UWF Career Development Guide 2013-14
2013-2014 Career Services Staff Lauren Loeffler Director of Career Services Nathan Ford Associate Director of Career Services Charlette Murphy Assistant Director of Experiential Learning Kate Hollimon Assistant Director of Career Planning Tiffany Menard Experiential Learning Coordinator Rex Wade Career Planning Coordinator Katie Hudon Career Planning Coordinator Sarabeth Lako Marketing & Technology Coordinator Ester Molder Career Planning Coordinator, Emerald Coast Campus Contact Us Web uwf.edu/career Phone 850.474.2254 Email email@example.com Address Career Services 11000 University Pkwy., Bldg. 19 Pensacola, FL 32514 1170 Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd Bldg. 2, Suite 201 Fort Walton Beach, FL 32547 TABLE OF CONTENTS 2013-2014 Career Development Guide Your Handbook for Career Success 2 Career Development Model 6 Career Exploration 7 STEP Model 8 Experiential Learning 10 JasonQuest 12 Transferable Skills 14 Cover Letters 15 Resume Basics 17 Resume Examples 21 References 22 Graduate School 24 Job Searching 26 Interviewing 30 Dining Etiquette 31 Thank You Letters 32 Job Offers & Salaries Exp l 4 Dis c r ove ore le nt e pa Imp me re STAGES of CAREER DEVELOPMENT Pr Throughout college, there are a lot of things to think about ranging from your social life, to academics, to your future. Often times, the thought of what to do after you graduate and gaining employment can seem daunting. Career Services has developed a 4 stage process to help you prepare now for life after graduation. This 4 stage process is called the Career Development Model. In the model, you will see the following 4 stages: Explore, Discover, Prepare and Implement. No matter what year you are in college, you can pick up in any of these stages and they will guide you toward preparing for career success upon graduation. On the following pages, you will find recommendations of action items to complete in order to propel you onto the next stage. Take some time combing through each stage to see where you may happen to fall. Once you’ve found your place, start there and begin filling out the worksheet on page 5 identifying what action items you have completed. This will help identify and solidify your career plan. So, let’s get started! 1.Explore • • • Clean up social media (ie Facebook) Volunteer at nonprofit organizations Identify your VIPS 3. Prepare • • • • Participate in a Mock Interview Start drafting your Cover Letter Create your 1 minute commercial Participate in Experiential Learning 2. Discover • • • 4. Implement • • • • • 2 Conduct Informational Interviews Create a draft of your resume Get involved! Join a registered student organization Finalize targeted resumes and cover letters Plan your job search strategy Dress for success! Check with references & keep them updated on your job search Join a student professional association in your career field CAREER DEVELOPMENT MODEL Stage 1: Explore V P VALUES • • Identify your VIPS What are your priorities? What elements of your life do you want to remain in place for the future? PERSONALITY • • What characteristics would you say describe you? How would your friends describe you? INTERESTS • • SKILLS • • I S What do you enjoy doing? How do you like to spend your time? What do you excel in? What things have you noticed that you are naturally more gifted in compared to your peers? Visit www.myplan.com or meet with your academic advisor to learn about different careers and majors Volunteer at local non-profit agencies to help you learn more about your interests and then track your volunteer hours through JasonQuest- found on MyUWF Describe and define your ideal job Reflect on current or past jobs to identify your transferable skills (see p. 12 & 13 for more information) Research and join student organizations that relate to your interests Attend the Career Services Part-Time Job Fair to look for a job that can help you gain important transferable skills Consider drafting a few career-related goals using the SMART technique. You always want your goals to be: Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic Timely Clean up your Facebook page and other social media pages; update security levels Consider enrolling in the Major Exploration & Career Choice course to further explore what you want to major in Set up a LinkedIn account to begin developing your professional image and connect with 50 people Explore your JasonQuest account which gives you access to career tools, volunteer, internship and job opportunities (see p. 10 & 11 for more information) Visit Career Services for further exploration, www.uwf.edu/career Stage 2: Discover Continue to explore and affirm your interests by volunteering with agencies and events in the community that relate to your career interests; use JasonQuest to explore volunteer & service opportunities and keep track of your volunteer hours Investigate additional Experiential Learning opportunities such as job shadowing, volunteering, internships or CoOps (see p. 8 for more information) Research potential employers and job titles in your field of interest Draft a targeted resume and visit Career Services for it to be reviewed Expand your LinkedIn connections to 100 people in your network Consider joining a registered student organization Identify 3 people who would be good references for you If you’re still feeling unsure about your major, consider visiting Career Services to possibly take a career assessment Attend the Career Services Part-Time Job Fair to look for a job that can help you gain important transferable skills Look into attending industry-specific career events hosted by Career Services Complete informational interviews with employers, family or alumni in your fields of interest to learn more about those professions. From your informational interviews, try to identify: • Skill sets that are required for an entry-level position in the field and then participate in activities that would help develop those skills • Potential individuals who could serve as future resources for networking & your job search 3 CAREER DEVELOPMENT MODEL Stage 3: Prepare Participate in an Experiential Learning opportunity such as an internship, job shadow, volunteer or CoOp experience (see p. 8 for more information) Build transferable skills and experience for your resume through hands-on experience and volunteerism (see p. 12 for more information) Begin planning for the job search or graduate school by setting personal deadlines Research graduate schools with the program you are interested in pursuing if further education is in your near future Develop your one-minute commercial (see p. 26 for more information) Use social media platforms in your job search; platforms to utilize could include: Attend Employer Meet & Greets hosted by Career Services to network and learn of job or internship opportunities Network and form relationships with professors and area leaders in your field by accessing the mentor database through JasonQuest Serve as a student organization officer or leader Participate in a mock interview with Career Services Ensure you’re dressing for success during interviews and Career Fairs (see p. 28 for more information) Join LinkedIn groups that relate to your career field to begin networking with professionals Expand your LinkedIn connections to 150 people in your network Update your resume with new experiences and/or relevant coursework Upload your resume to JasonQuest Develop a tailored Cover Letter for a part-time or internship position Complete a second sweep of your Facebook page and other social media websites to ensure they are employer-friendly Stage 4: Implement 4 Use JasonQuest to assist you in your job search to: • Search for job postings • Sign up for on-campus interviewing • View upcoming career events • Check out the employer database Identify your employable skills and how to market them Visit Career Services to learn about effective job search techniques Update your resume in JasonQuest Finalize targeted resumes and cover letters for professional positions Continue honing your interview skills by participating in mock interviews Make sure to utilize the STAR technique when interviewing and finalize your one-minute commercial (see p. 26 for more information) Complete additional preparation for interviews by reviewing typical interview questions you may encounter during an interview (see p. 29 for more information) Obtain all resources you may need for an interview: • Appropriate interview attire • Padfolio or portfolio • Networking/business cards Research and become knowledgeable about competitive salary ranges in your field Follow targeted employers on LinkedIn, Twitter, Facebook and other appropriate forms of social media Expand your LinkedIn Connections to 200 people in your network Join professional associations or organizations in your career field and attend meetings and/or conferences Confirm at least 3 individuals who are willing to serve as references during your job search (see p. 21 for more information) Meet required deadlines for graduate school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS IMPLEMENT PREPARE DISCOVER EXPLORE Fill in the worksheet below to identify what tasks you have accomplished in each stage. This will serve as a great guide and reminder of things completed and those items you still wish to accomplish within each stage. Remember to pay special attention to the key tips highlighted on page 2 if youâ€™re looking for guidance on where to start. Set goals for yourself as to what you would like to accomplish in each stage and document which of those goals you have finished on the lines below. 5 CAREER EXPLORATION Identify Your VIPS Are you having trouble choosing a major or deciding where you want to go in life? It might be time to start examining your values, interests, personality, and skills (VIPS). Below are questions to help you discover your VIPS. Values: What is important to you and what will be important for you in your work? Think about what motivates you (ex. earning a high salary, helping others, being creative, having time to spend with family). Interests: What do you love to do inside and outside of school that might fit into a career someday? If you feel that you have trouble pinpointing your interests, you may want to take an interest inventory (see a Career Coach to take assessment). To get started, consider what classes you enjoy the most/least? What are your hobbies? Personality: What are the dominant aspects of your personality? Do you need to work in a team environment or more by yourself? Take a free personality assessment to see where you rank to know if a career will fit with your personality or not (see a Career Coach for access to this assessment). Skills: What unique skills do you possess? Are you good working with tools or analyzing situations? If you’re having trouble identifying your VIPS, consider making an appointment with a Career Coach by calling Career Services at 850.474.2254 Goal Setting Establishing your VIPS is the foundation for developing future career goals. The following tips can assist you in your goal setting process. Goals must be SMART: Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Timely • Short Term Goals refer to goals that can be accomplished in the immediate future and often are a part of a long term goal. • Long Term Goals refer to overarching goals that usually take time to complete. These goals often need short term goals or steps to complete them. Goal Setting Tips: • • • • • Write them down! Goal setting is all about visibility. Write goals where you see them. Write goals as declarations, “I will apply for graduate school.” Be specific, goals can become overwhelming if they are not specific enough. Share your goals with people! Mentors can be great for helping understand and reach your goals. Goals can change, and sometimes they should. Don’t be afraid to let your dreams change! WORDS OF WISDOM “I would advise incoming college freshmen to build a partnership with not only department heads but career services who can help him/her with career exploration. Take a career assessment, research future top career fields, salaries, and demographic areas in which they would like to live in the future. This process can help the student to appropriately select the field of study that aligns with interests and values resulting in an increased chance for a successful transition into the profession of choice upon graduation.” -Sheila B., Cox Communications 6 S ST EP MO DE L Remember, you are only looking for a place to start. P T E 7 EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING When Experience Matters Most: Learn by Doing Experiential learning means gaining active, hands-on experience in the real world as part of your academic field of study and career development. Through several forms of experiential learning, you can: • • • • • • Incorporate classroom theories with applied learning experiences Obtain career-related experience Explore career interests and clarify future career goals Network with professionals in your field and identify potential mentors Improve your post-graduation job prospects Improve your essential job search skills like professional resume writing and interview techniques • • • • Develop the marketable skills employers are looking for Earn recognition for your experience through transcript notation or course credit Develop professional references for your future career Increase self-confidence and knowledge of your interests, abilities, and values Get Involved in Service: Volunteer Volunteering is about giving your service to help others, but it’s a great way to help yourself too. You may participate in community service for a class project, to explore a career interest, to gain hands-on experience in your field of study, or for the purpose of earning a scholarship. By engaging in the community you can learn new skills, build a professional network, and demonstrate to employers your commitment to career goals Track your individual or student organization’s community service hours through JasonQuest. Complete 20+ hours of community service in one semester to get it reported on your official transcript. Follow a Professional: Job Shadow Spend a half-day, full day, or several days shadowing a professional by participating in the Job Shadowing Program. This opportunity is designed to help you gain valuable exposure to a career through observation and discussion with professionals at work. Gain More Experience: Intern or CoOp An Internship is most often a one semester experience that may or may not be for academic credit. It may also be paid or unpaid, but employers should comply with the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). Students typically seek internships in their junior and senior years. If seeking credit, you should meet with your academic advisor to determine if you are eligible to pursue an internship. Schedule an appointment with Career Services to develop a strategy for finding an internship. Cooperative Education programs (CoOps) are multi-semester experiences that are always for course credit and always paid. Students may experience two forms of CoOps: parallel or alternating. A parallel CoOp student works and goes to school at least 3 semesters in a row, while an alternating CoOp student alternates between workplace and school by semester. 8 EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING Reflection is an important part of experiential learning that allows you to glean meaning from an experience. Because many experiential learning opportunities relate back to your classes and academics, it’s good to consider how class concepts and theories may relate to your hands on experience. Below is a worksheet designed to help you reflect on your experiential learning opportunity. Reflection can come before, during and after the opportunity. Before the experience, think about the organization’s mission and how you plan to contribute to it. After the experience, ask questions such as what did you learn, what does it all mean and now what. Write your responses in the space provided below. What I Have Learned From My Classes: What I Want to Learn From My Experience: What I Have Learned From My Experience: “All the work I have provided for Cox Media is very valuable, and the fact that I get real, hands-on experience makes this CoOp worth the time and beneficial to my future endeavors.“ - Jordan Reyes, Marketing Research Analyst, Cox Media 9 JASONQUEST To log in to your JasonQuest account visit my.uwf.edu and then search for ‘JasonQuest’. Be sure to add it to your favorites by clicking the star icon! JasonQuest is home to: • Hundreds of part-time and full-time jobs • Experiential Learning opportunities • Career Events • 1,000+ Employers who can make their contact information available to you B A C F E H G I Company Name Here Company Name Here 10 D A Through the ‘My Account’ tab, you can access your profile to make updates to your account, upload resumes and cover letters, and view your account activity. B The ‘Employer Database’ houses select contact information for employers who are registered in JasonQuest. This is a great tool to use when trying to network with potential employers in your career field. C Through the ‘Jobs’ section on JasonQuest, you can search for volunteer and service opportunities, internships, co-ops, part-time and full-time positions. Also, if you’ve given access for additional job websites to filter other job postings to your JasonQuest account, you can find those by searching for all open positions under the job tab. D If a company is coming on campus to complete interviews, the ‘On-Campus Interviews’ tab will allow you to view all available interview times and sign up for a specific day and time to interview. E All of the Career Services events are housed under the ‘Career Events’ tab. In this section, you can learn about all upcoming events including workshops, special one-time events, job shadowing orientation sessions and career fairs. You can also RSVP for career events under this section in JasonQuest. F G The ‘Resource Library’ is your source for additional career information. Located in the ‘Resource Library’ are additional examples of functional and chronological resumes, more sample interview questions and sample cover letters. Through JasonQuest, you can submit all your community service hours worked with a non-profit organization online. The process is simple and quick and tracks community service hours for individuals, student organizations, and academic-based service. H The ‘Advanced Search’ option allows you to specify and narrow your job search according to specific parameters. You can search for jobs according to your major, the company, job type or job location. I Once you’ve searched for a position under the ‘Jobs’ tab, this is how the results will appear. The search results will show the job title, name of the company, location of the job and the type of position. This is an easy way to scan through the job openings to see which may be of interest. Look for this logo throughout the Career Development GuideIt indicates that additional information is available for you in the Resource Library on JasonQuest! 11 TRANSFERABLE SKILLS Transferable skills are skills that could be utilized in many different situations. Use this worksheet to see how your classes, part-time work experience, extracurricular activities, internships, CoOp, service involvement and other experiences have provided you with skills that organizations value when they are hiring. Use the lists below as a tool to assist you in prepping for interviews and writing your resume and cover letter! What Skills and Qualities are Important to Employers? According to the 2013 National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) Job Outlook Survey, the top 10 qualities/skills employers seek are TRANSFERABLE skills. Which of these skills do you excel in? How have you demonstrated these? How can you develop them further? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Verbal communication Teamwork Critical thinking/problem-solving skills Ability to plan and prioritize work Ability to process information 6. Analytical skills 7. Technical knowledge 8. Computer skills 9. Written communication skills 10. Ability to sell or influence others Take Stock of Your Transferable Skills Review the lists in the following 5 categories and underline all the skills you have. Then go back and circle the 10 underlined skills you enjoy using most. Write these top 10 skills in the left column on following chart. Then, in the right column, write a brief example of how you have demonstrated each skill in a job, class, internship, or extracurricular activity. This will help as you consider career options and as you prepare for your job search. The skills you identify on a resume or in a job interview will need to be driven by the job description. 12 Organization & Management Direct and guide a group in completing tasks and attaining goals Interpersonal & Communication Exchange, transmission and expression of knowledge and ideas Research, Planning & Computer The search for specific knowledge and utilizing technology initiating new ideas making decisions overseeing tasks or projects solving problems meeting deadlines managing time working under pressure multi-tasking prioritizing and organizing developing goals supervising motivating coordinating assuming responsibility teaching interpreting policy mediating recruiting resolving conflict organizing giving directions maintaining team cooperation interacting & appreciating people from diverse backgrounds leadership skills speaking effectively writing concisely active listening expressing ideas facilitating discussion providing appropriate feedback negotiating perceiving nonverbal messages persuading describing feelings interviewing editing summarizing promoting working on a team conducting presentations or speeches thinking on oneâ€™s feet analyzing statistical data and ideas defining needs investigating reviewing literature for information gathering information formulating hypotheses calculating and comparing developing theory developing questionnaires/surveys identifying resources outlining producing results setting goals thinking critically predicting and forecasting solving technical problems utilizing specific programs and software preparing graphs, pamphlets, documents conducting effective internet research illustrating computer programming designing web pages TRANSFERABLE SKILLS WORKSHEET Human Relations Attend to the social, physical or mental needs of people Design & Planning Imagine the future; develop a process for creating it being sensitive counseling advocating coaching providing care conveying feelings and thoughts empathizing attending to others’ needs facilitating group process anticipating problems and identifying key issues creating images designing programs event planning brainstorming new ideas improvising and creating solutions conceptualizing and composing thinking visually anticipating the consequences of action Top 10 Most Preferred Skills Example of How You’ve Used Each Skill 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Additional Skills I’ve developed: Adapted and reprinted with permission from Binghamton University Career Development Center When creating your resume & cover letter, be sure to emphasize your transferable skills! 13 COVER LETTERS A well-written cover letter should complement your resume and will help paint a more complete picture of who you are as a person and candidate. Each cover letter should be specific to the position that you are applying for; therefore, there are no generic cover letters! When writing a cover letter, make sure you write it from the employer’s perspective (what unique contributions are you going to bring to the job/company). Try to keep your letter to one page and include at least three paragraphs. Use the STAR Technique to share a detailed accomplishment, see page 26 for more information. Different Types of Cover Letters Application Letter: You are applying for a job you saw advertised. In this case you can use the job description to help draw a connection between what the company is looking for and your unique skills and experiences. Prospecting Letter: In this case, there is not an open job position but you are interested in working for a specific company. You will need to highlight your unique contributions. In your concluding paragraph, you will need to make mention of the next step and be prepared to take matters into your own hands. Networking Letter: Your main objective is to draw a specific connection between you and the reader. Make sure to mention this connection early on in the cover letter. The rest of the letter should be written as a prospecting letter. Susie Jobseeker (your name and address) 1010 University Road, Apt. B Pensacola, FL 32514 COVER LETTER SAMPLE September 25, 2014 Cover Letter Basics • Distinguish yourself by addressing your cover letter to a specific individual if possible. Call or visit the company to get the appropriate person’s name and title. • Don’t just reiterate your resume, make sure you touch upon aspects of your character and personality. • If you heard about the position through networking, make sure you state that early in your letter. • Show that you’ve done your research by mentioning what interests you most about the position/company. • Use the same high-quality paper for your resume, cover letter, and reference sheet. • Include your cover letter in the body of the e-mail if you’re e-mailing your resume to an employer. Mr. Jason Quest (employer’s name, title and address) Assistant Director of Career Services University of West Florida 11000 University Parkway Pensacola, FL 32514 Dear Mr. Quest, First Paragraph. Your main objective in this opening paragraph is to give your cover letter focus describing the position or type of work for which you are applying. You also want to let the reader know where you found the ad or how you heard about the opening/ company (friend, social media, online job board, etc.). It is also advantageous to mention at least something about the company or position that interests you. This shows that you have done some research about the position and/or company. Second Paragraph. This is where you pull out the “big guns.” Make sure you draw a specific connection to the position/company and your qualifications and experiences. One of the most common pitfalls in cover letter writing is detailing how working for that company will benefit you. The employer really needs to know what unique contributions you are going to bring to the position/company. This is a great time to talk about educational experiences such as special projects done in a specific class. Make sure you can cite specific examples of demonstrated behavior. For example, if you say that you are an organized person, make sure you follow that statement with a specific example of how/when these organizational skills have helped you or been recognized by others. The cover letter is the time to speak about the “intangibles” about your character and personality whereas the resume is simply a listing of your experiences. Final Paragraph. Refer the reader to the enclosed resume that summarizes your qualifications, training, experiences, etc. Assure the employer that you are the right person for the job by continuing to draw a connection between your unique skills and the position/ company. Also, make mention of the next step. If there is an open position that has been posted, it probably means that there is a process already in place. In this case it is acceptable to say, “I look forward to setting up an interview whereby we may discuss my qualifications further.” If you are prospecting or networking to find a job, make sure you mention how you will follow up, “I will call you….,” “I will be in your city on a certain date and would like to meet….” Make sure to indicate your flexibility, repeat your phone number (or add a different number where you can be reached during certain hours) and offer any assistance necessary to help obtain a speedy response. Sincerely, (Make sure you sign the letter or scan in your signature) Susie Jobseeker Enclosure (This means that you have attached documents such as a resume and/or portfolio) 14 RESUME BASICS Building Your Resume THE OBJECTIVE Your objective is a short and realistic statement of your interest. Often people write objectives Your resume is one of your most important initial job in their resumes that are either too broad or too narrow. search tools. The main goal of the resume is to get you To avoid this, develop a targeted and balanced objective, to the interview stage. Your resume promotes you by “Pursuing a research and development position in highlighting your skills, accomplishments, attributes, electrical engineering.” Include the job title and the name and key capabilities in a clear, concise, and compelling of the organization if you know this information, such as way. One thing to keep in mind is that there is no one “Seeking a position as a Management Trainee at Target right way to write a resume. There are a few absolutes: a resume should be absolutely error free, absolutely truthful Corporation.” You should have a variety of objectives and absolutely not made with a template. One of the keys that you can use to tailor your resume to the job or to writing an effective resume is choosing the format that organization. Keep in mind that objective statements are usually optional. In other words, you do not have fits you best. to include an objective statement. Ask whether your Types of resumes: objective statement is adding value before choosing to 1. Federal (p. 17) include it. 2. Chronological (p. 19) 3. Functional (p. 18) THE BODY After the objective, the listing of other 4. Curriculum Vitae (p. 20) headings should start with the most relevant and end with 5. Hybrid * (See JasonQuest Resource Library) the least relevant for the job to which you are applying. After you decide what type of resume works best for Here are examples of possible resume headings: you, it is now a good idea to reflect on your list of accomplishments both in and out of the classroom. What Education Volunteer Experience have you done in your life that would make you valuable Community Involvement Professional Affiliations in this industry, organization, and position? Approach Related Course Work Activities/ Leadership the resume from an employer’s perspective – what are Internship Experience Publications they looking for in a candidate? The best place to find Honors and Achievements Related Experience this information is on the job description. When thinking Computer Skills Presentations about employment history, focus on the most relevant Work Experience Military Experience information for the job to which you are applying. Accomplishments Language Skills Successful resumes are tailored to the job to demonstrate that you have the necessary background for the position. REFERENCES It is appropriate to write “available upon request” on a resume. You do not want to list references on the resume because you will want to notify your Resume Content references that an employer may be contacting them. However, if the employer requests your references, it THE HEADER Include important contact information. would be appropriate to provide them on a separate When listing a phone number on a resume, consider the sheet of paper. See the References page on page 21 as an voicemail greeting attached to that number: ensure that example. it is professional and not too casual. You will also want to eliminate enhancements like ringback tones. Use a professional e-mail address, such as your UWF issued student account, or create a new e-mail account just for job searching. If your current address and permanent address are different, you may include both on the resume. If you have a professional website that can help you make your case as a strong candidate, include the URL in your header. Resume and Cover Letter Drop-Ins MondayThursday 12-4pm! No Appointment needed! Career Services Bldg. 19 / 850.474.2254 15 RESUME BASICS CONTINUED... Other considerations: When emailing your resume: • The email body is just as important as your attached resume • Use a shortened version of the text from your cover letter as the body of the email. It must be effective and short • Write this as a formal letter (no slang, texting language, etc.); use proper punctuation and attach both your resume and cover letter • Mention in the email that you are attaching both your resume and cover letter • Consider the document type and software version before attaching. Do most individuals have the ability to open your document? • Provide evidence of your skills by conveying stories that demonstrate your skills, which employers use to predict future performance • Uncover content for the resume by answering the journalistic questions of who, what, when, where, why, and how for each experience in your background that is related to the position • Use a bulleted list to describe (in detail) activities and accomplishments • Begin bullets with a variety of action verbs (not with “I” or as a complete sentence) • Quantify results and use numbers whenever possible to demonstrate how often, how many, or how much (e.g., if you increased profit by 15%, state that) • Include key words and descriptive words; if specific words and skills are emphasized in the job description, include them in your resume • Use a font and font size that is easy to read (e.g., Times New Roman, 12 pt.) • Use bolding to emphasize information. Stay away from italics and underlining that may damage your formatting • Write your resume yourself; do not hire someone to write it for you; you know yourself and your qualifications best • Use quality, conservative paper and a laser printer if you will be hand delivering or sending your resume through the mail • Remember that your resume is a summary, not an autobiography. Try to keep it as concise as possible • Be consistent across sections (e.g., dates in same style/position on page and months written out or numerical) CREATIVE acted composed conceived conceptualized conducted created designed developed directed established fashioned founded illustrated improvised instituted integrated introduced invented originated performed planned revitalized shaped 16 FINANCIAL accounted for adjusted administered allocated analyzed appraised audited balanced budgeted calculated computed POWER VERBS controlled developed financed forecasted managed marketed monitored planned procured projected purchased reconciled researched HELPING advised advocated assessed assisted clarified coached counseled demonstrated diagnosed educated ensured evaluated expedited facilitated familiarized fostered guided observed provided referred rehabilitated represented supported MANAGEMENT administered analyzed appointed approved assigned assumed attained chaired contracted consolidated consulted delegated designated determined developed directed evaluated executed formulated managed organized oversaw planned prioritized produced recommended recruited reviewed scheduled supervised COMMUNICATION addressed arbitrated arranged authored briefed communicated composed contacted convinced described developed directed documented drafted edited enlisted formulated influenced informed interpreted interviewed lectured marketed mediated moderated motivated negotiated persuaded presented promoted publicized published reconciled recruited reported spoke summarized translated wrote RESEARCH acquired analyzed calculated clarified collected compared conducted critiqued diagnosed designed determined evaluated examined extracted formulated identified inspected interpreted interviewed investigated located modified organized processed reviewed researched summarized surveyed systematized RESULTS achieved accelerated accomplished attained awarded completed contributed decreased eliminated enlarged established expanded improved increased initiated introduced launched pioneered recognized as reduced resolved selected as succeeded ORGANIZATION approved arranged catalogued classified collected compiled consolidated dispatched distributed enlisted executed expedited generated implemented inspected monitored operated organized prepared processed purchased recorded revamped revised retrieved scheduled screened specified systematized tabulated updated validated TEACHING adapted advised applied clarified coached communicated coordinated developed enabled encouraged evaluated explained facilitated guided implemented incorporated informed initiated instructed integrated modified motivated persuaded reinforced set goals stimulated taught trained tutored TECHNICAL assembled built calculated computed designed devised engineered fabricated maintained operated overhauled programmed remodeled repaired solved trained upgraded RESUME EXAMPLES Federal resume Federal Resume Components: • • • • • • • • Heading Objective/profile statement Education Relevant coursework Computer (or other relevant) skills Achievements Work experience Other qualifications PAGE 2 Every agency has different application requirements. For Federal careers by field of interest visit: http://makingthedifference.org/federalcareers/careersbyinterest.shtml PAGE 1 1234 Anywhere Street Shalimar, FL 32579 (850) 123-‐4567 firstname.lastname@example.org US Citizen Veterans Status: 5 points, US Air Force, 08/2003 to 01/2008, honorable discharge Secret Security Clearance (active) OBJECTIVE: Job Announcement Number: 10-‐340657-‐rm Job Title, Series & Grade: Program Analyst (Emerging Leader Program), PG-‐0343-‐05/09 Agency: Government Printing Office PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE: 01/2010 to present, INTELLIGENCE ANALYST; E-‐5; Maryland National Guard, Baltimore, MD. Hours per week: 40; Supervisor: Buddy Smith (410) 555-‐2000. DATABASE ADMINISTRATOR: Maintain, process, and manage security clearance database and associated procedures for 1-‐175th Infantry Battalion utilizing JPA. Initiate clearance process for personnel requiring new clearances, and identify personnel whose authorization has been revoked. Process and secure sensitive and/or derogatory personnel information in close coordination with Army security managers. Enter coded information into Army systems. TRAINING: Lead numerous classes on Army critical skills and required knowledge, including Operational Security and Human Trafficking. OPERATION PLANNING: Help plan real world training exercises for upcoming peacekeeping deployment to the Sinai Peninsula in support of 1979 Camp David Accords. KEY ACCOMPLISHMENTS: SELECTED TO BE BATALLION ELECTRONIC WARFARE NON COMMISSIONED OFFICER: Outstanding work ethic led to selection as the Battalion Electronic Warfare NCO. As EWO, trained to use the electromagnetic spectrum to deny the enemy’s ability to attack US and Allied personnel with remote devices. Work directly with commanders to ensure the proper utilization of Electronic Warfare to safeguard friendly personnel. 08/2003-‐01/2008, US AIR FORCE, HELICOPTER CREW CHIEF, E-‐5, Hurlburt Field, Fort Walton Beach, FL; Salary: 30,000; 40+ hours per week; Supervisor: Staff Sergeant Bernie Milton, (555) 555-‐5151, may contact. TEAM LEAD/FLIGHT CREW MEMBER: Planned, organized, led and performed maintenance on CH-‐53E Super Stallion helicopters, including during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Supported more than 2,000 sorties in several major campaigns. Performed and directed maintenance at Hurlburt Field and during two tours in Iraq (total time 15 months) to ensure mission safety and readiness for operations. Proved effective as short-‐term project leader directing multiple operation events and major maintenance projects under pressure. SCHEDULING AND COORDINATION: Performed daily inspections on assigned aircraft; assisted in preflight inspections performing final checks; monitored aircraft performance during flight; assisted as a lookout and advised pilot of obstacles and other aircraft. TECHNICAL SKILLS: As Helicopter Mechanic, performed inspection and maintenance duties on various aircraft systems, including the fuel, flight control, rotor, utility, and power plant systems; checked cockpit controls, switches, and safety devices. CRITICAL THINKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING: Analyzed weight, mission cargo and prepared aircraft for maximum defense. Utilized evaluative and technical skills in operating aircraft mounted weapons systems. PLAN AND ORGANIZE WORK: Assisted in the supervision and administration of aircraft maintenance operations. Developed methods and procedures to improve efficiency of the Flight Crew, especially in flight operations of emergency maintenance procedures. KEY ACCOMPLISHMENTS: AS PLANE CAPTAIN, performed essential systems and safety checks for every aircraft under my care daily prior to operations (up to 14 helicopters). Led team effort in achieving a perfect safety record for my unit over 3.5 years and two combat tours. Trained junior staff in aircraft operations, aerial gunnery, combat tactics. MILITARY TRAINING: “A” and “C” school, CH-‐53E Crew Chief Training Syllabus at CNATT MAR Unit, MCAS New River, NC. Plane Captain (PC) Ground syllabus for type aircraft. EDUCATION: December 2009, Bachelor of Arts, Political Science, cum laude. University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL. Relevant Coursework; Constitutional Law, Comparative Government; State and Local Government; American Political Thought; Ethical Issues in Business and Society. GPA: 3.7 out of 4.0. MAJOR PAPER: Seminar on Strategy and Policy: Analysis and Strategic Plans for the Transition of Guard Readiness and Return to Reserve Status. Explored the OEF and OIF National Guard Readiness strategies to analyze trends and devise recommendations for return to Reserve Status. This thesis examines Guard active duty statistics, military careers, career growth and future Guard careers, both active duty and reserves, as they returned to Reserve Status after at least two deployments as Active Duty Status. Analyzes a sample of two Battalions from two states with 75 Reservists who were activated during OIF in 2007 and deployed two times. The thesis and recommendations provide National Guard Readiness policy-‐makers with a strategic plan for Reserve to Active to Reserve Duty with employment, career and educational planning tools. High School Diploma, 2002, Niceville High School, Niceville, FL. Federal • Acts as the only format accepted for positions with the federal government • Employs a paragraph-style text (although not using full-sentence structure instead, begins each phrase with a power verb) • Relies heavily on keywords to convey pertinent experience Julie Jones What are the differences between a federal and a private industry resume? Private Industry • 1-2 pages • No social security number, supervisors, or salaries • Fewer details in descriptions • Creative, graphic, functional resumes are acceptable • Keywords are desirable Federal Government • 3-5 pages is acceptable • Supervisor’s names & salaries included • More details for work descriptions to demonstrate your qualifications for a job • Chronological, traditional format • Keywords are needed 17 RESUME EXAMPLES Functional EXAMPLE 1 Jacob McDonald Jacob McDonald 9975 University Pkwy |(850) 777-7777 9975 University Pkwy FL |(850) 777-7777 Pensacola, 32514 | JMD@gmail.com Pensacola, FL 32514 | JMD@gmail.com OBJECTIVE OBJECTIVE To obtain the Anthropology Intern position utilizing my leadership and communication skills. To obtain the Anthropology Intern position utilizing my leadership and communication skills. EDUCATION EDUCATION May 2012May 2012 Bachelor of Arts University of West Florida -FL Pensacola, FL Bachelor of Arts University of West Florida - Pensacola, AnthropologyEmphasis: Cultural Emphasis: Cultural Anthropology Anthropology Anthropology Relevant Courses: Relevant Courses: andofCultures of the World History of Anthropology People andPeople Cultures the World History of Anthropology Method Applied Anthropology Method and Theoryand Theory Applied Anthropology & ABILITIES SKILLS & SKILLS ABILITIES Communication Communication Verbal Verbal Presented over 10reports research reportsranging to groups ranging in size to 50ondescribing on Presented over 10 research to groups in size from15 to 50from15 describing going research topics including throughout throughout history, foodhistory, habits along the along the goingofresearch of topicsdomestication including domestication food habits Gulf Coast,Gulf andCoast, global and ritesglobal of passage. rites of passage. Interviewed over 30 individuals as part of research conducted the University West Interviewed over 30 individuals as part of researchat conducted at theofUniversity of West Florida on Florida alcohol on consumption amongst students. alcohol consumption amongst students. Interacted with diverse populations on topics relevant to their needs an academic setting. Interacted with diverse populations on topics relevant to in their needs in an academic setting. Written Written Prepared reports covering topics such topics as Applied Ethics, and The Value 20-page Prepared 20-page reports covering suchAnthropology as Applied Anthropology Ethics, and The Value of Anthropology in the 21st Century. of Anthropology in the 21st Century. Transcribed notes taken from over 30 oral interviews as part of on-going research conducted Transcribed notes taken from over 30 oral interviews as part of on-going research conducted by the UWF Department. byAnthropology the UWF Anthropology Department. LeadershipLeadership and Teamwork and Teamwork Independent Independent Conducted 10 original 10 research projects in areas of Anthropology. Conducted originalindependent research independent projects in areas of Anthropology. Initiated a departmental study group for Anthropology students to maintain and enhance Initiated a departmental study group for Anthropology students to maintain and enhance their understanding of current research in Anthropology. their understanding of current research in Anthropology. Group Group Participated in group research projects designed to engage multiple researchers to foster Participated in group research projects designed to engage multiple researchers to foster collaboration across disciplines. collaboration across disciplines. Managed a group of 12 undergraduate researchers for a field study project focused on Managed a group of 12 undergraduate researchers for a field study project focused on alcohol consumption as compared with rates of retention at UWF. Human Relations alcohol consumption as compared with rates of retention at UWF. Humanwith Relations Worked diverse populations, age groups, and gender identities. asWorked populations, ageUWF groups, and gender identities. Engaged a liaisonwith withdiverse minority groups at the campus. Engaged as a liaison with minority groups at the UWF campus. BILL NYE PROFESSIONAL INVOLVEMENT PROFESSIONAL INVOLVEMENT Aug. 2010-May 2012 Anthropology Club, University of West Florida 2012 Anthropological Anthropology Club, University of West Florida Feb. 2011Aug. 2010-May American Association Conference, Attendee Feb. 2011 American Anthropological Association Conference, Attendee Functional resume • Emphasizes skills, de-emphasizes job history • Presents skills & experiences grouped by specific functions • Used by career changers and those wanting to summarize, not reiterate, the same experiences EDUCATION SKILLS & ABILITIES EMPLOYMENT 18 • Your name should be the biggest and boldest thing on the page • Create a targeted objective statement for each position you’re applying for • Education section should include proper name of your degree (consult the UWF catalog if you are unsure). Degrees should be listed in reverse chronological order • Indicate anticipated date of graduation in the education section EXAMPLE 2 1250 Pensacola Drive, Pensacola, FL (850) 222-2222 BillNye@hotmail.com Bachelor of Science, Chemistry University of West Florida - Pensacola, FL May 2015 Relevant Coursework: Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Inorganic Chemistry, Instrumental Analysis Honors & Achievements: President’s List 2011, 2013 Dean’s List 2012 Outstanding Chemistry Student 2013 TRAINING For more resume examples visit the Resource Library on JasonQuest. KEY TIPS Verbal & Written Communication Presented research reports in biochemistry regarding the electron configuration in atoms to 40 individuals ranging from students to faculty Instructed sophomore-and junior-level students as part of class participation in chemistry labs in order to maintain a safe environment Generated 20+ reports on chemical testing within 3 chemistry labs, which included supply inventories, on-going work, or lab incidents Reviewed procedures on safety in the laboratory, ensuring proper care of caustic chemicals Organization Prepared schedules and timesheets for tasks to be completed weekly over the course of 3 years Organized systematic routes for service delivery to ensure energy efficiency and product security Management & Supervision Supervised and trained over 10 individuals in proper safety and security procedures Interacted with faculty, staff, and students in order to maintain a good study environment within the Chemistry Department Initiated and led 5 workshops to train 17 chemistry tutors on effective tutoring techniques Good Manufacturing Practice World Health Organization Fundamentals of Regulatory Chemistry Federal Drug Administration Chemical Laboratory Safety University of West Florida Ice Crème Attendant Twistee Freeze Ice Crème Shoppe - Pensacola, FL Rod & Reel Salesman Jerry’s Bait and Tackle - Pensacola, FL Lawnmower Self Employed - Pensacola, FL May 2013 September 2012 February 2011 September 2011 – May 2013 January 2009 – August 2011 March 2006 – October 2008 (seasonal) RESUME EXAMPLES • Include your GPA if it is above a 3.0; cumulative or major GPA can be used and should be properly labeled • Use active, past tense verbs to describe activities or jobs performed in the past • Include the months and years of jobs worked to be specific about longevity • Keep dates consistent across sections. If you choose to write them out, make sure they are in the same format Pensacola, FL 32514 (850) 867-5300 email@example.com EDUCATION Bachelor of Arts, Criminal Justice University of West Florida Pensacola, FL Minor: Pre-Law GPA: 3.92 Relevant Courses: Aug. 2010 - May 2014 Criminology, American Criminal Justice System, Judicial Process, The Legal System and Ethics EXPERIENCE Intern Florida Department of Law Enforcement Sept. 2011 - Feb. 2013 Prepared daily reports for review by multiple levels of oversight within the department Analyzed criminal statistics on a weekly basis for generated reports Operated a statewide database of 200k+ individuals overseen by the department Assessed potential areas for growth in Florida Law Enforcement Military Police United States Marine Corps Chronological EXAMPLE 1 John E. Law 11000 University Pkwy Jan. 2004- Dec. 2009 Dispatched military police officers in response to incidents ranging from violent crimes to theft Reported on criminal activities within the Marine Corps in order to assess problem areas Trained over 20 new recruits on tactics and techniques used by military police Maintained equipment such as weapons and safety gear for a staff of 50 military police officers PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, member American Society of Criminology, member University of West Florida; Alpha Phi Sigma, President Sept. 2010 - May 2012 Nov. 2011 - May 2012 May 2010 - April 2011 VOLUNTEER EXPERIENCE Habitat for Humanity EXAMPLE 2 Matt R. Rodgers 1111 Neighbor Way Pensacola, FL 32514 OBJECTIVE EXPERIENCE 5/2011 –8/2012 LANGUAGES June 2010 - May 2012 850-474-2000 Mr.Rodgers@gmail.com To obtain the Hospitality Coordinator position utilizing my strong communication skills and knowledge of successful customer service practices. Event Coordinator/Trainer Walt Disney World, Animal Kingdom – Orlando, FL Provided customer service for various areas of tourist-oriented theme park Served as relief shift leader for up to 20 employees Trained 12 new employees in guest relations and standard operating procedures for attractions Received certificate of appreciation for 1 summer of perfect attendance 5/2010 – 7/2010 Deckhand Trainee/Student Sail Away - Cutchogue, NY Worked aboard a 130-foot gaff-rigged schooner for nine weeks while sailing around the Caribbean and along the East Coast Learned navigation techniques including basic and celestial navigation Performed supervisory duties over 7 deckhands as Junior Watch EDUCATION 5/2014 250 total hours Participated with Alpha Phi Sigma in over 200 community service hours assisting the rebuilding and upkeep of housing for low-income families Directed student volunteers on 3 build sites in a range of activities from painting to installing drywall for over 50 hours Bachelor of Science, Hospitality, Recreation and Resort Management University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL Minor: Marketing Overall GPA: 3.2 Chronological resume • Emphasizes employment history • Lists positions & employers in reverse chronological order • Describes activities and accomplishments in each job • Used by people changing jobs or advancing within a career field English – Native Language Spanish – Proficient, Conversational CAMPUS INVOLVEMENT 8/2009 – 5/2013 Voyages Leadership Program, Active Participant 6/2012 – 5/2013 Club Managers Association of America, President 1/2011 – 5/2012 Club Managers Association of America, Secretary 8/2010 – 9/2011 Homecoming Executive Board, Volunteer Coordinator 5/2011 – 8/2011 Student Transition Programs, Orientation Leader REFERENCES Available Upon Request 19 CURRICULUM VITAE Curriculum vitae is a Latin expression which can be loosely translated as [the] course of [my] life. A CV is used in academic circles and medical careers as a “replacement” for a résumé and is far more comprehensive. A CV elaborates on education to a greater degree than a résumé and is expected to include a comprehensive listing of professional history including every term of employment, academic credential, publication, contribution or significant achievement. In certain professions, it may even include samples of the person’s work and may run to many pages. For the recommended style to use to present publications and presentations, consult your field’s style guide. Categories listed below are often included in CV’s: Jonathan O. Benjamin • • • • • • • • • • • • (540) 555-3000 firstname.lastname@example.org 1200-F University Terrace Destin, FL 32541 OBJECTIVE Post-doctoral research position related to DNA sequencing. EDUCATION Doctor of Philosophy, Microbiology, Expected June 2013 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA Dissertation: Regulation of aerobic gene expression in Escherichia coli Advisor: Thomas W. Adamson Bachelor of Science, Biology; Minor: Chemistry, May 2009 University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL HONORS/AFFILIATIONS American Society for Microbiology, 2006 - present Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society, 2007 - present National Institutes of Health Pre-doctoral Fellowship, 2011 – 2012 Cunningham Dissertation Fellowship (Virginia Tech research grant), 2010-2011 Phi Beta Kappa, inducted 2006 RESEARCH INTERESTS Regulation of aerobic gene expression. DNA sequencing and determination of DNA binding domains. Research Assistant Department of Biology, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL August 2008 - May 2009 Performed protein bioassays and prepared tissue cultures Assisted with DNA preparations for DNA fingerprinting including isolating DNA and gel electrophoresis Analyzed data to present at the Student Scholars Symposium TEACHING INTERESTS Undergraduate biology and microbiology courses including microbiology, genetics, and microbial genetics. Graduate microbiology courses. Biology Research Technician Biotech Research Laboratories, Inc., Roanoke, VA May 2008 - August 2008 Participated in DNA fingerprinting project Digested genomic DNA with restriction enzymes Separated digested DNA fragments by electrophoresis through agarose gels and transferring via employment of the Southern Blotting Technique Prepared buffers, photographed gels, developed autoradiographs RELATED EXPERIENCE Research Pre-Doctoral Fellow/Ph.D. Research, Department of Biology, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL, August 2011 - present Design and conduct experiments for purification and characterization of the repressor for the sn-glycerol 3-phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli K-12 Identified structure of the glp repressor and determined DNA binding domains Teaching Laboratory Instructor, Department of Biology, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL August 2010 - present Taught two laboratory sections for undergraduate introductory Microbiology course Prepared and coordinated the use of laboratory materials, equipment and resources Research Fellow, National Institutes of Health, Poolesville, MD May 2011 - August 2011 Synthesized and purified hundreds of oligonucleotides Sequenced DNA Constructed a cosmid library from human blood DNA Jonathan O. Benjamin PAGE 1 Heading Education Certification(s) Honors or Awards Relevant Experience Grants Received Professional Associations Publications Presentations Recent/Current Research Courses Taught Community Involvement Teaching Assistant, Department of Chemistry, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL August 2008 - May 2009; August 2009 - May 2010 Advised undergraduate chemistry students during office hours Graded quizzes and assignments Page 1 of 2 PUBLICATIONS PAGE 2 Doctor, J. B. and T. W. Advisor. Structure of the glp repressor and the determination of DNA binding domains. (in preparation) Doctor, J. B. and T. W. Advisor. 2011. Structures of the promoter and operator of the glpD gene encoding aerobic sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli K-12. J. Bacteriol. 52: 136-162. Advisor, T. W., J. B. Doctor, A. Colleague, and S. Colleague. 2010. Purification and characterization of the repressor for the sn-glycerol 3-phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli K12. J. Biol. Chem. 118: 98-132. ABSTRACTS Doctor, J. B. and T. W. Advisor. 2012. Nucleotide sequence of the glpR gene encoding the repressor of Escherichia coli K-12. Am. Society for Microbiol., Anaheim, CA. Advisor, T. W., J. B. Doctor, A. Colleague, and S. Colleague, A. M. Graduate. 20xx. Tandem operators control sn-glycerol 3-phosphate glp gene expression in Escherichia coli Gordon Res. Conf., Meriden, NH. Doctor, J. B. and T. W. Advisor. 20xx. Regulation of aerobic sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase glpD gene expression in Escherichia coli K-12. Am. Soc. for Microbiol., Miami Beach, FL. 20 Jonathan O. Benjamin Page 2 of 2 REFERENCE SHEETS Purpose The purpose of a reference sheet is to have a list of people who can verify and elaborate on your professional experience for a potential employer. Past employers, professors, and advisors are the best professional references to have. It is important to have a reference sheet because potential employers will often ask for a list of references they can contact. If you included a statement such as “References Available Upon Request” on your resume, you should be able to produce a reference sheet as soon as one is requested. Things to Remember Make sure to include people who are familiar with your work and know what type of person you are. It is important to select individuals who know your distinctiveness so that they can provide a positive and accurate description of you to the employer. You should always contact your references before including them on a reference sheet. It is also a good idea to give them a copy of your resume and talk to them about the job you are seeking so they will know how to best represent you. What to Include • Your header from your resume • Your reference’s information which includes: • Name • Department/Company • Title/Position • Address • Telephone number • E-mail • Brief statement as to how you know this person Reference Sheet Tips • • • • • • Use a list of 3 to 5 professional references Make sure you ask permission from a reference before putting his/her name on your reference sheet Give the reference a copy of your resume Examples of references include former employers, professors, a co-worker, a coach or an advisor Do not send references with your resume if it is not requested; instead take your reference sheet to the interview Inform your references as to when they can expect to be contacted by a potential employer and provide them information regarding your interest and skills for the job so they are fully aware of your skills and experiences that coincide with the position 21 GRADUATE SCHOOL Is Graduate School Right for You? Going to graduate school might be a good idea if you… • have a clear sense of what career you want to pursue and if an advanced degree is required for entry into that field • are interested in law, medicine, and college or university teaching, which are areas that require a degree beyond the baccalaureate level • want to immerse yourself in the study of a particular academic discipline purely for the love of it Going to graduate school might not be a good idea if you… • are unsure of your career interests • regard the campus as a sheltered place and are trying to delay entrance into the “real world” • want to stay in school to avoid a poor job market Should I work first before attending graduate school? Work first if… • work experience is desired when applying to your desired field of study (In the case of some competitive professional schools, admissions may be very interested in your work background) • work experience is needed for you to clarify your career goals • work experience would enhance your application credentials by offsetting mediocre grades or test scores Attend graduate school first if… • you are absolutely sure that the career you want requires a graduate degree • you’re concerned that if you do not go now, you won’t be able to return to the lifestyle of a college student • your study habits and mental abilities are at their peak, and you do not want to lose the discipline or motivation to write a paper or study for exams Choosing the Right Program for You: Types of Degrees Some graduate degrees are academic and others are professional in orientation. Academic degrees focus on original research, whereas professional degrees stress the practical application of knowledge and skills required for practicing in the profession. Master’s degrees may take one to three years to earn, and doctorates generally take four more years to complete. Those who intend to pursue doctorates may elect to choose a school where they can do both degrees or choose to earn a master’s degree first and then proceed to a different university or somewhat different program of study, for their doctoral work. Once you’ve decided to pursue graduate study, begin to explore schools through various websites, such as www.myplan.com (click on the “colleges” tab), www.gradschools.com, and www.studentdoctor.net for information about medical schools. It’s also a good idea to discuss graduate schools with faculty or consider visiting the campus for a better perspective. Criteria to Consider: • • • • • • • 22 Degree Requirements Entrance Requirements Length of program Program Reputation/Ranking (Accreditation) Program/Research Emphasis Publications & Professional Affiliations Application Deadline • • • • • • • Cost Financial Aid & Scholarships Size/Diversity of the Department Career Potential Thesis/Dissertation/Comprehensive Exams Partner/Family Considerations Number of Accepted Students Per Year Graduate Admission Tests Schools generally require a graduate admission test, which you should plan to take approximately one year before your anticipated matriculation date. The tests vary by type of graduate study. The schools’ catalogs will specify which test you need and may give some indication of the score needed to be competitive for the program. The most common graduate admission tests are listed below with websites for more information. • • • • www.gre.com - Graduate Record Exam www.lsat.com - Law School Admission Test www.aamc.org/students/mcat/ - Medical College Admission Test www.mba.com - Graduate Management Admission Test Application requirements differ substantially among institutions and programs, so read each school’s material carefully to make sure you file a complete and timely application. Official Transcripts Your undergraduate work must also be sent to the graduate schools; contact your college registrar to have your transcripts sent. Two or Three Letters of Recommendation Letters of recommendation will also be a typical admission requirement. Schools will specify who should write the letters and what issues should be addressed. The best recommender is one who has high regard for your work, is credible, and knows you well. Approach your recommenders early in the fall of your senior year to give them time to write the letter. It is helpful to provide your recommenders with your resume, personal statement, transcript and an addressed, stamped envelope to mail the letter. If you haven’t already, discuss with them your reasons for going to graduate school and why you are applying to specific programs. Personal Statement/Letter of Intent This is an important and time-consuming aspect of the application because it is your opportunity to present yourself beyond the numbers. This is one measure of your writing ability so be meticulous about spelling, grammar, and writing style. The essay is also used to assess your enthusiasm for the field of study, your motivation, creativity, maturity, and uniqueness. Check out www.statementofpurpose.com and www.gradschools.com (click on “Get Informed” then Applying to Graduate School, Essay Writing) for more information and examples. Adapted and copied with permission from The National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) 23 JOB SEARCHING: NETWORKING Your ability to create and foster relationships just may be your most powerful job search strategy. According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, approximately 70% of the time, individuals find their careers through networking. Networking can be done anytime, anywhere – at a coffee shop, through online social networking, at a job fair, or in a social setting. The most important first step in networking is to smile and be friendly. You never know with whom you might strike up an important conversation. Here are some tips on how to get the most out of networking: Know what you want. Knowing what you want can help you identify new people who you should meet - people who have applied their skills and goals to their career. Also, be specific about your career goals. Be assertive. Treat it like a political campaign and do not be afraid to promote yourself. Use your time with new people wisely. You need to give the impression that you’re confident. Don’t ask for jobs. Imagine calling an individual to ask if he/she has any jobs available. It may force the other person to say no to you. Instead, ask for advice, and people will be more likely to be generous with their time. Pack your marketing material. An up-to-date resume as well as networking or business cards with your contact information are great to keep with you and will make it easy to give people access to your information. Follow up after meeting someone by making a call or sending an email telling the person how much you enjoyed your discussion, and never forget to say, “Thank you.” Don’t forget your current network. Your current network is comprised of family members, friends, teachers, coaches, pastors, and community members that can be great resources – both as advocates and advisors. Use social media as a networking tool. Social media is a great tool to begin your professional networking. Once you have connected with someone through social media try to connect face-to-face. Employers are actively utilizing social media to recruit and hire as demonstrated in the chart below; therefore using social media is an essential networking tool. 24 Copyright © 2012 Jobvite, Inc. All Rights Reserved. JOB SEARCHING: SOCIAL MEDIA Employer Outlook Social Media is quickly trending as one of the top ways to job search as well as one of the top ways that employers recruit. Check out what employers had to say about how they use social media to hire qualified employees. Job Seeker Outlook With LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter, respectively, serving as the most popular ways to job search, it’s important that your profile best represent you and provide an accurate, professional picture. When asked how employers would react to viewing the following items on a candidates’ social media profile, here’s what they said: WORDS OF WISDOM “Developing your own personal brand and then be given the opportunity to network with potential employers and communicating the value you can bring to the organization is the most important step in a job search. Getting the word to others concerning your career objectives is invaluable. Always have that 30 second ‘elevator speech’ ready and never miss an opportunity meet and greet.” -Hal G., Wal-Mart 25 INTERVIEWING: THE PROCESS Types of Interviews Traditional interviews tend to focus on your resume. Interviewers use your resume as a guide to explore your decisions and achievements through academics, work, campus, and community involvement. The interview questions focus on your attitudes, professional or management styles, interactions with others, and behavior in hypothetical situations. A benefit of traditional interviews is that they allow the interviewer and the job candidate to get to know each other is a less intense environment than a behavioral interview. Preparation is the key to having a successful interview. Here are some tips that will help you with traditional interviews: • Always answer the question directly. If the interviewer asks you how you feel about an issue in the workplace, be sure to give a clear and concise answer to the question. • Have your one-minute commercial ready. Many times an interviewer will ask you to describe yourself. By using a one-minute commercial, you should summarize your abilities, skills, goals, accomplishments, and interests. You also want to highlight your background and different types of experience. The goal of the one-minute commercial is to give the interviewer enough information that they will want to learn more about you and what you can offer the company. Some items to highlight in your commercial are: • • • Your major • Type of position you are seeking • Work experience • • • • Behavioral interviews focus on actions and behaviors and not on hypothetical situations. The purpose of this type of interviewing is to evaluate past behaviors and use them as predictors of future behavior. Instead of concentrating on how you would handle a situation, the interviewer focuses on how you did handle the situation. They will ask you about details and not generalizations concerning events. Typically, interviewers who conduct behavioral interviews are trying to collect and evaluate information about behaviors that are needed to be successful on the job. In these types of interviews, you will be asked to give examples of how you handled certain situations. These questions may range from, “Tell me about a time when you were faced with an ethical dilemma” or “Tell me about a time when you demonstrated leadership skills.” When you are asked questions of this nature, remember to use the STAR technique. Situation- Define the situation or “set the stage” Task- Identify the task or the problem that needs action Action- Describe the action that you took, illustrating the skills you used Result- Summarize the outcome of the situation Below is an example of how you might use the STAR technique to answer the question, “Tell me about a situation in which you demonstrated leadership skills.” • • • Class projects How your background and goals fit with the company’s needs • Try not to ramble. Many times when interviewers ask open-ended questions, you may feel the urge to give long, wordy answers. Remember to give clear, concise answers that are directly related to the questions the interviewer asked. • Provide examples. If the interviewer doesn’t ask you for specific examples of situations, try to give examples when they are appropriate for the question. By giving examples that support your beliefs, you are showing analytical skills that will only strengthen your presentation. 26 STAR stands for: • Situation- “Last year my student organization sponsored a fundraising project for a local after school program.” Task- “I was asked to organize the project.” Action- “I recruited and chaired a committee of eight. We had to work under deadlines, which we successfully met. We also developed a fundraising plan, which included a budget. We proposed this plan to the Student Activities Board for approval.” Result-“Our plan was approved and the campaign generated over $3,000 for the after school program. Because the plan worked so well, I was asked to become a member of the Campus Activities Executive Board next fall. You may also use this technique when addressing tough questions like, “Tell me about a time you had a conflict with a manager or co-worker,” or “Tell me about a time you made a mistake in the classroom or on the job.” By describing what you learned in the Results step, you may be able to demonstrate how you turned a negative situation into a positive one. *Development Dimensions International, Inc. of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, claims the STAR technique as their “Copyrighted Intellectual Property.” Interviewing information adapted with permission from Claremont University. INTERVIEWING DO’S & DON’TS Interview Do’s Interview Don’ts • Remember to brainstorm before the interview. You should have 5 concrete examples of strong communication, leadership, and teamwork skills. • Know the exact time, location, and how long it takes to get to the interview. • Arrive at least 15 minutes early. Also, know the interviewer’s phone number in case there is a problem and you are going to be late. • Treat everyone in the office with respect. You never know whose opinion may be solicited during the hiring process. • Make eye contact, offer a firm handshake, and have a friendly expression when you greet the interviewer. • Listen to the interviewer’s name and pronunciation. Always address the interviewer by his/her title (Ms., Mrs., Mr., or Dr.) and last name, unless you are invited to do otherwise. • Don’t fidget or slouch; remember to maintain good eye contact. • Be thorough in your responses, but be concise in the wording. Be sure to give detailed examples when asked. • If you don’t understand a question, ask for clarification. • Be honest about yourself and your abilities. If you are dishonest and the interviewer discovers it, your job offer may be withdrawn or worse, you may be fired. • Research the company and prepare questions that you did not find in your research. This will show the interviewer you have taken the initiative to find out about the details of the company. • Know about the next steps in the hiring process; know when and whom you expect to hear from next. • When the interview is complete, make sure to offer a firm handshake to the interviewer and thank them for considering you for the position. • Remember to ask for business cards from each person who is interviewing you. You will want to write them a thank you note for their time and consideration of you for the open position. • Don’t make negative remarks about past employers or companies. • Don’t make excuses about your behavior or actions. Take responsibility for your decisions. • Don’t lie on the application or answers to interview questions. • Don’t repeat the information from your resume. Elaborate further on your varied experiences that relate to the position. • Don’t treat the interview casually. You are wasting the interviewer’s and company’s time. • Don’t give the impression that you are only interested in the position’s salary. Don’t ask about the salary or benefits until the interviewer brings up the subject. (But be prepared to talk about salary at any time, and be ready to have talking points in order to negotiate.) • Don’t chew gum or smell like smoke. • Don’t answer your cell phone during the interview. If you have a cell phone, turn it off before the interview begins. • Don’t act like you are desperate for employment or that you would take any job offered to you. • Don’t be unprepared for typical interview questions. You might not be asked all of the questions, but being unprepared looks foolish. • Don’t exhibit frustrations or negative attitudes in the interview process. • Don’t go to extremes with your posture; don’t slouch. WORDS OF WISDOM “Thoroughly research the organization and be prepared to let the interviewer know how you can positively impact the organization. It is not about which classes you took -- it is about how you can apply what you have learned in a real-world setting.” -Jeff N., Council on Aging of West Florida Interviewing Do’s and Don’ts adapted with permission from Virginia Tech University. 27 INTERVIEW ATTIRE What your clothes say about you: Appropriate attire supports your image as a person who takes the interview process seriously and understands the nature of the industry in which you are trying to become employed. Even if it is not an interview, make sure to dress professionally for any interaction with an employer. Your attire should be noticed as being appropriate and well-fitting, but it should not take center stage. If you are primarily remembered for your interview attire, this is probably because you made an error in judgment! Dressing nicely and appropriately is a compliment to the person you meet, so, if in doubt, err on the side of dressing better than you might need to. Even if you are aware that employees of an organization dress casually on the job, you should still plan to dress professionally for the interview unless you are specifically told otherwise by the employer. Never confuse an interview or business function with a social event. Don’t dress for a party or a date. LADIES GENTLEMEN Casual: Shorts & T-shirts This type of casual clothing is not appropriate for any type of workplace setting, especially a job interview. 28 Date Night: Jeans, Jacket & Sleeveless Dress While this attire is much dressier and more fitting for a social event or date, it is still not considered appropriate attire for an interview. Essential Pieces for Interviewing Attire: • Suit • Tie • Long-sleeved, button-up shirt • Gently worn shoes • Belt • Socks Other Important Tips: • Stick with more conservative colors in suit, shirt and tie selection (navy, gray, khaki for suits; light solids or conservatives stripes for shirts) • Ensure that all facial hair is well groomed • Use cologne sparingly • If you choose to wear jewelry, be conservative Essential Pieces for Interviewing Attire: • Pant or Skirt Suit (skirt should hit knees) • Blouse or knit top • Shoes/Heels (heels should be no higher than 3 inches) • Hose (this could be optional depending on time of year) Other Important Tips: • All clothes should provide full coverage • Select more conservative colors for your suit (charcoal, brown, black) • Blouses or knit tops with small patterns & subtle colors are recommended • Depending on the industry, conservative jewelry is suggested • Use perfume sparingly Professional Wear: Pant & Skirt Suit These outfits are perfect for a job interview. They are professional and meet all the criteria for making a good impression! So, how much will this cost me? You are not expected to be able to afford the same clothing as a corporate CEO. However, do invest in quality attire that will look appropriate during your first two or three years on the job. One good quality suit is sufficient for a job search if that is all your budget allows. You can vary your shirts, blouses, ties and other accessories to change up the outfit. Remember, you want your experience and qualifications to shine. Your appearance should enhance your presentation, not overwhelm it! SAMPLE QUESTIONS & UNETHICAL SITUATIONS Sample Interview Questions How to Handle Unethical Interview Questions Questions Asked by Employers Potential employers are supposed to ask you questions that are related to the job you are seeking. Those questions should be related only to facts that are related to whether you can perform the functions of the job. Some types of questions are protected from being asked by law such as those that are based on race, color, sex, religion, national origin, (unless disclosure of this information is required to meet the job description). Other questions regarding age, sexual orientation, and disability are also prohibited if they are used solely to discriminate against a prospective candidate. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Tell me about yourself. What are your long range and short range goals? What is your greatest strength/weakness? Why should I hire you? What qualifications do you have that make you think you will be successful in this career? 6. What is your perceived role when working in a team? Tell me about a time a co-worker/group member did not fulfill their responsibilities. How did you react? 7. Tell me about a time when you felt you were in conflict with a supervisor or co-worker. How did you react? How was it resolved? 8. What interests you most about this position/company? 9. How do you determine or evaluate success? 10. What questions do you have for me? Questions to Ask Employers 1. What type of training does your organization offer? 2. What types of assignments might I expect during the first six months? 3. What is the organization’s plan for the next five years, and how does the department fit in? 4. Describe the team/project assignments and the mix of people involved. 5. What is the management philosophy of this organization? 6. How would you describe the company culture? 7. What is the largest single challenge facing your staff or department right now? 8. How do you feel about creativity and individuality? 9. Do you have plans for expansion? 10. What is the next course of action? When should I expect to hear from you or should I contact you? What to Do When a Potential Employer Asks You an Unethical Interview Question • You can rephrase the question- For example, if an employer asks you “This job requires a lot of travel; would your spouse object to you being away from home often?” You could answer “Are you asking me if I will be able to travel for the job; if so, yes, I can assure you I can travel as needed.” • You can answer the question- If you answer the question directly, you may jeopardize your chances of being hired. Although there may be legal recourse available to you, this is not the preferred outcome for most job applicants. • You can refuse to answer the question- If you refuse to answer, you still run the risk of appearing uncooperative or confrontational and losing the job. There may be legal recourse, but that is hardly a perfect situation. • You can examine the question for its intent and respond with an answer as it might apply to the job- For example, if an employer asks you “What kind of child care arrangements have you made?” Your answer could be, “I can meet the work schedule that this job requires.” For more examples of interview questions, visit the Resource Library on JasonQuest. Adapted and copied with permission from The National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) 29 DINING ETIQUETTE During the Meal Job interviews over dinner require a less aggressive sell than an office interview. The company believes you can do the job at this point and would like to evaluate your social skills. • Focus on the interviewer even if the restaurant is noisy and full of distractions. • Avoid discussing religion, politics, or anything else that might be controversial • Although the setting might be casual, don’t become too familiar with the interviewer. Remain professional • Try your best to remain relaxed and stay confident. Remember that the company believes you can do the job Dining Etiquette Tips Use excellent table manners and follow these dining etiquette tips at the table: • If more than one person is interviewing you, allow everyone to sit and then put your napkin in your lap • Order something that is easy to eat. If in doubt, order what the interviewer is eating • Don’t order alcohol (unless the employer does or offers, then one glass would be appropriate with the meal) • Do not change your order or send food back • Be polite to servers. Say “please” and “thank you” After the Meal • • • • Be sure to thank your host for the meal Ask for your host(s) business card(s) if you have not already received them Leave on a positive note by expressing your interest in the job Write the host a “thank you note” Basic Dining Behavior Do’s • • • • • • When in doubt of the proper procedures observe your host and follow good examples Wait for everyone at your table to be served before beginning Transport food to your mouth…not your mouth to your food Sit up straight at the table If you are asked to pass the pepper or the salt, do it as a set When you are not eating, keep your hands on your lap or resting on the table (with wrist on the edge of the table) Don’ts • • • • • • • Never spit an inedible object into your napkin (remove food from your mouth with an inconspicuous motion using the same utensil it went in with) Never put silverware on the table after it has been used (rest on plate) Never chew with your mouth open or speak with your mouth full Do not slurp from a spoon Don’t apply cosmetics at the table Never have gum at the dinner table Don’t ask for seconds or ask the server to take your food back 1 – Napkin 2 – Water Glass 3 – Wine Glass 4 – Bread Plate 5 – Bread Knife 6 – Soup Bowl 7 – Soup Spoon 8 – Dinner Plate 9 – Salad Plate 10 – Salad Fork 11 – Dinner Fork 12 – Dinner Knife 13 – Dessert Spoon 14 – Coffee Cup 15 – Saucer Information adapted from EtiquetteScholar.com 30 THANK YOU LETTERS Want to continue to make a good impression? Make sure you write a thank you letter after your phone and in-person interview. You should use every opportunity possible to reinforce your interest and qualifications for the position. A thank you note should be sent no later than 48 hours after your interview. The thank you letter accomplishes three main things: â€˘ It reminds the employer of your interview and expresses your sincere appreciation â€˘ It reemphasizes your strongest qualifications. Make sure to draw attention to the match between your qualifications and the job requirements â€˘ It reiterates your interest in the position. You can also use this time to provide something you may have neglected to mention in the interview Many students ask if it is alright to e-mail a thank you note. If you have been using e-mail to communicate with the employer prior to the interview, it is acceptable to e-mail your thank you note. However, a handwritten letter is recommended. Although the example provided is typed, a handwritten note on an actual thank you card is the preferred method; please use this as an example of appropriate content. Make sure you get the correct spelling, proper title, and address for the recruiter(s) who interviewed you. A great way to ensure this information is correct is by collecting business cards from the recruiters who interviewed you. If you are interviewed by more than one person, make sure you send a thank you note to each individual separately. This will demonstrate your sincere appreciation to that particular person. Dear Mr. Quest, Thank you for taking the time to interview me for the Marketing internship available in the Career Services office at the University of West Florida. I especially enjoyed learning more about your department and your commitment to students. Based on our conversation, I am confident that with my education and prior work experiences, I could make a considerable contribution to your department and the University as a whole. In addition to the strengths we discussed yesterday, I also wanted to let you know that I have a strong background using Adobe InDesign to create the monthly newsletter for my sorority. I look forward to hearing from you regarding the next step in the interview process. Please do not hesitate to contact me should you need additional information about my qualifications. Thank you again for your consideration. Sincerely, (signed name) Thank You 31 JOB OFFERS & SALARIES Weighing a Job Offer You are down to your final semester; you have one more paper to turn in; you’ve had a successful interview with the employer of your dreams and they have made you an offer. The salary is phenomenal but so is the cost of living in the new city. The big question becomes whether you can afford to take the job. So many things come into play when weighing a job offer, and it is difficult to know where to begin. First you have to decide on the merits of the position: • • • Is my work environment pleasant, and will I like my co-workers? Will it offer me challenges that will keep me interested and motivated? Does the employer show (nonmonetary) appreciation for its staff? Is there a possibility of advancement? Is the job located in or near a city in which I would like to build a life? Salary Decision Making Large-figure salaries can be very enticing, but that salary may not be enough to make ends meet in some of the larger cities around the world. Fortunately, there are many websites that can help you find out more about the cost of living in many areas both inside and outside of the United States. Check out the cost of living at www.move.com. Other great resources would the city’s chamber of commerce or local newspaper. $ When it comes to budgeting, be honest with yourself. What do you really spend on entertainment, food, texting, etc.? Would you be willing to give up anything to have the job and live in the city of your dreams? Hartford’s Playbook for Life at www.playbook.thehartford.com or UWF’s www.cashcourse.org/uwf are good tools to get you started in the right budgeting direction. Once you know what you need to live on, you have your bottom line or “walk away” salary. In other words, if they cannot offer you more than the minimum you need to live on, you need to walk away from the job offer or be willing to renegotiate the salary. Now you know the minimum salary to meet your needs, but do you know the average local wage for the position you are being offered? The ability • to speak to the employer intelligently about your salary and benefit needs • will go a long way to establish your credibility with the employer. Be sure to do your homework. Know the latest wages and hiring trends for the area Secondly, think about salary and whether you where you are applying for positions. The US federal government’s www. can afford to take the position and live the careeronestop.org/SalariesBenefits, www.naceweb.org/salary_calculator or lifestyle you want. The next thing to think www.myplan.com are all great places to start. These websites list salaries by about is a budget: career, location, knowledge and skill level. A little research is all you need, • What is the new apartment/house/ and you will be able to use the phrase…“based on the US Department of condo going to cost? Labor’s current wage statistics for this area, a person with my skills and • Should I have renter’s insurance? abilities should be making a salary in the range of…” (Hint: always start in • Will I still have a car payment? the mid-to-high range; you can always negotiate down, but it is almost • Will my car insurance go up? • Can I afford to start paying off my impossible to negotiate your way back up). Again, be sure to check the student loans? local on-line newspaper or chamber of commerce as a source for salary • What will the essentials (cable TV, high information. speed internet, cell phone) cost? • • • 32 How much will my electricity, heat, water, sewer, and trash bills be? Will my employer match my contribution to my 401k? How much should I contribute so I can take full advantage? What about a rainy day fund in the event my car breaks down? For examples on how to withdraw an application or decline an offer, visit the Resource Library on JasonQuest. So, you know the wages and trends and the employer made you an offer, but it is a bit less than you wanted, what next? Is it less than your walk away salary? If the answer is yes, then you must commit to walking away or trying to negotiate the offer. Chances are if it is a few thousand dollars, the employer will be willing to talk. If the salary is low but livable talk to them about throwing in extra benefits (i.e. an extra personal day or assistance with your student loans, etc.). It never hurts to ask and you will feel like a more valued employee if they are willing to compromise to keep you. Finally, whatever you do, be polite and do not burn bridges. Whether you turn the offer down in person, by email or over the phone, be sure to send a thank you. After all, you never know when things may change and the employer is willing to pay a little more for your expertise.