Building a Better Future for All: Selected Speeches of UN SG Ban Ki-moon 2007-2012
The United Nations works across the world for peace, sustainable development, human rights and the rule of law. This collection of speeches by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon shows the breadth of those efforts – advances and struggles alike – at a time of profound transition for the human family. Since taking office in 2007, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has sought to mobilize the international community behind global solutions to urgent challenges ranging from climate change and poverty to armed conflict and the spread of deadly weapons. The goal: dignity, freedom and opportunity for all.
building a better future for all Selected Speeches of United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon 2007-2012 building a better future for all Building a Better Future for All: Selected Speeches of United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon 2007-2012 Published by the United Nations New York, New York 10017, United States of America Copyright ÂŠ 2013 United Nations All rights reserved All queries on rights and licenses, including subsidiary rights, should be addressed to: United Nations Publications 300 East 42nd Street New York, New York 10017 United States of America e-mail: email@example.com website: un.org/publications Requests to reproduce excerpts should be addressed to: firstname.lastname@example.org Paperback ISBN: 978-92-1-101271-2 | Sales No. E.13.I.1 Hard cover ISBN: 978-92-1-101274-3 | Sales No. 13.I.1 H eISBN: 978-92-1-055995-9 United Nations Publication Sales No. E.13.I.1 building a better future for all Peace & Security Selected Speeches of United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon 2007-2012 iv Location Ban Ki-moon Date v Ban Ki-moon is the eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations. At the time of his election as Secretary-General, Mr. Ban was Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade of the Republic of Korea. His thirty-seven years of service with the Ministry included postings in New Delhi, Washington D.C. and Vienna, and responsibility for a variety of portfolios, including Foreign Policy Adviser to the President, Chief National Security Adviser to the President, Deputy Minister for Policy Planning and Director-General of American Affairs. Mr. Ban’s ties to the United Nations date back to 1975, when he worked for the Foreign Ministry’s United Nations Division. That work expanded over the years, with assignments that included service as Chairman of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization and Chef de Cabinet during the Republic of Korea’s 2001-2002 presidency of the UN General Assembly. Mr. Ban was born in the Republic of Korea on 13 June 1944. He received a bachelor’s degree in international relations from Seoul National University in 1970. In 1985, he earned a master’s degree in public administration from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. The Secretary-General speaks English, French and Korean. He and his wife, Madam Yoo (Ban) Soon-taek, whom he met in high school in 1962, have a son, two daughters and three grandchildren. Mr. Ban took office on 1 January 2007. On 21 June 2011, he was unanimously re-elected by the General Assembly and will continue to serve as Secretary-General of the United Nations until 31 December 2016. vi vii Introduction O ne of the most important assets of any United Nations Secretary-General is the unique platform of the office itself. Its fundamental impartiality makes possible the exercise of good offices to defuse political tensions and promote the peaceful settlement of disputes. Its convening power allows for the bringing together of people and nations in common cause. Its perch atop the world’s only universal organization gives the occupant uncommon visibility. The mix and frequency with which these and other tools are deployed is for each Secretary-General to define in the context of the times. But there is one constant: making maximum use of the so-called “bully pulpit”. Since taking office in 2007, I have delivered speeches in many settings: conference halls and conflict zones; parliaments, boardrooms and think tanks; clinics, classrooms and houses of worship. I have sought to engage the world’s people about the urgent issues we face, and to rally support for the United Nations. In the process, I have learned a valuable lesson: listening is just as important as speaking. I may be the person standing at the lectern, but the concerns and hopes of people bring my role to life. This collection of speeches aims to illuminate the work of the United Nations at a time of transition and test for the international community. The subjects range widely, but the goal is clear: peace for all, in the broadest sense of the word. I hope readers will enjoy this volume, gain a deeper understanding of our shared challenges and, most of all, join with us in promoting the values and work of our United Nations, the world’s leading instrument of common progress. BAN Ki-moon viii Contents General Assembly Address to the sixty-seventh General Assembly A call to ambition New York, 25 September 2012 Address to the General Assembly Five-Year Action Agenda: The Future We Want New York, 25 January 2012 Address to the sixty-sixth General Assembly We the Peoples New York, 21 September 2011 Remarks to the General Assembly upon re-election as Secretary-General New York, 21 June 2011 Address to the sixty-fifth General Assembly Pulling together in testing times: securing a better future for all New York, 23 September 2010 Address to the sixty-fourth General Assembly Now is our time New York, 23 September 2009 Address to the sixty-third General Assembly A call to global leadership New York, September 23, 2008 Address to the sixty-second General Assembly A stronger UN for a better world New York, 25 September 2007 Remarks to the General Assembly on restructuring the Secretariat New York, 5 February 2007 Address to the General Assembly upon appointment as Secretary-General New York, 13 October 2006 1 2 7 12 17 20 23 27 32 36 42 The United Nations in A Changing World Address to the National Assembly of the Republic of Korea Together, building the future we want Seoul, 30 October 2012 Address on receiving the Seoul Peace Prize Seoul, 29 October 2012 Remarks to the sixteenth Summit of the Movement of Non-Aligned Nations Tehran, 30 August 2012 47 48 65 70 ix Remarks to the Atlantic Council Washington, D.C., 7 May 2012 Remarks at the gravesite of Dag Hammarskjรถld Uppsala, 12 October 2011 Remarks to the annual reception of the Francophone Community New York, 22 September 2011 Remarks to the Pacific Island Forum Auckland, 7 September 2011 Remarks to the Parliament of Uruguay Montevideo, 15 June 2011 Remarks to roundtable at the Central Party School Beijing, 3 November 2010 Remarks to the European Parliament Strasbourg, 19 October 2010 Remarks to the Caribbean Community Montego Bay, 4 July 2010 Address to the Global Compact Leaders Summit New York, 24 June 2010 Remarks at memorial ceremony in honour of those killed in the Haiti earthquake New York, 9 March 2010 Address to the Global Insight Summit Jackson Hole, 6 June 2008 Address to the Asia Society New York, 6 November 2007 Address to the United Nations Association of Sudan Khartoum, 3 September 2007 Address to the Korea Society New York, 15 May 2007 Address to the African Union Summit Addis Ababa, 29 January 2007 Remarks to the United Nations Correspondents Association New York, 8 December 2006 74 78 80 83 86 91 95 100 103 106 108 112 116 120 126 131 Sustainable Development Remarks at World Food Prize Ceremony Des Moines, Iowa, 18 October 2012 Remarks to UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) Rio de Janeiro, 20 June 2012 Remarks to World Future Energy Summit Abu Dhabi, 16 January 2012 Remarks to fourth High-level Forum on Aid Effectiveness Busan, 30 November 2011 135 136 140 143 145 x Remarks to the General Assembly on the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases New York, 19 September 2011 Remarks at launch of Roll Back Malaria Partnership report New York, 13 September 2011 Remarks to General Assembly High-Level Meeting on HIV/AIDS New York, 8 June 2011 Remarks on redefining sustainable development Davos, 28 January 2011 Remarks at launch of Every Woman Every Child initiative New York, 22 September 2010 Remarks to “1,000 Days, Change a Life” event on child under-nutrition New York, 21 September 2010 Remarks at High-level Meeting of the General Assembly on the Millennium Development Goals New York, 20 September 2010 Remarks to the National Assembly of Cameroon Yaounde, 10 June 2010 Remarks to Global Forum on Migration and Development Athens, 4 November 2009 Remarks to High-level meeting on food security for all Madrid, 27 January 2009 Remarks at G-20 Summit Washington, D.C., 14 November 2008 Remarks on sanitation and water New York, 24 September 2008 Remarks at the launch of UN Cares, the UN workplace programme on HIV New York, 6 May 2008 148 151 153 155 157 158 160 162 165 169 172 174 176 Climate Change Address to UN conference on climate change Durban, 6 December 2011 Remarks to UN Climate Change Summit New York, 22 September 2009 The ice is melting Op-ed article in The New York Times, 17 September 2009 Address on adapting to climate change Ulaanbaatar, 27 July 2009 Address to UN conference on climate change Bali, 12 December 2007 Remarks during visit to Antarctica Antarctica, 09 November 2007 179 180 184 187 189 193 196 xi Peace and Security Remarks to international conference on Afghanistan Tokyo, 8 July 2012 Remarks to Action Group on Syria Geneva, 30 June 2012 Address to the Union Assembly of Myanmar Nyapyidaw, 30 April 2012 Remarks to Herzliya Conference Herzliya, Israel, 2 February 2012 Address to High-level Meeting on Reform and Transitions to Democracy Beirut, 15 January 2012 Remarks to the Security Council on Somalia New York, 13 December 2011 Remarks at UN Memorial Cemetery in Korea Busan, 30 November 2011 Remarks at Press Conference Tripoli, 2 November 2011 Remarks at ceremony marking the independence of South Sudan Juba, 9 July 2011 Address to the Sofia Platform Sofia, 6 May 2011 Remarks to civil society groups Tunis, 19 March 2011 Listening to the people: a changing Arab World and the United Nations Cairo, 21 March 2011 The Cyril Foster Lecture: human protection and the 21st century United Nations Oxford, 2 February 2011 Remarks at High-level Meeting on Côte d’Ivoire Addis Ababa, 29 January 2011 Remarks to the Parliament of Kyrgyzstan Bishkek, 3 April 2010 Remarks to Security Council on organized crime New York, 24 February 2010 Remarks to diplomatic missions, non-governmental organizations and UN agencies Yangon, 4 July 2009 Remarks to the press Gaza City, 20 January 2009 Remarks at symposium on supporting victims of terrorism New York, 9 September 2008 Remarks at international meeting on the Middle East Annapolis, 27 November 2007 199 200 202 204 209 213 217 220 222 224 226 230 233 238 249 252 257 259 263 265 268 xii Disarmament Remarks at Summit on the Safe and Innovative Use of Nuclear Energy Kiev, 19 April 2011 Remarks to the Conference on Disarmament Geneva, 26 January 2011 Remarks at Peace Memorial Ceremony Hiroshima, 6 August 2010 Remarks to International Conference for a Nuclear- Free, Peaceful, Just and Sustainable World New York, 1 May 2010 Remarks at Semipalatinsk Test Site Kurchatov, Kazakhstan, 6 April 2010 Address to the East-West Institute New York, 24 October 2008 273 274 277 280 282 285 287 Humanitarian Action Welcoming America inspired my public service Op-ed article in USA Today, 22 August 2012 Pakistan needs our help, now Op-ed article in The New York Times, 18 August 2010 Remarks to Haiti reconstruction and donors conference New York, 31 March 2010 Do not wait for disaster Op-ed article in The Daily Star, 19 March 2010 293 294 296 298 300 Human Rights, Justice and the Rule of Law Remarks to High-level meeting of the General Assembly on the Rule of Law New York, 24 September 2012 Remarks at Memorial Centre Srebrenica, 26 JulyÂ 2012 Message to Human Rights Council on discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity Geneva, 7 March 2012 Address to Stanley Foundation conference on the Responsibility to Protect New York, 18 January 2012 Remarks at Space for Memory and for the protection and defense of human rights Buenos Aires, 13 June 2011 Address to Review Conference of the International Criminal Court An age of accountability Kampala, 31 May 2010 303 304 306 307 308 313 316 xiii Remarks to the press following address to the Parliament of Malawi Lilongwe, 29 May 2010 Remarks to the Third Forum of the Alliance of Civilizations Rio de Janeiro, 28 May 2010 Remarks at Holocaust Remembrance Day ceremony at Park East Synagogue New York, 24 January 2009 Address to forum on responsible sovereignty Berlin, 15 July 2008 Remarks to the Human Rights Council Geneva, 3 March 2008 Remarks to the press at Rwanda Genocide Memorial Kigali, 29 January 2008 320 322 325 328 332 335 The Empowerment of Women and Youth Remarks to Vienna Community Empowering people in a changing world Vienna, 16 February 2012 Remarks to the Global Colloquium of University Presidents Empowering women to change the world Philadelphia, 4 April 2011 Remarks to ministerial meeting of the Security Council on resolution 1325 New York, 25 September 2010 Launch of the UNiTE Network of Men Leaders To End Violence Against Women New York, 24 November 2009 Remarks on UNiTE to End Violence Against Women New York, 5 March 2009 Remarks to the General Assembly on gender equality and the empowerment of women New York, 6 March 2007 337 338 345 351 353 355 357 Glossary of abbreviations and acronyms Credits 360 362 General Assembly 2 Address to the sixty-seventh General Assembly A call to ambition New Yo rk , 25 September 2012 W e gather annually in this great hall to look soberly, and without illusion, at the state of our world. This year, I am here to sound the alarm about our direction as a human family. We can all see widespread insecurity and injustice, inequality and intolerance. I see governments wasting vast and precious funds on deadly weapons, while reducing investments in people. The severe and growing impacts of climate change are there before our eyes; yet too many people in power seem willfully blind to the threat. This is a time of turmoil, transition and transformation â€“ a time when time itself is not on our side. People want jobs and the prospect of a decent life. All too often, what they get instead is divisiveness, delay, and denial of their dreams and aspirations. We need look no further than this room to see expressions of the thirst for progress. A large number of you are here for the first time â€“ new leaders, installed by new voices, and expected to make decisive breaks with the past. Your people want to see results in real time, now, not the distant future. The United Nations rightly faces the same scrutiny; the same impatience; the same demands for accountability. People do not look to this organisation to be simply a mirror reflecting back a divided world. People want progress and solutions today. They want ideas, your leadership and concrete hope for the future. Our duty is to respond to these frustrations and yearnings. My action agenda highlights five imperatives, as I have set out in January this year: sustainable development, prevention, building a more secure world, helping countries in transition and empowering women and youth. I take heart from important steps forward on some of these fronts. Extreme poverty has been cut in half since the year 2000. Democratic transitions are under way in the Arab world, Myanmar and many other countries. Africaâ€™s economic growth has become the fastest in the world. Asia and Latin America are making important advances. General Assembly, New York, 25 September 2012 3 Still, we must raise our levels of ambition. We need more from each and every one of you. And the world needs more from our United Nations. Sustainable development is the key to our hopes for the future. It is my top priority as Secretary-General. Yet poverty and inequalities are still rampant. Our use of resources threatens the planet’s limits. Ecosystems are reaching the breaking point. The world’s best science tells us we must change course before it is too late. Yesterday, the President of the World Bank and I announced that the Sustainable Energy for All initiative is ready to deliver tens of billions of dollars for energy access and efficiency. Tomorrow I will launch a new initiative – Education First. On Thursday we will announce major additional support for the Scaling Up Nutrition Movement. And over the past two years, the 260 partners in our Every Woman Every Child initiative have disbursed $10 billion in new money. We are proving, on the ground, that well constructed partnerships can, and are, delivering results that none of us can deliver alone. The deadline for the Millennium Development Goals is little more than three years away. We must intensify our efforts to eradicate extreme poverty. The economic crisis cannot be an excuse to default on your commitments to the basics that all people need. Even if we achieve the MDGs, there is still a long way to go. The Rio+20 conference has pointed the way, including towards a set of sustainable development goals. These new goals and the post-2015 development agenda will guide our work for years to come. The MDGs sparked a remarkable global mobilization. These new frameworks must do the same, speaking to and inspiring people across the world. Action on climate change remains a major piece of unfinished business. Last December, Member States agreed to reach a legally binding agreement by 2015. Now, you must make good on this promise. Time is running out on our ability to limit the rise in global temperature to two degrees centigrade. Changing course will not be easy. But to see this as only a burden misses the bigger picture. Sustainability and the green economy offer compelling opportunities to promote jobs, growth, innovation and long-term stability. The future we want can be ours – if we act now. J ust as there can be no peace without development, there can be no development without peace. I am profoundly concerned about continued violence in Afghanistan and in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. I urge Sudan and South Sudan to resolve all remaining post-secession issues. Somalia has made courageous advances and Libya has held its first free elections in half a century. Gains must be nurtured and sustained. We must keep our focus on preventing conflicts before they erupt, and on settling disputes through peaceful means. Myanmar’s leaders have shown courage and determination in moving on the path of democracy and reconciliation. The country faces many challenges, from economic reform to the protection of ethnic minorities. As the Government and 4 General Assembly citizenry work together to meet these responsibilities, the international community and the United Nations must provide the strongest possible support. The crisis in the Sahel is not getting sufficient attention and support. Poverty, fragility, drought and sectarian tensions are threats to stability across the region. Unconstitutional changes of government have taken place all too frequently. Extremism is on the rise. Arms are easy to obtain, while jobs are hard to find. The international community needs a major concerted effort to address this alarming situation. Tomorrow, I will outline our ideas for an integrated strategy. Governments and organizations in the region, as well as international partners, will work out the details in the coming weeks. I urge you to engage and give your strong assistance. The situation in the Sahel highlights the need to strengthen early warning for development. Sensors and seismographs across the world help us prepare for natural disasters. We must do more to detect the tremors of distress facing the poorest and most vulnerable. We must also focus greater attention on food security and nutritional resilience. For millions of people, frequent shocks are the new norm. Food prices are increasingly volatile, provoking public anxiety, panic buying and civil disturbance. We need to bolster safety nets. We must ramp up investments in sustainable agriculture â€“ particularly for smallholder farmers. Governments must not impose trade restrictions on grains or other agricultural products. This reduces food supplies and discourages farmers from growing more. Together, we can avoid the food crises we have seen in recent years and achieve our goal of Zero Hunger. T he situation in Syria grows worse by the day. The crisis is no longer limited to Syria; it is a regional calamity with global ramifications. This is a serious and growing threat to international peace and security, which requires Security Council action. I call on the international community â€“ especially the members of the Security Council and countries in the region â€“ to solidly and concretely support the efforts of Joint Special Representative Lakhdar Brahimi. We must stop the violence and flows of arms to both sides, and set in motion a Syrian-led transition as soon as possible. Humanitarian needs are escalating, in and beyond Syria. The international community should not look the other way as violence spirals out of control. Brutal human rights abuses continue to be committed, mainly by the Government, but also by opposition groups. Such crimes must not go unpunished. There is no statute of limitations for such extreme violence. It is the duty of our generation to put an end to impunity for international crimes, in Syria and elsewhere. It is our duty to give tangible meaning to the responsibility to protect. The winds of change in the Arab world and elsewhere will continue to blow. After decades of harsh occupation and humiliating restrictions in almost every aspect of their lives, the Palestinians must be able to realize their right to a viable state General Assembly, New York, 25 September 2012 5 of their own. Israel must be able to live in peace and security, free from threats and rockets. The two-state solution is the only sustainable option. Yet the door may be closing, for good. The continued growth of Israeli settlements in the occupied Palestinian territory seriously undermines efforts toward peace. We must break this dangerous impasse. I also reject both the language of delegitimisation and threats of potential military action by one state against another. Any such attacks would be devastating. The shrill war talk of recent weeks has been alarming and should remind us of the need for peaceful solutions and full respect for the UN Charter and international law. Leaders have a responsibility to use their voices to lower tensions instead of raising the temperature and volatility of the moment. ‘‘ I am here to sound the alarm about our direction as a human family. This is a time of turmoil, transition and transformation – a time when time itself is not on our side. Building a more secure world also means pursuing our goal of a world free of nuclear weapons. As long as such weapons exist, we are all at risk. I look forward to a successful conference later this year on the establishment of a Middle East zone free of nuclear weapons and all other weapons of mass destruction. Iran must prove the solely peaceful intent of its programme. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea must move toward denuclearisation of the Korean peninsula. All relevant Security Council resolutions should be implemented in full and without delay. We shall have neither peace nor development without respect for human rights and the rule of law; the empowerment of women; the protection of children; the treaties and declarations that have extended the umbrella of protection. They are our touchstones. Yesterday’s high-level meeting on the rule of law sent a strong message about the importance of international law, justice and institutions within and among nations. Over the past two weeks a disgraceful act of great insensitivity has led to justifiable offense and unjustifiable violence. Freedom of speech and assembly are fundamental. But neither of these freedoms is a license to incite or commit violence. Yet we live in a world where, too often, divisions are exploited for short-term political gain. Too many people are ready to take small flames of difference and turn them into a bonfire. Too many people are tolerant of intolerance. The moderate majority should not be a silent majority. It must empower itself, and say to bigots and extremists alike: “you do not speak for us”. Responsible political and community leaders must step up at this time. With so much at stake, the United Nations must continue to renew itself. We must deliver as one – across disciplines, structures and locations. We are building a ’’ 6 General Assembly global Secretariat to support our global presence. That means shared services, integrated approaches and innovative uses of technology. Staff mobility is a crucial first step. This initiative is long overdue. We will be making a proposal in the weeks ahead, and we will need your support. Let us work together for a streamlined budget process built on trust. Micromanagement serves no one – not Member States wanting quick results, and not us in the Secretariat who share your desire for excellence. As Secretary-General, I need space to manage in a dynamic environment. Let us also prepare ourselves to harness the full power of partnerships across the range of issue areas. I will soon offer specific proposals for strengthening our partnership capacity. This will allow us to deliver more and better results, enhance accountability and improve coherence. Your support will be essential if we are to meet the many important mandates you give the United Nations. A strengthened United Nations is a key enabler for all that we hope to achieve for the world’s people. Let us prove that the UN can reform itself and keep pace. I have always put people first, and challenges at the centre. We have worked together for solutions to the problems that matter to people by day – and that keep them up at night. You, the world’s leaders, hold in your hands the power of the state, the levers of government. Your people expect you to listen to their aspirations, and to unleash their energies and ideas. The world expects you to work with each other for the common good. Nobody can do everything. But each of us, in our own way, can do something. Together, if we all uphold our responsibilities, we can meet today’s tests, seize the opportunities of an era of dramatic change, and give new life to the principles and purposes of our founding Charter. The United Nations in A Changing World 48 Address to the National Assembly of the Republic of Korea Together, building the future we want S eo ul , 30 October 2012 I am deeply honoured to be the first United Nations Secretary-General to address the National Assembly of the Republic of Korea. Ordinarily, as Secretary-General, I should speak in one of the official languages of the United Nations. But as a Korean, speaking in the National Assembly of the Republic of Korea, I hope you will understand why I will speak today in my mother tongue. As I look back at the long special relationship between Korea and the United Nations, I am especially pleased to stand at the beginning of my second term in this august chamber which represents all of the Korean people. Korea and the United Nations have worked hand-in-hand for this country’s spectacular development. The special relationship began in 1948. The United Nations sent an electoral supervisory mission to witness Korea’s first democratic general elections – the first such deployment anywhere in the world. Following the outbreak of the Korean War two years later, the United Nations came to the defence of Korea, becoming a beacon of hope for the Korean people. With the help of the United Nations, Korea overcame the tragedy of war and quickly began down the path of astonishing economic growth and deeper democracy. Today, Korea stands as an example, ever striving to represent the ideals and objectives of the United Nations. Throughout my travels around the world, I share the experiences of Korea’s economic development and democratization process. I am often amazed to see the strong interest among leaders around the world to learn from Korea’s example. Korea also is achieving great global success in culture, sports and the arts. As is clear with the recent rise of Psy’s Gangnam Style, the Hallyu wave and Korean pop music, Korean culture is making its mark on the world. Korea also showed its potential in sports in the London Summer Olympics, which impressed the global sports community. This youthful, creative and dynamic Korea is rising as a new hope in the world. Korean National Assembly, Seoul, 30 October 2012 49 Today I would like to talk about how Korea and the United Nations can work together to build the future we want, a more secure and prosperous world for all. I want to talk with you about this because I fully appreciate your crucial role as elected members of the National Assembly in representing the people and their aspirations. Wherever I travel, I seek out leaders of the national assemblies. I address Parliaments. I do so because you are the institution that puts people first and this is what ties you and the United Nations together. Indeed our Charter begins with the words “we the peoples”. The world is facing great uncertainty and undergoing a turbulent transition. Around the globe, there is rising insecurity, inequality, injustice and intolerance. These issues cannot be addressed by one country or organization alone, regardless of its size or resources. These are global challenges that require more effective global engagement and global leadership. The United Nations is increasingly called upon to play a greater role in renewing and strengthening multilateralism. The United Nations is the one and only global organization, with universal membership, and the largest operational presence around the world to advance our common values. Our funding is under severe pressure because of the global economic crisis. At the same time, the worsening situation is also increasing demand for the United Nations to assist the most vulnerable. We must find a solution to address peace and security, development and social challenges. Let us not forget that when the world came to help Korea, many said in their own countries, “We have budget pressures and problems at home. Why should we help those people so far away?” Despite such questions, the peoples of other nations came to Korea’s assistance in the hour of need because they knew it was the right thing to do. E arlier this year, I thought of the importance of that global solidarity when I set out key priorities for the next five years. With the close cooperation of Member States, we are working to implement my vision of reforming the United Nations and building partnerships to do more with less. I am fully committed to making the United Nations a more transparent, effective and responsible organization. This will require the full commitment of the international community to work with the United Nations in the spirit of advancing and deepening good governance everywhere. I am also committed to strengthening early response and conflict prevention measures and enhancing preparedness to reduce the risks from natural disasters. In an unstable world, we must intensify our efforts to stop the spread of weapons of mass destruction and conventional weapons. We must do all we can to enhance nuclear safety and prevent nuclear terrorism. Allow me to address some burning issues of global concern that are at the front and centre of our work. The Arab Spring has brought historic change to Tunisia, 50 The United Nations in a Changing World Egypt, Yemen, Libya and even Syria. The people’s will is sacred. The events in the Arab world showed once again what happens when leaders fail to listen to their people. There are many parallels with Korea’s own difficult transition from authoritarianism to democracy. Many lessons from that experience can be shared with the international community. I have urged leaders in countries undergoing transition to put aside narrow differences, respond to people’s genuine demands, and follow the trend of history. I am appalled that the recent call to suspend the fighting in Syria was ignored and violated by both sides. Instead of the agreed upon halt, more than 450 Syrians were slaughtered during the most important Muslim holiday period. This should be unacceptable to Syrian leaders, opposition figures, and all humanity. No matter the divisions on a political solution for Syria, surely we can all unite around the conviction that the killing must stop. It is clear that the Syrian people need to see transition and real change in their country. Violence is not the way to promote that change or stop it. There is no military solution. I condemn both sides for continuing to use arms instead of dialogue and mediation. The Syrian people have suffered far too much. Starting with the Syrian Government and the armed opposition, we all have a responsibility to end the bloodshed, now. The international community must work together to resolve this crisis. The members of the United Nations Security Council, who are responsible for ensuring international peace and security, must speak with one voice. For the past five years, the United Nations has developed a new principle, the Responsibility to Protect, as an integral part of national sovereignty. The principle of the Responsibility to Protect gives expression to a growing global conviction that it is immoral and unacceptable for States to commit or allow serious international crimes against their people — acts or threats of genocide, ethnic cleansing, war crimes or crimes against humanity or their incitement. Now it is increasingly evident that those committing these serious crimes will eventually be held accountable and that there will no longer be impunity for international crimes. Last year, the responsibility to protect went through the reality test – and passed. The results were not perfect, but democracy was restored in Côte d’Ivoire, and lives were saved in Libya, where that country’s people rose up against the dictatorship. O ver the last two decades, international criminal tribunals and courts have been established from the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda to Cambodia, Lebanon and Sierra Leone. The permanent International Criminal Court was also created. These institutions have become important foundations for international criminal justice. A number of Korean judges have played an important role. Korean National Assembly, Seoul, 30 October 2012 51 The winds of change that started with the Arab Spring will continue to blow. They are unstoppable. I will continue to remind leaders, in Syria and beyond, of their responsibility to listen and respond to the will of the people. The international community must make progress on the three pillars of United Nations engagement. First: sustainable development. Second: conflict prevention and resolution. And third: advancing human rights and democracy. Korea has unique lessons to share on all three pillars and can be an active catalyst in bringing the world together on these issues. ‘‘ I wish to see my mother country, Korea, stand tall and proud as an advanced nation by making a bigger contribution on the world stage and gaining ever more respect in the international community. The window of opportunity is wide open. Korea evolved from a developing to a developed country within the span of a single generation, and successfully hosted the G-20 Summit. The international community is looking to Korea with high expectations. I thank you with respect for rising from a beneficiary to a donor. I take this opportunity to ask you to continue by focusing on five key priorities. First, Korea made a promise to increase overseas development assistance. I expect that promise to be faithfully implemented. Yes, this is a way to repay the assistance the country received in the past to help it become a respected member of the international community. But it has even greater significance. Africa is one of Korea’s largest recipients of development cooperation. But Africa is also one of the fastest growing regions in the world with rich resources. Korea’s development assistance must be seen as far more than charity. It is an investment for the future. Korea must establish an advanced system to improve aid effectiveness. I applaud the Development Alliance Korea, a public-private partnership launched last August to do just that. I commend the decision to increase assistance to 0.25 per cent of GDP by 2015 despite the difficult economic climate. I would also like to ask you to keep going. A pledge of up to 0.7 per cent would truly mark Korea’s commitment to being a stronger and more developed nation on the global stage. I ask you to present a clear path to the international community and continue to move in that direction. I hope that the National Assembly will play a leading role in ensuring that Korea reaches this goal. Second, we look forward to Korea’s proactive efforts to help the world achieve the Millennium Development Goals over the next three years by the deadline of 2015. The target year of 2015 is not an end, but a new beginning. I also look for- ’’ 52 The United Nations in a Changing World ward to Korea’s active participation in helping to establish the post-2015 development agenda and the sustainable development goals. We need much cooperation in laying these foundations. The National Assembly’s United Nations-MDG Forum can play a key role. The extension of the Airline Solidarity Levy as the first agenda item of the newly elected 19th National Assembly is an important example of your global leadership. Third, the United Nations is focusing on a number of sustainable development initiatives. Scaling Up Nutrition and the Zero Hunger Challenge aim to revolutionize the way the world tackles the problem of under-nutrition and hunger. I am proud of the fact that the Republic of Korea has achieved Zero Hunger, and has challenged others to do the same. As the host of last year’s Fourth High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness, Korea should strive to align its development assistance programme with the goals of enabling all people, everywhere, to enjoy their right to food and for all food systems to be sustainable. Women’s and children’s health is at the heart of achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Our Every Woman, Every Child initiative has galvanized over 260 public and private partners to save 16 million lives by 2015. The Republic of Korea can help us to achieve this objective by following through on its commitment to universal health coverage by 2015, and by adopting an integrated approach to health care delivery. We have also just launched a new initiative: Education First. When I visit other countries, I share how Korea’s investments in education paid dividends for success. I also relate how Korean students once used textbooks with the help of the United Nations. Education First will help open school doors for all children, improve the quality of learning, and foster global citizenship. We expect Korea to play an active role in this effort. And we are strengthening partnerships for sustainable energy for all. This initiative has three complementary objectives to be achieved by 2030. First, providing universal access to modern energy services for all. Second, doubling of the rate of improvement in energy efficiency. And third, doubling the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix. The Government of Korea has demonstrated strong leadership and commitment in this area. I have personally witnessed and benefitted from the energy transformation that happened in this country in the past century. I call on the Republic of Korea to work with us and lead the way to transform the world’s energy sector. Climate change, in particular, is a clear and present danger. The international community must work together to meet their obligations to establish a legally binding treaty by 2015. We must never forget that we are stewards, borrowing this planet from the next generation. We must strive to preserve the planet so that the next generation can live free from the fear of extreme weather. Korea’s leadership in green growth is a future-oriented strategy that takes into account both the needs of climate change and economic growth. Korean National Assembly, Seoul, 30 October 2012 53 A I believe that Korea must reach its target emissions rate and can play a leading role in encouraging other countries to do the same. I congratulate the recent launch of the Global Green Growth Institute in Seoul last week as an international organization. I am also pleased and happy to congratulate Korea on being selected by the board of the Green Climate Fund as the host of its new secretariat. This reflects the international community’s expectations for the Republic of Korea. There is a global recognition of the country’s experiences as an emerging economy, as well as its efforts to help lead cooperation with industrialized nations on climate change. I hope that the Government and people of Korea will play an active role and strengthen its cooperation in boosting climate change-related agreements, as well as managing the development of the Fund. Fourth, the Korean experience of advancing democracy, peace and prosperity is an important resource upon which the world can draw for international peacekeeping efforts. Since joining the United Nations in 1991, the Republic of Korea has contributed to global peacekeeping with resources and troops. Korea’s peacekeeping forces in various missions around the world have received high praise from the