.O. Box 10066 State College, PA 16805 voices@voicesweb.org www.voicescentralpa.org Voices of Central Pennsylvania is a 501(c)3 nonprofit and volunteer organization. Donations and bequests will ensure the future of the free press in Centre County. Donate at www.voicescentralpa.org or contact voices@voicesweb.org for details.

from the desk of editor in chief

Elizabeth Timberlake-Newell

the idea that there were animal farms not rearing food animals when Erin Clark first introduced the idea of a photo spread for alpacas several months ago, and that, dear readers, was the genesis of this month’s cover story (see page 9). So we sent our intrepid reporter Molly Cochran out to three different animal farms, and she brought us back three really interesting perspectives on the art of animal husbandry. She also reaffirmed the idea that while rearing livestock can be more a passion than a money-making business, it is still hard work. Also following our food and farms theme are three other articles—one on the Friends and Farmers cooperative, and two on the Snetsinger Butterfly Garden. Friends and Farmers, which has been struggling along to just make a go of it, is working towards making a self-reliant, self-sustaining community (see page 9), and will be participating in the Grange Fair in August. The Snetsinger Butterfly Garden is celebrating pollinators with Wings in the Park on July 20 (see page 10 for a preview). The community stewards of the garden hope that you come out for an educational and fun-filled afternoon in the park. The garden itself is also featured here (see page 12), and not just because master gardener Sally McMurry is involved in its creation and

July / August 2013 maintenance, but Voices Advisory also because Council those flowering Nick Brink plants found Jamie Campbell there are helping Jane Childs to attract the very John Dickison creatures that so many crops pos- Elizabeth Kirchner Bonnie Marshall sible. Curt Marshall Now, dear Mike McGough readers, this is Bob Potter where I once again remind you Bonnie K. Smeltzer Susan Squier that Voices is still Maria Sweet seeking an editor Kim Tait in chief. This is Mary Watson my last issue Sue Werner with Voices— Greg Woodman after my deparLakshman Yapa ture, not only will the paper lack an editor in chief, it will also lack an editor for both Politics and Economics and Arts and Entertainment sections, and a chief layout engineer. For the next four months, Voices will be the product of an editorial board under the board of directors president Elaine Meder-Wilgus. After almost three years as a part of the Voices team, I feel as though both the staff and all of you are part of my family, and hope that the next editor and the interim editorial board will appreciate the bonds as much as I do. Thanks for being part of the Voices family, and mine.

Top Stories in This Issue POLITICS and ECONOMICS

pages 3-5

COMMUNITY and LIFESTYLES

pages 6-8

Voter’s Choice Act stuck in committee by Doug Mason.....................................................3 Community profile: Gloria Rosenberger by Marilyn Jones....................................................6

ENVIRONMENT

pages 9-18

Local farms breed uncommon livestock by Molly Cochran.....................................page 9

EDUCATION

pages 19-22

ARTS and ENTERTAINMENT

pages 23-27

OPINION

pages 28-31

Penn State to restore Old Main frescoes by Lewis Jillings.................................... page 19 Local artists set to exhibit at Arts Fest by Art Goldschmidt..........................................23 Cosmo.....................................................................................................................28

Voter’s Choice Act stuck in committee July / August 2013

by Doug Mason

Black Box Voting, a national elections watchdog group, has dubbed Pennsylvania “The Worst Place to Vote in America.” Pennsylvania election laws may make it difficult for minor party and independent candidates to be listed on ballots. Due to Public Law 1333, Number 320, a provision in the election code added on June 3, 1937, requirements on smaller political parties to have their candidates listed on ballots are much more stringent than those placed on the Democratic or Republican parties. According to a December 4, 2012 memorandum from state senator Mike Folmer, “during the 2010 gubernatorial election, Republican and Democratic candidates for Governor were required to collect 2,000 voter signatures to appear on the Primary Election ballot. Meanwhile, minor party

and independent candidates were required to submit 19,082 signatures.” In 2012, Attorney General Kathleen Kane received over 3 million votes, so independents and third candidates seeking statewide office next year will need at least 62,512 valid signatures. In 1995, Pennsylvania Greens launched an initiative proposing to ease signature requirements in order to make it easier for third parties and independents to get on the ballot. In September 1997, Rep. Todd Platts (R-York) decided to sponsor House Bill (HB) 1918, which was modeled on that initiative and came to be called the Voters’ Choice Act (VCA). Platts’ VCA never got out of the State Government Committee. Platts’ effort came four months after the legislature overwhelmingly approved a bill requiring even more signatures for alternative challengers, which was hidden among

elements of a larger change in election laws during the hubbub of final hours before summer recess. Governor Tom Ridge vetoed that bill following criticism that it was drafted to thwart future efforts by Peg Luksik, the Constitution Party gubernatorial candidate who won 14 percent of the vote in 1994. This was the most successful minor party campaign in Pennsylvania in modern history. The different rules became an issue again in 2006 after Libertarian Party candidate for Governor Russ Diamond founder of the activist group PAClean Sweep, made an unsuccessful effort to gather over 67,000 valid signatures. In 2005, PAClean Sweep organized the Pennsylvania Ballot Access Coalition, comprised of about 10 parties, which drafted a new VCA legislative model and sought sponsors. The first support came from Rep. Paul

Clymer (R-Bucks), who introduced HB 2830 in 2005-6, but that effort failed. Then Sen. Mike Folmer (R-Lebanon) took office in 2008 on his “Promise to Pennsylvania” reform platform. One of the planks he has bulldogged ever since is the VCA. Folmer’s first version, Senate Bill (SB) 252, was introduced late in his first session but time ran out before it was considered in the Senate Government Committee the following year. In 2010, Folmer reintroduced VCA as SB 21 and had five co-sponsors, but that proposed legislation never made it to the floor for debate either, even though then Rep. Eugene DePasquale (D-York), our current Auditor General, sponsored a sister VCA, HB 1003, in the State House. Now

mer. Sure, they could file an absentee ballot, but that’s just one more barrier. Second, the students tend not to be fully engaged in any community other than the Penn State community. They live in student ghettos, whether they be dormitories, apartment buildings, or segregated neighborhoods. Thus, they do not participate in the community at large. Nor do they own property in the community, and seldom do they have children who attend local schools. Voting for a school board member is an abstract concept to them. Penn State does little to encourage a sense of democratic efficacy. Students do not get to elect the trustees, the school President, or the deans. Elected student government has little meaningful power other than to allocate a thin stream of funds for activities. Exclusion of Independents and SmallParty Voters Turnout on May 21 was actually lower than the 14 percent, because independents

and small-party voters could not vote at all. My friend, John, who lives in Ferguson Township, complained to me that it was unfair that he, as an independent, did not get to vote in the primary. I sympathized, but observed that the political parties should have an opportunity to decide whom they want to represent them. John responded that that argument fails when judicial candidates can run on both Democratic and Republican tickets. It is also unfair that to get on the ballot, independent and small-party candidates must obtain more petition signatures than major party candidates. To a large extent, the Republicans and Democrats have locked down the political system. Because of this lock, all those people who do not fit neatly in the Republican or Democratic political spectrum are disincentivized from participating in the electoral process. This is especially true in two-party primaries. A Lack of Civic Engagment As a society, we have a lot less civic

engagement than we used to. No longer is everybody intimate with their neighbors. The prominence of churches as the focal point of community involvement has also declined. In place of these institutions, the individual is a lot more insular and autonomous. First, the radio, then television and now an array of electronic devices have supplanted the need to engage one’s neighbors for recreation and social support. This disengagement makes political participation in our community less a part of our lives. When the local community seems less important, we have less reason to vote. Additionally, the decline of newspapers in America means that fewer people are exposed to a discussion of local politics. In Centre County, the Centre Daily Times and Voices provide the most meaningful analysis of local issues. Someone who relies on

see

Choice, pg. 5

Primary election brings low voter turnout by Steve Lachman

Community Voice

Only 14 percent of Centre County’s registered Democrats and Republicans showed up for the Primary Election on Tuesday, May 21. This is a matter of personal concern for me as I was a candidate for Magisterial District Judge in State College Borough. As someone who cares about democracy, I have given some thought as to why more people don’t exercise their voting franchise. There is no single-bullet solution to the problem because there are many sources of the disenfranchisement. Low Student Turnout Almost no Penn State students voted in the recent election. I reached out to students in my own race, but the response was negligible. This is not surprising. First, most of them are out of town for the sum-

3

see

Election, pg. 5

4

Deutschworks: the art of winning by Steve Deutsch

Steve Deutsch is a regular satirist for Voices.

“The Only Thing— The LAGuide to the Art of Winning.” Here at Stevieslaw, we have all signed up for a gentle yoga program at the local YMCA. Once a week we try to lose ourselves in the formal stretches and poses—sunrise salutation, warrior one and warrior two, and others whose names I haven’t mastered yet. I am ashamed to say I haven’t mastered the ability to lose myself—to float egoless—either. I find that each week I spend a good part of the lesson time searching the group to see if I am winning. Yes, it’s gentle yoga and yes, many of the people who attend—often including me—need chairs to help them stand on one leg, but I still somehow view my yoga class as a competition. I want to win. I share that desire with nearly all Americans. They want to win also. While more than 99 percent of the nation can’t tell you what Secretary of State John Kerry said about Syria this weekend—perhaps because they don’t know who Kerry is or what a Secretary of State does and, for that matter where Syria might be, more than 100 percent of our fellow citizens can tell you that Vince Lombardi of the Green Bay Packers coined the phrase, “Winning isn’t everything; it’s the only thing.” Of course, they would be wrong, as Vince apparently stole the quote from UCLA coach Henry Russell Sanders, who said it some ten years earlier. But I guess Vince was determined to be the one with the best quote ever. And because he is a winner we forgive him, just as we are quite willing to forgive our public enemy Number 1’s, even going so far as to glorify them in movies. Think of Bonnie and Clyde. But forgive our Number 2’s. Phooey. Yes,

we are a competitive people. We grow up singing (from Annie Get Your Gun): Anything you can do, I can do better I can do anything Better than you. And with that in mind, we take great pleasure and welcome responsibility in publishing, “The Only Thing—The Less-intelligent-than-average-American Guide to the Art of Winning.” In the guide, you will learn that being a winner is often a matter of making the right choices. In sports, you should pick a sport where the competition is not strong because no one wants to play it. My college, for example, had the number 1 pick-up-sticks team in the nation. Of course, the college was nestled in the mountains of Southern Appalachia and we could all practice by attempting to pick up rattlesnakes blindfolded, but that needn’t be your story. In the guide, we identify 500 of the least popular sports ever. In sporting events, you must remember that if the team you root for is number 1, then you are number 1. Yes, chanting “we’re number one,” as you gulp your beer and munch your chips by the TV in air conditioned comfort, is certainly the moral equivalent of winning the big match played for over four hours In 110 degree heat. Hey, you have the t-shirt. Choose well! My friends are Mets fans. Why? My older brother, Bad Barry, introduced me to an important concept in the mid-fifties, when he declared that I was a NY Yankee, Green Bay Packer and Boston Celtic fan. I was only eleven months old at the time, but still old enough to know that when BadB spoke, you listened and simply shook your head yes. Find the best of the best in the Guide. Moreover, our interactive feature will allow you to change teams, instantly, as conditions change.

Photo courtesy of Steve Deutsch

Steve Deutsch in his native habitat of New York City.

In games, you must choose your competition with the same care you use to choose self-help guides. You can be the words-with-friends champ if every member of your playing group is taking English as a second language on Wednesday nights at the local high school. Chess champ—register for classes for infants on line. Bridge, no

July / August 2013 sweat, give lessons to those who know so little of the game that they don’t even know the number of cards in a deck. Always remember that being number 1 clearly extends to your offspring and your offspring’s offspring. Sure, bragging is fine but the real war for number one is being fought out in ever more outrageous bumper stickers. Your kid is an honor student? My kid eats honor students for lunch. Now with the simple CD included in the guide and some help from our spy agency, The NSA, you can move on to the brave new world of interactive bumper stickers. You will have the ability to evaluate the lives of the people in all the cars around you, find their weak points and rotate through a series of bumper stickers establishing that you are much, much better than they will ever be. Be number 1 forever. We will identify the most probable locations of the fountain of youth. Find it and be the oldest person ever. That’s number 1. Be a winner. Buy the guide. Then use it—not to win one for “the gipper”, but to win one for your Number 1—you.

July / August 2013

from

Choice, pg. 3

in his last term, he has put the latest version of the VCA, SB 195, up for consideration. If VCA doesn’t pass this session, it may never be introduced again. Under this new Voter’s Choice Act, any political party could, in the 21 days prior to the date of primary election, register in its party’s name “a number of voters equal to at least five one-hundredths of one per centum of the total number of voters registered in the entire State as of December 31 of the year immediately preceding the primary election” and thus be considered a political party in the state and granted ballot access. As well, according to Folmer’s memorandum about the VCA, he planned to push for a change to the original signatures requirement so that, “an independent candidate to collect the same amount of signa-

tures (2000) as the major party candidates in order to appear on the November ballot.” SB 195 as it currently reads does not include a change in number of signatures required. “The Voters’ Choice Act would restore ‘Free and Fair’ elections in Pennsylvania,” insisted Jay Sweeney, Chair of the Green Party of Pennsylvania. It would not, according to Folmer, result in “ballot clutter.” “Contrary to popular belief, my proposed Election Law changes have not produced “ballot clutter” in other states,” wrote Folmer. “My plan is modeled after Delaware where, during the 2008 Presidential Election, they had seven presidential candidates (Democrat Barak Obama, Republican John McCain, and five minor party candidates).” As of yet, however, the bill has not come up for vote.

SYMPOSIUM (sim-poh’-zee-uhm) 1. A conf onfer erence or meeting to discuss a specific subject. 2. In ancient Greece, a drinking party with music feasting & intellectual discussion.

from

Election, pg. 3

5

Slate.com, MSNBC, or Fox News will not get significant local news coverage, and will not see the importance of local issues to their well-being. Political Corruption and a Lack of Efficacy The corruption and ineffectiveness of our officials at the state and national levels casts a shadow over the entire political process. The influence of big money and special interest groups on state and national politics makes voters feel that they have less say over the policies that shape our country. How can we have real faith in democracy when, despite overwhelming public support, Congress refuses to pass meaningful gun control or climate change legislation? Seldom are local elections subject to big-

INVITA INVIT ATION Come ttoo the Voices Voices

Summer Salon & Symposium at Websters! Weds August 7th, 7-9pm This is a free event for all.

money influence, but the corruption at higher levels causes many voters to reject the political process in its entirety. The Misperception of the Primaries as Unimportant Many voters think that the primary elections are insignificant and it’s really the November general elections that count. Yet, the primaries equally important. Think of how different the 2012 presidential election would have been if Newt Gingrich, Rick Santorum, or Michelle Bachman had won the Republican nomination. In my own District Judge race, the fact that I won the Democratic nomination, while another Democrat, Susan Bardo, won the Republican nomination, completely frames the upcoming general election. Our elections are a two-step process, and both steps are equally vital to the outcome. Steve Lachman may be reached at stevelachman@gmail.com.

Thank you, Elizabeth,

for your year of ½QH©VHUYLFH©WR© 9RLFHV©RI©&HQWUDO©3HQQV\OYDQLD Elizabeth Timberlake-Newell Editor-in-Cheif & Executive Director.

Thanks, Kudos, & Best Wishes of Good Luck from the Board and staff of VoCPa!!!

20 YEARS AGO THIS FALL, FALL,

VOICES PRINTED IT’S FIRST ISSUE.

Food and Drink will be provided! Athena, inventor of civilization. Patroness of craft, skill, industry, and community, with her owl of wisdom.

The topic to be discussed is: What should VOICES be doing to ser ve our community?

On July 26th 1993 the very first VOICES meeting was held, and aftter months of effort the first af issue was published October 16th, 1993. In the 20 years since it’s beginning VOICES has never missed an issue.

6

Community profile: Gloria Rosenberger by Marilyn Jones

“Parents are sad,” said Gloria Horst Rosenberger who is retiring after 23 years at the Park Forest Day Nursery Preschool. “They have gotten to know me well, and they wish I could stay until their children are finished with the program. So I am very sad to leave the current children and staff, but it’s time; it feels like the right time. I turned 65 in February, and started thinking about what was good for the school and what I wanted to do for the next 10 years.” Thinking about what is best for the school is what Rosenberger has been doing throughout her tenure at this unusual pre-school that was started in 1967, and is funded entirely through pri-

July / August 2013

vate donations. The tuition-free preschool is paid for by religious congregations, civic groups, and individuals.

“They have gotten to know me well, and they wish I could stay until their children are finished with the program. So I am very sad to leave the current children and staff, but it’s time; it feels like the right time.”

Gloria Rosenberger

When Head Start was in its infancy and not present in Centre County, the Park Forest Day Nursery was an innovative program started by The United Methodist Church to provide a preschool option for low-income families. It began with classes for three-year-olds and four-year-olds. (In 1993 a class for two-year-olds was added.) Rosenberger came here at just the right time for her and the school. She was equipped with the exact experience they needed. She received her B.A. in social work from Eastern Mennonite University in Harrisonberg, Virginia. (Her hometown is Ephrata, Pa.) Then, after graduation, she married her husband Jim and followed him to New York City where he

was already working at the NYU Medical Center. Even though she was trained in social work, Rosenberger landed her first job in New York as a pre-school teacher for three-year-olds in Manhattan at the Gramercy Park Nursery School. She stayed for a year, then found a job at Catholic Charities, also in Manhattan, working with foster children. She was there for two years until her husband accepted a job in Ithaca, New York. In Ithaca, Rosenberger worked in the public assistance office determining eligibility for assistance. Then her husband got a job working in

gests we have a tremendous amount of influence of our health and our illness! In general terms the only wellnessoriented specialty in medicine is pediatrics. There are certainly disciplines like proctology and gynecology that advocate regular preventative screenings, however, there is a difference between prevention and wellness. Philosophically, historically, alternative caregivers are aimed at keeping you out of trouble whereas mainstream medicine is aimed at helping you get out of trouble. A wellness-oriented choice is simply good sense. Not only is it far cheaper to stay healthy than it is to try and return to health, but it hurts less. It is also worth noting that one wellness choice like eating an organic, low-carb diet benefits every cell, tissue, organ and system in your body. Taking one medication only benefits one symptom while creating stressful side effects throughout every system in your body. There’s a time and place for medi-

cine–I’d have been dead in 1973 if not for insulin and blind in one eye if not for surgery–but we are smarter to do what we can to place our focus on health here and now. Of course alternative caregivers are often seen for health care problems just like medical practitioners are seen for wellness suggestions. The philosophic choice is between trying to support your body in healing itself versus assuming it can’t do the job and needs something from the outside to fix it. It’s a mindset of cortisone for sciatica versus adjusting the pelvis to get pressure off the nerve; a mindset of Advil for your headaches and shoulder pain versus deep tissue

see

Gloria, pg. 7

Healthtalk: What’s your health plan? by Matthew Hertert

Healthtalk is a regular monthly column devoted to health matters. One opportunity few people take is to consider what they want their health care paradigm to be. There are choices available about what we want the goals of our health care to be, what philosophies or approaches we’ll take, and who we want our caregivers to be. These considerations can support us in gaining clarity about what kind of investment we want to put into our health up front versus trying to patch things up on the back end. Obviously certain situations and conditions seem to dictate answers: cancer

“A wellness-oriented choice is simply good sense. Not only is it far cheaper to stay healthy than it is to try and return to health, but it hurts less.”

calls for oncology, a pedestrian hit by a car calls for the ER, and stress-driven shoulder tension calls for a massage therapist. But there are a host of other kinds of health care problems most of us will face in our lifetime that can be prevented, or that have a variety of treatment options (there have been many gold-standard studies done on nutritional co-treatment of cancer, for example). The AMA has estimated that 50 percent of all illness faced by Americans is lifestyle-related. That stat is horrifying in that it makes us sound like fat, lazy, comfort-driven alcoholic smokers – yet it is a profound estimate in that it sug-

see

Healthtalk, pg. 8

July / August 2013 from

Gloria, pg. 6

the statistics department at Penn State and they moved to State College. She had three children and was a stay-athome mom here until eight years later when her husband’s job required them to move again. This time they left the country. They moved to Zimbabwe, Africa for two years, where he worked through Penn State at the University of Zimbabwe. “It was wonderful,” said Rosenberger. “It was a slow-paced life that was very family oriented. It was a new beginning for the country because it was the end of apartheid. It changed from Rhodesia to Zimbabwe. Everyone had an opportunity to be educated and to be able to apply for all the jobs they were qualified for. It was a time of great hope for a segment of society that had been oppressed.” Next they moved to Zurich, Switzerland for half a year. Rosenberger said it was completely different from Zimbabwe’s slow-paced, relaxed lifestyle. It was “a very family oriented and friendly society and was extremely orderly, and it was extreme, but I liked it. It was everything in its place. The trains ran on time, you knew what to expect; there was no guessing.” Having acquired a wealth of experience, the family returned to State College. Soon her youngest child was beginning first grade and Rosenberger

was ready to be out of the house and working again; however, she had some very stringent requirements for employment. She wanted something in social work and working with children. She wanted a job where she could be at home with her children before school and waiting for them after school. She did not want to work evenings or weekends. She said with a laugh, “I was very particular. I was making myself unemployable.” Then a friend told her about a job opening. It was mornings only--after school children were in school, working with children, and needing social welfare skills. She applied for the directorship of the Park Forest Day Nursery Pre-school, and was offered the job. “All of my jobs were perfect training for having this job offered to me,” said Rosenberger. The pre-school, which serves a free breakfast and lunch for its students has a capacity to teach 15 three-year-olds, 15 four-year-olds, and 6 two-year olds. Rosenberger said that in order to qualify for attendance, the child must be from a low-income family as determined by the federal government guidelines for a free lunch for school-aged children. She said the information can be

see

Gloria, pg. 8

7

Photo by Marilyn Jones

Rosenberger reads to some of her young students. She has just retired from Park Forest Day Nursery Preschool.

8 from

Gloria, pg. 7

accessed at the State College Area School District’s website by clicking on the lunch program, or by calling the preschool at 814-231-8492. The program runs from the day after Labor Day to the Friday after Memorial Day. For the first year of her retirement Rosenberger plans to cut back on her volunteer activities. She said, with a smile, that she wants to “enjoy coffee in the morning, reading Voices.” She also wants to organize the “piles” in her kitchen and do some traveling. “I do hope to volunteer after being away a year or two,” said Rosenberger. “I would like to be a volunteer here (at the pre-school) and at the children’s library at Schlow, and to enjoy my grandson.” Her son and his family live in State College, her daughter and her husband live in Charlottesville, Va., and her other son lives in Harrisonberg, Va. About her 23 years that ended June 30 at the pre-school, Rosenberger said, “The job has a lot of diversity in it so

from

Healthtalk, pg. 6

work to relieve the tension; a mindset of surgery for carpal tunnel versus physical therapy to restore muscle balance. Alternative care advocates finding and fixing causes over treating symptoms, restoring function over providing comfort, helping your body heal versus patching it up for a time, trusting God and / or nature over “better living through chemistry.” It advocates expressive healing over repressive healing. The idea of expressive healing considers that the body needs to ‘express’ illness out of the body as with fever, whereas the repressive mindset looks to reduce symptoms thereby repressing immune system function and driving the illness further within the body. Many

that I can work with the children, work

“I do hope to volunteer after being away for a year or two. I would like to volunteer here (at the pre-school) and at the children’s library at Schlow, and to enjoy my grandson.”

future, but her interest in the future of the school and the children she has so dearly loved. She said she will miss everyone in the school where the “teachers teach a lot in a very happy, fun atmosphere.”

July / August 2013

Gloria Rosenberger

with the staff on professional development, and work with parents, learning to know the family so we can relate to the child. I liked how I keep the board informed and in turn have discussions and take advice from the board, and I like speaking about the program and in turn my talk often includes encouraging them to contribute money. “I realize it’s time to leave because I want the program to step into the future that includes using more advanced technology than I have, so I see this as a good time to retire.” As is typical, Rosenberger’s decision includes not only her interest in her own

medical studies actually support the expressive advocates’ argument (as do medical immune system texts).

“The smart consumer has a team of alternative and allopathic caregivers who respect the role and resources of all the other caregivers.”

Numbers of studies have linked increased numbers of fevers in childhood to markedly reduced incidence of chronic illness in adulthood; increased use of anti-fever over the counter drugs to increased rates of cancers; one even indicated that using acetaminophen dur-

Photo by Marilyn Jones

Rosenberger playing with and teaching her young charges.

ing a cold or flu will extend the duration of the sickness 3.5 days. The concept is that pain and fever palliatives do so by interrupting various stages of the natural healing process like inflammation. The smart health consumer has a team of alternative and allopathic caregivers who respect the role and resources of all the other caregivers. I don’t care whether it’s an MD disparaging acupuncture or a DC disparaging pharmaceuticals, that un-professional behavior isn’t serving you well. When stress is the number one killer in a culture, being proactive about wellness through stress reduction, good diet, exercise and neuromusculoskeletal care is essential for avoiding illness and disease. It’s also common sense to have a physician versed in resources for these preventions and who can help you make

the best choices once illness occurs. It’s time to stop pretending that these ideologies are mutually exclusive, and the time to inventory your mindset about health and your health care team is now. Be well. Dr. Matthew Hertert practices in Boalsburg, where he lives with his wife and two children.

Local farms breed uncommon livestock July / August 2013

by Molly Cochran

Animal farms are known to produce meat, by-products and livestock for the community. However, some local animal farms are taking a different approach when it comes to breeding and selling livestock. A typical animal farm may consist of cattle, chicken, pigs and horses, but some Centre region farms are unique in the variety of animals they breed for livestock and for show. Mountain Edge Alpacas, Aaron’s Sunny Goat Farm and Mountain Edge Farm are different in the types of animals they breed. Mountain Edge Alpacas breeds alpacas to sell for shows and sells their fleece to spinners. The family of Mountain Edge Farm keeps for itself the meat it gets from their cattle, and Aaron’s

Sunny Goat Farm breeds goats and sells them to 4-H kids. Alpacas-Aliens to the United States From the beginning, said Charlene Friedman, she and her husband did not want to use her land to kill animals. After watching a baby alpaca, known as cria, being born, Friedman said she fell in love and knew that an alpaca farm was what she and her husband wanted to start. The Mountain Edge Alpaca Farm has been breeding alpacas for 17 years, according to owner Charlene Friedman. In 1997, Charlene and her husband Ed bought the farm, which was then a functioning dairy farm. With so much land and a barn already on the property, the Friedmans wanted to utilize the space the best way they could, and settled on an alpaca farm. Alpacas are native to the Andes

“I love buying products from people who car about and love their animals.”

Ann Pangborn, local fiber artist

Mountains, located along the western coast of South America. The Friedmans’ alpacas all are given a Spanish name due to their South American heritage, according to farm manager Mark Hoffman. Since alpacas are used to colder weather, during the summer months protective measures are taken to ensure that the alpacas do not overheat or dehydrate. The alpacas need a constant supply of water is needed to keep them hydrated. If the

alpacas overheat, they can die within a few hours. One of the main purposes of the farm is to help people start their own alpaca farm and provide alpacas for shows. When the Friedmans’ joined the Alpaca Owners and Breeders Association, Charlene said there were only 50 breeders in the U.S. Now the national association claims about 4,000 members. Alpaca breeding is a very intense process. The alpacas are selectively bred for fleece qualities and with the hope of improving breed characteristics. According to Hoffman, once the alpacas have been bred, the female’s blood is drawn from her jugular and sent

see

Livestock, pg. 11

Friends and Farmers co-op makes strides by Michael Rybacki

There are many folks in the area who would like a food cooperative— yesterday. And, certainly, Friends & Farmers has a solid vision to open its doors. The Friends & Farmers Cooperative has come a long way since this time last year. On March 20, ten board members and officers signed bylaws, incorporating Friends & Farmers as a federally recognized Subchapter T for-profit corporation. A subsequent potluck in April was held in State College Borough Hall to celebrate its inception. In addition to the nearly 100 people who came out on a Tuesday evening, WPSU was also on hand to report a piece that subsequently aired on NPR’s “Morning Edition.” But there are still a few hoops to jump through before Friends & Farmers can official open. In reverse order, these include storefront location, lease vs. ownership, building capital, membership structure and

a strategic plan. But a comprehensive plan hinges on the results of a feasibility study, which will serve as a blueprint for further action. The Keystone Development Center, under the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, has already begun work on the study, which should be easier now that more than 600 people have taken the Friends & Farmers Survey (the survey is still open on their website). In anticipation of the study, what is next? “Our biggest focus right now is getting the word out there about the survey and about Friends & Farmers in general,” said Carolyne Meehan, who acts as Secretary and Communications Committee member. The twenty-question survey is a pivotal part of turning the corner from the conceptual “good idea” arena into the practical reality stage. So many of the board’s future decisions hinge on the responses to questions focusing on level of member investment, volunteer hours, store location and

reasons for patronage.

“When I go into a store to buy dried herbs and spices, all I see is name brand products. I am waiting for the day when the available choices include a wide array of ones that are locally grown and packaged.”

Jim Eisenstein, retired PSU professor

To date, over four hundred respondents have taken advantage of the write-in comment section. Comments such as: “Local culture likely to be supportive,” “Positive role model with the good nutrition— healthy body link” and “What are you doing that is going to be different?” are

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recurring themes. Beyond those who answered the survey, there have been others in the community who have offered their thoughts. “When I go into a store to buy dried herbs and spices, all I see is name brand products,” said retired Penn State professor, contributor to WPSU’s Local Food Journey and interim board member Jim Eisenstein. “I am waiting for the day when the available choices include a wide array of ones that are locally grown and packaged.” Adding to the grown locally idea, State College Mayor Elizabeth Goreham, who, along with being a bicycling commuter and a strong advocate towards reducing our carbon footprint, said that there would tend to be a higher level of trust with locally produced foods since people would be familiar with their origin.

see

Co-op, pg. 13

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Garden to host butterfly celebration by Sally McMurry

Sally McMurry is a Centre County Extension Master Gardener.

The fifth annual celebration of “Wings in the Park” will take place from 10 am to 2 pm Saturday, July 20 at the Snetsinger Butterfly Garden at Tom Tudek Memorial Park. “Wings in the Park” is an event filled with life, energy, and wonder. Its purpose is to educate people of all ages about the importance of pollinators to our ecosystems and ultimately to our everyday lives. The Snetsinger Butterfly Garden is a three-acre site that not long ago was an old agricultural field. Dr. Robert “Butterfly Bob” Snetsinger, for whom the garden is named, inventoried a scant half-dozen butterfly species in the 1990s. Under Butterfly Bob’s guidance and inspiration, that old field has been transformed into the Snetsinger Butterfly Garden. Since 2007, the Penn State Extension Master Gardeners have been major con-

Community event: Wings in the Park When: Saturday July 20, 10 a.m. to 2 p.m.

Where: Snetsinger Butterfly Garden in the Tom Tudek Memorial Park Cost: Free

Open to: All ages

tributors, working hard to create and expand demonstration gardens with pollinator-friendly native plants, a native bee habitat, a woodland habitat and a Monarch Waystation. Today more than thirty butterfly species grace the garden. They sip nectar and lay eggs there; caterpillars hatch and munch away on food supplied by the host plants, mostly natives to our

Photo courtesy of Pam Ford

Children follow Pembroke Childs, a community steward of the Snetsinger Butterfly Garden.

region. After growing rapidly, the caterpillars then form chrysalises where they metamorphose into adults, emerging to bring the life cycle full circle. Butterflies are the most captivating and visible pollinators at the site, but many other insect species come to the garden, too. It’s critical to provide habitat for all insect life, for they pollinate a large portion of our food supply, from apples to zucchini. “Wings in the Park” will offer multiple ways to learn about pollinators, geared to all audiences. Last year over 300 adults and kids attended. Pollinator species have been experiencing alarming decline, and the Snetsinger Butterfly Garden is one effort to explain their importance and educate people on how they can incorporate pollinator-friendly practices into their own lives. To help get them started, at “Wings in the Park,” each family will receive a free native plant. Many attendees come dressed as their favorite pollinator and step out in a colorful Pollinator Parade that kicks off the day. Past costumed “Pollinators” have floated into the garden dressed as vivid yellow and black bees, or gossamer butterflies. Throughout the event, Master Gardeners will be on hand to explain the Snetsinger Butterfly Garden’s five Extension Demonstration Gardens, where visitors can see first-hand how to incorporate pollinator-friendly plants and gardening techniques into their own backyards. Community Stewards also will be present to explain how they contribute to the Snetsinger Butterfly Garden’s mission. The Stewards each tend a corner of the garden. Some are interested individuals; others are groups like Girl Scout troops and the State High Wild Dream Team. The event’s activities and exhibits all convey the pollinator message in one

July / August 2013

way or another. Kids can join a scavenger hunt; examine an observation hive up close; compare a human’s diet without pollinators (pretty monotonous!) to one that benefits from foods that need pollinators (directly or indirectly, most everything we now enjoy on our table); or visit a “Bug Hotel.” Butterfly Bob himself will man one of the scavenger hunt stations. Over a dozen exhibits will represent organizations such as the Penn State Center for Pollinator Research, the Pennsylvania Native Plant Society, the Frost Entomological Museum and

see

Butterfly, pg. 13

July / August 2013

from

Livestock, pg. 9

away to test for progesterone levels to determine if the female is pregnant. When picking which alpacas to breed, “you are picking what you want to try and improve,” Hoffman said. The alpacas produce one cria per year and have an 11-month gestation. According to Friedman, the Mountain Edge Alpaca Farm tries to average 15 to 20 baby alpacas per season. The alpacas are usually bred so that their cria come between spring and summer, according to Hoffman. The alpaca usually gives birth between 8 a.m. and 1 p.m. Hoffman said that there is no definite answer as to why this is, but it could be because of the cold climate they live in. If they give birth in the morning they will have the remainder of the day and the warmth of the day to care for their cria. Once the cria are born, they are kept with the mother until they are old enough to be weaned. Separation from the mothers is important once the cria are old enough, because if they are not separated, the mother alpaca will keep providing milk. The males, females, and weaned cria are all segregated at the alpaca farm. Alpacas can be bred for the hopes of a certain color or fleece, however trying to breed for color is very hard to do. The hardest color to breed for in an alpaca is rose grey, because it is so rare. According to Hoffman, the alpacas are

sheared once per year. Their fleece is sold to local spinners and weavers to make products like fabric. Ann Pangborn, a local fiber artist who does spinning and felting, buys some of her fibers from local farms, such as the Mountain Edge Alpaca Farm. She describes felting as layering and working with wool and other fibers to make fabric. Pangborn’s other sources of fiber are local fiber festivals, farmers she has developed personal relationships with and the annual For the Love of Fiber event provided by the Centre County Knitters Guild. For the Love of Fiber is an event where local vendors supply fiber for purchase by anyone who is interested in spinning and weaving or crocheting. One of the best things about buying fiber locally is the personal relationship, Pangborn said. “I love buying products from people who care about and love their animals,” she said. Some of the farmers provide the names of the sheep or goats that the fiber was sheared from. Pangborn said that this adds a personal touch. Other local farms that Pangborn buys from are Pamarack Farm, Bald Eagle Alpaca Ranch, and Steam Valley Fiber, which is located in Trout Run, Pa. Pangborn also pointed out how nice it is to be a fiber artist in this region, because she is putting money in the hands of local farms, that she said truly treat

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Shorn Alpacas at Mountain Edge Alpaca Farm graze in a paddock.

their animals with love. “Centre County is becoming nicer and nicer for being a fiber artist,” she said. Goat Farming--Breeding for Local Grange Fair Aaron’s Sunny Goat Farm is unique in that it breeds goats for the local 4-H kids. The 4-H program is a development organization for the youth that promotes knowledge in science, health and skills for bettering their local communities. The H’s in 4-H stand for head, heart, hands and health.

Photo by Molly Cochran

Aaron’s Sunny Goat Farm is named after owner Lauri Kline’s son, Aaron, who developed an interest in goats at a very young age. By the age of four, Aaron had his very own goat. After owning one goat and showing goats for four years, the goat farm continued to grow. Today, Aaron’s Sunny Goat Farm has 17 goats, with hopes of increasing. According to Kline, the farm is contin-

see

Livestock, pg. 15

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Out of tragic loss, a community treasure by Sally McMurry

Sally McMurry is a Centre County Extension Master Gardener.

In the early days, Tom Tudek Memorial Park was still a work in progress. Though State College was rapidly developing towards the end of the twentieth century, farmland still ringed the town and the Penn State University. In 1992, Ferguson Township acquired a 42-acre parcel of farmland from donors Robert and Elsie Tudek. The Tudeks wished to create a park in memory of their son Tom, who had died tragically in an accident at seventeen. The township added twenty adjoining acres. In 1996, retired Penn State University entomology professor, Robert Snetsinger and his wife, Wendy, friends of the Tudeks, were also grieving over the loss of a seventeen-year-old child. Both Tom Tudek and Clare Snetsinger had collected butterflies as children, so the two families began to share a vision of a butterfly garden in the park. Dr. Snetsinger started monitoring a 3acre site at the northwest corner of the developing park. In this overgrown tangle of bull thistle, crown vetch and multi-flora rose he could document only half-a-dozen butterfly species. A large reservoir of leftover seeds in the soil was crowding out the more butterfly-friendly plant species. Aided by the Frost Entomological Museum, the Tudek Trust, Ferguson Township, and Centre Region Council of Governments, Dr. Snetsinger started a program of gradually replacing the old flora with plants that would attract butterfly species. The new plants would not only provide nectar for adult butterflies but also offer appropriate habitat for the three other stages in the lepidoptera life cycle. Each species of butterfly has evolved to be very selective and will only lay their eggs on plants that the emerging caterpillar will eat and digest. Monarch caterpil-

July / August 2013

lars, for instance, need milkweed to survive. Others overwinter on or near specific plant species. Some fritillary species caterpillars, for instance, sleep away the winter next to their native violet food supply. Armed with his extensive knowledge of butterfly ecology, Dr. Snetsinger slowly cleared away old growth from the edge of the field and planted milkweed, asters and various species of butterfly-attracting native shrubs and trees. By 2006 more than 32 butterfly species were observed in the garden. Signage and other materials appeared to help visitors interpret the transformations they were seeing. In 2007 the Penn State Extension Master Gardeners came into the picture as partners. A handful of curious Master Gardener interns ventured into the park to join Dr. Snetsinger as he worked in the garden. Current coordinator Pam Ford remembers that these sessions involved far more than just yanking weeds (though there was that aplenty); they were an education in the life sciences. Each day Dr. Snetsinger would show the interns an insect in its habitat and expound on its life cycle, feeding habits or camouflage strategies. “When I saw my first spicebush butterfly caterpillar, with those huge fake eyes, I was hooked!” said Ford. Together Dr. Snetsinger and the Master Gardeners shaped a broad interpretive mission for the site: to educate the public about the importance of all pollinators. Public awareness and concern were growing about the threats to pollinator species. Colony Collapse Disorder in honey bees had made the news, but honey bees weren’t the only species threatened. The Master Gardeners envisioned several Demonstration Gardens that would bring the message about pollinator conservation to the public. The beautiful, showy butterflies would be the flag bearers for the enterprise. The first Demonstration Garden to appear was the Pollinator Demonstration Garden in 2009.

The Snetsinger Butterfly Garden has several pollinator gardens like this one.

By patient, hard work, Snetsinger and his Master Gardener collaborators transformed a nondescript field into a beautiful, multi-season garden featuring colorful perennial flowers, shrubs and trees. Most of the plants are natives; all have been selected for their merits as nectar sources or caterpillar host plants for butterfly species. More and more Master Gardener members have joined with the effort so that today over 40 members regularly participate in its programs. In 2011 the site was dedicated as the Snetsinger Butterfly Garden at Tom Tudek Memorial Park, in honor of Dr. Snetsinger, now fondly known as “Butterfly Bob.” Today the Penn State Extension Master Gardeners maintain a Pollinator Friendly Demonstration Garden, a Monarch Watch Waystation, a Woodland Demonstration Garden and a Native Bee Conservation Garden, all to educate the public about the importance of pollinators to our food sup-

Photo by Pam Ford

ply and to show people how to change their own gardening practices to encourage pollinators at Tom Tudek Memorial Park. The Pollinator Friendly Demonstration Garden is arranged just like traditional perennial beds, with an eye to color, texture, seasonal bloom and composition. The difference is that the garden employs a mix of native plants and non-invasive nectar and food plants expressly designed to attract abundant insect life. The Monarch Way Station concentrates the Monarch’s host plant, the milkweed species. The Woodland Demonstration Garden assembles native trees, understory shrubs and ground covers. Another demonstration garden, the Native Plant Demonstration Garden, is maintained by partner organization the Pennsylvania Native Plant Society. The newest, the Native Bee

see

Treasure, pg. 16

July / August 2013 from

Butterfly, pg. 10

Discovery Space with hands-on activities for the kids and information for the adults. New this year, Shavers Creek will be providing a hands-on experience of making your own butterfly net. In addition, a pollinator-themed art exhibit will show work from Easterly Parkway Elementary School’s first- and secondgrade students. Tom Tudek Memorial Park is located at 400 Herman Drive in State College, PA. If you’re traveling by car, the entrance is off Martin Street, which is one block west of Atherton Street/US 322, about a mile north of the Penn State campus. If you’re on a bike or on foot, the Tudek Park bike and pedestrian trail goes right past the Snetsinger Butterfly Garden.

from

Photo courtesy of Pam Ford

Pembroke Childs, a community steward, proudly displays her costume for the event last year.

Photo coutesy of Pam Ford

This picnic display focuses on teaching about pollinators and how they relate to our food.

Co-op, pg. 9

Farmer Mark Maloney of Greenmoore Gardens has sowed his first planting of locally-grown grain. With his idea of also setting up large-scale malting equipment, plans are to provide the three local microbreweries (with a fourth one on its way in Lemont) with all the malt they desire. Transition Town member and Awakening to Change facilitator Andrew McKinnon offered his belief that our philosophical mission would be just as crucial as an emphasis on outwardly sustainable economics. Questions such as: Is the community ready for a co-op? Will it be better for me in the long run? Can it truly have a positive lasting effect on our quality of life? are important drivers of success.

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Local political candidate Carla Stilson, an early supporter of Friends & Farmers, believes a co-operative has the potential not only to support local family farms but to bring like-minded citizens together. And what could be better than a resilient, food-based, self-sustaining environment that not only provides a fulfilling lifestyle now, but allows society to thrive, indefinitely, into the future? All are welcome to stop by the Friends & Farmers booth during the Aug. 2-3 Second Annual Farm Fest at Grange Fairgrounds, Centre Hall. Friends & Farmers looks forward to meeting you in person and welcomes your ideas. Take the survey located on their website: www.friendsandfarmers.coop; and join on Facebook at: www.facebook.com/FriendsandFarmers Coop@Friends_Farmers

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Green herons find breeding grounds in Pa. by Joe Verica

Summer is an exciting time for watching birds, particularly the breeding birds. Of the 190 species of birds that breed in the state, the majority of them breed here in central Pa. One of central Pa.’s most captivating breeding birds is the Green Heron. Green Herons are relatively small herons, measuring about 18 in. in length and weighing in at 8.5 oz. They have a distinct appearance. Adults have a chestnut-colored face with a white throat and a midnight-green cap. The breast is chestnut with a broad white streak extending from the throat down to the belly. The bill of the heron is dark, long and sharply pointed. Both the wings and back are dark green. The legs are yellow. Juveniles are similar to adults, except that they are somewhat duller in appearance and have streaked underparts. Green Herons spend the winter months in the southern U.S., Mexico and northern South America. A significant proportion of the population remains on the wintering ground during the breeding season. The rest of the birds migrate north. In North America, Green Herons are found mostly in the eastern U.S. and the southern part of eastern Canada. There is also a small breeding population in the Pacific Northwest. Their preferred habitat is near water, such as tidal wetlands, marshes and wooded lakes or streams. Although they are a fairly common summer resident in central Pa., Green Herons are not always an easy bird to

July / August 2013

see. For starters, they are primarily nocturnal. However, during the breeding season, particularly if they are raising a brood of chicks, they actively forage in the daytime. They are most often seen in flight. At first glance, they appear superficially like crows with slow, lazy wing beats. Upon closer inspection, you will notice that they will have their necks tucked into an S-shape that is typical of many long-necked wading birds. Their diet consists mostly of small fish, amphibians and aquatic invertebrates. Herons hunt by stealth. They stand silently, with their necks folded back on their shoulders, and simply wait. They typically position themselves near the water’s edge or on a branch overhanging the water. When prey wanders within reach, they strike quickly by lunging forward and grabbing or spearing it with their bills. Green Herons also provide one of the few examples of tool-use among birds. In their attempts to attract prey, Green Herons will employ the practice of baitfishing, wherein they drop small items such as mayflies, worms, feathers or bread crumbs on the surface of the water. When the prey comes in to investigate, the heron snatches it up. Courting among Green Herons begins in late April when the birds arrive on their breeding grounds. The males engage in a spirited courtship that consists of a display flight around the area where the nest will be built. The male encircles the area, sometimes with exaggerated wing beats, while calling raucously. The male may then take some initiative by boldly pursuing a potential mate. Flight displays are followed in turn with ground displays. Males audition themselves before females in a series of fanciful prancing and strutting rituals. He may also perform some elaborate displays by extending his neck and pointing his bill skyward, erecting a

Green Heron (Butorides virescens). Used courtesy of a Creative Commons license.

crest of crown feathers, puffing up his throat and uttering guttural calls. The female responds with a more subtle, low-key display of her own. Once the pair bond is formed, it’s Barry White time! The male then enters a nesting site of his choosing. There he engages in mutual preening with the female. The preening behavior is accompanied by bill snapping by both partners. Several rounds of copulation then commence. Copulation continues during nest building. The nest of the Green Heron is basically a platform or basket of sticks and twigs. The nest is built in a shrub or small tree close to the water. Rarely is the nest placed on the ground. Females lay between two and six eggs. Both parents share responsibilities in the incubation of eggs and the feeding of nestlings. The young leave the nest at approximately five weeks after hatching. By mid-September, Green Herons

Photo by Rodney Campbell

begin moving southward toward the wintering grounds. Locally, the Green Heron is a fairly common summer bird. The best places to find them are at Toftrees Pond, Scotia Pond, Colyer Lake and Bald Eagle State Park. Other places with similar habitat will likely turn up herons as well. The best time to go is early in the morning, or just before sunset. Keep your ears open, as you are more likely to hear the heron before you see it. The Green Heron is a fairly secretive bird and will likely be lying low out of sight. That being said, they are easily flushed. Upon taking off, they emit a loud squawk. Questions or comments? Joe Verica can be reached at joeverica101@gmail.com.

July / August 2013 from

Livestock, pg. 11

uing to help develop the genetics of the goats they breed. Last year, the Klines bred their goats with a buck goat they bought from a W.V. farm. This buck goat that Kline purchased is known to have some of the best goat genetics along the eastern U.S. “We have come a long way with the farm. We are improving genetics every year. Anything we can do to give back to the 4-H kids,” Kline said. The main goal of Aaron’s Goat Farm is to have goats for the 4-H kids to show at the end of the summer at the Grange fair. Therefore, the breeding period is very important. To achieve this goal, the goats have to be born before Jan. 1, according to Kline. January is a very cold month, so it requires a lot of time, effort and dedication to staying with the goats while they are giving birth. Kline said that she makes sure she is always around when the goats go into labor because of the winter conditions. The female goats that are bred usually carry two goats, and sometimes even three, Kline said. Aaron’s Sunny Goat Farm plans to have 25 goats this season. Kline said she has never had any trouble finding happy homes for the goats. Kline said that she sometimes has people call and want to purchase a goat to maintain yard work. Usually there aren’t

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many, if any goats left over after the kids from 4-H see them at the Grange Fair. The 4-H Market Project is a group of 4H kids that show the goats at the Grange Fair and then have a livestock auction afterwards. This is what the 4-H kids need Aaron’s goats for. The livestock auction at the end of the fair is an auction open to the public to come and purchase goats,

“We have come a long way with the farm. We are improving genetics every year. Anything we can do to give back to the 4-H kids.”

Lauri Kline, owner, Aaron’s Sunny Goat Farm

pigs, cattle or any other animal that was shown at the fair. The need for goats continues, because for each kid, one goat is produced, shown and sold in one year. Usually a goat is not shown more than once in its lifetime, because once it is sold, it is usually butchered for its meat or, more often, kept as a pet. This means that a 4-H kid usually has to buy a new goat every year to show. The Delicate Art of Cattle Breeding Mountain Edge Farm, another local farm, has been around for more than 20 years and also breeds animals. Although

Photo courtesy of Lauri Kline

These young goats, born in January, are destined to be given to a 4-H goat handler for show at the Grange County Fair.

the main focus of Mountain Edge Farm is the crop farming, they also have some cattle that they breed and sell or butcher for their own meat supply. The Mountain Edge Farm is mainly a hobby to farm owner Ed Dunkelberger. The farm started when Dunkelberger was in his early twenties and had an interest in horse shows and bull riding, which sparked his interest in farming. The farm has about 25 purebred cows. Some cattle that are not used for breeding are sent to be slaughtered for meat. The

cattle’s beef quality is important to consider in the breeding process because the higher the beef quality, the better the genetics of the offspring. The sperm that Dunkelberger buys to artificially inseminate his cows is ordered from a catalog. The catalog has many different males that he can choose from. Measurements, such as maturity, tenderness and degree of marbling are taken

see

Livestock, pg. 17

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Treasure, pg. 12

Conservation Garden, displays a “bug hotel” that shelters native bee pollinator species. The Penn State Extension Master Gardeners also organize public events at the site including their annual “Wings in the Park” celebration (see related story, p. 10), tours, and (new this year) a “Second Sundays” series of walks and talks. The Snetsinger Butterfly Garden has exerted an impact throughout the State College community, well beyond the Master Gardener group. At the site itself, over fifty Community Stewards do projects in various corners of

the Snetsinger Butterfly Garden. On any given day one might find a Girl Scout troop earning merit badges; students from the State High Wild Dream Team learning about the butterfly life cycle; individuals from neighboring homes learning how to adopt practices for their home gardens. Pam Ford said the Community Steward program was born from an outgrowth of the “Tom Sawyer effect.” “People would come by and say, ‘Hey, that looks fun. Can I help?’” Ford said. These community members became known as Community Stewards, who receive guidance and even plants from the

see

July / August 2013

Treasure, pg. 18

A Monarch butterfly alights on a flower at the Snetsinger Butterfly Garden.

Photo by Steve Conaway

The Snetsinger Butterfly garden attracts not just pollinators, but photographers eager to catch the insects in motion.

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Photo by Justin Wheeler

July / August 2013

from

Livestock, pg. 15

of these cattle to help farmers chose what cattle is the best for breeding. The higher the beef quality measurement numbers are, the easier it is to get offspring, Dunkelberger said. There are many genetic qualities that go into producing a quality cow. By buying cattle with good measurements, the better chance there is for a calf with good genetics, because the bull with good measurements already has good genetics. “[I am] buying on their genetics,” he said. The males’ sperm that Dunkelberger, or any farmer for that matter, uses, can essentially last forever. Even when the bull that produced the sperm has died, farmers can still order the sperm because

17

it has been cloned and frozen. The sperm can virtually live forever. The cattle sperm, once ordered, comes frozen in a test tube and usually comes with a back-up, just in case the female cattle does not ovulate in time to become pregnant. The breeding process is very challenging because there is a 12-hour period of when the sperm can take after the female has ovulated. Dunkelberger said that he has to ultrasound the cow to find out when she will ovulate, then inject the sperm and then ultrasound again the next day to make sure the female has ovulated in time. Unlike alpacas, cattle carry their offspring for nine months, like humans. The

see

Livestock, pg. 18

Photo by Xxxxxxx

This cow produced by Mountain Edge Farm is a recent winner of the Pennsylvania Livestock Evaluation.

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Livestock, pg. 17

female cow usually only carries one calf at a time. Out of the cattle that Dunkelberger has, Mountain Edge Farm usually breeds one calf per cow every year. Any animal that is not bred is taken to auction for its meat. The meat that is butchered from the cattle Dunkelberger owns is kept to be eaten by his family. Mountain Edge Farm also has five purebred horses that Dunkelberger has bred. Though Dunkelberger breeds cattle and horses, the main focus of his farm is the crop farming. He farms corn and soybeans. The soybeans are either exported or crushed for soybean oil. Two weeks into spring he

“Success is up to me. The more work you put in, the more you get out.”

Ed Dunkelberger, owner, Mountain Edge Farm

plants his crops, and in the fall, he harvests. Aside from the manual labor that is required to have a crop farm, Dunkelberger said, “In between is management and marketing.” The value of the market can change $50,000 in one day because of fluctuation in the market, according to Dunkelberger. For example, if there is fluctuation in the Japanese market or

stock market, it could change the value of his crops. The cash market is actual value and the future market helps explain what the crop could be. These markets can be seen from websites on the Internet, which Dunkelberger said has changed the way he farms. Technology has advanced so much since the beginning of his farm. Before the Internet, in order to get stocks and to see what the future market would be, Dunkelberger had to call a broker and get the information that way. Now with the iPhone, he not only has access to this information in the palm of his hand through the Internet, but can also use the companies’ apps to check the value of his crops virtually anywhere. Advances in technology have changed the way Dunkelberger farms. There are

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Treasure, pg. 16

Extension Master Gardeners. They learn pollinator-friendly gardening literally with hands-on experience. Many who don’t work in the garden enjoy it, too, since it is on a very popular and busy bike/pedestrian path. Another community-wide impact of the project is through “Satellite Gardens.” Satellite Gardens have sprouted at elementary schools, community gardens and churches around the region. Master Gardeners supply introductory instruction and plant material and offer educational programming for pollinatorfriendly gardens throughout the community. This initiative too sprang from a chance encounter in the park. An elementary school teacher had ordered Monarch caterpillars by mail for her classroom lifecycle unit. They soon munched their way through the limited supply of milkweed available to her. Frantic, she came to the Snetsinger Butterfly Garden to harvest milkweed leaves. “Wouldn’t it be great if you could have a garden right at the school?” suggested

July / August 2013

many farming apps that could help farmers manage their crops and market value of crops virtually anywhere. “The iPhone has revolutionized the farming market,” Dunkelberger said. Improvement in the farming equipment has also made farming more efficient. For example, the tractor that Dunkelberger uses can space the seeds out and plant 30 ft. of soybeans in one pass of the tractor. Placing the seeds is important in their growth. And most importantly, with more soybeans comes more money. “There is economic value in perfect spacing of seeds,” he said. Dunkelberger said the best part of his job is that he is his own boss and determines the amount of success he will have. “Success is up to me. The more work you put in, the more you get out,” he said. Ford. “That way, the students could see the whole life cycle as it really takes place in nature instead of watching it in a glass box.” Today, there are over twenty satellite gardens throughout the community, including seven schools, two churches, a children’s museum and three community gardens. Two newly developed satellite gardens are in Parker Dam State Park, one of which is an Eagle Scout Project that will highlight Pa.-native plants that attract regional butterflies. More development is planned, including an Observation Deck and a “serenity space.” The garden’s site high above State College makes it a prime spot for “vista points.” As the number of Master Gardener participants and Community Stewards continues to grow, we can anticipate even more color and life in the garden in future years. Born of grief, the Snetsinger Butterfly Garden at Tom Tudek Memorial Park has become a cherished community treasure and a place for residents of all ages and backgrounds to enjoy.

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Penn State to restore Old Main frescoes July / August 2013

by Lewis Jillings

In March restoration work began to refurbish the lobby of Old Main for the first time since 1948. Work is being done to restore the frescoes in Old Main to its original grandeur and to repair the cracking walls. The murals depict the activities of the University’s role in engineering, mineral industries, and agriculture, and honors the creation of land grant universities through the Morrill Act. The murals, done in fresco style, cover 1,300 square feet. They are the only university frescoes in the US created by a major American artist. Grave damage to the frescoes was first noticed in 2001, with serious cracks in the towering central figure of

Abraham Lincoln, and elsewhere. In 2008, Albert Michaels Conservation Inc. from Harrisburg examined the frescoes and proposed a conservation plan. More recently, it has become apparent that the fresco walls can be affected by routine actions such as hanging picture hooks or moving furniture in nearby offices, and emergency conservation is essential. A generous philanthropic gift from L. James Smauch, a 1936 Science graduate, made it feasible to embark upon the multi-year project, which will cost about $1.5 million. In November 2012, the Board of Trustees approved the project. Numerous phases of work in the next two years will repair and conserve the frescoes and restore the walls and ceilings, moldings and woodwork in accor-

dance with the lobby’s original concept: there is now a small sample on display to demonstrate the original finishings. The other major component of the project is to ensure a stable controlled environment in the lobby area to prevent future deterioration of the frescoes: humidity and temperature controls, plumbing upgrades and replacement of the perimeter heat system, and air quality filters. This is the task of Ana Beha Architects. The whole area of the stairs to the mezzanine floor and much of the lobby is now walled off for complete protection of the conservation work. The main stairs are closed. Numerous offices are being fitted with false walls several inches from the structural walls of the frescoes, and several have plastic hangings during construction work.

Artist Jeff Johnson began the restoration by painstakingly removing each layer of paint to determine the original colors and historical finishes. To clean a fresco, the conservator uses pads to remove the dull grey film the surface has acquired. Then cotton compresses are used to apply solvent which can remove errant drips and preserve the sensitive colors. John Rita and Ted Holland from Albert Michaels Conservation are inspecting the lobby, to clean and stabilize the frescoes and reinstate lost pigment. Within the protective wooden lab space they have constructed, they work like forensic scientists, researching archives and deploying technology to

see

Frescoes, pg. 21

CATA bus service frustrates local residents by Kira Marshall-McKelvey

As the fall semester approaches at Penn state university, Cata Bus schedules become more guidelines than actual rules. With new drivers, less timely arrivals, and riders who play the role of navigators, students are growing increasingly agitated with the system. During the school year, senior Penn State student Anel said the loop bus rarely follows the schedule and passes students who rely on the CATA bus to get to class. “If the bus gets there [at the stop] early and there isn’t anyone there, it leaves right away. If the bus arrives at 9:37 and is supposed to come at 9:40, it won’t wait,” Anel said. Even if the buses do make a timely arrival, the student-traffic is so heavy, two loop buses hardly allow every student to make it past the yellow safety line at the front of the bus. Shouldn’t students be behind the yellow

safety line? While the majority of CATA related complaints happen during the school year, summer riders are also frustrated by the lack of loop-bus activity. Lasita, a PSU graduate student, notes that the blue loop in particular should be more frequent.Why? The online community is also accumulating traffic when discussing the CATA system’s kinks. A student, whose profile is titled “I Hate Penn State,” wrote on his Twitter page about a wayward route: “This green link thinks it’s the Vairo bus.” The green link, an on-campus CATA bus route, strayed off campus and towards Wal-Mart—the Vairo bus’s main stop. Among other CATA-shaming comments were “Whenever you’d like to get here, CATA bus. Not like I have to be at work on time,” and “CATA’s iPhone app

see

CATA, pg. 22

Photo by Ashlee Mercogliano

Students who wish to ride a loop bus may be waiting a long time due to driver practices.

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Independence Day by Jamie Campbell

The Fourth of July, Independence Day, is upon us again. Independence Day is one of the best holidays the country celebrates. It celebrates what America is all about: spirit, courage, freedom, and honor. At this time other countries are also thinking about their independence. Uprisings are taking place all over the world. Syria is in turmoil, Iraq is electing moderates, and do you know what generated the most internet conversation? Cereal. I do not mean there was a controversy

file:///C:/Users/Voices/Desktop/General%20Staff%20Materials/foba.gif

about the detriments of eating super sugary, no nutritional value, good to eat on late nights or early, cartoon-filled weekend mornings cereal. I am speaking of the controversy about good old fashioned, no sugar, two to four-yearolds best friend, heart saving, cholesterol-lowering cereal. Yep, this land of independent thinkers and freedom supporters could not handle a little girl talking about Cheerios.

A little girl concerned for her daddy sent this country into a virtual war about what constitutes a proper family. In case you have not seen the commercial, allow me to give you one important, crucial detail: the little girl is bi-racial. Her mother is white, her father is black, and that is what the whole controversy is about. It seems that some people in this land of the free and home of the brave cannot seem to accept that the country is changing, maybe not changing, but evolving. Contrary to some folk’s beliefs, it is okay to believe in, understand, and appreciate evolution. As the demographics in this country continue to change, families are going to change. The basics will still be there: love, support, and devotion, but families are going to look different. You see, it is not just a black and white thing anymore. Nope. You have many people of other colors and cultures that are learning about and loving each other, and that is what makes a family, right? If you fall in love with a good person that is of your same gender and that you want to make a family with, is that good enough? Nope, that is not proper. It seemed that the country was saying that everyone should meet a certain standard of normal: we do not care how you feel emotionally or biologically, as long as file:///C:/Users/Voices/Desktop/General%20Staff%20Materials/foba.gif 6/15/2010 PM the way we think you should. you8:27:27 look So as opposed to Cheerios making a really bold move by having a same-sex couple out front, they went “safe” with a woman, a man, and a child - the perfect family for television, correct? No, not correct. They need to be the same ethnicity. It is incredible how we as a people

July / August 2013 feel the need to infringe on other’s freedoms when their ideas do not suit o u r beliefs, essentially condemning them for being independent. The color of parents should not be a factor; rather, how those parents are raising their children is the only thing we should ever be concerned about. Right now as you are reading this, children are being put in terrible situations by two parents with different genders and the same ethnicity. Yet no one sends hateful email about them. When Harry Belafonte was touched by Petula Clark on TV in 1968, marking the first time different races touched on TV,(http://www.pophistorydig.com/?tag =harry-belafonte-petula-clark), people thought that the country would implode and our American values would no longer exist. The country did not implode, and the American people did not lose their values. Yippee. So we will get over this latest issue, too, but we should not have had to worry about it in the first place. So enjoy your Fourth of July, enjoy your freedom and most importantly, remember to respect the freedom of others as well.

July / August 2013

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Frescoes, pg. 19

determine the types of paint, the colors, and the artist’s original intentions. Specially aged pit lime is added to sand to match the original plaster. Chemicals are injected to stabilize the pigment foundation for further treatment, and microscopic examination enables the conservators to use a brush with a single hair to restore pigment where the loss of even a grain of sand is the loss of some color: painstaking and detailed work, which is currently illustrated on a couple of display boards on the mezzanine level. It is intended that visitors may observe progress through special windows and learn more about the conservation process. There are already some surprises. Early conservation work has uncovered some unsuspected violets, grays, and browns; vibrant pastels are appearing, and the use of lapis lazuli yielded rich blue shades in the Mining wall that will be examined further. As layers of grime are removed from the Agriculture wall, what looked like a dark corner emerges as the face of a pig, and touches of Poor’s humor can be recognized: the face of President Evan Pugh can be seen as he leads a seminar, and Poor’s own dog is depicted beneath a table. The original Old Main building, which owing to the University’s uncer-

tain finances had been built as cheaply as possible, was deemed structurally unsound in the 1920s and razed in 1929. Philadelphia architect Charles Klauder, who designed the Cathedral of Learning at Pitt, was commissioned to design the replacement building. Klauder kept many of the elements embodied in the original building. He retained much of the original stone to reconstruct the outside walls and topped the new building with a tower that contains the clock and bell from the original. The new building, which is usually described as Federal Revival in style, has a touch of neo-classical grandeur through the addition of a portico with eight limestone pillars overlooking the front lawn. According to information at the website http://www.psu.edu/ur/about/frescoes.html, Harold E. Dickson, J. Burn Helme, and Francis E. Hyslop, then professors of art and architectural history, are credited with the proposal for a mural to depict the University’s foundation and development as a land grant university. The Class of 1932 Gift enabled the University to select Henry Varnum Poor, one of the country’s leading artists. After six months of making sketches, Henry Poor began painting in April 1940 using the fresco technique. This involves applying paint direct onto wet plaster, so that the pigment becomes

21

Photo by Lewis Jillings

In the lobby of Old Main the conservation artists have set up an exhibit detailing the progress of their work.

part of the actual wall. This calls for accuracy in shape and color, and quick work. Also according to the website, Poor’s daughter Anne, who later became a noted artist herself, applied a day’s worth of plaster on the walls each morning, and her father, working quickly, painted to his sketches, completing the initial project, on the north wall in June 1940.

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CATA, pg. 19

has been updated for the Fall semester. You will now be able to miss your bus with greater accuracy.” CATA’s Ride Guide notes that arrival and departure times depend on the weather. CATA representativess were not available to comment on the accuracy of the buses’ timing; however, although driving safety is a priority, some riders have suggested that a slight mist in May doesn’t excuse a bus that arrives twenty minutes late.

“If the bus gets there [at the stop] early and there isn’t anyone there, it leaves right away. If the bus arrives at 9:37 and it is supposed to come at 9:40, it won’t wait.”

Anel, Penn State student

Due to the perceived lack of student activity, CATA severely limits its ride options during the summer months. Sophomore and State College native Maria Landschoot is irritated by the erratic ride schedule, as she relies on the W route to travel to and from her home. “The W bus is all over the place,”

Landschoot says. “They don’t run on Sundays, and other buses do...so it’s not like CATA is incapable of finding people who want to drive on Sundays.” Even routes that do run on Sundays are so restricted that riders find themselves having to wait hours just to get a bus. The level of expertise amongst drivers can make or break the swiftness of an already limited schedule. As new drivers take on unfamiliar routes, the “stop requested” ding proves useless to the riders. Those who want to get off at a particular stop have to alert the driver multiple times before the bus slows down. “The CATA bus needs to take a good long look at itself, and standardize its service,” Landschoot adds. For those who rely on the CATA bus for transportation to work and important appointments, the lack of a clear system draws the line between students who are perceived as professional versus viewed as too lax, as those commuting by bus struggle to arrive at work on time. One person who supports the CATA bus system is Ian Marshall, a professor at Penn State Altoona who lives in State College. He is impressed by the timely arrivals of the buses and the accessibility of the stops. “In a city this size, we’re fortunate to have a bus service that’s this good,” Marshall says. Despite the fact that the bus closest to his home seldom runs, Marshall notes that more popular bus stops are never farther than a ten minute

walk from his house. He said he has always been able to rely on the busses to arrive promptly. “They [the buses] are so on time, that if

“The W bus is all over the place. They don’t run on Sundays, like other buses do...so it’s not like CATA is incapable of finding people who want to drive on Sundays.”

Maria Landschoot, State College resident

I don’t get there on time, I’ve missed it,” Marshall adds jokingly.

July / August 2013

However, judging by the anti-CATA Bus activity downtown and on social networking sites, CATA’s summer scheduling results more often in moans and groans rather than sounds of encouragement. Often, people point out that relying on the CATA system results in unnecessary guesswork and waiting around for a bus that was supposed to arrive twenty minutes earlier.

Local artists set to exhibit at Arts Fest July / August 2013

by Art Goldschmidt

The Arts Fest is an occasion for people living in the Centre region to wander among booths filled with art objects, see returning friends and listen to a variety of musicians. It is also an opportunity for artists and artisans, who come from places near and far, to display and hopefully sell their wares. Some exhibit their work only at the Central Pennsylvania Festival of the Arts. But most exhibit at various arts festivals during the warmer months, some even all year round. All labor for long hours to hone their skills and to produce the art work that you will see during Arts Fest. Voices visited three local presenters who are veteran exhibitors at the Arts Fest and other venues: Kimberly

Brooks-Filkins (“Kim”) of State College, Elizabeth Hay of Bellefonte, and Bill Seay of Spring Mills. Kimberly Brooks-Filkins Kim fuses glass to create whimsical, yet functional, works of art, such as plates, vases, and wall-hangings. The glass is purchased in sheets of varying thickness, crushed glass (called “frit”), powdered glass, thin rods (“stringers”), and tiny shards. It may be opaque, transparent, iridized (having a tin coating that may appear silver or gold, or show a rainbow transition to purple, blue, and green), or dichroic (having thin layers of metallic oxides that have been deposited on its surface at a high temperature). She cuts, shapes, and melts her glass in a kiln designed especially for glass, the working temperature of which must be midway between hot (used for glass

See page 25 for photos of the works of Kimberly BrooksFilkins, Elizabeth Hay and Bill Seay.

blowing) and cold (used for stained glass). Pieces of glass may then be fused together in a kiln set to around 1500 degrees. She may also slump the glass, using a mold to shape already colored glass in a kiln and to create three dimensional objects. These processes call for patience, experience, and tolerance of occasional failures. Each piece must be carefully designed, colored, and tested to make sure the process will succeed. Many pieces break during the cooling process. “It seems like an explosion,” she remarked, “when you open the kiln.” She never throws away even the tini-

On the cheap: finding furniture by Marilyn Jones

I grew up in a furniture store. I jumped on stacks of mattresses piled high enough for The Princess and the Pea. I sped in wheelchairs up and down the ramp that led to my dad’s office at the back of the store. I was hauled up an elevator by the pull of ropes. I was a model having tea in the store display window. I was a fake customer calling my father about a washing machine, howling with laughter when he answered me seriously. Maybe that’s why I love furniture so much. I love new, used, collectable, and antique furniture. I am content in my small townhouse, but for the fact that it can accommodate so little furniture. That doesn’t stop me from dreaming. I browse through stores and scout out fascinating shapes, tasty hues, sensuous fabrics, and moody designs. I fantasize about Victorian Love Seats, turn of the century (20th that is) iron stoves and ice-boxes,

1950s metal chairs and tables, and brightly flowered shabby-chic couches. I even seriously consider trading in the few pieces I have in my home for a new furniture fantasy. But, of course, in addition to finding those transcending pieces, I also need to find them at the right price. And thus begins our journey. Where to start? Yard sales are always the first offensive, but usually the least productive. I guess if you go early enough, and the seller is moving in a big hurry and has your outstanding taste, you might find something you want. Sometimes the prices can be low, and sometimes they can be ludicrous, which reminds me of my father’s famous story. Once a guy, who only a few hours previously had observed my dad buying a dresser for $20 at a sale on Pugh Street, came into the store. He went up to the piece and saw it marked

see

Cheap, pg. 27

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est piece of glass, because she might later find a use for it. Indeed, her work space contains lots of shards, in addition to a great variety of cutting tools, molds, and an immense kiln. Brooks-Filkins fell in love with glass because of its reflective qualities and its elegance. Self-trained, she learned how to handle glass from reading books and magazine articles, but mainly from trial and error. She used to give her glass products away to friends and family members, but they encouraged her to improve her work and start exhibiting and selling her wares. Brooks-Filkins has sold her work at the Arts Fest for six years, but also at the Palmer Museum of Art at Penn State and

see

Arts Fest, pg. 26

Photo by Marilyn Jones

Pete’s Used Furniture is located in the Westerly Parkway shopping center. The Goodwill Store is also located in that center.

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Storyteller: The Legend of Black Andy by Jon Vickers-Jones

Storyteller Storyteller is a regular monthly column devoted to showcasing fiction writing by local authors. For submissions, please email: voiceseditor11@gmail.com

It is hard to imagine that back in the time when Black Andy lived, the small town of Penn Manor was two villages: Penn Manor and Nittany Glen, even though, in those days, Penn Manor lay just a few hundred yards away from Nittany Glen. Black Andy lived north of Nittany Glen in the area that is now known as Glenside Park. Today if you leave the town of Penn Manor traveling east on 322, the park is on your left. If you take the first entrance to the park, then follow the stream, north again, you will come across a section of old stones that are laid out like the foundation of a house. Indeed, that is what they are. This was where Black Andy lived in the year 1787. He was not known for his good temper or his pleasant looks, both of which were bad to say the least. His huge black bushy beard gave Andy his name and made him look fearsome. Black Andy rarely went into the village, and the townspeople certainly never went near Andy’s house. If they had gone there, they would probably not have seen him anyway, because he used to go hunting alone for days on end. One day he returned with a woman that he had taken as his wife. She was as mean and surly as he was. Nevertheless, they seemed well suited to each other. While Andy was away hunting, his wife took care of everything, as most wives did at that time. The house

seemed clean enough, and there was always a fire lit with wood she had cut herself.

“How about you? Are you wary or are you a non-beliver? Are you brave or are you meek? Are you bold enough to visit Penn Manor? Are you willing to risk experiencing the wrath of Black Andy?”

Everything went well for some time until one day when Andy came home and found that a group of vagabonds had come by and ambushed his wife. They had killed her by slitting her throat so badly that the blood was splattered in every direction that he looked. They had set light to Andy’s house and, as could be expected, when he saw what had happened, he was distraught and in a raging temper. This time his temper was much worse than ever before. He seemed to go completely crazy. He started firing his gun at all and sundry, and then set light to some of the houses in the village. When the villagers chased after him, he took off up the road by what is now known as Stain Street. The villagers gave chase and the hunt was on. Black Andy cut across a ridge and came out at the south side of Springtown. He set light to a barn there and then raced on over Ryder’s Gap towards Hollow Road. He realized that a group of men approaching from the south were blocking his way. He swung west towards the town of Latree. The people of that town knew what was happening because a fast rider on horseback had come from Penn Manor by the southern route, and had called upon the town elders for help. When they saw the flaming torches of the pursuers coming across the hill, the people of Latree set out to cut Andy off

before he reached town. Andy must have seen their lights because he waded across the stream and onto the property of the Penn Manor House. At that time, the house was isolated and the Penn family didn’t know what was happening. They ran outside when they heard their dogs barking, and panicked when they heard all the shouting and saw the furiously blazing lights of the people’s torches. Andy saw them at the same time they saw him. Instantly they realized that he must be someone they were hunting. They called out to the townspeople and pointed in the direction that Andy was running. Andy ran to the back of the house and aimed for the low stone wall that separated the house garden from the wheat fields. If he could just get over the wall and into the field, he might be able to elude them. The owners of the Penn Manor house had been digging a new cesspit at the rear of the porch and it was ten feet deep. Andy was, unknowingly, running toward it. He was at the edge of the pit before he saw it. He tried to swerve around it, but the ground was wet and slippery from recent rains. He went down headfirst. When the pursuers arrived, they could hear his terrible cries of rage and anger laced with all the curse words that had ever been invented. None of them ventured too close because Andy was trying to climb out. He was having great difficulty doing that because of the rain-soaked earth. One villager, who had an ax, was brave enough to take a swing at Andy’s head as he made one final effort to climb out. The ax missed his head, but chopped off Andy’s arm. Andy fell back into the pit screaming with pain, and at that moment, the sides of the pit caved in. Andy’s screams became gurgles, and the gurgles became grunts as he was buried alive by the landslide. His last words as he sank under were,

July / August 2013 “I’ll be back to get you, I promise!” Nothing was ever heard of Andy again. That is until 2001 when an archeological dig was being done at the rear of the now publicly owned Penn Manor. The excavation crew was looking for signs of human habitation, and were pleased to discover several pieces of sharp, broken china, some pockmarked silver utensils, an old bent rifle and a twisted knife blade. Right next to these items was a large hole that appeared to be the remains of an old cesspit. They had found what they were looking for. It was at this time when the caretaker began to hear strange scraping noises in the garden after dinner, which drew him to look out the side window. With complete certainty, he said that he saw a dark figure of a man with a scraggly black beard shaking one arm and grimacing at him from behind the bushes. When a group of people went to “officially” investigate the claims, they said they saw nothing more than a couple of worn out boot tracks and a shard of burnt wood, even though people visiting the park in the evening often insist they see a “creepy old man.” Was Andy awakened when the archeologists reopened that pit? Did they provide an escape route for Andy? Does Andy continue to roam the grounds where he used to live happily with his wife and found her so terribly murdered one day? Does he continue to look for her attackers? Will he remain at large until he does? Will he keep his awful promise? No one knows for sure, but most people create a wide berth around the area. How about you? Are you wary or are you a non-believer? Are you brave or are you meek? Are you bold enough to visit Penn Manor? Are you willing to risk experiencing the wrath of Black Andy? Think about it: he may be waiting for you.

Preview: art objects of the Arts Festival July / August 2013

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See these works and many others at:

Central Pennsylvania Festival of the Arts July 11-14, 2013 Photo by Art Goldschmidt

Bill Seay already has a buyer for this chair, but he is exhibiting it at the Arts Fest as a demonstration of his craftsmanship.

(Children and Youth day July 10, 2013)

“Cameroon” displayed at the artist Kimberly Brooks Filkins’ studio.

Photo by Art Goldschmidt

Kiawa.

Photo by Kimberly Brooks Filkins

Photo by Art Goldschmidt

This piece by artist Elizabeth Hay is inspired by nature.

Photo by Kimberly Brooks-Filkins

Brooks-Filkins is primarily a self-taught artist.

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Arts Fest, pg. 23

in Lemont’s Gallery Shop. In addition, she has exhibited at the Three Rivers Arts Festival in Pittsburgh, the Harrisburg Artsfest, and the Mount Gretna Outdoor Art Show. Elizabeth Hay Elizabeth Hay creates silver jewelry. She began making jewelry about seven years ago because she couldn’t find any pieces that she wanted to wear. Also a gardener, she is especially drawn to jewelry based on leaves and flowers, influenced by Victorian and art nouveau styles. Except for a few weekend classes, she has learned her art by experimentation. She starts with a flat sheet of silver, which she cuts with scissors and then

hammers and shapes it. The process also involves much delicate incising with hand tools and soldering delicate silver wire. She likes to work in spurts, but sometimes spends long hours in preparing her pieces, especially in the six weeks prior to the Arts Fest. She does not teach any students, and her production does not yet suffice to make her self-supporting, but her work is available in Lemont’s Gallery Shop, or can be purchased online. She and her husband are also restoring their Victorian house to its former splendor. This year will be the fourth in which Elizabeth has exhibited her jewelry at the Arts Fest. She and her husband have also sold her work in Bedford’s Fall Foliage Festival, the Winter Craft Market at Mt. Nittany Middle School, and fairs sponsored by the Pennsylvania

Guild of Craftsmen. They display and sell her work at about twelve festivals on average each year. Bill Seay Bill Seay was trained as a biologist and worked for many years as an environmental engineer. In midlife, he decided to leave his profession and to devote his time and energy to woodworking. He has built his workshop in a large shed behind his house near Spring Mills. There he uses both power and hand tools to create pieces of furniture, often on commission from patrons who are familiar with his work. His booth will contain sculpture and many other objects made from wood, including tables, a blanket chest, and a floor lamp. His interest in woodworking began with a shop class that he took in seventh

July / August 2013

grade, and it was a hobby long before he made it his profession. He has learned many of his techniques and draws some of his ideas from a monthly magazine, Fine Woodworking. This year will be Bill’s seventh at the Central Pennsylvania Festival of the Arts. He has also exhibited at the Winter Craft Market in Mount Nittany Middle School and at the Pennsylvania State Museum in Harrisburg. ***************************** Much labor and love goes into individually crafted art objects such as these. Many other booths, various other types of artistry and artisanship, and lots of interesting artists will be there at the Arts Fest. Don’t miss it.

July / August 2013

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Cheap, pg. 23

for $59.99. Three hundred percent is the necessary mark up to survive in business, right? He marched up to my father, and said in a loud, sarcastic voice, “Hey, I just saw that dresser at a yard sale down the street and it was only $20! This is a rip off!” My dad, never intimidated by rude customers, nor at a loss for words said, “Do you want this dresser for $20?” “Fine. Then go back to the yard sale and get it.” Hahahahaha! Don’t you love my dad? Anyway, we all want to get the right pieces at the right price, so what can we do about it? First stop: Goodwill on Westerly Parkway. You’d be surprised what you can find there and how much they have. Once I saw a 1930s vanity with an accompanying round mirror for $29.99. No kidding! I would have bought it in an instant, but I had just gotten one at another place for $79.99, which I thought was a great deal. My husband and I had been looking for a small 1950s style comfy cushioned chair for our (small, of course) living room for

months. Sure enough – there it was, at Goodwill, and in the color pink (Love it!) for $10.00! It can happen. It doesn’t happen all the time, but it can, so you should always start there (after the fruitless yard sales that is). Next stop: Centre Peace on Benner Pike. This place is muy interesante! They have a huge selection of everything. Our kitchen table is from that place and is an unusual length and width just right for our (small) kitchen and is made out of natural, unvarnished wood. It was only $70. On the other hand, sometimes I see a couch that I think is worth maybe $150 on sale for $425. Their prices seem a bit random and unpredictable. So on the one hand, great deals can be found, on the other hand, great frustration can be experienced. From there we head to Pete’s Used Furniture just down the row of stores from Goodwill. This store is more like a traditional old-fashioned used furniture store. The furniture is in good shape, there are many interesting selections, and the prices are commensurate with owning a for-profit business. The prices are definitely fair, (but just not as cheap as the chance find at the previous two stores). We just bought a

Shoppers browse through the showroom of Pete’s Used Furniture.

Photo by Marilyn Jones

sturdy, pretty wooden table with four chairs there for $179. Not cheap, but reasonable. A weird place to get some types of furniture is at (what used to be referred to as Penn State Salvage) Lion Surplus. Across Park Avenue at the corner of Services and Big Hollows Roads, it has mostly used office equipment like desks and filing cabinets. There is, occasionally an interesting piece intermingled with the more austere selections. Last year I bought a small old-fashioned school-like table with two drawers for $10. It was definitely cool. If you are remodeling and looking for building materials, kitchen counters, fireplaces, windows, etc., try Habitat for Humanity’s Restore in Zion just outside of Bellefonte. They have reasonable prices and items you can find nowhere else. The only caveat is to call ahead for

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hours because they are select and sometimes vary. There is also the (what my dad used to call “knock down furniture”) approach. This is the type of stuff you can get at Wal-Mart or Ollie’s that you have to put together yourself (offering hours of unlimited fun). It is made from inferior materials, but if used gently, can look nice for a while. We have this stuff, too. It is the only way to get new pieces cheaper than at a new-furniture store prices. This is pretty much “it” for this area for affordable cheap or used furniture. If you know of any other places, please let us know. We want to check them out, too. Happy shopping. And if you happen to see a small dresser with at least six, short but wide drawers, that would be perfect for storing magazines and collage pieces, please give me a call. I’m on the look out.

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ASK C osmo

Dear Cosmo, I can’t stand listening to TV news with the way they butcher the English language. I think I’ll go postal the next time I hear a reporter or announcer say something like “Everyone has their reason,” or Central Pennsylvanians know in their heart.” EveryONE is a singular pronoun, not a plural. It’s not too difficult, just substitute any other word for “one” and it makes sense which is right. For example, every dog has HIS day. Every day is different. Every good boy deserves favor. And what about, “We Pennsylvanians who know in our heart,” as if we all share one collective heart? That’s just plain dumb. Doesn’t anyone study grammar in school anymore? Signed, Grammar Hammer

Dear Verbal Gerbil, You have no argument from me that people are sloppy about language. However, one should also try to understand one’s own motives for donning the Language Police badge and hat. It can quickly dissolve into class warfare and your bourgeois attitudes may provide fuel for the bridge you’re burning. But if your motives are decent, your corrections may

Sudoku

Campus and Culture from the Canine Perspective

be the cable that strengthens the bridge you’re trying to build. It depends on where you’re coming from, rather than where they’ve just been grammar-wise. If you’re trying to “put someone in his or her place” by demonstrating how erudite you are, then you’re probably a snob and few people (and no dogs) care what you think anyway. That dog don’t hunt, and people just ain’t gonna listen— except for maybe intellectuals, since quibbles are their kibbles. Spoken word is different from written word, and written word varies greatly depending on the venue. Fragments? No good for scholarly journals. No biggie most elsewheres. That’s multiple elsewheres, not some hayseed affectation. But you are correct, everyone has his or her (or hir, to note the emerging genderless uber-pronoun) ideas. Locals may indeed know in their hearts what is dumb and what is overly rigid when it comes to speaking. Then there are those who want to look polished, but in fact overcompensate. You may hear these people say things like, “He whom laughs last,” or “Between you and I,” or worse, “Between she and I,” or “Nobody here but we chickens.” It’s no fart in church not to understand grammar on the molecular level. It may not make any sense to tell people that objects of prepositions take objective case. So do transitive verbs and indirect objects: “I threw him; I threw him the ball.” It does not make much sense to say, “I threw the ball him.”

see

Cosmo, pg. 30

July / August 2013

By Peter Morris Solution on page 30 of this issue.

Whitey Blue on tumbling by David M. Silverman

I was talking the other day to Whitey Blue, longtime Centre Area resident and hard-nose. Whitey, every once in a while I hear of some old guy falling down while jogging or walking. Any thoughts about that? “I sure do! Why are these old f__ts out there trying to behave like 21-year-olds?” I suppose they go out to get some exercise, which is said to be good for everyone. “That’s a bunch of bull! When you get past middle age you should limit your exercise to rocking in a rocking chair on

the front porch.” But many in the medical profession advocate more vigorous exercise than that. Like joining health and fitness clubs and working out with all kinds of equipment. “Of course they recommend that! Brings on more injuries and visits to them. The only exercise you need when you get old is getting out of your rocker to get some snacks out of the refrigerator.” Dave Silverman (An old guy -90- who is healing from a fall in the street while walking.)

July / August 2013

Letters

RE: CAPITAL PUNISHMENT STORY I had to go back and read the story twice just to be sure that I had not missed it but I was right , there was not one mention of the cold blooded execution of the police officer, Indianapolis Police Sergeant Jack Ohrberg, who was not only shot once in the stomach but was shot twice more, execution style, while he lay wounded on the front porch of Smith's residence. I don't suppose there was any compassion for him or his family from the writer of the story. I have no compassion what so ever for someone who commits a crime such as this and can even live so long as to cause the public to pay for his upkeep, his defense and his appeals. There was no "innocent man" here in this case and they shouldn't even have to have a trial in these "smoking gun" incidents. Anguish about waiting to be executed, give me a break, did the office he killed have even an instant to think about his death before he was murdered, did he know he was going to die today? Did he have a moment to say good bye to his family and friends? There is not enough punishment to fit the crime committed here, the only good thing is that the taxpayers don't have to keep his guy fed and give him a bed anymore. If you don't want to go to prison and if you don't want to end up on death row, DON'T COMMIT A CRIME!! It is as simple as that. Bud Halderman Bellefonte

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BEYOND MONEY How should we think about Centre Crest? We should think as we do about the education of our children. Like the care of our children, the care of the elderly is a priceless public trust. Through these we show our community as morally whole in commitment to the young and old. This goes beyond money, which is but

one index of it. It is said that money is the bottom line. This is false: The bottom line is the depth of our common care and concern for one another. Centre Crest is run now by each of us together out of this bond. It is a wonderful facility. Let us be proud of it and keep running it for generations yet to come. My vision for Centre Crest is very similar to Michael Pipe’s proposal which was rejected in last week’s vote by the county commissioners. But we can still save these ideas if we all insist on a strong, strong community presence on the public nonprofit board. John Harris State College

By Tom Baker

LEAVE BSA TO THE BOYS It appears that the criticism of the BSA wanting to exclude homosexuals is expressed as a matter of discrimination or prejudice. I don't see it that way at all. I see it from the stand point of knowing that when you co-mingle 11, 12, 13 and 14 year old boys with an older male homosexual it is setting up situations for an active sexual predator to perform or function. Of course the aggressiveness towards the young scouts depends upon the character of the homosexual. This is a fact that I know from personal experience, both for myself and as an action upon a son. To put it very frankly they just can't keep their hands off of the boys. So why should the BSA permit homosexuals as members or leaders? My wife and I strongly agree that permitting homosexuals in the BSA is an extremely bad idea.

Ken Criste State College Please see page 31 for the editor’s rebuttal to this letter.

œ“iʜvÊ̅iʙ‡Ìœ‡x œ‡,i«i>ÌÊ7œÀŽ`>Þ

30 from

Cosmo, pg. 28

“Between” is a preposition, so all of its objects would be objective pronouns like such as, her, me, us, etc., and not nominative pronouns I, he, she, we, etc. It gets tougher when there are multiple objects, and if you’re not sure, just make it one object. If you’re thinking, “If it’s up to you and I,” just pick one object. “If it’s up to you” sounds right no matter what, but clearly (I’m hoping) it sounds dorky to say, “If it’s up to I.” But “If it’s up to me” sounds just ducky, so the correct choices would be, “If it’s up to you and me,” or “If it’s up to him and her,” or “If it’s up to her and me.” But it would not be correct to say “Her and me will throw him a party.” “She and I” is the subject of the sentence, not the object

of a preposition, so it takes that form. Correct use of “who” and “whom” are nearly as simple. If you’re not sure, just take a trial run and substitute “he” for “who” and “him” for “whom,” and you’re basically home free. “It’s for who? It’s for he?” Nyet. Clear as mud, right? Still, many products of the local school system require remedial English tutoring when they’re accepted to the local university. Go figure. Grammar is one of those geek things that some people really dig, and others could not care less about. The 12-sided die is not for everyone. But don’t go saying, “The die are cast.” A die is cast, but dice are cast. Ever wonder why people from foreign countries may not appear to speak correctly? It’s because English is stinkin’

hard to learn even if you grew up speaking it, and especially if you grew up around people who speak it poorly. Speaking proper English can be a real marker of class, and sometimes adherence to the grammar rules can set you in a league of your own. Winston Churchill was a grammar stickler, and he was famous for not wanting to end a sentence with a preposition when describing what he “wouldn’t put up with.” The correct version was “That is the type of thing up with which I shall not put.” In many quarters, that would mean forfeiture of your lunch money on an ongoing basis. When it comes to speaking the pristine form of the King’s English, I’d just as soon make hamburger of some of their sacred cows. If people are listening to what you mean, they’ll hear what you say. If they’re just listening to what you say, they might miss what you mean, mainly

July / August 2013

because they’re playing “Gotcha!” with the language, instead of trying to “getcha.” What bugs me more than grammar gaffs are misunderstandings and misuse of words, which, through their frequent and prevalent misuse, hardly register as mistakes at all…kinda like the compassion of conservatives. “Myriad,” like Multiple Sclerosis, is one of the great cripplers of young adults. One frequently hears, “A myriad of excuses,” which is wrong, but “myriads of excuses” is correct. You see, the “of” is built into myriad. Confused? Simply substitute the word “dozen” for “myriad,” and you’re there. “I have a dozen of eggs? I have dozen eggs?” Nyet and Nyet. A dozen eggs or dozens of eggs becomes a simple substi-

see

Cosmo, pg. 31

July / August 2013 from

Cosmo, pg. 30

tution: a myriad eggs, or myriads of eggs. Can’t beat it. One that makes me want to throw up my food and then NOT eat it again is the misuse of “prodigal.” It is wrongly used time and time again, on news, in drama, and in conversation. Taking its cue from the Gospel tale of the Prodigal Son, many people assume that “prodigal” has to do with wayfaring and then returning. Nyet. Lo. “Prodigal” means prodigious, wastefully extravagant, or reckless. The point of the Bible story is that the son wanted his inheritance in advance, went abroad, and squandered it on debauchery. He ended up taking a job feeding pigs, and they were eating better than his father’s servants, so he went back home. The fact that he came back home didn’t make him prodigal; the fact that he was prodigal by blowing all his savings is what helped him decide to return home. But he could have been plenty prodigal and never returned home. So the next time you hear a news story about a prodigal pet returning home, ask whether said pet jacked the credit cards. Then there are common misconceptions because we just never think about them. For example, just how deep is 20,000 leagues? That’s a trick question. A league is about three miles. So if the famous Jules Verne story 20,000 Leagues

Under the Sea would put that at about 60,000 miles. That would be a good trick to go that deep, especially since you’d drill completely through the earth at a mere 7926 miles. The term “under the sea” has incorrectly evoked the notion of depth. Captain Nemo’s Nautilus traveled beneath the sea, and it traveled 60,000 miles, but it was parallel to the bottom of the sea, circumnavigating the globe, not plunging to a depth approximately nine times greater than possible. Twenty thousand leagues is about one-quarter the distance to the moon. Then there’s “having your cake and eating it, too.” Now this is entirely possible, because you have to have your cake in order to eat it, or swipe somebody else’s and scarf it down. “Having” cake means that one can hold onto it, or save it. So you can continue to have it until you eat it. The original saying was, “You can’t eat your cake and have it, too,” meaning that you can’t consume everything and still expect to have some left. Now THAT’s prodigal. Fracking prodigal, Marcellus. Pretty far from OK. But thanks, Grammar Hammer, your effort to raise the bar on people’s diction is admirable. But if how they speak freaks you out, have you ever considered how some of ‘em think? Putting lipstick on that pig is where I’d start.

Rebuttal to Criste’s letter on page 29 This is the first time in twenty years that I have felt compelled to respond to a letter written to a newspaper. I can usually keep my peace (well, truly, I go home and box my heavy bag until I’m no longer angry) until urge to respond to something that I perceive as ignorant or inflammatory fades into the background. But this time I can’t. As the editor in chief, I read every letter that comes to the newspaper’s opinion/editorial email address, and one in particular stuck in my mind. I tried, but no amount of boxing the bag, running or drams of whisky could shake the lasting impression that I must respond. So here, I have accepted my civic duty to respond to the letter of Mr. Ken Criste. I’ll start off with the line that most reverberated with me. “Let’s face it, those homosexuals just can’t keep their hands off our boys.” What an interesting statement. And you know what, I think I’ve heard something just like it before. Let me change a couple of words, and see if it looks familiar. “Let’s face it, those negroes just can’t keep their hands off our white women.” Oh, there it is. That old bedmate of ignorance, the over-generalization about some minority group. I almost didn’t recognize it in its new, “acceptable for the 21st century in certain circles” clothing. I can imagine a conversation where this statement would come up, perhaps over the dinner table, or with some co-workers, and I can with my mind’s eye see those interlocutors nodding. They might not agree, but they can’t really make a fact-based argument to the contrary, or perhaps they don’t want the stigma of looking like they are bleeding heart liberals who don’t care about the safety of children. Well, I do care about the safety of children-I am a parent, and involved in scouting-but I don’t see this as a matter of protecting our children, but rather breaking up the groundwork laid by such statements. Right now, we can have a calm discussion about this. The Boy Scouts of America board members aren’t going to change their minds any time soon about letting in gay leaders; they only accepted gay scouts

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under tremendous pressure from chartering churches. But some day, the BSA, like the rest of the country is going to have to come to grips with the undeniable truth that there is no real justification for denying some people equal rights based on any criteria. Then, if we are also experiencing some other social or economic turmoil, that change in membership requirements will probably result in an emotionally charged response entirely blown out of proportion. When emotions are running high, what had just seemed semi-believable can morph into a dangerous justification for bloodletting. On this probable sequence of events, history can bear me out, because the historical records of every culture that has ever bothered to give writing a try is stained with the irrational actions of angry mobs committing pogroms and massacres. At Rosewood, Florida in January 1923, six people were murdered by a raging mob, including an unarmed older woman who was sheltering a group of children in her home. The official reasoning for the mob mentality was that a white woman claimed she was attacked and raped by a black man (which was not true), but the real underpinning for this horror was that the deep south post-World War I was a tense place, as our country couldn’t yet come to grips with the idea that we should offer equal rights to the men who we had just sent overseas to fight the great war. Black men returning from doing their civic duty were not given the hero’s welcome home, but instead they were treated like a damned threat. The economic stratification of our society was also at a high point, and this was a source of tension. This tinder and kindling of economic tensions and social change fed the fire in the hearts of men who, unable to cope with the tension, turned to hate. And hate groups like the Ku Klux Klan (or the Westboro Baptist Church) are always willing to capitalize on that. One of the banners carried by the KKK in a Gainesville, Florida parade just days before the massacre read “First and Always Protect Womanhood.” Because they were sure that “those negroes can’t keep their hands off our white women.” -etn

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Voices Of Central Pennsylvania July/August 2013