Issuu on Google+

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………………………………………………iii  Executive Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………….v  Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………1  Emissions Inventory………………………………………………………………………………………………….3  Historical Emissions ..................................................................................................................................... 3  Current and Recent Emissions Reductions ................................................................................................. 4  Tangible Actions ...................................................................................................................................... 4  Performance Contracting ........................................................................................................................ 6  Student-Led Efforts.................................................................................................................................. 8  Business as Usual Projection ...................................................................................................................... 9  Reduction Goals……………………………………………………………………………………………………..11  Recommended Mitigation Strategies……………………………………………………………………………15  Projects ...................................................................................................................................................... 15  Efficiency Projects ................................................................................................................................. 16  Efficiency Projects for Future Consideration ......................................................................................... 21  Conservation Projects ........................................................................................................................... 22  Conservation Projects for Future Consideration ................................................................................... 23  Renewable Energy Projects .................................................................................................................. 25  Renewable Energy Projects for Future Consideration .......................................................................... 26  Transportation Projects ......................................................................................................................... 28  Transportation Projects for Future Consideration ................................................................................. 31  Policies....................................................................................................................................................... 34  Construction Policies ............................................................................................................................. 34  Purchasing Policies ............................................................................................................................... 34  Computer and Electronics Policies........................................................................................................ 35  Residence Hall Policies ......................................................................................................................... 35  Space Utilization Policies ...................................................................................................................... 36  Transportation Policies .......................................................................................................................... 36  Waste Minimization Policies .................................................................................................................. 37  Implementation………………………………………………………………………………………………………39  Financing Strategies .................................................................................................................................. 39  Tracking & Reporting ................................................................................................................................. 41  Education, Research and Outreach……………………………………………………………………………...42  Education ................................................................................................................................................... 42  Research.................................................................................................................................................... 43  Community Outreach ................................................................................................................................. 44 

Appendix A: Assumptions for Assessing Projects………………………………………………………….45  Appendix B: Definitions…………………………………………………………………………………………...46  Appendix C: Emissions by Project Category…………………………………………………………………47  Appendix D: Project Ranking Tables…………………………………………………………………………..48  Appendix E: NORESCO Projects to Date……………………………………………………………………...51 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS PREPARED BY Rachel Ackerman, URI Energy Fellow Michael Bailey, URI Energy Fellow Kristina DiSanto, URI Energy Fellow William Frost, URI Energy Fellow Rachel Sholly, URI Energy Fellows Coordinator Kevin Silveira, URI Energy Fellow Sarah Sylvia, URI Energy Fellow

EDITED BY

The URI Energy Fellows Program, organized by the URI Energy Center, engages URI students from a variety of backgrounds in interdisciplinary projects that address real-world energy issues through energy resources research and development; energy efficiency and technology assessment; economics and policy analysis; and extension and outreach.

Marsha Garcia, Interim Campus Sustainability Officer

PRESIDENT’S COUNCIL ON SUSTAINABILITY Robert A. Weygand, Vice President for Administration and Finance; Council Chair Brittney Austin, Undergraduate Student, Environmental Science and Management Dr. Stanley Barnett, Professor of Chemical Engineering Dr. W. E. Douglas Creed, Associate Professor of Business Administration Thomas Frisbie-Fulton, Director of Capital Planning and Design Dr. Marion Gold, Director of the Outreach Center; Co-director of the URI Energy Center Will Green, Professor and Chair of Landscape Architecture Department David Lamb, Utilities Engineer, Facilities Services

Dr. Brian Maynard, Professor and Chair of Plant Sciences Department Todd McLeish, URI News Bureau Dr. Arthur C. Mead, Professor of Economics Dr. Frederick A. B. Meyerson, Associate Professor of Natural Resources Science Dr. S. Bradley Moran, Assistant Vice President for Research Administration; Professor of Oceanography Rachel Sholly, Energy Fellows Coordinator Judith Swift, Director of Coastal Institute; Professor of Communications Studies and Theatre

CONTRIBUTORS Andy Alcusky, Construction Projects Manager, Facilities Services Mary Brennan, Capital Planning and Design Robert S. Cerio, URI Energy Center Liliana Costa, Administration and Finance Dr. Robert Drapeau, Director of Public Safety Peyton Gibson, Facilities Services Dr. Allan Graham, Associate Professor of Business Administration

Nancy Hawksley, Recycling Coordinator Dr. Brett Lucht, Associate Professor of Chemistry; Co-director of the URI Energy Center Wendy Lucht, URI Energy Center Dr. John Merrill, Professor of Oceanography Jerome B. Sidio, Facilities Services

A public forum held to present the CAP to the URI community and the general public generated insightful comments; many of which have been incorporated into the final plan. Thank you to those who participated in the feedback process: Bill Anderson, URI Energy Fellow Jon Boothroyd, Professor of Geosciences Daniel J. Cox, Staff, Biological Sciences Jill Diehl, Staff, Research and Economic Development Gigi Edwards, URI Publications Bill Frost, Community Member Karen Frost, Administrative Assistant, Plant Sciences Department Corrie Haley, Interim Energy Fellows Coordinator Bryan Harrison, URI Energy Fellow Dipak Intwala, URI Energy Fellow John Kauppinen, NORESCO

Joshua Kelly, URI Energy Fellow Steven Kohm, Undergraduate Student Nick Lannacone, Undergraduate Student Heather Lewis, Undergraduate Student Matthew Siler, URI Energy Fellow Angelo E. Simeoni, Professor of Landscape Architecture Jack Szczepanski, Graduate Student Dr. Roy Twaddle, Professor of Business and Administration Yida Yang, URI Energy Fellow Dean Valentini, URI Energy Fellow Caren Welker, URI Energy Fellow

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

BACKGROUND The University of Rhode Island has been at the forefront of environmental research for decades, helping to develop a greater understanding of ecology while also examining the impact of human activities on ecosystems as varied as the deep sea and suburban backyards. The operations of the campus itself have not always kept up with the advanced research and teaching taking place within its buildings, but that is rapidly changing. In 2007, President Robert Carothers signed the American College and University President’s Climate Commitment (ACUPCC), demonstrating the University of Rhode Island’s (URI) commitment to achieve carbon neutrality (no net greenhouse gas emissions) as soon as possible. To provide strategic guidance and oversight of the University's commitment, the president established a Council on Sustainability. The President’s Council on Sustainability would review plans, provide advice on best practices, and support initiatives and solutions for the greening of URI. The University had also initiated a performance contract with NORESCO, an energy service company, and a comprehensive greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory was completed in the fall of 2008. The inventory measured greenhouse gas emissions of the University’s four campuses: the Kingston Campus (main campus), the Narragansett Bay Campus, the Providence Feinstein Campus and the W. Alton Jones Campus. Developing URI’s emissions profile would serve as a platform for the creation of a Climate Action Plan (CAP), fulfilling one of the requirements of the ACUPCC. The URI Energy Fellows, an interdisciplinary team of undergraduate and graduate students, were enlisted to compile this report, which would provide an evolving framework, guiding the process of reducing URI’s greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, this document sets reduction goals and presents a wide array of potential projects, policies and programs focused on main campus operations. Future iterations of this plan will begin including projects for the three additional campuses. By implementing the suite of mitigation strategies described in this report, URI can achieve significant reductions in a relatively short period of time.

REDUCTION GOALS The University will aim to reduce GHG emissions to 2005 levels by 2015, 45% below 2005 levels by 2020, and 50% by 2050. These reduction targets are based on conservative estimates of emissions savings for all analyzed projects and policies described in this plan, taking into consideration time for project development. It is important to note that this document is intended to be a dynamic plan that will serve as a framework for URI’s ongoing efforts towards carbon neutrality. It is an adaptive strategy that will inform the process rather than provide a prescriptive plan. With constant improvements in energy efficiency and alternative energy technologies, and because of ever-changing economic conditions, forecasting an exact path to climate neutrality is unrealistic. Additionally, as projects and policies aimed specifically for the three remaining campuses are incorporated into the URI Climate Action Plan, the rate at which reductions are achieved will

URI Climate Action Plan

v

change and perhaps fluctuate. Therefore, this plan will be updated every three years to re-evaluate proposed projects, assess new projects, and adjust emissions targets.

RECOMMENDED MITIGATION STRATEGIES To move URI towards a path to climate neutrality, the Climate Action Plan recommends a wide array of new projects and policies that can be implemented to achieve reduction goals. This plan prioritizes projects with the most significant impact on emissions reductions, and the greatest average annual benefits, in the earlier years. Projects that can be implemented more quickly are also recommended for the first few years of this plan as cost savings realized from these initial projects could be used to support the implementation of projects in later years, which have high costs and longer payback periods. Computer shutdown policies, temperature set-point adjustments and real-time energy monitoring are lowcost projects with short payback times that will easily reduce URI’s emissions during the early stages of implementation of this plan. In contrast, the construction of a 10 megawatt (MW) combined heat and power plant is an energy project with high capital costs. However, early implementation of a project of this magnitude could reduce URI’s total emissions by 27,142 MTCO2e, and makes a bold statement in the University’s commitment to become a more sustainable campus. Additionally, installing renewable energy systems, such as solar thermal for hot water and wind turbines to produce electricity, can not only reduce emissions but can also serve as a living laboratory to educate our students and the Rhode Island community about sustainable energy technologies. Transportation projects and policies recommended in this report focus on transitioning URI’s diesel fleet to biodiesel, and incentivizing alternative transportation options for commuters. To support proposed projects, many policy options are offered so that mitigation strategies take on a more holistic approach.

IMPLEMENTATION The coordination of efforts across all units of the campus community will be integral to the success of the Climate Action Plan. Implementation of the proposed projects and policies of this plan will be spearheaded by working groups of the URI President’s Council on Sustainability. Working groups will consist of key members of the faculty, staff, and student population, and will rely on their expertise to refine specific action items and facilitate implementation.

TRACKING & REPORTING The President’s Council on Sustainability will oversee the process of tracking emissions reductions related to implemented projects and ensure reporting requirements to the ACUPCC are fulfilled. Working groups will provide progress reports, feedback and recommendations for improvement of the plan for the Council’s consideration. Updates of the university’s green house gas inventory and a summary of implementation results provided by the working groups will be used to by the Council to evaluate benefits from the Climate Action Plan. Every two to three years, the Council will re-evaluate its goals and proposed projects, assess the feasibility of new projects, and formulate an updated Climate Action Plan.

URI Climate Action Plan

vi

INTRODUCTION

The level of atmospheric carbon and the average global temperature are increasing more rapidly than they have in tens of millions of years. This rate of change is so rapid that our ecosystems may not be able to adapt and we cannot predict the consequences. We are already seeing the impacts of the current warming trend on our ecosystems and we are likely to experience serious human health and economic effects in the coming years. To avoid the worst effects of this change in climate, scientists agree that humans must significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. As a higher education institution, the University of Rhode Island (URI) recognizes its unique opportunity to make significant contributions toward a more sustainable society through teaching, research and outreach. The University has been at the forefront of environmental research for decades, helping to develop a greater understanding of ecology while also examining the impact of human activities on ecosystems as varied as the deep sea and suburban backyards. The operations of the campus itself have not always kept up with the advanced research and teaching taking place within its buildings, but that is rapidly changing. URI was among the first institutions to join the American College and University President’s Climate Commitment (ACUPCC) when former President Robert Carothers signed on in 2007. The ACUPCC is a national network of almost 700 colleges and universities that have committed to achieving eventual climate neutrality and integrating sustainability into the curriculum. Climate neutrality is defined by the ACUPCC as “having no net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, to be achieved by eliminating net GHG emissions, or by minimizing GHG emissions as much as possible, and using carbon offsets or other measures to mitigate the remaining emissions.” To provide strategic guidance and oversight of the University's commitment, President Carothers established a Council on Sustainability, led by Vice President for Administration Robert Weygand. The Council reviews plans, provides advice on best practices, supports initiatives and imagines solutions for the greening of URI. The first major milestone of the commitment was to conduct an inventory of the greenhouse gas emissions of the University’s four campuses: the Kingston Campus (main campus), the Narragansett Bay Campus, the Providence Feinstein Campus and the W. Alton Jones Campus. The inventory was completed in the fall of 2008 by Dr. S. Bradley Moran, Assistant Vice President for Research Administration and Professor of Oceanography, and provided an estimate of the total amount of greenhouse gases emitted per year from all activities on URI’s four campus including electricity, heating and commuting to campus by faculty, staff and students. Dr. Moran’s work paved the way for the second major milestone of the commitment, which was to develop a Climate Action Plan to guide the University of Rhode Island through the process of reducing GHG emissions. The URI Energy Fellows, an interdisciplinary team of undergraduate and graduate students, were enlisted to compile this report, which sets emissions reduction goals and presents a variety of projects, policies and programs that URI can implement over time to meet those goals. With constant improvements in energy efficiency, alternative energy technologies and ever-changing economic conditions, forecasting an exact path to climate neutrality is a significant challenge. This plan is intended to serve as URI Climate Action Plan

1

an evolving guide that will be updated every three years to reevaluate goals and proposed projects and add new projects for future implementation. President Carothers had the vision to set URI on the path to climate neutrality. Now, URI’s 11th president, Dr. David Dooley, carries on that vision through the formal adoption of the Climate Action Plan. This plan will guide the integration of sustainability into the culture of the University and allow our campuses to serve as models of sustainable energy practices for URI students, faculty, staff, and the local community.

URI Climate Action Plan

2

EMISSIONS INVENTORY

HISTORICAL EMISSIONS The first step in developing the URI Climate Action Plan was to update URI’s greenhouse gas emissions inventory. Dr. Moran’s initial efforts to inventory emissions between 1996 and 2007 simplified the collection of data for 2008 and 2009. Clean Air Cool Planet’s (CA-CP) Campus Carbon Calculator™ Version 6.4., a popular tool designed to facilitate the emissions inventory process specifically for colleges and universities, was used to gather all readily available institutional data such as number of students, faculty and staff, total building space, total research building space, total budget, energy budget, research grant funds, etc., for all four URI campuses. The CA-CP Calculator and the ACUPCC divide total emissions into three “scopes:”

Scope 1 includes emissions that are owned or controlled by the institution. URI’s Scope 1 emissions include the steam plant on the Kingston Campus and the University’s fleet vehicles. Refrigerants, chemicals and URI’s agricultural sources are not included in this scope due to lack of data. Scope 2 emissions are the indirect emissions generated in the production of electricity. URI’s purchased electricity falls under this scope. Scope 3 emissions are indirect emissions as a result of URI’s everyday activities, which takes into account commuting and landfilled waste. Other Scope 3 emissions, such as University-sponsored travel and wastewater, are not included in these estimates due to a lack of centralized records. These emissions, especially air travel, could represent a significant percentage of URI’s total emissions, and attempts should be made to quantify them in future inventory updates. Measuring Scope 3 emissions in future inventories would result in higher values for total emissions.

Because energy consumption data is not available prior to 1996, emissions between 1990 and 1996 have been extrapolated based on 1996-2009 emissions. The current GHG emissions inventory has shown that the majority of URI’s greenhouse gas emissions come from purchased electricity at 36%, on-campus stationary at 31% and commuting at 28% (Fig. 1). The “On-Campus Stationary” emissions depicted in Figure 1 represents the steam plant on the Kingston Campus, which burns primarily natural gas to heat most of the campus’ buildings. Emissions from solid waste and our vehicle fleet represent much lower percentages.

URI Climate Action Plan

3

Fig. 1:  Sources of greenhouse gas emissions from URI’s four campuses based on FY09 data. Scope 1 emissions are shown in blues,  scope 2 in green, and scope 3 in reds 

Both emissions per capita and emissions per square foot have remained relatively stable since 1996 (Figs. 2 and 3); however, URI’s total emissions have increased over this time. This implies that the increase in emissions is directly related to an increasing population, increasing building square footage or both. For example, if URI grew by 1,000 people, annual emissions would likely increase by approximately 5,000 MTCO2e since it has been calculated that each person contributes roughly 5 MTCO2e per year. Emissions Per Capita

Emissions Per Building Square Footage

7

25

6 kgCO2e Per Square Foot

20

MTCO2e Per Capita

5 4 3 2

15

10

5

1 0

0

1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

Fig. 2:  URI’s estimated emissions per capita between 1996 and  2009. 

1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

Fig 3: URI’s estimated emissions per square foot between 1996 and  2009 includes both operations and commuting emissions

CURRENT AND RECENT EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS TANGIBLE ACTIONS One of the initial requirements of the ACUPCC is to immediately implement two or more tangible actions from a list of recommendations to begin reducing greenhouse gas emissions while the Climate Action Plan was in development. URI has already put into practice three of the seven tangible actions: URI Climate Action Plan

4

1. Establish a policy that all new campus construction will be built to at least the U.S. Green Building Council’s LEED Silver standard or equivalent 2. Encourage use of and provide access to public transportation for all faculty, staff, students and visitors at our institution. 3. Participate in the waste minimization component of the national RecycleMania competition, and adopt 3 or more associated measures to reduce waste.

LEED Silver Building Construction Policy

On August 22, 2005, Governor Donald L. Carcieri signed Executive Order 05-14, which mandated that “the design, construction, operation and maintenance of any new, substantially expanded or renovated public building shall incorporate and meet the standards developed by the United States Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). Each such public building shall endeavor to qualify for certification at or above the LEED Silver level.” In compliance with these regulations, URI has constructed several buildings that are either certified or in the process of being certified, including Hope Dining Hall, new residence halls, the Center for Biotechnology and Life Science and the Bay Campus’ Ocean Sciences and Exploration Center. Planned LEED buildings include a new laboratory and education facility for the pharmacy department at the Kingston Campus, scheduled for completion in 2012, and a new residence hall. Public Transportation

URI partners with the Rhode Island Public Transit Authority (RIPTA) to provide public transportation for the campus communities. The 66 bus route provides hourly service from downtown Providence (just one block from URI’s Providence campus) to Galilee making several stops along the way, including URI’s main campus in Kingston. The 64 bus route runs from URI’s Kingston Campus to Newport, stopping at URI’s Narragansett Bay Campus on the way. Both routes also service the Kingston Train Station, which will be connected to Providence and Boston via high-speed light rail in the near future. To incentivize use of public transportation, the University offers a 50% subsidized bus pass for all students, faculty and staff. Intracampus shuttle service, which runs throughout the day and into the evening, is also contracted with RIPTA. These shuttles provide connections between various on-campus locations, such as residence and dining halls, academic buildings, the student union and the athletic center, free of charge. URI also encourages commuters to form carpools by taking advantage of RIPTA's RideShare program and AlterNetRides, a free online ride-matching system. Waste Minimization

The University also committed to enhancing existing recycling initiatives and undertaking new initiatives to reduce its waste stream. Since the initial commitment, URI has replaced paper documents with online alternatives whenever possible, and is transitioning to online directories, course catalogs, grade distribution and bill pay systems. An office supply exchange program has been established, along with a system to report wasteful practices and offer waste reduction suggestions. Finally, an educational program on waste minimization has been developed and is featured in new student handbooks, orientation materials and public displays. URI now recycles 24% of its waste, including corrugated cardboard, mixed paper and beverage containers. In addition, URI recycles electronic waste, scrap metal, universal waste, automotive waste, chemical waste and hazardous waste, with a rate of 45% of the university's waste diverted from the landfill. In 2006 URI began participating in RecycleMania, a national campus recycling contest, where we are currently enjoying Top Three status among Atlantic 10 schools.

URI Climate Action Plan

5

PERFORMANCE CONTRACTING In May 2007, URI entered into an $18.1 million performance contract with an energy service company, NORESCO, to systematically implement efficiency and conservation measures on URI’s four campuses. State funds, in the form of a Certificate of Participation Bond, were used to front the cost of implementing these measures, and the resulting savings will be used to pay back the bond in the coming years. NORESCO conducted comprehensive building energy audits and implemented the most cost-effective measures to increase energy efficiency in six phases: Athletic Center, Memorial Union, Providence & Bay Campuses, Housing and Residential Life, Academic and Administrative Buildings and “Project 6” (Appendix E). The last phase is scheduled for completion in late 2010. Energy Source

Units

Athletic Center

Memorial Union

Bay & Providence Campuses

Housing & Residential Life

Academic

Project 6

Total

Electricity

kWh

1,626,102

504,136

1,309,598

1,291,724

4,471,542

(336,019)

8,867,083

#2 Oil

Gal

0

0

0

(81)

14,309

275

14,503

CCF

252,439

66,129

0

141,325

170,356

40,605

670,853

CCF

0

0

47,089

26,331

2,894

615

76,699

Propane

Gal

0

0

0

0

568

0

568

TOTAL

MTCO2e

2,785

771

1,052

1,959

3,869

140

10,575

Natural GasSteam Natural GasOther

Table 1:  Energy and emissions savings to date from projects completed under the current performance contract. Note: Parentheses indicate a  negative number.

Phase 1: Athletic Center

            

Lighting improvements Lighting occupancy controls New energy management system and controls upgrade Re-commissioning of energy management system at Ryan Center Energy efficient motors and variable frequency drives HVAC system capital improvements Steam trap upgrades Automated swimming pool covers New windows at Keaney Gym Plumbing improvements Energy efficient hand dryers High efficiency window A/C units Steam and electric meters

Phase 2: Memorial Union

 

Lighting improvements Lighting occupancy controls

URI Climate Action Plan

6

 

New electric chiller & combined chilled water loops Energy management system

Phase 3: Providence and Narragansett Bay Campuses

       

Lighting and lighting controls Energy management systems and retro-commissioning Weatherization Variable frequency drives and new premium efficiency motors (Bay Campus) New chiller and boiler at the Coastal Institute (Bay Campus) Heating system improvements at Horn Laboratory (Bay Campus) New Paff Auditorium ceiling tiles and demand control ventilation (Providence Campus) New Paff Auditorium ticket booth with new doorway efficient (Providence Campus)

Phase 4: Housing and Residential Life

       

Lighting upgrades and controls Steam trap upgrades Weatherization and attic insulation Energy management system improvements New boiler controls in the University Gateway Apartments service building and the Dining Services distribution center Programmable thermostats Thermostatic radiator valves in the University Gateway Apartment buildings Energy Conservation through Behavior Change

Phase 5: Academic and Administrative Buildings

      

Lighting upgrades and controls Steam trap upgrades Energy management system improvements Boiler controls Variable frequency drives and efficient motors Programmable thermostats Comprehensive library improvements

Phase 6: Project 6 (consists of an assortment of efficiency projects for all campuses)

    

Lighting upgrades and controls for the following academic buildings: Rodman Hall (Drafting Room), White Hall, Bliss Hall and Ranger Hall Aquaculture recirculation system for the Department of Fisheries, Animal and Veterinary Science at East Farm Variable frequency drive for Well Pump #4, East Farm New windows for Tyler Hall Thermostatic radiator valves

URI Climate Action Plan

7

These projects have resulted in a reduction of 10,575 metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent (MTCO2e). For the purposes of this report, these reductions are considered achieved and therefore are not included in the future reduction goals. This Climate Action Plan will recommend projects that will build on these achieved reductions, and will position the university to reach higher reduction goals.

STUDENT-LED EFFORTS In addition to the performance contract with NORESCO, several student-led initiatives have contributed to emissions reductions and sustainability on campus. Students are a major driving force behind URI’s sustainability movement and their support demonstrates a demand for more sustainable campus programs and policies.

Carpool Parking Lot Pilot Project

During the 2009 spring and fall semesters, students piloted a carpool program as part of a class project. Working with URI Parking Services, 50 spaces in a lot normally reserved for faculty and staff, were reserved for two weeks for high-occupancy vehicles. The lot was staffed in the morning to enforce the two-people per car rule, and Subway sandwich coupons were offered to riders. Despite limited promotional resources and short trial periods, the project was successful and demonstrated that providing simple carpool incentives could encourage commuters to carpool more often.

Green Campus Coalition

Most recently, a group of students formed the Green Campus Coalition, a monthly forum open to all URI students, faculty, staff, administrators and local community members and businesses to share ideas and generate support for projects aimed at improving our university's environmental stewardship. The Coalition evolved out of a growing need to unify efforts on projects and initiatives that promote changes that society must make to ensure an ecologically and economically stable future. Many members of the URI community have already taken steps to ensure a sustainable future, and the Green Campus Coalition provides a critical forum where all efforts on behalf of the University can be made known, find wider support and, most importantly, demonstrate collaborative work.

Student Sustainability Fund Projects

In 2009, Provost Donald DeHayes established a competitive grant program to fund student sustainability projects that focus on energy, transportation, water or recycling. This program will continue and will likely target entire classes interested in taking on projects guided by their instructor. The Sustainability Fund could encourage proposals for projects recommended in the Climate Action Plan to provide students with experiential learning and simultaneously reduce URI’s carbon footprint.

URI Student Action for Sustainability

Student Action for Sustainability (SAS) is a student senate-recognized organization focused on increasing awareness of environmental issues on campus, and organizing initiatives that address these challenges. In fall of 2009, SAS was awarded a grant from the Student Sustainability Fund to implement a compact fluorescent (CFL) light bulb exchange program in two dormitory buildings on campus. SAS members went door-to-door in Adams and Browning Halls asking residents to switch their incandescent desk lamp light bulbs for energy-saving CFL light bulbs provided for free. This exchange program was part of a pilot project to encourage on-campus residents to be more energy conscious. The project was so successful that URI Climate Action Plan

8

Student Action for Sustainability plans to expand the program to include all freshman residence halls on campus during move-in week. Student Action for Sustainability also plans URI’s annual Earth Day Festival in April featuring educational workshops, environmental vendors and organizations, fun activities and music on the quad. These events will engage URI students and its surrounding community in environmental and energy issues, and encourage a collaborative effort in developing and implementing local solutions for these global challenges.

URI Green Links

URI Green Links (www.uri.edu/greenlinks) is a central web-based directory that offers a current listing of web links to all “green” initiatives being undertaken by URI students, faculty, staff and the administration. Launched on Earth Day 2009, the site was created by Jill Diehl, a graduate student in URI’s Master of Communication Studies program. Community members are encouraged to contact the web administrator to add new or missing initiatives. This centralized collection of sustainability initiatives works to stimulate opportunities for multidisciplinary research and academic collaborations; enhance visibility, build awareness, and integrate communication across campus; enhance development of alternative energy and green products; increase awareness and use of alternative transportation; promote sustainable ideas and initiatives by students, faculty, and administrators; and encourage public and private support for green initiatives.

BUSINESS AS USUAL PROJECTION Though the University has made progress in reducing emissions over the past few years, more must be done to move the campus towards a path of carbon neutrality. Two possible trends were projected (Fig. 4) to gain an understanding of how emissions levels might change if URI did not implement strategies to mitigate emissions. A simple “business as usual” (BAU) projection, represented by the dark green dashed line in Figure 4, was developed based solely on historical emissions. A second projection (light green dashed line) takes into account planned building growth through 2017, and an expected population cap at 2009 levels. The resulting trajectory increases with building space until 2017 and then levels off because the administration does not foresee any new building construction after this time. In other words, this trajectory assumes that the University will not increase square footage after 2017, or that building expansion will not increase emissions. While there is uncertainty associated with both projections, and the business as usual projection is simply an estimate of what could happen if we did nothing more to reduce emissions, it is likely that business as usual emissions for URI would be somewhere between the two lines in Figure 4. In addition, as seen in Figure 5, URI must significantly reduce its energy consumption because of rising energy costs. Should URI’s energy costs continue to increase at the rate observed over the last 15 years, the University’s energy bill in 2050 would be $55 million.

URI Climate Action Plan

9

Fig. 4:  Historical emissions and two possible projections that may occur if URI took no further action to mitigate carbon emissions.  Projected  emissions based on population and square footage (light green dashed line) includes an expected population cap at current levels as well as  planned building growth through 2017.  BAU based on 1996‐2009 emissions (dark green dashed line) is based solely on historical emissions.   

Historical and Projected URI Energy Costs $60,000,000

URI Historical Energy Costs $50,000,000

URI Energy Costs

Projected Energy Costs (based on historical costs)

$40,000,000

$30,000,000

$20,000,000

$10,000,000

50

48

20

20

46

44

20

20

42

40

20

20

38

36

20

20

34

32

20

20

30

28

20

20

26

24

20

20

20

22

20

16

18

20

20

12

14

20

20

20

10

08

20

20

06

04

20

20

02

00

20

20

96 19

19

98

$0

Fiscal Year

Fig. 5:  Energy cost projection based on URI’s historical costs.  If population and building square footage are held constant, costs continue to  increase.   

URI Climate Action Plan

10

REDUCTION GOALS The University will aim to achieve Target Year Reduction reduction targets of 2005 levels by 2015, 5-Year Target 2015 2005 Levels 45% below 2005 levels by 2020 and 50% 10-Year Target 2020 45% below 2005 levels below 2005 levels by 2050 (Table 2). A base year of 2005 was selected against 40-Year Target 2050 50% below 2005 levels which to measure reductions since Table 2:  URI emissions reduction targets.  implementation of large-scale energy efficiency measures, including NORESCO’s projects, occurred prior to 2005. This base year was also established because, at the time of this report, it represents achievable reduction levels with goals that have been set based on estimates of emissions savings for all analyzed projects in this Climate Action Plan, which also takes into consideration time for project development and implementation (Table 3). If the suite of projects, policies and programs recommended in Table 3 are put into action within the suggested timeline, URI has the potential to reduce emissions significantly in a relatively short period of time. In setting URI’s reduction goals, two possible reductions trajectories were developed to study how emission reductions might perform several decades from now. In Figure 6 the first trajectory, represented by the dark green dashed line, presents a “business as usual” (BAU) line based on historical emissions URI GHG Emissions Reductions Relative to BAU Based on Historical Emissions 140,000

Emissions (MTCO2e)

120,000

100,000

80,000

60,000

Projected historical emissions

40,000

Actual historical emissions BAU based on 1996-2009 emissions 20,000

Reductions relative to historical BAU Base year (2005 - 80,660 MTCO2e)

20 50

20 47

20 44

20 41

20 38

20 35

20 32

20 29

20 26

20 23

20 20

20 17

20 14

20 11

20 08

20 05

20 02

19 99

19 96

19 93

19 90

0

Fiscal Year   Fig. 6:  Possible emissions trajectory in a “business as usual” scenario, based on historical emissions.  

URI Climate Action Plan

11

If URI continues to grow as it has in the past 20 years and projects recommended in this plan are implemented at a slower pace, implementation of this Climate Action Plan would result in a reduction trajectory (represented by the dark blue dashed line) such that the University does not reach its goal of a 50% reduction by 2050. If URI does experience an increase in population or new buildings are constructed after 2017, additional mitigation strategies beyond those recommended in this report would need to be identified in order to achieve higher reduction goals.

            Fig 7:  Possible emissions trajectories in a population and building square footage cap policy scenario.  

In Figure 7, the resulting trajectories demonstrate emissions performance if URI capped population at current levels, there is no building growth after 2017, and the mitigation strategies in this plan are followed within the recommended time frame. As described earlier in this report, both emissions per capita and emissions per square foot have remained relatively stable since 1996 (Figs. 2 and 3); however, URI’s total emissions have increased over this time. The scenario depicted in Figure 7 projects that emissions would stabilize if a policy to cap population and building square footage is in place (green dashed line). The reduction trajectory in Figure 7 (blue dashed line) was developed by grouping recommended projects, outlined in Table 3, into three phases over time. This plan prioritizes projects with the most significant impact on emissions reductions, and the greatest average annual benefits, in the earlier years. In this way, the cost savings realized from these initial projects could be used to support the implementation of projects with high costs and longer payback periods in later years.

URI Climate Action Plan

12

The primary challenge associated with meeting these targets will be securing funding for projects with high capital costs (see Financing section). Additionally, a feasibility study must be performed for the project with the largest potential impact: the combined heat and power plant. With constant improvements in energy efficiency and alternative energy technologies, and with ever-changing economic conditions, an exact path to climate neutrality is difficult to predict. Therefore, to ensure that URI reaches climate neutrality as soon as possible, this plan will be updated every two to three years to re-evaluate proposed projects, add new projects, and update reduction goals, so that a more realistic date for climate neutrality may be determined.

URI Climate Action Plan

13

 

Recommended Project

Avg. Annual Cost*

Avg. Annual Benefits

Total Lifetime Reductions (MTCO2e)

MTCO2e/year Reduced

Lifespan (Years)

3,734 3,259 1,323 1,125 610 445

25 15 5 25 10 10 25

93,350 48,885 6,615 28,113 6,100 4,449

5 YEAR TARGET - IMPLEMENT BY 2015: Biodiesel Fuel Transition NORESCO Project 7 - Option A Nightly Desktop Shutdown Increased Bus Trip Frequency Real Time Energy Monitoring Heating Set-point Transportation Marketing Program Cooling Set-point Employee Telecommuting Car Sharing Program Summer Building Consolidation Vending Misers Nightly Monitor Shutdown Solar Thermal One Dorm (Steam)

$2,748 $701,170 $0 $0 $14,482 $9,091

$0 $1,246,233 $423,098 $0 $205,565 $174,133

$5,000

$0

319

$9,091 $0 $0 $0 $682 $0 $14,521

$814,539 $0 $0 $42,161 $42,114 $16,924 $24,954

240 181 180 124 105 53 24

10 25 25 10 25 5 30

2,397 4,516 4,500 1,241 2,627 265 708

7,974

10 YEAR TARGET – IMPLEMENT BY 2020: 10 MW Combined Heat & Power Plant Purchased Wind Power Wind 1.5 MW XLE @ 7.5 m/s Wind 1.5 MW XLE @ 6 m/s Freshman Parking Restrictions Fully Subsidized Bus Passes

$3,985,366

$13,180,650

27,142

40

1,085,680

$1,023,667 $ 238,865 $ 171,045 $ 183,029 $ 55,194

$0 $1,251,453 $625,726 $0 $0

4,498 3,278 1,639 810 1,127

30 30 30 25 25

134,940 98,340 49,170 20,250 28,186

Carpool Lot

$ 146,673

$0

880

25

22,000

Infrequent Parking Permits

$

$21,120

158

25

3,960

$279,671 $312,863 $30,064 $10,491 $44,771

1,293 820 66 11 3

15 30 30 30 25

19,395 24,600 1,980 330 75

47,212

40 YEAR TARGET - IMPLEMENT BY 2050: NORESCO Project 8 and Beyond Wind 1.5 MW XLE @ 4.5 m/s Solar Thermal One Dorm (Oil) 50 kW Photovoltaic System Outdoor Lighting

$723,969 $137,135 $14,521 $9,774 $12,500

  Table 3:  Projects recommended for implementation in three phases to achieve reduction goal by 2050.   *Average Annual Cost includes initial investment. 

URI Climate Action Plan

14

RECOMMENDED MITIGATION STRATEGIES Reduction targets were developed and analyzed in the previous section by looking ahead to potential projects and policies that would reduce the university’s GHG emissions. The Projects section examines the proposed projects related to efficiency, conservation, renewable energy and transportation. Suggestions of how they might be implemented are included, along with estimated associated costs and carbon mitigation potential. Also included are additional projects that were not analyzed but should be considered in the future. The Policies section suggests a suite of protocols and procedures relating to construction, purchasing, computers and electronics, residence halls, space utilization and transportation. When possible, potential emissions savings from these policies are estimated in the Projects section as well. It is important to note that most of the recommended projects and policies in this report will require more thorough feasibility studies before implementation can occur. In a scenario in which all projects and policies described in this section move past the feasibility stage and are implemented according to the suggested three-phase time frame, URI would likely achieve significant emissions reductions relatively quickly.

PROJECTS The projects discussed in this section have been assessed based on the best available data and conservative assumptions. These assessments are intended as initial evaluations to guide the process of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Many projects will require additional analysis and, in some cases, large-scale feasibility studies before implementation can begin, particularly for projects within the 5-10 year target. In the spirit of transparency, and to assist future project re-evaluations, all assumptions and analytical methods are documented to the extent possible. Figure 8 illustrates the potential reductions in emissions for each of the four project categories. These reductions are roughly distributed over time according to the three implementation phases (i.e. the 5-year target phase, 10-year target phase, and 40-year target phase). While not intended to be a precise representation, this figure clearly shows the overall impact of each category of projects, relative to the emissions trajectory that incorporated population and square footage in Figure 7. All recommended conservation projects would reduce emissions by 2,795 MTCO2e (5% of the total reduction goal), efficiency by 31,802 MTCO2e (59%; primarily as a result of the proposed combined heat and power plant), renewable energy by 10,336 MTCO2e (19%) and transportation by 8,514 MTCO2e (16%), for a total of 53,447 MTCO2e reduced (Appendix C).

URI Climate Action Plan

15

Fig. 9:  Cumulative estimated emissions reductions for each project category, measured against emissions relative to population and  square footage.     

EFFICIENCY PROJECTS Having been engaged in a performance contract with NORESCO over the past few years, URI has made progress toward increasing the efficiency of its building operations. It is estimated that this work has resulted in a 10% decrease in URI’s total energy consumption. Current NORESCO projects are scheduled for completion in late 2010, and additional work has been proposed but not confirmed. Because of NORESCO’s comprehensive work, there were few additional projects to be recommended by this plan. The major efficiency-related recommendation is the conversion of the existing on-campus steam plant into a highly efficient combined heat and power system. While this project would be a significant capital expense, it has a payback of just seven years, after which time the University would begin saving millions of dollars in avoided energy costs. If URI were to implement all of the efficiency projects recommended below, it would reduce its total GHG emissions by 31,802 MTCO2e, representing 59% of the total reductions proposed in this plan.

NORESCO Project 7

NORESCO has proposed additional energy efficiency and conservation measures for future implementation at the University of Rhode Island. While these contracts have not yet been awarded, they are included in this Climate Action Plan to show potential future projects that may help achieve our reduction goals. Project 7 includes several options. Option A is the combined option, where all measures in Options B, C and D are URI Climate Action Plan

16

included. Option B includes measures for Academic buildings only. Measures in Option C are for additional upgrades to Housing and Residential Life buildings. Option D describes measures for the University’s Auxiliary buildings. 

Combined Heat and Power Study (NORESCO Project 7, Option B) NORESCO will perform a study to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of installing a combined heat and power system. The objective will be to conceptually develop a combined heat and power system that would operate year-round to simultaneously generate electricity and steam heat to serve the University’s electric and steam heating needs, therefore reducing utility costs.

Lighting Upgrades at Satellite Campuses (Project 7, Option B) Opportunities remain to improve the efficiency of the remaining older lighting systems, primarily at the satellite campuses including East Farm, Peckham Farm, and W. Alton Jones. This upgrade would provide the University with standardized, high efficiency systems across all campuses.

Lighting Occupancy Sensors (Project 7, Option B) NORESCO has installed lighting occupancy sensors in the largest buildings throughout the Kingston, Providence and Bay Campuses that shut off lights when spaces are not in use. Costeffective occupancy sensors will be installed in buildings without sensors, and potential sensor applications for the Library and the lobby of the Fine Arts Center will be re-evaluated.

Weatherization and Attic Insulation (Project 7, Option B) NORESCO has previously installed weather stripping and attic insulation in the Housing and Residential Life buildings. This measure will expand the scope to the Academic and Administrative buildings. Throughout these buildings, NORESCO will weather strip exterior doors, seal roof penetrations and install attic insulation to save heating and cooling energy and improve occupant comfort. Additionally, the cost savings from these quick payback improvements will help fund other projects with longer payback periods.

Expansion of Energy Management Systems (Project 7, Option B, C) In prior projects, NORESCO worked with the University to prioritize select buildings with the greatest need and benefit from expanding and installing new energy management systems. However, many buildings still have older control systems which are not capable of providing the level of precision building control as compared to modern systems. NORESCO will investigate the possibility of upgrading these energy management systems, or installing new direct-digital control systems in additional buildings, to deliver energy savings as well as improved monitoring and control capability.

Retro-Commission Existing Controls (Project 7, Option B, C) NORESCO will retro-commission existing energy management systems in buildings not included in prior phases. Additional opportunities in buildings included in prior phases may also be explored. Retro-commissioning existing control systems through a variety of technical testing will reduce wasted energy use and uncover existing maintenance problems.

Steam Traps (Project 7, Option B) NORESCO installed venturi steam traps throughout the Kingston Campus in prior phases of work. However, the traps located in the manholes that serve the distribution system have not been retrofitted. Steam traps will be replaced in the manholes with mechanical or conventional steam traps.

URI Climate Action Plan

17

Programmable Thermostats (Project 7, Option B, C) NORESCO successfully installed programmable thermostats in earlier phases of work. The installation of programmable thermostats in any additional buildings that may benefit from setback controls should be considered. NORESCO will investigate both conventional and occupancy-based programmable thermostats for these locations as appropriate.

Boiler Controls (Project 7, Option B) NORESCO plans to install automated boiler controls in satellite locations. This measure will reduce fuel consumption while improving occupant comfort by allowing for increased heating system control.

Variable Frequency Drives and Efficient Motors (Project 7, Option B) Installing variable frequency drives and premium efficiency motors can significantly reduce electric energy use. As an added benefit, variable frequency drives provide a “soft start” for the motors, reducing the wear-and-tear on bearings and belts.

Fume Hood Improvements (Project 7, Option B) Many of the University’s research facilities utilize fume hood systems to contain and exhaust fumes and chemicals. These fume hood systems require significant quantities of outside air which is heated and cooled year-round at a substantial cost to the University. Installing automatic controls or replacing the conventional fume hoods with low-flow hoods can save energy and provide improved monitoring and control capability. NORESCO will investigate opportunities to reduce energy through controls, additional improvements and other conventional fume hood control technologies.

New Chiller at Morrill Hall (Project 7, Option B) The chiller and boiler at Morrill Hall are inefficient and in need of replacement. Installing a new high- efficiency chiller and boiler will reduce energy and maintenance costs.

New Boilers at Food Science and Turf Research (Project 7, Option B) NORESCO will assess the potential for installing new efficient heating systems at the Food Science and Turf Research facilities to reduce heating and maintenance costs.

Library HVAC Improvements (Project 7, Option B) NORESCO is currently performing a retro-commissioning study to identify improvements to the Library’s existing controls such as dampers, actuators, and sensors. However, these retrocommissioning improvements may not address other problems related to the HVAC systems. During the next phase, NORESCO will review the results of the retro-commissioning and energy management system improvements currently underway with the University to identify additional needs and improvements to the Library HVAC systems.

New Rooftop Units at Middleton Building (Project 7, Option B) The rooftop units at the Bay Campus’ Middleton Building are inefficient and nearing the end of their useful lives. NORESCO recommends replacing these units with more efficient systems to reduce energy and maintenance costs. They will also investigate coatings, materials, and other options that are designed to better withstand harsh coastal environments.

Kitchen Hood Controls at Hope and Butterfield Dining Halls (Project 7, Option D) Uncontrolled kitchen hoods exhaust a constant volume of conditioned air regardless of cooking activity. NORESCO will study installing control systems on the hoods and the ventilation systems

URI Climate Action Plan

18

to modulate exhaust and makeup airflow rates based on cooking activity to reduce heating, cooling and fan energy. 

Walk-In Cooler Controls (Project 7, Option D) The University uses numerous walk-in coolers and freezers for food refrigeration. Energy use of the cooler fans, electric anti-sweat door heaters, and refrigeration equipment can be reduced via control systems that monitor temperature and humidity and shut equipment off when not required. Utility incentives offered by National Grid have the potential to reduce the installed cost and provide a shorter payback.

NORESCO Project 8 and Beyond

Project 8 provides additional measures for Academic buildings located on the Kingston and Bay campuses. The following projects have been proposed to follow work completed in NORESCO’s Project 7:        

New Aluminum Frame Windows New Windows in Gilbreth/Kirk New Windows in Wales New Windows in Woodward New Windows in Crawford New Windows in Morrill New Chilled Water System at White Hall New AHUs and Heating at Fine Arts Center

      

New Chiller at Chaffee Hall New Chiller at Fogarty Hall New Chiller at Watkins New RTUs at Horn New Boiler at Watkins Mid-Campus Condensate Pump Station Weatherization and Attic Insulation

In addition, the following projects have been researched to expand on NORESCO’s proposed projects: 10 MW Combined Heat and Power Plant

Combined heat and power (CHP) can be a highly effective way for energy-intensive institutions to significantly reduce and, in some cases, eliminate the need to purchase electricity from the grid. This system simultaneously produces electricity and heat on-site from a single fuel source. A preliminary analysis was performed to gain a general sense of the costs and benefits of such a project. The installation of the CHP has the potential to reduce campus emissions by 27,142 MTCO2e, representing over half of this plan’s total reduction goal. NORESCO’s Project 7, if awarded, would include a more thorough CHP feasibility study. A 10 MW combined heat and power plant fueled with natural gas would meet URI’s base electricity load at a cost of roughly 5 cents per kWh (the estimated cost of production based on a local CHP plant). The University currently pays 13 cents per kWh for commodity and transmission from National Grid. The system could also be fueled with locally sourced biomass, a common trend in the New England region. The implementation of a plant this size would potentially save the University over $2 million per year with the option to sell energy back to the grid.

Vending and Snack Misers

The average vending machine can consume anywhere from 3,000-4,000 kWh per year. A VendingMiser® or SnackMiser® is a combined motion and thermal sensor used to shut down the light and compressor in a vending machine when the machine is not in use. In its next request for proposals for vending services, the University plans to require vendors to install VendingMisers on all machines at their own expense. The URI Climate Action Plan

19

vendors may increase their fees to account for the cost of these devices. Therefore, to be conservative, this project was analyzed as though the University was paying the full cost. The University would need to purchase about 75 VendingMisers, at a cost of about $180 each, and 53 SnackMisers at around $80 each. These products have the potential to reduce a machine’s electrical consumption by 48% and 58% respectively, and do not have any installation or expected annual costs. In addition to installing VendingMisers, vending machines can be partially de-lamped for added savings.

Outdoor Lighting

URI currently spends approximately $50,000 annually on outdoor lighting including floodlights, parking lot lights and walkway lighting. Emerging technology in high efficiency LED lighting fixtures can aid in reducing energy consumption from lighting by an average of 30%. If URI were to install new high-efficiency LED lighting fixtures, an annual savings of $15,000 could be realized.

EFFICIENCY Project Name NORESCO Project 7A (Combined) NORESCO Project 7B (Academic) NORESCO Project 7C (HRL) NORESCO Project 7D (Auxiliary) NORESCO Project 8 and Beyond 10 MW Combined Heat & Power Plant Vending and Snack Misers Outdoor Lighting

Duration (years)

Total Initial Cost

Average Discounted Annual Cash Flow

Net Present Value

Discounted Payback Period (years)

Annual Reductions (MTCO2e)

Total Lifetime Reductions (MTCO2e)

15

$6,839,000

$535,063

$5,806,347

12

3,259

48,885

15

$6,316,000

$494,008

$5,284,226

12

2,858

42,870

15

$283,000

$149,718

$1,584,875

13

125

1,875

15

$240,000

$34,516

$369,993

5

276

4,140

15

$7,115,000

($454,237)

($4,869,205)

No Payback

1,293

19,395

40

$32,000,000

$2,162,945

$88,680,759

7

27,142

1,085,680

25

$17,740

$18,785

$488,411

1

105

2,627

25

$325,000

$8,195

$213,077

13

3

75

  Table 4:  Financial and environmental analysis of proposed energy efficiency projects. Note: Parentheses indicate a negative number. 

URI Climate Action Plan

20

EFFICIENCY PROJECTS FOR FUTURE CONSIDERATION

Laboratory Refrigerators and Freezers

Recent technological advances in refrigerators and freezers suggest that updating the appliances in campus laboratories, and those used for dining hall food storage, could lower emissions substantially. These higher efficiency refrigerators and freezers are said to be up to 45% more energy efficient than existing models. The EPA will soon release ENERGY STAR standards for all laboratory refrigeration products, at which point upgrades will be mandatory. Although a full study was not conducted at this time, it is suggested that a refrigerator and freezer efficiency study be completed within the next several years.

Fine Arts Center Air Handlers and Heating Conversion

The Fine Arts Center uses two indoor split air handlers with electric heat in Building H, with a small multizone unit serving mixed use spaces, and a large constant volume unit serving an auditorium. These systems are at least forty years old and have become increasingly costly to operate, service and maintain. The air handlers are approaching their useful service life limits, and at current utility rates electricity is not the most cost effective method of providing building heat. This measure would replace the existing multizone air handler with a new variable air volume air handler with hot water reheat coils. The constant volume unit would be replaced with a new outdoor air handler with indoor hot water heating coils. The condensing units for both air handlers would be replaced with new units. Hot water heating would be provided by a new high-efficiency boiler and hot water distribution system.

Improve Efficiency of Washers and Dryers in Residential Halls

Many of the washers and dryers currently in use in the Universities’ residential halls are outdated and not as efficient as they could be. New washers use nearly 75% less water than those installed as recently as five years ago, and newer model washers and dryers use up to 65% less energy.

Upgrade Inefficient Water Fixtures

As water fixtures (both sink tap and shower heads) age, the stopper can deteriorate and allow water to leak through even when the water is off. Water fixtures are a utility that should be changed every 15 to 20 years. URI can reduce water consumption by replacing old and leaking fixtures in academic buildings and residence halls.

Individual Building Meters

Installing individual utility meters on all campus buildings would provide a variety of benefits. Individual meters help in identifying the most inefficient buildings, monitor real-time consumption on energy dashboards, show savings from building-specific improvements and have the ability to detect signs of system failures. Steam is one of hardest utilities to meter, but even estimates can show valuable trends.

URI Climate Action Plan

21

CONSERVATION PROJECTS The terms conservation and efficiency are sometimes used interchangeably, but for the purposes of this report the two words mean two distinct types of projects. While efficiency involves more effective use of energy by systems through improved technologies, conservation involves more responsible energy use by people through behavior change. Because they involve simple behavior changes, such as shutting down appliances when not in use, conservation efforts often have low costs. Energy conservation is an important part of this Climate Action Plan as it calls upon URI students, faculty and staff alike to help the University achieve its goal of becoming a climate neutral institution.

Temperature Setbacks for Heating and Cooling

The current heating temperature range is 66-72°F between 6:00 AM and 6:00 PM and 55-60°F at night, from October to April. The proposed day-time heating temperature range would be decreased by 2°F to 6470°F for the next 5 years. For the following 5 years, the maximum heating temperature range would be reduced another 2°F to 64-68°F (this is calculated as a 1°F temperature reduction). By reducing the temperature ranges in stages, it is believed there will be fewer complaints by the campus population. This analysis assumes an average of 3% energy savings for every 1°F change. The current cooling temperature range is 72-76°F, generally from May to September. The proposed new range would be increased by 2°F to 74-78°F. Available energy consumption data for URI indicates that cooling is not separated from the total electric consumption and cost. Assuming that cooling accounts for 35% of the total electrical usage for all four campuses (May to September), this means there is the potential for an average of 3% energy savings for every 1°F change.

Computer Monitor and Desktop Shut Down

There are over 3,000 computers in several labs across campus, as well as an estimated 7,000 personal computers utilized by faculty, staff and students. It was assumed that 25% of the personal computers are laptops; therefore, there is no associated monitor and no associated savings. Turning a computer monitor from its nightly “stand-by” mode to “off” can save 4 watts per computer per hour. If all computer monitors are turned off for 10 hours each night, this can save almost 125,000 kWh per year. This analysis is based on a 5-year time frame, the average life of a computer. There can be additional savings from longer periods, such as weekends and holiday breaks, but there may also be increased use throughout the semester, especially around mid-terms and final exams. This conservation project follows the same assumptions as the computer monitor shut down project. On average, a desktop uses 100 watts per hour; therefore a desktop can save 100 watts per hour when it is shut down.

Summer Building Use Consolidation

Overall, 27 buildings were listed as holding summer classes. Based on previous summer sessions, several buildings are only used for 1 or 2 class sections. By consolidating the underutilized buildings, it is possible that 9 buildings could require just 25% of the original electrical consumption for 27 buildings. It is assumed that a building using 25% of power would be enough to power security lights and maintain a higher cooling range. There are several logistical problems that may add costs to this project; therefore, a more in-depth review starting with detailed occupancy profiles will be needed.

URI Climate Action Plan

22

Real Time Energy Monitoring

Lucid Design Group© produces a Building Dashboard for Schools, which tracks real time energy consumption. A basic starter package costs $9,950 and supplies everything needed to get two buildings’ energy consumption online. While actual energy savings cannot be predicted, it is estimated that this software will save 5-15% of electrical consumption. Yearly maintenance costs are $2,000 for two buildings.

 

CONSERVATION Project Name

Duration (years)

Initial Investment

Average Discounted Annual Cash Flow

Net Present Value

Discounted Payback Period (years)

Annual Reductions (MTCO2e)

Total Lifetime Reductions (MTCO2e)

Nightly Desktop Shutdown

5

$0

$296,323

$1,777,937

1

1,323

6,615

Real Time Energy Monitoring

10

$139,300

$122,179

$1,343,970

1

610

6,100

Heating Set-point

10

$100,000

$123,756

$1,127,387

1

445

4,449

Cooling Set-point

10

$100,000

$44,870

$493,568

2

240

2,397

Summer Building Consolidation

10

$0

$27,930

$307,234

1

124

1,241

Nightly Monitor Shutdown

5

$0

$11,853

$71,117

1

53

265

  Table 5:  Financial and environmental analysis of proposed energy conservation projects.

CONSERVATION PROJECTS FOR FUTURE CONSIDERATION

Campus Composting Initiative

Composting can be used to offset greenhouse gas emissions by reducing landfill emissions and increasing carbon sequestration through improved soil condition and increased crop productivity. Also, when compost is applied to plants and crops, the need for artificial fertilizers is reduced. All four campuses should consider expanding their composting program to incorporate all landscaping, agricultural, and dining hall waste.

Green Roofs

A green roof was constructed on the Center for Biotechnology and Life Sciences building, which has been awarded LEED Gold. URI should continue this precedent by installing green roofs on existing and new buildings for added insulation, stormwater management and wildlife habitat.

URI Climate Action Plan

23

Bioheat in Student, Staff and Faculty Homes

URI should encourage the use of bioheat (biodiesel blended heating oil) in student, faculty and staff homes by negotiating with local oil providers. If a student, faculty or staff member chooses to purchase bioheat, the provider would donate a small amount of money to a fund established for future energy projects at the University. This would be a mutually beneficial partnership in that the provider would likely see increased business while URI would see lowered emissions.

Energy Dashboards in High-Traffic Campus Buildings

In high-traffic buildings, such as the Library and the Memorial Union, energy dashboards could be installed to display the energy consumption of the building. This can serve as an educational tool to increase awareness of energy consumption on campus, and has to potential to lead to increased conservation behavior among students, staff and faculty.

Residence Hall Competitions

Energy conservation competitions in residence halls not only reduce emissions, but they also educate and engage students in a fun way. Energy dashboards, both online and on lobby monitors, allow students to compare their consumption to competing floors and dorms in real-time as they strive to conserve the most energy. Lucid Design GroupŠ has seen dorm energy savings of up to 56% through competitions using their dashboards.

URI Climate Action Plan

24

RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECTS Renewable energy technologies are rapidly advancing and are being used all over the globe as a cleaner alternative to fossil fuels. Because URI is a tax-exempt institution, it is not eligible for any state or federal tax credits that bring down the initial cost of installing renewable energy systems; however, it is eligible for rebates. Currently, wind and especially solar are very expensive technologies, but their costs are coming down. For this reason, the majority of the renewable energy projects in Table 6 have been recommended for implementation in the later phases of the Climate Action Plan. URI should use these initial cost and emissions estimates as preliminary assessments of renewable energy projects for its campuses.

Purchased Offshore Wind Power

An offshore wind farm is planned for construction off the coast of Rhode Island. Eight turbines in state waters near Block Island are expected to be in place by 2012. In addition, a 100-turbine farm approximately 15 miles offshore in federal waters is planned for completion by 2018. These systems would produce 15% of the state’s electricity through wind power; therefore, 15% of the University’s electricity would come from the wind farm. While there would be a price increase to make up for the electric company’s added costs of purchasing renewable energy, it has yet to be determined what the additional costs to URI will be when National Grid begins purchasing power from the wind farm. To be conservative, it was assumed that the cost of this electricity would be 24 cents/kWh, which is the currently proposed price, plus inflation for the entire project lifetime.

Wind Power on Campus

Three areas with different average wind speeds were identified as possible wind turbine sites. Average wind speeds range from 4.5 meters per second (m/s) at the lower agricultural fields on the Kingston Campus, to 6 m/s at the top of the Kingston Campus, to 7.5 m/s at the Bay Campus. Taking into consideration that prices will be roughly equivalent to the 1.5 MW turbine erected at Portsmouth High School in Portsmouth, Rhode Island (an initial investment of $3.2 million and annual maintenance costs of about 2 cents per kWh produced), this analysis assumes one turbine per site, using General Electric’s 1.5 MW XLE model designed specifically for weak wind areas. Larger models, such as 2.5 MW and 3.0 MW turbines, would be more costly but would produce more power. Thorough studies would need to be conducted for each location to confirm wind resources and financial and logistical feasibility.

Solar Thermal

Residence halls are an ideal application for solar thermal because of these buildings’ high demand for hot water. This project analyzes one solar thermal system that can be applied to most dorms that house 200+ students using about 25 gallons per day per person; there are about 27 of these dorms on the Kingston Campus. An evacuated tube solar thermal system has the ability to withstand freezing temperatures while maintaining high efficiency, and is therefore ideal for a New England climate. It would produce 70% of the domestic hot water in place of an oil or natural gas system. An initial investment cost of $450,151 is based on prices from a local distribution and installation company. The Rhode Island incentive for solar thermal was deducted from this price using a one-time rebate of $3 per therm of estimated first-year savings. Maintenance was estimated to be the same as the current conventional system over its lifetime.

URI Climate Action Plan

25

Solar Photovoltaics

Photovoltaic (PV) systems can be installed on southern exposure rooftops throughout the campus. System costs shown in Table 6 were quoted by a reputable, local PV distribution and installation company. In order to realize a payback within the lifetime of the PV systems, government subsidies would be necessary. Unfortunately, no subsidies can be guaranteed at this time. It is important to note that as the size of the system increases, the cost per watt installed decreases.

RENEWABLES Project Name

Purchased Wind Power Wind 1.5 MW XLE @ 7.5 m/s Wind 1.5 MW XLE @ 6 m/s Wind 1.5 MW XLE @ 4.5 m/s Solar Thermal One Dorm (Oil) Solar Thermal One Dorm (Steam) 50 kW Photovoltaic System

Duration (years)

Initial Investment

Average Discounted Annual Cash Flow

Net Present Value

Discounted Payback Period (years)

Annual Reductions (MTCO2e)

Total Lifetime Reductions (MTCO2e)

30

$0

($469,687)

($14,560,287)

No Payback

4,498

134,940

30

$3,200,000

$343,346

$10,643,738

5

3,278

98,340

30

$3,200,000

$120,060

$3,721,869

11

1,639

49,170

30

$3,200,000

$8,417

$260,934

26

820

24,600

30

$450,151

($2,751)

($85,280)

No Payback

66

1,980

30

$450,151

($4,752)

($147,299)

No Payback

24

708

30

$300,000

($5,456)

($169,147)

No Payback

11

330

  Table 6:  Financial and environmental analysis of proposed renewable energy projects. Note: Parentheses indicate a negative number. 

RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECTS FOR FUTURE CONSIDERATION

Landfill Methane Recovery

URI could consider using methane from a nearby landfill as an alternative fuel source. Because this fuel source would require installation of a methane recovery system at the landfill, a pipeline from the landfill to the University, a pumping system to transport the gas, and a methane processing plant, there would be high capital costs associated with this project. Future analyses should include the determination of whether or not there is enough methane that can be produced at the landfill site to make the system worth the high

URI Climate Action Plan

26

initial cost. If such a system would be viable, the methane could be used at our current steam plant, or at a proposed combined heat and power plant.

Geothermal

A geothermal system may be installed to heat and cool spaces within a building. The system taps the constantly flowing foundation drainage system and run the ground water through heat exchangers to cool and heat lower level spaces. Cost savings are very conservative and depend on drilling depth and any changes in the size of the system. Though a complete analysis and design of the small scale system was performed for possible installation in the new pharmacy building, the geothermal system will not be included as part of the construction plans. In the future, a geothermal system should be considered as a possible renewable energy source for new buildings and/or buildings undergoing major renovation.

URI Climate Action Plan

27

TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS The GHG emissions from commuting accounts for approximately 28% of URI’s total emissions (Figure 1). This does not include the campus vehicle fleet, which accounts for just 1% of total emissions. Therefore, the majority of proposed transportation projects and policies in this Climate Action Plan address issues related to commuting behavior. Many of the commuting projects do not pay back over the project durations since these projects typically mean, for example, that fewer parking passes will be purchased, resulting in revenue losses. These losses could be partially or totally recovered by increasing parking fees. These nopayback projects can also be supported by cost savings from other projects that have quick and substantial paybacks.

Biodiesel Transition

Transitioning to a B10 (10% biodiesel) ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel for URI’s fleet vehicles would significantly mitigate carbon emissions, as well as diesel pollution. Blends of up to 20% biodiesel require no modifications to both existing machinery and pumping equipment. Small scale biodiesel use was piloted during the summer of 2009 at the University with no negative effects observed. If URI were to transition to a B10 diesel fuel for the University fleet, this project’s initial investment would need to include the installation of a new biodiesel fuel station and tank, and purchasing 10% biodiesel blended fuel. The University fleet consumes roughly 10,000 gallons of diesel per year. A 3.1% annual price increase was assumed based on projections in the Energy Information Administration’s 2009 Annual Energy Outlook report. Therefore, the estimated cost of biodiesel would be 20 cents per gallon greater than the price of petrol diesel, based on current costs. As the University fleet is considered part of the state fleet, all vehicles on campus must be refueled at state designated refueling stations. While URI has a state diesel filling station on its main campus, current state purchasing policy shows no support for purchasing and distributing a biodiesel blended diesel fuel. While updating this policy may present a challenge, new legislation is being proposed that could mandate the use of biodiesel for state vehicles in the near future.

Transportation Demand Management

The concept behind transportation demand management principles is simple: rather than increasing the supply of parking to meet increasing demand, work to lower demand for parking. URI could initiate a thorough transportation demand management (TDM) study to identify measures to reduce singleoccupancy vehicle commuting and, subsequently, lower greenhouse gas emissions from transportation. Several recommended options are described below.

RIPTA Bus Trip Frequency

The Rhode Island Public Transit Authority (RIPTA) provides bus service to URI’s main campus via the 66 route, which travels from Providence to Galilee, and via the 64 route, which travels from Newport and stops at both main campus and the Bay campus. Currently, most of the ridership is on the 66 line from Providence to URI. The other portion of the 66 route, which runs from URI to Galilee, has lower ridership despite a large population of URI students living in the Galilee area. In order to increase RIPTA bus trip frequency, this project would add two buses per day to this route so that a 66 bus would stop at URI every hour. A review of the current bus schedule, including the location of bus stops, and how it can be adjusted to better serve rider needs should be conducted to encourage preference

URI Climate Action Plan

28

of alternative transportation over single occupancy vehicle commuting. Furthermore, adding another two buses in two years to meet increasing demand would mean that a bus would stop at URI every half hour. Since this is a service provided by RIPTA, there would be no cost to URI. RIPTA’s cost would be approximately $200,000 annually (at $100,000 per bus) in the first two years and then $400,000 in the following years. URI could provide an incentive for RIPTA to add these buses by fully subsidizing bus passes for URI commuters, and increasing the marketing effort to promote transit use. Successful implementation of this project has the potential to save an estimated 1,125 MTCO2e of GHG emissions per year, assuming that 5% of single-occupancy vehicle trips taken by student, staff and faculty commuters would be converted to bus trips.

Fully Subsidized Bus Passes

URI currently subsidizes 50% of all RIPTA bus passes purchased on campus at the Memorial Union by students, staff and faculty. Since this program began in 2007, RIPTA ridership has increased substantially. A fully subsidized bus pass, while more costly to the University, would provide a highly attractive incentive that would encourage campus community members to ride the bus. Assuming an additional 5% of all commuters (student, staff and faculty) and 2% of on-campus students begin riding the bus as a result of this program, greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by 1,127 MTCO2e per year. This analysis also assumes that all participants purchase a monthly pass at the current cost of $55 per pass, completely convert all trips from single-occupancy vehicle to bus and that 3% of all commuters already taking advantage of the current subsidy continue to participate in the full-subsidy program. Under these assumptions, the total annual cost to URI for a fully-subsidized bus pass program would be approximately $57,402.

Carpool Parking Lot

Two recent student-run trials of a carpool parking lot have demonstrated that there is demand for carpool incentives among student commuters. A permanent carpool lot is estimated to cost $32,600 to install a gate and booth on the west section of the Fine Arts south parking lot. Staffing would cost $47,956 for a fulltime, academic year campus patrol person and a full-time, academic year student to monitor the lot. Assuming a 10% increase in the number of two-person carpool trips at the University, this initiative could save 880 MTCO2e per year.

Car-Share Program (ZipCar)

ZipCar is a business that provides car-sharing services to cities, businesses and universities. Car-sharing programs can supplement transportation demand management programs by allowing campus community members to rely less on a personal vehicle. For example, if freshman parking restrictions were to be instituted, freshmen living on campus would be reliant on public transportation to get around, which limits the areas they can access. With the ZipCar program, a student could borrow a car for $8 an hour and an annual membership fee of $35. ZipCar would initially provide URI with two cars at no cost to the University. There are no direct costs to the University; however, promotion of the ZipCar program could be included in the alternative transportation marketing campaign discussed below. Assuming 5% of students living on campus use ZipCars as an alternative to bringing a car to campus, and annual transportation emissions are reduced by 50%, URI could mitigate 180 MTCO2e each year.

URI Climate Action Plan

29

Employee Telecommuting

A policy encouraging all faculty and staff to work from home one day a week could decrease URI’s emissions by about 181 MTCO2e annually. This assumes that 15% of employees would take advantage of this opportunity.

Infrequent Parking Passes

Many commuters do not travel to campus often enough to warrant the purchase of an annual permit for $160. The option of an infrequent parking pass targets students who are driving to campus on a part-time basis, or during only one semester. An infrequent parking pass would allow students to forgo an annual parking permit and opt for 30 single-day passes sold for $50. Including the annual revenue loss and printing of new single-day passes, and assuming 5% participation, this program would have a yearly cost of about $49,100 and would save approximately 158 MTCO2e per year.

Freshman Parking Restrictions

Many schools, especially those with limited parking, have instituted a policy that prohibits freshmen who live on campus from bringing their cars. Freshmen with special circumstances may petition for a parking permit. If URI were to implement this policy, supporting programs that ensure convenient alternative transportation options for getting around must be in place. Some of these strategies are included in this plan, such as frequent and convenient public transit and ZipCar service. To mitigate any unfavorable responses to the freshman parking restrictions, URI can advertise the policy as one that is a part of its Climate Action Plan to reduce the campus’ environmental impact. The cost to the University would include revenue loss from reduced parking permit sales. Approximately 900 freshmen purchase parking permits each year at $235 per pass. Assuming 90% participation, this could be a $190,350 decrease in yearly revenue; however, it would mitigate an estimated 810 MTCO2e annually.

Alternative Transportation Marketing

None of the proposed transportation programs will be successful without adequate marketing and promotion. An investment of $5,000 would be dedicated to student intern time and materials to promote new incentives for alternative transportation use. A 1% mode shift from single-occupancy vehicle (SOV) trips to bus trips, and a 1% mode shift from SOV trips to carpool trips, could reduce emissions at URI by 319 MTCO2e per year.

URI Climate Action Plan

30

TRANSPORTATION Project Name

Duration (years)

Initial Investment

Average Discounted Annual Cash Flow

Net Present Value

Discounted Payback Period (years)

Annual Reductions (MTCO2e)

Total Lifetime Reductions (MTCO2e)

Biodiesel Fuel Transition

25

$6,000

($1,409)

($36,644)

N/A

3,734

93,350

Fully Subsidized Bus Passes

25

$0

($28,223)

($733,790)

N/A

1,127

28,186

Increased RIPTA Bus Trip Frequency

25

$0

$0

$0

<1

1,125

28,113

Carpool Parking Lot

25

$32,600

($74,358)

($1,933,304)

N/A

880

22,000

Freshman Parking Restrictions

25

$0

($100,274)

($2,433,312)

N/A

810

20,250

Alternative Transportation Marketing Program

25

$5,000

($2,458)

($63,917)

N/A

319

7,974

Employee Telecommuting

25

$0

$0

$0

<1

181

4,516

Car Sharing Program

25

$0

($5,199)

($135,184)

N/A

180

4,500

Infrequent Parking Permits

25

$250

($2,987)

($77,663)

N/A

158

3,960

  Table 7:  Financial analysis of proposed transportation projects. Note: Parentheses indicate a negative number. 

TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS FOR FUTURE CONSIDERATION To decrease emissions even further, there are additional transportation projects that should be more carefully analyzed. It should also be noted that implementation of the following projects may strengthen the desired effects of the transportation projects previously mentioned.

Increasing On-Campus Housing

According to the University’s Office of Institutional Research, 45% of undergraduates live in college-owned, -operated, or -affiliated housing, and the remaining 55% live off campus and/or commute. Increasing and diversifying on-campus housing options will encourage more students to reside on campus and therefore reduce emissions from commuting. Although this strategy will likely increase on-campus emissions, it is easier to regulate emissions from campus operations than it is to regulate personal vehicle emissions. Given the current economic climate, private developers may be interested in constructing and operating “green” apartments on campus because it represents a guaranteed residential population. This is just one

URI Climate Action Plan

31

of many ways in which private sector partnerships can be leveraged to achieve carbon reductions at minimal cost to the University.

Increased Online Classes

URI can continue to promote distance learning by increasing courses offered online, and increasing the use of communication technologies, reducing the need to drive to campus. The decrease in emissions as a result of less students commuting to campus, coupled with the potential of less demand for University resources (e.g. power needed for classroom use), may help to mitigate GHG emissions on campus.

True Cost of Parking

To ensure campus parking permit fees are based on the actual cost or value of a parking space, URI should conduct a study to determine the true cost of parking. By recovering the actual costs of providing parking to students, staff, and faculty, the University would not only secure the funding needed to maintain safe and convenient parking options, but may also redirect some of the excess to alternative transportation projects. Alternative rate designs, such as tiered rates based on distance to campus core or rates based on a sliding fee scale to take into consideration staff/faculty salary limitations, would help in the transition to any increase in parking fees

Off-Campus Park and Ride Lots

URI and RIPTA should work with proprietors of beach parking lots in the Town of Narragansett to utilize the lots as park and ride lots during the months when the beaches are closed but school is in session. Because such a large percentage of URI students live in Narragansett, it is an easy target area for promoting carpooling and bus riding. One or two Narragansett park and ride lots would allow students living in near-by neighborhoods to drive a short distance to a lot, park their car (ideally for free) and either meet their carpool or catch the bus. This initiative would be a low- or no-cost way to alleviate traffic congestion on-campus and on surrounding roads, lower demand for on-campus parking, and therefore significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Alternative-Fueled and/or More Efficient On-Campus Shuttles

Currently, on-campus transportation is provided by RIPTA. Emissions could be significantly reduced with the use of alternative fuel buses. The University could either purchase their own buses for transportation around the campus, or hire an outside company to supply the alternative fuel fleet. There could be additional mandates on the new bus fleet such as using only student drivers. This would help to create local jobs and reduce costs. On-campus RIPTA shuttles often have low ridership in early morning and evening hours and on weekends. In addition to using alternative-fueled campus shuttles, URI should conduct a study to analyze ridership levels at different times of the day and days of the week. Results of this study could inform a more efficient schedule that is based on actual usage, and will ensure that shuttles avoid wasting fuel.

Bike-Share and Maintenance Program

Developing a program where students, faculty and staff borrow campus-owned bicycles could encourage biking as an alternative to single occupancy vehicles. To ensure ongoing success of the program, bike URI Climate Action Plan

32

borrowers should be held accountable for the bike borrowed through some form of collateral system. Formalizing the bike share in this way would also allow for the collection of data that can be used to support the program and meet the needs of borrowers. URI should study and implement one of several models that are well-established at other universities. Many schools also have student-run bicycle maintenance programs to complement the bike-share program. South County Commuter Rail Project

The Rhode Island Department of Transportation is currently in Phase I of the South County Commuter Rail (SCCR) project, which will be a 20-mile extension of commuter rail service from Boston, south of Providence to Warwick, and Wickford Junction. Phase II includes plans to provide commuter rail service from Providence to Westerly, making several stops along the way, including the Kingston Station, located just over one mile from main campus. This project would offer students, staff, and faculty an alternative transportation option for their commute to campus. Commuter rail service at Kingston Station presents additional opportunities to reduce emissions from URIrelated transportation. When the connection is complete, URI should assess potential incentives that would encourage URI commuters to ride the train instead of driving alone to campus. More information about this rail project can be found on the Rhode Island Department of Transportation website: http://www.dot.state.ri.us/engineering/intermod/index.asp.

Electric Car Charging Stations

URI should consider the benefits of building electric car charging stations. Since it is a state mandate to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, URI will be transitioning their fleet vehicles. Some of these vehicles could be electric-powered, therefore a feasibility study should be conducted to determine if constructing charging stations would help support a fleet of electric-powered vehicles. In addition, these stations could have associated solar panels. This way, URI will have climate neutral vehicles. Use of the car charging stations could also be promoted to faculty, staff and students to help encourage purchasing of personal electric vehicles.

URI Climate Action Plan

33

POLICIES The following policies are recommended to supplement the above projects. Benefits of these policies include increased energy savings, cost and emissions reductions, as well as increased campus-wide awareness of energy saving strategies. It is important to understand how integral the policy recommendations are to the success of the projects described earlier. Without the support of carefully crafted policies, projects have the potential to become temporary or ineffective solutions to emissions problems. Behavior modification and infrastructure adjustments that result from strong policy implementation provide the catalyst for change that is needed to encourage campus-wide acceptance of projects that have the goal of reducing GHG emissions.

CONSTRUCTION POLICY

LEED Standard for New Construction

Through recent legislation, Rhode Island has been proactive in augmenting regulations related to new public building construction to include heightened building efficiency and sustainability. Executive Order 0514, later supplemented by General Assembly Act S 0232, calls for “all major facility projects of public agencies to be designed and constructed to at least the LEED certified or an equivalent high performance green building standard.” In compliance with these regulations, URI has constructed several buildings that are either certified or in the process of being certified, including Hope Dining Hall, the new residence halls, the Center for Biotechnology and Life Science and the Bay Campus’ Ocean Sciences and Exploration Center. Planned LEED buildings include a new laboratory and education facility for the pharmacy department and a new residence hall.

PURCHASING POLICIES

Fleet Vehicles

In 2005, Governor Carcieri issued Executive Order 05-13, which mandates the purchase of alternative fuel and hybrid electric vehicles when possible. Because URI must adhere to state purchasing policies, URI makes every effort to purchase low emissions vehicles for its fleet. Sustainable Purchasing

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed an Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) policy, which sets a standard of “pursuing products or services that have a lesser or reduced effect on human health and the environment when compared with competing products or services that serve the same purpose.” This policy includes consideration of lifetime environmental impacts of products and services from “cradle to grave.” URI should develop a purchasing policy that not only includes guidelines such as those described in the EPA’s EPP policy, but also requires local purchasing, when possible, to promote the state’s economy and reduce emissions from transportation of goods.

URI Climate Action Plan

34

COMPUTER AND ELECTRONICS POLICIES

Energy Management

Use of computer and electrical devices should be studied to determine periods of peak and off-peak activity. It should be the policy of the Universityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Information Technologies department to enforce overnight and vacation shut downs, and encourage reduction of activity for all computers on campus that are controlled by the University. This includes monitor and hard drive power down after a period of inactivity. Printer Consolidation/Networking

Discouraging the use of personal printers helps to curb the habit of printing often and, usually, unnecessarily. Users tend to more carefully consider the benefit of printing a document if a printer is located in a central area, or if there is a cost incurred to print. High efficiency printers that are centrally located in office buildings would decrease the energy necessary to power individual printers, as well as decrease the amount of ink, toner and paper supply. Data Center Consolidation

There are many departmental servers on campus, which must remain on at all times and often have more capacity than needed. Consolidating these individual servers to URIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s main data center would save energy by sharing space and processing capacity.

RESIDENCE HALL POLICIES

Off-peak Energy Management

Student residence halls are virtually unoccupied for 4 out of 12 months of the year (January, June, July and August). The University should institute a residential off-peak energy management plan including resident consolidation, appropriate temperature adjustments and reduced lighting. Appliance Mandates

A mini-refrigerator, commonly used in resident rooms, costs the University approximately $36 per year to operate. With 30 residence halls on-campus, the University can save money and reduce emissions by regulating the number, size and efficiency of appliances in resident rooms. Requiring residents to purchase ENERGY STAR appliances can be supported by selling them onsite during student move-in weeks. Prohibiting incandescent light bulbs in student-owned light fixtures, and making compact fluorescent bulbs easily available for purchase, would also help to reduce emissions related directly to residence halls. Eco-Reps Program

Eco-Reps are URI students (paid or unpaid) who serve as energy and environmental leaders in their residence halls. Eco-Reps conduct energy and environmental awareness programs to encourage their peers to conserve energy and water. Eco-Reps could be given the authority to submit maintenance work orders for dysfunctional heating systems, lighting fixtures, water faucets, windows, etc. The work orders

URI Climate Action Plan

35

could bypass the regular protocol of reporting maintenance and repair requests, and be considered a priority.

SPACE UTILIZATION POLICIES

Off-peak Energy Management

Building and space use should be consolidated in off-peak times in order to better manage energy needs. This includes evening settings for heating and lighting, as well as summer and vacation settings. Staff responsible for scheduling events and classes should be trained in protocols that would facilitate building consolidation in off-peak times.

Space Heater Policy

Reductions in winter thermostat settings may tempt faculty and staff to heat their own personal workspace with inefficient space heaters. A policy should be developed to discourage this practice by requiring facilities to audit the workspace in question to determine the possible source of a heating malfunction. Facilities staff can then make the needed repairs, or allow space heater use for an interim period while a long term solution is sought.

Laboratory Efficiency

There is an inherent difficulty in imposing energy and emissions policies in laboratories without obstructing the scientific validity of the setting. The efficiencies in the University laboratories can be achieved in oven and refrigerator storage consolidation, as well as the powering down of inefficient storage systems that are not in use.

Green Champions

As described in the Progress to Date section of this report, NORESCO has been very successful in their efforts to promote conservation behavior in campus dorms. They have also piloted a Green Champion program where one volunteer per academic building serves as a leader in energy conservation for their building or department. Green Champions would work with their department colleagues to institute conservation policies, and hold annual departmental seminars to train other faculty and staff in energy and water saving practices. URI began its Green Champion program in the 2009 fall semester with an IT staff member of the art department. Our first Green Champion has established a baseline of energy consumption in the departmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s computer lab, and has instituted power management and shut down policies in an effort to conserve energy.

TRANSPORTATION POLICIES

Transportation Demand Management

URI should adopt a policy of implementing transportation demand management projects and programs before increasing parking supply. In addition to the measures described in the Projects section, URI could employ the policies described below to lower the demand for parking, reduce single-occupancy vehicle URI Climate Action Plan

36

commuting, and lower greenhouse gas emissions from transportation. However, it is also important to recognize that the success of a policy to reduce parking supply will rely upon the success of alternative transportation projects and policies. Without adequate transportation options in place, commuters who regularly drive to campus alone will continue to do so in the absence of an alternative, creating an even larger demand for parking.

Parking Space Cap

Key transportation demand management measures include establishing a cap, or reducing the number of parking spaces on campus. Limited parking spaces would encourage commuters to take advantage of public transportation and carpooling, therefore reducing the number of single occupancy vehicles traveling to campus. This disincentive could be paired with simultaneous incentives to carpooling commuters such as premium parking locations and reduced parking pass prices for high-occupancy vehicles, or providing fully subsidized public transportation passes.

Parking Cash-Out

A parking cash-out policy would give students, faculty and staff commuters the opportunity to forego an annual parking pass in exchange for a monetary benefit. This type of policy is most effective when a University is considering building new parking facilities, as it is usually less expensive to pay individuals not to drive than it is to add and maintain parking.

Preferred Parking for High-Efficiency Vehicles

URI should designate a certain number of spaces in a desirable parking lot, perhaps the Fine Arts south lot, which would be reserved for high fuel-efficiency vehicles only. These vehicles could be registered when purchasing a parking permit online. This practice of offering closer parking for high fuel-efficiency vehicles was implemented in the Bay Campusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; new parking lot.

Tracking University-Sponsored Travel

A centralized, web-based system should be developed to track travel mode (car, plane, train, etc.) and distance for all student, staff and faculty travel. This system will be used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from University-sponsored travel, a crucial component of the Scope III emissions inventory.

WASTE MINIMIZATION POLICIES

Paper Reduction

There are many ways to reduce paper consumption on campus, including consolidating printers and copiers, printing double-sided, and making more documents available online. For example, both the course catalog and telephone directory are currently available online and in print. Frequent and on-going updates to the directories necessitate publishing the new directories every year. This policy would strive to further reduce the number of catalogs and directories that are being printed and provide online copies only. This policy could also encourage faculty to use online textbooks and provide course materials for classes online.

URI Climate Action Plan

37

Recycling

The state recycling center currently accepts Number 1 and Number 2 plastic materials. In the next few years, Numbers 3 through 7 will be accepted for recycling, allowing the University to significantly increase its recycling rate. An education campaign should be developed in alignment with the change in recycling policy so that the campus community is made aware of the new recycling protocol. Additionally, URI should increase both the number and accessibility of receptacles for the recycling of other products, such as batteries, CDs, and CFLs.

Reusable Products

A new student-led initiative known as â&#x20AC;&#x153;Reduce, Reuse, Refillâ&#x20AC;? collaborated with restaurants of the Kingston Emporium to offer a drink discount when a reusable cup or mug is presented. This program could be supported by the administration for increased participation. Dining Services could also strive to use more reusable or compostable dining materials.

URI Climate Action Plan

38

IMPLEMENTATION The URI Presidentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Council on Sustainability will monitor implementation of this plan and will oversee emissions tracking and progress reporting. The Council consists of students, faculty and staff representing a variety of academic, administrative and operational departments. Additionally, the University has recently created a Sustainability Officer position that would provide staff support to the Council. Implementation of the proposed projects and policies of this plan will be spearheaded by working groups of the Presidentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Council on Sustainability. The coordination of resources across all units of the campus community will be essential to the success of the Climate Action Plan. Therefore, working groups will consist of key members of the faculty, staff, and student population, and will rely on their expertise to refine specific action items and facilitate implementation. The timeframe for implantation of this plan is purposely aggressive, though very realistic. Projects and policies that have the potential to make the greatest impact on GHG emissions have been given priority. By taking a large step forward in its efforts to institute change on campus, URI makes a bold statement in its commitment to reduce emissions.

FINANCING STRATEGIES It is important to note that the financial analyses in this report assume that URI would fund recommended projects internally. It is more likely, however, that most projects will be funded through resources that lower the initial investment and distributes costs over time. Potential financing strategies, in addition to those listed here, include tax-exempt bonds, federal and state grants and other innovative methods, such as an internal carbon cap and trade system.

Performance Contracting

In 2007, URI entered into a performance contract with NORESCO. The current projects are set for completion in late 2010; however, it is likely that URI will enter into additional performance contracts to continue implementation of efficiency, conservation and renewable energy projects.

Lease Purchase Agreements

URI can also enter into lease purchase agreements to fund projects with high initial costs. In a lease purchase agreement, URI would lease equipment for a pre-determined finance period. At the end of the finance period, URI would own the equipment.

Power Purchase Agreements

The University, as a public institution, is unable to apply for tax benefits from energy projects. It can, however, enter into power-purchase agreements with private companies. This type of financing strategy relies on private companies to fund the capital costs for renewable energy projects located on University grounds. This is therefore a mutually beneficial agreement where the private companies will receive guaranteed income and benefits from the tax credits, while the University benefits from a fixed utility price and eventual ownership of the project. URI Climate Action Plan

39

Student Green Fees

The University should consider a small increase in student fees which could greatly contribute to financing “green” projects. For example, an increase of just $10 per year would result in over $150,000 to create and maintain a fund for sustainability projects.

Revolving Loan Fund

The University will create a revolving loan fund for energy and sustainability projects. Capital costs are invested into one project and the benefits generated from that project are deposited back into the fund to become the capital investment for another project.

State Utility Rebates

The University will apply for any available state rebates that are associated with the potential installation of renewable energy and efficiency projects.

Renewable Energy Credits (RECs)

After the installation of any renewable energy projects, such as a wind turbine or geothermal system, the University can sell Renewable Energy Credits (RECs) to third parties needing to fulfill emissions reduction commitments. This way, RECs provide an added financial benefit to the University for installation of renewable energy systems. It should be noted, however, that URI cannot claim the environmental benefits of the RECs it sells.

Green Alumni

The University of Rhode Island alumni are important contributors to the University. In an effort to involve alumni in helping the University achieve its climate goals, donations could be specifically directed toward “green” purchases. Currently, alumni can pledge donations and receive their names engraved onto bricks that form walkways around campus. Patterned after this donor benefit, the University can institute a “Green Alumni” program where alumni are able to pledge a donation toward energy efficient or renewable projects, such as a high-efficiency LED streetlight. In return, the donor names would be engraved onto plaques located at the base of the new light.

Student Sustainability Initiative Fund

In 2009, Provost Donald DeHayes awarded grants to students who proposed ambitious projects that addressed one or more campus sustainability issues including but not limited to energy, transportation, water and recycling. The Student Sustainability Initiative Fund could support future class projects in which students implement projects that reduce campus emissions, such as those recommended in the URI Climate Action Plan.

University-Sponsored Travel Offset Fund

The University of Vermont developed an innovative mechanism for offsetting travel emissions while funding on-campus carbon mitigation strategies. When a community member travels for a purpose related to University activities, they must enter their mileage and mode of transportation onto an online form that automatically transfers funds from their department’s account to an offset fund. The offset fund is then used

URI Climate Action Plan

40

to support on-campus carbon mitigation strategies. In effect, this system offsets the carbon emissions of University air travel while providing an additional source of funding for sustainability projects.

TRACKING & REPORTING The URI Presidentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Council on Sustainability will oversee the tracking of emissions reductions from implemented projects and policies. Tracking benefits from the Climate Action Plan will occur annually through both an update of the University greenhouse gas inventory, and a progress report to the ACUPCC. In addition, the ACUPCC requires that updated Climate Action Plans be submitted every three years. This plan is intended to be dynamic and maintaining a relevant plan is crucial for success. Working groups assigned to manage project and policy implementation will provide regular feedback and status reports that will help shape future iterations of the URI Climate Action Plan. Therefore, URI will strive to re-evaluate its goals and proposed projects every other year.

URI Climate Action Plan

41

EDUCATION, RESEARCH AND OUTREACH Many of the country’s future leaders – politicians, educators, chief executive officers, small business owners and homeowners – are currently being educated and engaged by institutions like the University of Rhode Island. Because of this unique position, universities have not only the opportunity but also the responsibility to instill an ethic of sustainability into each and every graduate. Universities also serve an important role in society as sources of innovation and drivers of economic development. By enhancing education, research and outreach in sustainable energy, URI can make significant contributions to the knowledge economy and can facilitate the emerging green economy. The Office of the Provost recently completed an ambitious plan to guide URI academics through the next five years. The plan emphasizes integration of sustainability concepts and issues into the curriculum, research and outreach.

EDUCATION URI is known for its robust curriculum in the natural sciences, environmental and resource economics, oceanography and marine affairs. In addition to these traditional disciplines, a minor in sustainability is offered as an interdisciplinary series of courses compatible with all fields of study. These courses include topics such as climate change science and policy; philosophy, culture and the environment; sustainable landscape design; the economics of globalization; hunger studies; literature, the environment and the American culture; field Investigations of sustainable models in tropical landscapes; sustainable oceans and coastal zones; and communication and sustainability. Students who graduate with the minor are expected to be proficient in understanding and articulating core values of sustainability; identify personal and societal barriers to change and possible solutions; demonstrate knowledge of sustainable practices and their effects on the environment, social equity and the economy; and, finally, display the ability to think across scales, from home to global. URI will continue to expand its catalogue of sustainability courses and programs with the goal of sustainability concepts permeating through all disciplines, including engineering, business, humanities and social sciences. Faculty members are currently being encouraged to develop interdisciplinary seminars on issues of contemporary significance that simultaneously engage and challenge freshmen to explore new perspectives on topics of social and environmental significance. These “grand challenge” courses will allow students to hone analytical and communication skills while gaining an appreciation of the complexities inherent in developing sustainable social and economic systems. Climate change represents a major challenge and opportunity to a broad range of businesses and the global economy. In turn, there is a growing demand for leaders with skills in business and science, particularly climate-related science. To address this need, a new program has been developed at URI that merges the Master of Business Administration program with a Master of Oceanography (MBA–MO). The 16-month MBA–MO, also referred to as the Blue MBA, provides tomorrow’s leaders with the knowledge and skills they need to develop business models to ensure an environmentally sustainable world for future generations. All freshmen are required to take a course, URI 101, which introduces them to the University and engages them in a service learning project. Integrating a sustainability component into all sections of URI 101 would

URI Climate Action Plan

42

ensure that each and every student who passes through the University will be exposed to these important issues as soon as they begin their academic career. Experiential learning has always been a priority at the University of Rhode Island. Students have unique opportunities to participate in fellowships in a variety of interdisciplinary studies. The Coastal Fellows and Energy Fellows programs engage students in real-world experiences within the professional community. Moving forward, the University should consider establishing a Sustainability Fellows program that would bring together creative young minds to address campus and community sustainability challenges. Finally, the University can use its campuses as green learning laboratories to educate students on sustainable practices through demonstrating green architecture, landscape architecture, infrastructure and living.

RESEARCH The University receives over $80 million annually for research, including $60 million in federal funding. URI researchers strive to be at the forefront of national and international research and development, especially in the fields of energy, sustainability and the environment. In 2007, the University established the URI Energy Center (URIEC), which brings together a crossdisciplinary team of research faculty, outreach staff and ambitious students to address energy concerns in the state, and to catalyze energy research while giving students experiential learning opportunities. Current research under Dr. Brett Lucht, professor of chemistry and co-director of the URI Energy Center, explores methods of enhancing lithium ion battery life and vitality for the use in hybrid electric vehicles. Professors of chemistry, engineering, cellular and molecular biology, and ocean engineering have also been conducting research on a variety of energy and sustainability topics. Energy research topics include switchgrass for biofuels, hydrogen and microbial fuel cells, smart grid technology, photovoltaic devices and wave energy. The URI Graduate School of Oceanography, the College of the Environment and Life Sciences and the College of Business Administration are working closely with state and federal energy officials and regulatory agencies and the private sector to develop an Ocean Special Area Management Plan, to help site an offshore wind farm. This work entails cutting edge research in ocean engineering, supply chain economics and ecology that will study the feasibility of a 100-turbine wind farm that will produce about 15% of Rhode Islandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s electricity within the next decade. The University encourages students to propose new research in the fields of energy, climate change and sustainability. Through the creation of the Student Sustainability Initiative Fund, the Office of the Provost offers students the opportunity to receive small grants to fund research and implementation of projects that would reduce URIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ecological impact. To demonstrate realistic solutions to sustainability challenges, each project must include a strategy to make the project visible in the Rhode Island community. The projects and policies recommended in this Climate Action Plan could not only be studied by students who are awarded a grant, but could serve as a demonstration project that would engage the surrounding community. As the stateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Land Grant University, URI will strive to expand the use of its federal funding to include new opportunities for research into alternative energy and sustainability. The National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the United States Department of Agriculture have directed new transformational change in URI Climate Action Plan

43

land grant research priorities. These five new priorities include global food security and hunger, climate change, sustainable energy, childhood obesity and food safety. Expanding on our current research and outreach effort in these areas will help develop local solutions to these global issues.

COMMUNITY OUTREACH URI has a proven track-record of connecting academic research to the Rhode Island community through outreach and extension. The Kathleen M. Mallon Outreach Center provides a window to the URI College of the Environment and Life Sciences and RI Cooperative Extension through which citizens, communities, government agencies or businesses can access research-generated knowledge and obtain assistance to address a broad range of socioeconomic and environmental issues. The Center offers a variety of programs and services related to sustainable landscaping and agriculture, and also fields requests for assistance from College and Cooperative Extension experts. The URI Energy Center (URIEC) organizes the Master Energy Program, a training program that provides interested homeowners and business owners with practical information on how to save money and the environment through energy efficiency, conservation and renewable energy. This program also covers energy use in the community, from collaborative initiatives in green building and business to the latest information on energy legislation, government incentives and policy. The URIEC has also formed partnerships with a variety of community stakeholders, including several municipalities, state agencies, other education institutions and non-profit organizations. Additionally, the URIEC houses the Ocean State Clean Cities Coalition, a government-industry partnership designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative fuels and vehicles, idle reduction technologies, hybrid electric vehicles, fuel blends, and fuel economy measures. The botanical gardens surrounding the URI Outreach and Energy Center are a valuable demonstration site for sustainable landscaping and local community agriculture. The Center itself, a residential-sized building, boasts a 4.4 kW solar photovoltaic system which currently produces about 30% of its electrical consumption. The Center will continue efficiency, conservation and renewable energy projects to create URI’s first “net zero” building. This building will demonstrate how conservation behaviors, low-cost efficiency measures and cutting-edge energy technologies can reduce a homeowner’s energy bill and emissions to zero. Partnerships between URI’s Landscape Architecture Department and local municipalities and non-profit organizations have led to studio projects designing more sustainable parks and streetscapes, the greening of the Rhode Island Community Food Bank (2007), and developing a master plan for the Greene School, a charter environmental/ecological high school to be located at the W. Alton Jones campus (2009). These projects provided students the opportunity to gain real world experience while helping communities develop green solutions for a range of land use and design challenges.

URI Climate Action Plan

44

APPENDIX A: ASSUMPTIONS FOR ASSESSING PROJECTS In calculating greenhouse gas emissions, payback periods and net present value, some figures were established to set a baseline for comparison. GHG emissions by electric or fuel Conversion rates were calculated using EPA eGrid values. For emissions from electricity, we used CO2e (equivalent) which includes CH4 (methane) and NO2 (nitrous oxide). All other fuels are calculated for CO2. Natural Gas = 0.005 metric ton CO2/therm Oil #2 (Diesel) = 2778 grams CO2/gal Gasoline = or 19.4 lbs CO2/gal Electricity = 927.68 lbs CO2/MWh, 86.49 lbs CH4/GWh, 17.01 lbs NO2/GWh Carbon Dioxide Equivalent Carbon dioxide equivalent is a metric measure used to compare the emissions from various greenhouse gases based upon their global warming potential (GWP). In this report, carbon dioxide equivalents are expressed as "metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MTCO2e)." The carbon dioxide equivalent for a gas is derived by multiplying the tons of the gas by the associated GWP. MTCO2e = (metric tons of a gas) * (GWP of the gas). MTCO2e = 2204.6 lbs of CO2e. Escalation Rate Based on information from the Energy Information Administration, a 2.1% escalation rate was used for electricity and a 3.1% escalation rate was used for fuels. Discount Rate A discount rate of 6% was used to evaluate all projects. This rate was chosen based on the standard government discount value for public projects as well as values used by other university Climate Action Plans. Initial Investment Initial investment values do not include the annual costs of the projects, such as maintenance, advertising and labor costs. These values were used to calculate the net present value (NPV) of each project as well as payback period. Wind Speed Wind speed was averaged based on previous research for each location. The URI Facilities Department had researched wind speeds on the Kingston Campus. Dr. John Merrill researched wind speed on the Bay Campus. The Bay Campus wind speed was originally extrapolated from sea level at the GSO Dock. The wind speed used in our calculations take into account the elevation difference between the dock and top of campus. Maintenance Costs For all applicable projects, estimated maintenance costs were included in yearly cost when not equivalent to previous system maintenance.

URI Climate Action Plan

45

APPENDIX B: DEFINITIONS Average Annual Benefit: the average of the annual benefits represented by avoided costs Average Annual Cost: calculated based on initial investment averaged with annual costs Average Annual Discounted Cash Flow: yearly discounted cash flows were summed and averaged to arrive at the average discounted cash flow per year. Cash Flow: the changes to a cash account due to revenues (benefits from cash inflows) or expenses (costs for cash outflows). Discounted Cash Flow: uses the discount rate to analyze future cash flows in terms of the present value of the cash flows. Daylight Harvester: a control system used to reduce the amount of electric light used when sufficient natural light is available. A photosensor is used to determine the amount of available natural light, and the system will increase or decrease the amount of electrical lights to meet minimum light levels. Direct Digital Control (DDC): the automated control of a system by a digital device, generally a computer. Discount Rate: the interest rate used to determine the present value of future cash flows. Discounted Payback Period: the number of years it will take the discounted cash flows to recover the original investment cost. Distance Learning: an area of education that focuses on an instructional system designed to deliver education to students who are not physically "on site" in a traditional classroom or campus. Energy Management System (EMS): a system of computer-aided tools to monitor, control and optimize the performance of the utility systems. Regarding its use in energy efficiency, EMS can be used to ensure continual improvement and spread awareness. Energy Service Company (ESCO): a company that develops, installs, maintains and monitors energy efficient projects, as well as secures financing for the projects. These companies create an energy savings performance contract (ESPC) for the institution benefiting from these projects. NORESCO, URIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ESCO, is headquartered in Westborough, MA. For more information, please visit www.noresco.com. Greenhouse Gases (GHG): gases in the atmosphere that trap and emit radiation. The major GHGs are water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (NO2) and ozone (O3). The increase in burning of fossil fuels since the Industrial Revolution has led to the drastic increase in GHGs in the atmosphere. Internal Rate of Return (IRR): the discount rate the makes the net present value of all cash flows equal to zero. IRR can be used to rank multiple projects that are being considered; the higher the IRR, the better the project. Net Present Value (NPV): the difference between the present value (dollar value today) of the cumulative cash inflows (benefits) and cumulative cash outflows (costs). It is used to analyze the profitability of a project. From a financial perspective, projects with a positive NPV should be implemented before projects with a negative NPV. Steam Traps: a valve used to discharge steam condensate while using an insignificant amount of steam. Venturi steam traps do not contain any of the mechanical parts found in traditional traps. These new steam traps increase the efficiency of the current system by minimizing the amount of steam lost and increasing the amount of condensate returned to be incorporated into new steam production. Thermostatic Radiator Valves: a valve attached to hot water or steam heating systems. The valve controls room temperature by regulating the amount of hot water or steam to the radiator. Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs): control the rotation speed of an electric motor by controlling the frequency of electricity supplied to the motor.

URI Climate Action Plan

46

APPENDIX C: EMISSIONS BY PROJECT CATEGORY Efficiency Projects Project

Annual GHG Reduction (MTCO2e)

% of Total GHG Reduction

NORESCO Project 7 - Option A NORESCO Project 8 and Beyond 10 MW Combined Heat & Power Plant Vending Misers Outdoor Lighting

3,259

6%

1,293 27,142

2% 51%

105 3

<1% <1%

31,802

59%

TOTAL

Conservation Projects Project Nightly Desktop Shutdown Real Time Energy Monitoring Heating Set-point Cooling Set-point Summer Building Consolidation Nightly Monitor Shutdown TOTAL

Annual GHG Reduction (MTCO2e)

% of Total GHG Reduction

1,323

2%

610 445 240 124

1% 1% <1% <1%

53 2,795

<1% 5%

Renewable Energy Projects Project

Annual GHG Reductions (MTCO2e)

% of Total GHG Reduction

Purchased Wind Power

4,498

8%

Wind 1.5 MW XLE @ 7.5 m/s

3,278

6%

Wind 1.5 MW XLE @ 6 m/s Wind 1.5 MW XLE @ 4.5 m/s Solar Thermal One Dorm (Oil) Solar Thermal One Dorm (Steam) 50 kW Photovoltaic System

1,639 820 66 24 11 10,336

3% 2% <1% <1% <1% 19%

TOTAL

Transportation Projects Project

Annual GHG Reductions (MTCO2e)

% of Total GHG Reduction

Biodiesel Fuel Transition Increased RIPTA Bus Trip Frequency Fully Subsidized Bus Passes Carpool Parking Lot Freshman Parking Restrictions Marketing program Car Sharing Program Employee Telecommuting Infrequent Parking Permits TOTAL

3,734 1,125

7% 2%

1,127 880

2% 2%

810 319

2% 1%

180 181

<1% <1%

158 8,514

<1% 16%

GRAND TOTAL

53,447

100%

URI Climate Action Plan

47

APPENDIX D: PROJECT RANKING TABLES

ENVIRONMENTAL RANKING Rank

Project

Annual Reductions (MTCO2e)

Total Reductions (MTCO2e)

27,142

1,085,680

4,498

134,940

2

10 MW Combined Heat & Power Plant Purchased Wind Power

3

Biodiesel Fuel Transition

3,734

93,350

4

Wind 1.5 MW XLE @ 7 m/s

3,278

98,340

5

NORESCO Project 7 - Option A

3,259

48,885

6

NORESCO Project 7 - Option B

2,858

42,870

7

Wind 1.5 MW XLE @ 6 m/s

1,639

49,170

8

Nightly Desktop Shutdown

1,323

6,615

9

NORESCO Project 8 and Beyond

1,293

19,395

10

Fully Subsidized Bus Passes

1,127

28,186

11

Increased Bus Trip Frequency

1,125

28,113

12

Carpool Lot

880

22,000

13

Wind 1.5 MW XLE @ 4.5 m/s

820

24,600

1

14

Freshman Parking Restrictions

810

20,250

15

Real Time Energy Monitoring

610

6,100

16

Heating Set-point

445

4,449

17

Transportation Marketing Program

319

7,974

18

NORESCO Project 7 - Option D

276

4140

19

Cooling Set-point

240

2,397

20

Employee Telecommuting

181

4,516

21

Car Sharing Program

180

4,500

22

Infrequent Parking Permits

158

3,960

23

NORESCO Project 7 - Option C

125

1875

24

Summer Building Consolidation

124

1,241

25

Vending Misers

105

2,627

26

Solar Thermal One Dorm (Oil)

66

1,980

27

Computer Monitor Shutdown

53

265

28

Solar Thermal One Dorm (Steam)

24

708

29

50 kW Solar Photovoltaic System

11

330

30

Outdoor Lighting

3

75

URI Climate Action Plan

48

ECONOMIC RANKING BASED ON NET PRESENT VALUE Rank

Project

Duration (years)

Net Present Value

Payback Period

1

10 MW Combined Heat & Power Plant

40

$88,680,759

7

Internal Rate of Return >100%

2

Wind 1.5 MW XLE @ 7.5 m/s

30

$10,643,738

5

41%

3

NORESCO Project 7 - Option A

15

$5,806,347

12

>6%

4

NORESCO Project 7 - Option B

15

$5,284,226

12

>6%

5

Wind 1.5 MW XLE @ 6 m/s

30

$3,721,869

11

18%

6

Nightly Desktop Shutdown

5

$1,777,937

<1

>100%

7

NORESCO Project 7 - Option C

15

$1,584,875

13

>6%

8

Real Time Energy Monitoring

10

$1,343,970

1

>100%

9

Heating Set-point

10

$1,127,387

1

>100%

10

Cooling Set-point

10

$493,568

2

>100%

11

Vending Misers

20

$488,411

1

>100%

12

NORESCO Project 7 - Option D

15

$369,993

5

>6%

13

Summer Building Consolidation

10

$307,234

1

>100%

14

Wind 1.5 MW XLE @ 4.5 m/s

30

$260,934

26

8%

15

Outdoor Lighting

25

$213,077

13

14%

16

Nightly Monitor Shutdown

5

$71,117

<1

>100%

17

Increased Bus Trip Frequency

25

$0

<1

>100%

18

Employee Telecommuting

25

$0

<1

>100%

19

Biodiesel Fuel Transition

25

($36,644)

No Payback

<6%

20

Transportation Marketing Program

25

($63,917)

No Payback

<6%

21

Infrequent Parking Permits

25

($77,663)

No Payback

< 6%

22

Solar Thermal One Dorm (Oil)

30

($85,280)

No Payback

< 6%

23

Car Sharing Program

25

($135,184)

No Payback

< 6%

24

Solar Thermal One Dorm (Steam)

30

($147,299)

No Payback

<6%

25

50 kW Solar Photovoltaic System

30

($169,147)

No Payback

< 6%

26

Fully Subsidized Bus Passes

25

($733,790)

No Payback

< 6%

27

Carpool Lot

25

($1,933,304)

No Payback

< 6%

28

Freshman Parking Restrictions

25

($2,433,312)

No Payback

< 6%

29

NORESCO Project 8 and Beyond

15

($4,869,205)

No Payback

< 6%

30

Purchased Wind Power

30

($14,560,287)

No Payback

< 6%

Notes: Parentheses indicate a negative number.  Projects were first prioritized by payback period, and projects with the same payback periods  were ordered based on Net Present Value (NPV).  Internal Rate of Return (IRR) was calculated using the average annual cost and benefits for each  project.  When a project has a negative NPV, it has zero net benefits and, therefore, the IRR is less than the discount rate (6%).  Therefore, all  projects with negative NPVs have IRRs of <6%.  We did not have the data necessary to calculate IRR values for NORESCO’s proposed projects, but  they all have a positive NPV, so they are listed with IRRs of >6%, or greater than the discount rate.  It was assumed that NORESCO used the same  discount rate of 6% that was used for the CAP analyses.  See Appendix B for definitions of NPV and IRR. 

URI Climate Action Plan

49

ECONOMIC RANKING BASED ON DISCOUNTED PAYBACK PERIOD Rank

Project

Duration (years)

Payback Period

Net Present Value

Internal Rate of Return

1

Nightly Desktop Shutdown

5

<1

$1,777,937

>100%

2

Nightly Monitor Shutdown

5

<1

$71,117

>100%

3

Increased Bus Trip Frequency

20

<1

$0

>100%

4

Employee Telecommuting

25

<1

$0

>100%

5

Real Time Energy Monitoring

10

1

$1,343,970

>100%

6

Heating Set-point

10

1

$1,127,387

>100%

7

Vending Misers

20

1

$488,411

>100%

8

Summer Building Consolidation

10

1

$307,234

>100%

9

Cooling Set-point

10

2

$493,568

>100%

10

NORESCO Project 7 - Option D

15

5

$369,993

>6%

11

Wind 1.5 MW XLE @ 7.5 m/s

30

5

$10,643,738

43%

12

10 MW Combined Heat & Power Plant

40

7

$88,680,759

>100%

13

Wind 1.5 MW XLE @ 6 m/s

30

11

$3,721,869

19%

14

Outdoor Lighting

25

13

$213,077

14%

15

NORESCO Project 7 - Option A

15

12

$5,806,347

>6%

16

NORESCO Project 7 - Option B

15

12

$5,284,226

>6%

17

NORESCO Project 7 - Option C

15

13

$1,584,875

>6%

18

Wind 1.5 MW XLE @4.5 m/s

30

26

$260,934

8%

19

Biodiesel Fuel Transition

25

No Payback

($36,644)

<6%

20

Transportation Marketing Program

10

No Payback

($63,917)

<6%

21

Solar Thermal - One Dorm (Oil)

30

No Payback

($85,280)

<6%

22

Car Sharing Program

10

No Payback

($135,184)

<6%

23

Solar Thermal - One Dorm (Steam)

30

No Payback

($147,299)

<6%

24

50 kW Solar Photovoltaic System

30

No Payback

($169,147)

<6%

25

Infrequent Parking Permits

25

No Payback

($77,663)

<6%

26

Fully Subsidized Bus Passes

10

No Payback

($733,790)

<6%

27

Carpool Lot

20

No Payback

($1,933,304)

<6%

28

Freshman Parking Restrictions

25

No Payback

($2,433,312)

<6%

29

NORESCO Project 8 and Beyond

15

No Payback

($4,869,205)

<6%

30

Purchased Wind Power

30

No Payback

($14,560,287)

<6%

Notes: Parentheses indicate a negative number.  Projects were first prioritized by payback period, and projects with the same payback periods  were ordered based on Net Present Value (NPV).  Internal Rate of Return (IRR) was calculated using the average annual cost and benefits for each  project.  When a project has a negative NPV, it has zero net benefits and, therefore, the IRR is less than the discount rate (6%).  Therefore, all  projects with negative NPVs have IRRs of <6%.  We did not have the data necessary to calculate IRR values for NORESCO’s proposed projects, but  they all have a positive NPV, so they are listed with IRRs of >6%, or greater than the discount rate.  It was assumed that NORESCO used the same  discount rate of 6% that was used for the CAP analyses.  See Appendix B for definitions of NPV and IRR. 

URI Climate Action Plan

50

APPENDIX E: NORESCO PROJECTS TO DATE ATHLETIC CENTER

Lighting Improvements

In Keaney Gym, Mackal Field House and Tootell Aquatics Center, NORESCO installed new and replaced existing lighting equipment with new lamps and ballasts per project scope, as well as modified existing fluorescent fixtures to increase their efficiency. Existing luminaries were also replaced with new fluorescent luminaries. All regularly used incandescent fixtures were retrofitted with new compact fluorescent lamps or replaced with new linear fluorescent fixtures. A few remaining fluorescent and incandescent exit signs were replaced with new high-efficiency exit signs containing LED lamps. NORESCO installed occupancy controls and dimmable ballasts in new T5 high efficiency fixtures. These fixtures will be controlled with a daylight harvester (Appendix B) by maintaining a pre-set light level. Lighting Occupancy Controls

Occupancy sensors have been installed in specific areas including all classroom and office areas as well halls and bathrooms. Turning lights off in unoccupied spaces provides savings by reducing electricity consumption, extending lamp life and reducing maintenance costs.

New Energy Management System and Controls Upgrade

NORESCO eliminated all pneumatic control devices and replaced them with new direct digital controls (DDC) (Appendix B). New local control devices were installed on select terminal devices such as cabinet heaters and unit heaters to ensure that area temperatures are maintained at comfort levels during occupied periods. The new energy management system (EMS) (Appendix B) will use electric motors (actuators) to position valves and dampers, allowing precise temperature control. NORESCO removed the existing 15year-old Siemens System 600 control system as well as the existing Trane Vari-trac control system and replaced them with a new DDC control system. The new control system will mimic the existing control strategies. The new EMS uses a Microsoft Window’s operating system platform, providing a user-friendly interface to the building’s systems that replaces the antiquated, DOS-based terminal interface that was used for the old System 600 system.

Re-Commissioning of Energy Management System at Ryan Center

NORESCO performed a complete check-out and commissioning of the systems in the Ryan Center, optimizing the EMS control strategies. A new DDC system was installed and tested in the buildings. After the installation was complete, NORESCO demonstrated the proper functioning of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems by furnishing personnel, instrumentation and equipment necessary to perform calibration and site testing. Testing included field tests and performance verification tests. Field tests demonstrated proper calibration of input and output devices and the operation of specific equipment. NORESCO’s performance verification tests ensured proper execution of the sequence of operation and proper tuning of control loops. The system will provide improved occupant comfort and increased reliability and will achieve savings through the increased operating efficiency of the HVAC systems under its control. URI Climate Action Plan

51

Energy Efficient Motors and Variable Frequency Drives

NORESCO installed new energy efficient motors on pumps and fans at the Tootell Physical Education Center, Keaney Gym and the Mackal Field House. NORESCO furnished and installed variable frequency drives (VFD) (Appendix B), provided and installed line power wiring from existing motor disconnect to VFDs, and re-connect load power wiring from VFD to motor. NORESCO also furnished and installed pressure, temperature, humidity and CO2 sensors in the pool area for input control to the fan system VFDs. All VFDs were connected to the EMS system and tested. Finally, NORESCO provided startup and testing of VFDs and staff training.

HVAC System Capital Improvements

NORESCO replaced the heating and ventilation (HV) system and a new VFD will be provided. NORESCO installed new transfer air grilles in each team room to improve the flow of air through these spaces and to the central shower area. NORESCO also demolished, removed and installed the nine roof-mounted exhaust fans and installed a new fresh air intake hood. Finally, they installed a new HV unit to match the existing systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s original design performance criteria.

Steam Trap Upgrades

NORESCO removed and properly disposed of all steam traps (Appendix B) that were replaced. New steam traps were installed and condensate piping and traps were re-insulated as necessary.

Automated Swimming Pool Covers

NORESCO installed a new swimming pool cover system that will decrease the amount of evaporation during non-use periods, saving on water and energy costs. It will also result in fewer problems related to excessive condensation.

New Windows at Keaney Gym

NORESCO furnished and installed new energy efficient windows and wall panels. These new windows will reduce the amount of heat loss as well as reduce the amount of air infiltration.

Plumbing Improvements

NORESCO installed energy efficient showerheads and faucet aerators. Both of these measures will pose opportunities for energy and water conservation by reducing the gallons per minute flowing through the new fixtures. Urinals were also retrofitted with new flush valves that will help conserve water by reducing the gallons per flush.

Energy Efficient Hand Dryers

NORESCO replaced two existing electric dryers with high speed energy efficient electric dryers in the womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s locker room at Tootell. These units also have the potential to provide a substantial supply and maintenance cost savings by enabling the replacement of the paper towel dispensers. URI Climate Action Plan

52

High Efficiency Window A/C Units

NORESCO replaced new window-mounted air conditioning units with new high efficiency units. The efficiency improvements will generate electricity savings while providing greater equipment reliability and occupant comfort. The new units will also be equipped with occupancy controls to reduce the operating hours and achieve additional electricity savings.

Steam and Electric Meters

NORESCO Furnished and installed a steam and electric meters at Mackal, Tootell and Keaney. These meters will enable the University to accurately determine and allocate utility usage and costs, but do not provide any direct energy cost savings.

MEMORIAL UNION Lighting Improvements

NORESCO installed a new super T8 system featuring highly efficient electronic ballast and long-life lamp combinations as well as retrofit existing fixtures with the same super T8 system or energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps. Existing fluorescent fixtures were also modified to increase their efficiency. Fifty-six incandescent fixtures were retrofitted with new compact fluorescent lamps or replaced with new linear fluorescent fixtures. The few remaining fluorescent and incandescent exit signs were replaced with new high efficiency exit signs containing LED lamps.

Lighting Occupancy Controls

NORESCO installed occupancy controls to turn off lighting in specific areas including all classroom and office areas as well as halls and bathrooms.

New Electric Chiller & Combined Chilled Water Loops

NORESCO removed an inefficient electric chiller that was in poor operating condition and replaced it with a new 300 ton centrifugal chiller equipped with variable speed drive for optimal compressor performance. The chiller was provided complete with micro-processor controls. Work also included modification of the existing CHW/CW hydronic loops and the 208 V electrical services from the main distribution panel to the chiller. The chiller was set and installed in accordance with all manufacturersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; recommendations.

Energy Management System

NORESCO installed a new direct digital control system. The system will provide improved occupant comfort and increased reliability, and will achieve savings through the increased operating efficiency of the HVAC systems under its control.

URI Climate Action Plan

53

PROVIDENCE AND NARRAGANSETT BAY CAMPUSES Lighting and Lighting Controls

NORESCO proposed to optimize the existing light systems using the most current energy conservation products. This was accomplished through installing occupancy sensors, retrofitting existing components, and installing new high efficiency fixtures. NORESCO’s strategy was to provide a premium efficiency lighting system that would save kilowatt (kW) demand by upgrading or replacing the existing system. They then evaluated the occupancy and lighting control strategies where applicable, to further reduce the kilowatt hour (kWh) consumption. NORESCO identified a scope of work that generated energy savings and provided optimum light levels. Additional electricity savings resulted from the reduced heat given off by the new lights which reduced the air conditioning usage for the buildings that have cooling. The interactivity between the lighting and the cooling and heating systems has been accounted for in the savings calculations. Energy Management Systems and Retro-Commissioning

NORESCO provided a combination of new and upgraded direct digital control energy management systems at the URI Narragansett Bay Campus. With the exception of buildings and areas that were provided with programmable thermostats, this measure included web-based control and monitoring of the buildings, implementation of updated energy savings strategies and scheduling of HVAC equipment, the proper functioning of existing energy management system software/hardware and equipment control components, and a budget for the repair or replacement of control equipment identified during retro-commissioning. NORESCO also reviewed the existing direct digital control hardware to ensure that the buildings’ systems were operating properly and utilizing the most efficient control strategies available while all damper and valve actuators were tested and calibrated. NORESCO installed new direct digital control energy management systems in designated buildings which reduced energy consumption, increased system reliability, and improved occupant comfort. Both the energy savings and peripheral benefits were achieved by optimizing the function of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system, including modulation of air handling unit fans and adjustment of both system water temperatures and heating zone temperatures according to facility use and occupancy. The result was reduced electric, heating and cooling energy consumption, and the increased ability for the operating and maintenance staff to monitor, control, operate and maintain individual buildings’ HVAC and controls systems. Weatherization

The lack of a weather-tight seal on exterior penetrations on buildings throughout campus contributed to unnecessary energy loss on a year round basis. NORESCO installed new heavy-duty weather stripping on exterior doors and sealed other identified penetrations in these buildings. This measure reduced heating and cooling consumption, and improved occupant comfort by reducing drafts and localized space temperature variations. Variable Frequency Drives and New Premium Efficiency Motors

NORESCO retrofitted the existing Watkins Lab (Bay Campus) variable air volume make-up air unit (MUA-1) with a new premium efficiency supply fan motor, variable frequency drive, and direct digital controls. This upgrade reduced the energy consumption of the existing system while improving overall performance. In addition, NORESCO upgraded the MUA-2 supply air fan motor and a hot water pump with new premium efficiency motors. Energy-efficient electric motors reduce energy losses through improved design, better materials, and improved manufacturing techniques. With proper installation, energy-efficient motors run cooler and consequently have higher service factors, longer bearing and insulation life, and less vibration. URI Climate Action Plan

54

New Chiller and Boiler at the Coastal Institute (Bay Campus)

NORESCO removed the existing gas-fired chiller/heater absorber and installed both a new high efficiency electric chiller and a gas-fired condensing hot water boiler. The original chiller/heater struggled to meet existing cooling load variations particularly, and these deficiencies resulted in costly maintenance and service issues as well as comfort condition complaints. The new equipment installed under this measure has reduced energy consumption costs through improved hot and chilled water system efficiencies, improved performance under varying conditions, and reduced current maintenance and service costs. Both the new chiller and boiler included new direct digital controls and monitoring interfaced with the existing building energy management system. Modifications to the existing primary loop system, such as new piping, service valves, hangers and insulation were included, as were new electrical wiring, conduit, and related materials. Heating System Improvements at Horn Laboratory (Bay Campus)

The Horn Laboratory building used a ten-stage electric preheat coil for its constant volume air handler unit, which provided make-up air for the building’s laboratory spaces. These laboratories also had twenty-four electric reheat coils in the air distribution system for local zone control of space temperature. These systems were at least forty years old and were increasingly costly to service and maintain. The electrical infrastructure of the building was approaching its useful service life limits, and at current rates electricity was not the most cost effective method of providing building heat. NORESCO replaced the existing air handler and reheat coil systems with a new variable air volume air handler and reheat coil system utilizing hot water heating, including a new high efficiency condensing boiler and hot water distribution system. These new systems, coupled with a new direct digital control energy management system, reduced energy consumption and costs, increased the controllability of the heating system and comfort conditions and reduced maintenance, service and repair costs. Replaced the Paff Auditorium Ceiling Tiles and Install Demand Control Ventilation

The Paff Auditorium at the URI Providence Campus’ Shepard Building suffered from poor air quality when the ventilation system was not used for extended periods. Students as well as faculty and staff noticed an unpleasant odor in the room following reduced ventilation events such as weekend setbacks and routine maintenance. In an attempt to eliminate or dilute this odor, the facilities personnel were forced to increase the minimum outside air ventilation rate and to cycle the air handler unit unnecessarily during normally unoccupied hours. After extensive investigation by the facilities staff and an indoor air quality consultant, the odor was traced to the ceiling tiles currently installed in the auditorium. Evidence suggests that the tiles may have been manufactured with butyric acid concentrations above the manufacturer’s specifications, which led to off-gassing and the resultant foul odor. NORESCO removed and disposed of these ceiling tiles, replacing them with new tiles that met the original material and finish specifications. Additionally, NORESCO installed a carbon dioxide (CO2) demand control ventilation (DCV) system, as well as an additional space temperature sensor, integrated with the existing energy management system that controls the auditorium air handler. These control upgrades, in conjunction with the new ceiling tiles, allow the air handler to run using more efficient operating schedules as well as optimizing the auditorium’s air quality. This measure significantly reduced heating and cooling costs while improving the air quality and comfort conditions in the Paff Auditorium. Replaced Ticket Booth with New Doorway to Provide Efficient Operation

Visitors to the Paff Auditorium at the URI Providence Campus’ Shepard Building once entered the seating area by travelling through the student lounge. This required the operation of two air handling units to provide ventilation air for the separate spaces. By replacing the existing auditorium ticket booth with a URI Climate Action Plan

55

dedicated entrance, the student lounge and the air handler that served it no longer need to be utilized. This allows a reduction in the air handler run hours and reduces energy consumption and costs associated with operating the unit.

HOUSING AND RESIDENTIAL LIFE Lighting Upgrades and Controls

Although many of the lighting systems in URI’s dorms were already efficient, NORESCO identified significant opportunity for additional savings. As part of these improvements, NORESCO: 

Installed a high efficient lighting system and replaced human interface device luminaries with new, energy-efficient high-output linear fluorescent luminaries;

Replaced regularly used incandescent fixtures with new compact fluorescent lamps and new linear fluorescent fixtures;

Replaced the few remaining fluorescent and incandescent exit signs with new high-efficiency exit signs containing LED lamps; and

Installed occupancy controls to turn off lighting in specific areas including all dormitories and office areas, as well as halls and bathrooms.

Steam Trap Upgrades

High pressure steam generated at the central boiler plant and distributed throughout the URI campus is used in many of the Housing & Residential Life buildings for space conditioning and domestic hot water heating. An integral component of this steam system is the method of removing condensate from the distribution system and end use equipment for return to the central boiler plant. During the detailed audit, NORESCO performed a survey of the steam traps throughout the URI Kingston campus and found a significant number of traps that were not operating properly. They replaced faulty steam traps with new, properly functioning traps which improved comfort conditions and reduced thermal energy losses. NORESCO also replaced mechanical steam traps with new venturi type steam traps to reduce energy and maintenance costs. Weatherization and Attic Insulation

A significant number of the exterior doors on the Housing and Residential Life and auxiliary buildings have inadequate weather stripping. The lack of a weather-tight seal on exterior penetrations contributes to unnecessary energy loss on a year round basis from both conditioned air exfiltration and unconditioned air infiltration. It is essential that external penetrations be sealed against these conditions. Additionally, NORESCO engineers noted that some buildings had insufficient levels of attic insulation. This deficient condition primarily contributes to excess transmission and conductive heating and cooling energy losses. Providing additional insulation in these spaces is a cost effective way to reduce these losses while also improving comfort conditions. NORESCO installed new weather stripping and perimeter sealings on the single, double, and overhead doors of the selected buildings. In addition, leaky penetrations such as at the roof/wall joints identified in the scope of work were sealed. NORESCO also installed attic blown-in cellulose to an overall R38 URI Climate Action Plan

56

insulation value. These measures significantly reduced air infiltration, exfiltration, transmission, and conductive energy losses, effectively reducing heating and cooling consumption while improving occupant comfort by reducing drafts and localized space temperature variations. Energy Management System Improvements

NORESCO provided a combination of upgraded direct digital control energy management systems and retro-commissioning for the existing-to-remain direct digital control systems and control end devices for the Housing and Residential Life buildings. These improvements:    

Provided web-based control and monitoring of selected buildings; Implemented updated energy savings strategies and scheduling of HVAC equipment; Provided proper operation and functionality of existing energy management systems software/hardware and control components; and Provided a budget for the repair or replacement of control equipment end-devices identified as deficient during the retro-commissioning process.

These improvements resulted in reduced electric, heating, and cooling energy consumption, and an increased ability for the operating and maintenance staff to monitor, control, operate and maintain HVAC and controls systems for buildings included in the scope of this measure. Boiler Controls

NORESCO installed new boiler control systems in the University Gateway Apartments Service Building and the Dining Services Distribution Center to provide increased functional efficiency of the heating system boilers. This measure reduced heating energy consumption while improving occupant comfort by avoiding overheating on mild days. Programmable Thermostats

NORESCO installed new programmable thermostats to provide the University the ability to schedule occupied/unoccupied periods and space temperature set-points for the selected systems. This measure reduced energy consumption while improving occupant comfort by providing more accurate space temperature control. Thermostatic Radiator Valves

NORESCO installed new thermostatic radiator valves in the University Gateway Apartment Buildings to provide occupants with the ability to manually adjust and automatically regulate individual emitter heating output. This measure reduced heating and cooling energy consumption while significantly improving occupant comfort by allowing for greater space temperature control. Energy Conservation Through Behavior Change

In the fall of 2008, NORESCO implemented a Figure 6.  Results of NORESO’s pre‐ and post‐program surveys to students  campus-wide conservation behavior change living in residence halls. program specifically tailored for the University of Rhode Island. This holistic approach facilitates interaction with, and increases the effectiveness of, all URI Climate Action Plan

57

existing URI and NORESCO Energy Conservation Measures. It also engages students and staff in generating additional energy savings on their own. By motivating individuals to voluntarily engage in specific energy conserving behaviors the program promotes a culture of energy efficiency while complementing other existing facility-based conservation activities. Shortly after move-in day in early September 2008, students residing in on-campus residence halls were surveyed on their knowledge and awareness of energy use and conservation techniques. NORESCO focused on three behaviors: shower time, computer use and fan/AC use. Residential Advisors in residence halls were trained on ways to promote and encourage energy conservation among their students. At the end of the fall semester, students were given the same survey and the results were overwhelmingly positive (Figure 6). Substantially higher numbers of students reported awareness and practice of energy conservation measures such as turning off their computers and fans/ACs when not in use. Students even reported increased adoption of behaviors that were not targeted by the program such as turning off lights and TVs and recycling.

ACADEMIC AND ADMINISTRATIVE BUILDINGS Lighting Upgrades and Controls

Although many of URI’s lighting systems were already efficient, NORESCO identified significant opportunity for savings associated with the lighting systems. As part of these improvements, NORESCO:    

Installed high efficient lighting systems replacing the existing inefficient lamps and magnetic ballasts; Replaced regularly used incandescent fixtures with new compact fluorescent lamps and new linear fluorescent fixtures; Replaced the few remaining fluorescent and incandescent exit signs with new high-efficiency exit signs containing LED lamps; and Installed occupancy controls to turn off lighting in conference rooms, office areas, classrooms, halls and bathrooms.

Steam Trap Upgrades

NORESCO performed a survey of the steam traps throughout the University of Rhode Island campus. This survey found a significant number of traps that were not operating properly. NORESCO replaced faulty steam traps with new, properly functioning traps to improve comfort conditions and reduce thermal energy losses. Further, NORESCO provided a long-term maintenance and service program for the installed steam traps to ensure proper operation and savings persistence. Energy Management System Improvements

NORESCO provided a combination of new, expanded, or replacement direct digital control energy management systems and retro-commissioning for the original-to-remain direct digital control systems and control end devices for the Academic and Administrative buildings. These improvements:  

Provided new, web-based control and monitoring of selected buildings (“Install New energy management systems” and “Replace Old energy management systems”). Implemented updated energy savings strategies and scheduling of HVAC equipment.

URI Climate Action Plan

58

 

Provided proper operation and functionality of existing energy management systems software/hardware and control components. Provided a budget for the repair or replacement of control equipment end-devices identified as deficient during the retro-commissioning process.

The result was reduced electric, heating, and cooling energy consumption, and an increased ability for the operating and maintenance staff to monitor, control, operate and maintain HVAC and controls systems for buildings included in the scope of this measure. Boiler Controls

NORESCO installed new, automated boiler controls to provide for optimization of the buildings’ boiler system. This measure reduced fuel consumption while improving occupant comfort by allowing for increased heating system control. Variable Frequency Drives and Efficient Motors

NORESCO identified several systems across campus that would benefit from variable frequency drive installations and premium motor upgrades. Variable frequency drives were installed in Chafee, Food Science, and the Cancer Prevention and Research buildings which reduced the energy consumption of the existing systems and improved overall performance. Upon completion, the variable frequency drive and motor upgrade allowed for reduced energy consumption and tighter response to transient zone conditions, effectively providing the building occupants with increased comfort. In addition to variable frequency drive installations, NORESCO installed motor upgrades at several locations across campus. In each location a new, National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) rated premium efficiency motor reduced energy losses through improved design, better materials, and improved manufacturing techniques. With proper installation, energy-efficient motors run cooler and consequently have higher service factors, longer bearing and insulation life, and less vibration. Programmable Thermostats

NORESCO installed new programmable thermostats to provide the University the ability to schedule occupied/unoccupied periods and space temperature set-points for the selected systems. This measure reduced energy consumption while improving occupant comfort by providing more accurate space temperature control. Comprehensive Library Improvements

NORESCO provided an expansion and retro-commissioning of the existing-to-remain direct digital control energy management systems and control end devices for the Library building. These improvements include:     

Added variable frequency drives, control hardware and software components to the existing energy management systems. Implemented updated energy savings strategies and scheduling of HVAC equipment. Provided correct operation and proper functionality of existing energy management systems software/hardware and control components. Provided a budget for the repair or upgrade of control equipment end-devices identified as deficient during the retro-commissioning process. Provided turnkey testing, adjusting and balancing services and an as-built report for both the air and hot water systems.

URI Climate Action Plan

59

The result was reduced electric, heating, and cooling energy consumption, and an increased ability for the operating and maintenance staff to monitor, control, operate and maintain the HVAC and controls systems while improving comfort conditions for the occupants.

PROJECT 6 Project 6 is the sixth phase of the NORESCO contract and consists of an assortment of efficiency projects for all campuses.

Lighting Upgrades and Controls

URI and NORESCO identified additional opportunities to reduce energy consumption of lighting systems. In addition to reducing utility costs, these improvements improved lighting quality.  

Rodman Hall Drafting Room: Retrofit the existing incandescent pendant mounted fixtures and incandescent task lights with fluorescent and compact fluorescent lamps and ballasts. Lighting Improvements in White Hall, Bliss Hall and Ranger Hall: Install high-efficiency lighting systems replacing the existing inefficient lamps and magnetic ballasts.

Aquaculture Recirculation System

The University’s Department of Fisheries, Animal and Veterinary Science uses East Farm’s Building 14 as its Aquaculture Center. The facility houses a large stock of fish to carry out its various ongoing research grants and initiatives. The center originally utilized a single-pass flow-through system to provide life support for the specimens. This system used municipal water from the Kingston water district (drawn from the Chipuxet Aquifer), which flows through the tanks and immediately down the drain. The effluent water is piped to a nearby settling pond on the campus. The flow-through system used over 50 million gallons of fresh water per year to provide life support for the fish (this volume was projected to increase as research activity at the site continues to grow). This not only caused a financial burden on the University, but also a resource burden on the local aquifer. Via the execution of this measure, NORESCO furnished and installed research grade water recirculation systems to treat and condition the water used in the tanks. The implementation of this measure provided the Aquaculture Center with reduced operating costs and helped foster an image of resource conservation. The systems also allowed students to learn the technology of recirculation aquaculture systems, a valuable tool for students graduating from the program. Variable Frequency Drive for Well Pump #4

NORESCO retrofitted the existing pump at East Farm with a new premium efficiency inverter-rated motor, new variable frequency drive, and associated controls. The variable frequency drive control system was integrated into the existing SCADA system and incorporated the existing Ross valve. Consistent with the current operating practice and to prevent stagnation of the tank, the variable frequency drive and motor cycles to maintain storage tank level between 31 and 33.5 feet as measured by the existing sensor located at the storage tank. The new variable frequency drive and premium efficiency motor reduced pump energy and provided improved control and monitoring capability. New Windows for Tyler Hall

URI Climate Action Plan

60

NORESCO installed new windows to decrease the buildingsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; heating and cooling requirements, which reduced energy costs and improved comfort for the building occupants through reduced outside air infiltration and thermal transfer of heat energy. Additionally, NORESCO provided 16 new Energy Star air conditioning units installed on the old wing. Thermostatic Radiator Valves

NORESCO installed new thermostatic radiator valves to provide occupants with the ability to manually adjust and automatically regulate individual emitter heating output. This measure reduced heating and cooling energy consumption while significantly improving occupant comfort by allowing for greater space temperature control.

URI Climate Action Plan

61

What Can YOU Do? Whether you are a student, faculty member, staff member or interested citizen, there are many things you can do to help URI achieve its greenhouse gas reduction goals. ON-CAMPUS STUDENTS Turn off your lights, computer, TV and appliances when not in use If you can, turn your heat down 1 or 2 degrees in the winter Take the bus to town and the beach Take shorter showers â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Strive for Five (minutes)! Use LED or compact fluorescent light bulbs in your desk lamps Try to buy Energy Star rated appliances for your dorm Recycle all of your cans, bottles and paper

OFF-CAMPUS STUDENTS Carpool to school with friends Stay on campus between classes Try to take the bus to campus at least 1 or 2 days a week Register for more online classes Recycle cans, bottles and paper on campus

FACULTY AND STAFF Telecommute 1 day a week Make double-sided printing a default setting on your printer Carpool with other employees when possible Bring a sweatshirt to work and lower your heat setting during winter Avoid using space costly heaters Only use a necessary amount of light for deskwork/ keep blinds open to use ambient light Turn your lights off when you leave your office

ALUMNI AND COMMUNITY MEMBERS Attend public forums on climate initiatives and provide feedback Volunteer time to help plan projects Donate to campus sustainability projects Advocate similar climate initiatives in your community

URI Climate Action Plan

62


URI 2010 Climate Action Plan