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Magdy Abdelrahman North Dakota State University Civil Engineering Associate Professor m.abdelrahman@ndsu.edu Poster Title: Characterization of Interaction between Asphalt and Tire Rubber Abstract: Scrap tires are non-degradable and are considered as main problem of the solid waste management system. Most markets for recycling scrap tires are limited or closed except for burning as fuel or recycling in asphalt applications as Crumb Rubber Modifier (CRM) for asphalt binder. CRM modification of asphalt enhances its performance while consuming a significant amount of scrap tires. The modification mainly happens through exchange of components between CRM and asphalt and swelling of CRM in the asphalt. To control the modification and attain maximum performance, it is necessary to thoroughly understand the CRM and asphalt interaction at the molecular level. To achieve such goal, advanced characterization methods such as; Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Gel Permission Chromatography (GPC), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) are being used to characterize the types, amounts and effects of components exchanged between CRM and asphalt. Graduate students Amir Ghavibazoo and Mohy Ragab are involved in this research.

Fardad Azarmi North Dakota State University Mechanical Engineering Assistant Professor fardad.azarmi@ndsu.edu Poster Title: Metal Matrix Composites by Cold Spraying Abstract: Fabrication of particulate reinforced metal matrix composites can be performed by many standard fabrication techniques such as casting, powder metallurgy, forging, rolling and extrusion. While, in casting metal is mixed with reinforcing particles at liquid-state, techniques such as powder metallurgy, forging, and extrusion combines matrix and reinforcing phase at solid-state condition. Each of the above mentioned techniques has certain advantages and disadvantages. Cold spraying is a promising technique for rapid fabrication of metal matrix composites with minimum waste and oxidation. The process begins with “heating up� of the powders below their melting point and their acceleration toward a substrate. Since, particles will be sprayed in solid condition at very high velocity; the coating formation is resulted from the impact, and flattening of deformed powder particles. The strong mechanical interlock will bond particles within the microstructure. This investigation is a brief introduction to Nickel based composites fabricated by cold spraying technique.

Sourin Bhattacharya North Dakota State University Mechanical Engineering Graduate Research Assistant sourin.bhattacharya@ndsu.edu Poster Title: Numerical and Experimental Study of the Micro Cold Spray Direct-Write Process Abstract: Gas dynamic cold spray was first discovered in the 1980s and has since been used as a surface coating process for depositing metals, metal-ceramic composites, metal-carbon nanotube composites and other composite materials. We recently developed a focused cold spray material deposition tool termed Micro Cold Spray (MCS). MCS is a direct-write tool applicable for printed electronics and has been used to print conductive traces as thin as 50 Âľm wide using copper, aluminum and tin micro powders. In this paper the possibility to accelerate, focus, collimate, and deposit aerosol particles is theoretically studied. The flow of solid particle suspension in Helium gas through a symmetric converging-diverging nozzle of throat diameter 200 Âľm is simulated numerically. Also we present some experimental observations where aluminum, copper and tin particles of size ranging from 1-5 Âľm are deposited onto flexible and rigid substrates using a linear converging nozzle.

Daniel Bogart; Jun Yang; Xuefeng Chu North Dakota State University Civil Engineering M.S. student; Ph.D. candidate; Assistant Professor daniel.bogart@my.ndsu.edu Poster Title: Runoff Generation of Rough and Smooth Plots under Natural Rainfall Events Abstract: Two field plots were built for the observation and collection of runoff under natural rainfall conditions. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of surface microtopography on overland flow generation under natural rainfall conditions. The hydrologic responses of the two runoff plots with different surface features (rough versus smooth) were compared between two rainfall events. Hyetographs and hydrographs were constructed using the observed real time rainfall and outlet discharge data. The puddle connectivity processes were observed and studied in relation to the hydrographs in an attempt to characterize the overland flow generation and puddle filling-merging-spilling processes. A basic mass balance analysis was carried out using all the observed data including the depression storage of both surfaces. We concluded that runoff generation for the rough surface was a dynamic process due to temporal changes of the surface’s infiltrability.

Benjamin D. Braaten North Dakota State University Electrical and Computer Engineering Assistant Professor Benjamin.Braaten@ndsu.edu Poster Title: Analysis on the Coupling Between Right-Handed and CRLH Transmission Lines Abstract: One aspect of the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) analysis of RF circuitry is the accurate modeling of the coupling between printed transmission lines. Correct modeling of this coupling is essential because unwanted noise voltages can be substantial and create adverse effects on sensitive components. In this work, new analytical expressions for the coupled near- and far-end voltages on a CRLH-TL have been derived and successfully validated with full-wave simulations, circuit modeling and measurements. These expressions are then used to illustrate how the induced voltages on the CRLH-TL can be reduced by the capacitance and inductance values that support left-handed propagation. This technique could be useful, because reducing left-handed inductance and capacitance of CRLH-TL could be used in place of conventional shielding. Furthermore, design guidelines and trade-offs are presented on the layout of CRLH-TL near other printed transmission lines. The expressions derived in this work are validated with simulations and measurements.

Poster Title: A Tunable Metasurface for EMI Shielding Abstract: In this work, a compact tunable metasurface for dual-band electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding is being proposed. In particular, Jerusalem crosses intersecting diagonally are used to design and synthesize a prototype metasurface shield. It has been shown that a finite 4 x 3 array of the Jerusalem crosses can be used for EMI shielding in the 900 MHz and 1.8 GHz GSM bands. Then, to develop an active shield that is tunable, varactor diodes were attached to the dual-band metasurface. Measurements have shown that the lower band of the metasurface can be changed (tuned) with various control voltages. Finally, simulation, equivalent circuit computations and measurements are shown to agree throughout the paper

Benjamin D. Braaten North Dakota State University Electrical and Computer Engineering Assistant Professor Benjamin.Braaten@ndsu.edu Poster Title: A Self-Adapting Array for Shape Changing Conformal Surfaces Abstract: A phased array test platform for studying the self-adapting capabilities of conformal antennas is developed and presented. Specifically, a four-port 2.45 GHz receiver with voltage controlled phase shifters and attenuators is designed along with four individual printed microstrip patch antennas attached to a conformal surface. Each antenna is connected to the corresponding receiver port with a flexible SMA cable. It is shown that with appropriate phase compensation, the distorted radiation pattern of the array can be recovered as the surface of the conformal array changes shape. This pattern recovery information is then used to develop a new self-adapting flexible 1 x 4 microstrip antenna array with an embedded flexible sensor system. It is shown that with appropriate phase compensation, the radiation properties of the array can be autonomously recovered as the surface of the flexible array changes shape during normal operation.

Yaping Chi; Jun Yang; Xuefeng Chu North Dakota State University Civil Engineering Master student; Ph.D. Candidate; Assistant Professor yaping.chi@my.ndsu.edu Poster Title: Application of Fractal Analysis for Surface Characterization and Hydrologic Analyses Abstract: Fractal analysis provides a useful way to characterize the spatial complexity of surface microtopography besides the commonly-used hydrotopographic parameters, such as random roughness (RR), maximum depression storage (MDS), and the number of connected areas (NCA). This study demonstrates that fractal dimension D has a negative relationship with RR and MDS, and a positive relationship with NCA. It has been found that multifractal analysis is able to capture surface topographic features at different scales. More importantly, fractal and anisotropic analyses of surface microtopography enable one to better understand the overland flow generation process. A surface with a small D value has the potential to retain more water in depressions, which in turn redistributes surface runoff and delays overland flow initiation. The dominant roughness exists along the directions of smaller D values. Along those directions, surface runoff is prone to be hindered by ridges, while better hydrologic connections occur along other directions.

Svyatoslav Chugunov North Dakota State University Mechanical Engineering Graduate Research Assistant Svyatoslav.Chugunov@ndsu.edu Poster Title: Modeling of Linear Atmospheric Plasma Reactor Abstract: In our work we investigate possibilities provided by use of a Linear Plasma Head - a portable Atmospheric Plasma (AP) reactor targeted for enhanced surface coatings. The plasma head is able to generate AP with specific energy content. Such system depends on a set of control parameters that can be tweaked for optimal performance. In order to determine the tweaking range, we attempt a numerical modeling of the Linear Plasma Head with consideration of four major regions: a plasma generation chamber, a channel for plasma advection with ability to concentrate plasma jet into specific zones, a mixing chamber, and an open space between the head and the substrate where behavior of plasma gas is analyzed with estimation of deposition patterns and evaluation of energy content of the deposited material. The modeling is carried out using a parallel computational paradigm.

Jacob Fink North Dakota State University Mechanical Engineering Graduate Student jacob.fink@ndsu.edu Poster Title: Fine Line Metallization of Silicon Solar Cells via CAB-DW Abstract: Efficiency gains related to the optimization of the top metallization layer and current collector are largely limited by the minimum collector line width (~100 µm) that can be printed using industrial processes such as screen printing. An alternative direct-write process termed Collimated Aerosol Beam DirectWrite (CAB-DW™) is capable of depositing collector lines as thin as 15µm wide while still allowing heights up to 7 µm. In this paper we present data demonstrating improvements to efficiency of silicon solar cells with optimized grid designs along with a theoretical/experimental comparison confirming these results. Issues relating to the properties of direct-write inks including the contact resistance, oxidation over time, and bulk resistance due to sintering parameters are also discussed. Finally, results demonstrating collector grid induced light trapping possible with direct-written traces which reduces shadowing and further increases collection efficiency are presented.

Justin Hoey North Dakota State University Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering Research Engineer justin.hoey@ndsu.edu Poster Title: Advances in Aerosol Direct-Write Technology for Fine Line Applications Abstract: Aerosol deposition tools including Aerosol Jet™ and Collimated Aerosol Beam Direct-Write (CABDW™) have been used to create fine metallic traces with line widths as thin as 5 µm by focusing and accelerating aerosol particles through a nozzle and onto a substrate. These tools excel at applications requiring a non-contact method of rapid prototyping. We developed the CAB-DW system after an understanding of the fluid-particle interactions inside the Aerosol Jet system was realized. CAB-DW offers both reduced line widths and overspray due to its 3-component converging-diverging-converging nozzle system. The details behind how this system was designed, subsequent progress in aerosol focusing designs, and applications of aerosol deposition systems will be discussed. In addition, a comparison of these aerosol direct-write systems to other direct-write systems and the future prospects of these tools will be presented.

Jamison Huber North Dakota State University Mechanical Engineering Graduate Research Assistant jamison.huber@my.ndsu.edu Poster Title: Computational Investigation of Low Pressure Variable-Speed Turbine Aerodynamics: Predictive Tool Development Abstract: The goal of this project is development of effective computational tools at NDSU to enhance the gas turbine community’s predictive capabilities for Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) flows, including transition and turbulence model development by means of coupling URANS, DES, and SAS turbulence modeling approaches with transition models. The project focuses on the computational investigation of aerodynamics of an incident tolerant LPT blade design over a more conventional design as part of a NDSU-UND NASA EPSCoR CAN award.

Long Jiang North Dakota State University Mechanical Engineering Assistant Professor long.jiang@ndsu.edu Poster Title: Preparation and Properties of Electrospun Soy Protein Isolate/Polyethylene Oxide Nanofiber Membranes Abstract: Soy protein isolate (SPI) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) were dissolved in 1,1,1,3,3,3-heyxafluoro-2propanol (HFPHFIP) and nonwoven nanofiber membranes were prepared from the solution by electrospinning. PEO functioned as a co-spinning polymer in the process to improve the spinnability of SPI. The ratio of SPI to PEO was varied and the rest spinning conditions remained unchanged. The morphology of the nanofiber membranes, SPI and PEO distribution and phase structure in the fiber, crystallization and interaction between SPI and PEO, thermal properties and wettability of the membranes were studied. The results showed that the diameter of most of the nanofibers was in the range of 200 – 300 nm. SPI and PEO showed high compatibility in the fiber and SPI was homogeneously dispersed at nanoscale. Crystallization of SPI and PEO in the fiber was significantly different from that of their pure forms. All the nanofiber membranes showed superhydrophilicity. These nanofiber membranes can find applications in filtration and biomedical applications.

Poster Title: DDGS composite Abstract: Abstract Not Available

Anshul Kalra; Ivan T. Lima Jr. North Dakota State University Electrical and Computer Engineering Ph.D. Student and Teaching Assistant; Associate Professor Anshul.Kalra@ndsu.edu; Ivan.Lima@ndsu.edu Poster Title: Importance Sampling based Monte Carlo method to model optical coherence tomography systems Abstract: Monte-Carlo method provides accurate estimates of the ballistic, the quasi-ballistic, and the multiple diffused scattered components of light in optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems. However, because of the low probability of back scattering in tissue, the computational time required in Monte Carlo simulations to model OCT systems is prohibitively long due to the large number of samples needed. We demonstrate an Importance Sampling based approach that is at least two orders of magnitude faster when compared with the standard Monte Carlo method and achieves the same accuracy in the results. This importance sampling method can be used as design tool to characterize OCT system performance and can be used to improving the imaging depth of OCT systems.

G. Karami; S. Javid; A. Rezaei; F. Azarmi North Dakota State University Mechanical Engineering Professor; Graduate Student; Graduate Student; Assistant Professor g.karami@ndsu.edu Poster Title: Micromechanics Material Characterization of Randomly or Symmetrical Distributed Fibrous Composites Abstract: The results for characterization of unidirectional fibrous elastic and viscoelastic composites for both random and systematic distributions of fibers with uniform or changing geometries are presented. Representative volume elements (RVE) of four types of fiber distributions are chosen which include square and hexagonal packing and two randomly distributed fibers. Employing the principles of micromechanical characterization, RVEs of the composites were exposed to six distinctive types of loadings (three axial loadings and three shear loadings) under periodic boundary conditions on all sides of the unit cells. Inverse analysis is conducted to characterize and determine the comprehensive homogenized elastic and viscoelastic material properties of the composite. The local stress/strain distributions of each RVE are monitored. The results reveal that although one can conclude that the impact of random distribution and geometry of fibers on homogenized stiffness properties has considerable effect on local stress/strain distribution as well as the strength of the composite.

G. Karami; A. Rezaei; M. Ziejewski North Dakota State University Mechanical engineering Professor; Graduate Student; Professor g.karami@ndsu.edu Poster Title: Impacts of Shock Wave Reflections of a Confined Space on a Human Head and the Related Traumatic Brain Injury Abstract: A human head is set to be exposed to blast waves from an explosion as well as the reflected waves from the confined walls. The head is positioned at three different locations away or near to the walls. The explosion initiates from a corner of the space. The accuracy of the analysis is verified with experimental results. The shock waves hit the exposing human head at the different stand-off positions away or near the exposing walls. The head and brain mechanical responses will be monitored after the impact. In particular, skull pressure, brain intracranial pressure, acceleration and shear stress will be measured and compared at all situations and positions. The results illustrate that the additional reflected shock waves created due to presence of walls can drastically increase brain intracranial pressure, acceleration and shear stresses. This is clearly realized at the corners where the intensity of the reflected waves doubles.

G. Karami; M. Salimi Jazi; A. Rezaei; F. Azarmi; M. Ziejewski North Dakota State University Mechanical Engineering Professor; Graduate Student; Graduate Student; Assistant Professor; Professor g.karami@ndsu.edu Poster Title: Biomechanics Analysis of a Human Helmeted Head under Ballistic Impact Loads Abstract: We present a computational analysis of a helmeted human head to examine the level of traumatic brain injury under ballistic loads. The geometrical data of a 50 percentile human head has been used to develop the head model with all the complexities of head and brain elements. Also, the geometry of an advanced combat helmet (ACH) has been used to accurately model the helmet and the padding system. The human head and the helmet have been discretized into finite elements using several layers of shell and solid elements. One focus of this work is on the effect of the material properties of the padding system on the level of the motion, acceleration and the inflicted pressure and shear stress in the brain when the head is under the strike of a ballistic impact. This combined model of helmeted head is solved using LS-DYNA finite element software.

Eakalak Khan North Dakota State University Civil Engineering Professor and Chair eakalak.khan@ndsu.edu Poster Title: Effect of Carbon Source during Enrichment on BTEX Degradation by Anaerobic Mixed Bacterial Cultures Abstract: A comprehensive study on the effects of different carbon sources during the bacterial enrichment on the removal performances of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) compounds when present as a mixture was conducted. Batch BTEX removal kinetic experiments were performed using cultures enriched with individual BTEX compounds or BTEX as a mixture or benzoate alone or benzoate-BTEX mixture. Degradation rate and the type of removal kinetics were dependent on the type of carbon source during the enrichment. Cultures enriched on toluene and those enriched on BTEX mixture were found to have the greatest BTEX degradation capability. Removal performances of the cultures enriched on all different carbon sources were also improved during a second exposure to BTEX. A molecular analysis showed that after each exposure to the BTEX mixture, the cultures enriched on benzoate and those enriched on benzoate-BTEX mixture had increased similarities to the culture enriched on BTEX mixture.

Samee U. Khan North Dakota State University Electrical and Computer Engineering Assistant Professor samee.khan@ndsu.edu Poster Title: A Comparative Study of Data Center Network Architectures Abstract: Data Centers (DCs) are experiencing a tremendous growth in the number of hosted servers. End-to-End aggregate bandwidth is a major bottleneck to DC performance. Typical DCs use Three-tier hierarchical network design and enterprise-class equipment at core layer of the network. The enterprise-class network equipment is expensive and is not designed to accommodate internet-scale services in DCs. Use of enterprise-class equipment therefore experience limited end-to-end network capacity, non-agility, and fragmented server pools. New Data Center Network (DCN) architectures are proposed to handle different challenges faced by current DCN architecture. Our work is focused to implement and simulate two promising DCN architectural models, namely switch-based and hybrid models, and compared their effectiveness by monitoring the network throughputs, packet loss, and packet latencies. Our work provides a comparative study of major DCN architectures that are proposed in recent years by implementing: (a) proposed network architectures, (b) customized addressing schemes, and (c) customized routing schemes.

Poster Title: Proving the Correctness of Data Center Routing Protocol with SMT-LIB and Z3 Solver Abstract: The emerging cloud computing paradigm has driven the creation of data centers consisting of hundreds of thousands of servers capable of supporting a large number of distinct services. The security of the data flowing in and out of the data center is of high concern. The verification of the protocols running in a data center is compulsory. Simulation and testing are the most widely used techniques for verification purpose. In case of data intensive systems, the aforementioned techniques become infeasible due to large-scale datasets, flowing among physical storage devices and computational clusters. In this study, we will use the formal verification methods to verify the protocols running in the data centers. As an example we took an Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol that is used for routing within a data center. We use the Satisfiability Modulo Theory (SMT-LIB) library and Z3 solver for the verification of the routing protocol.

Samee U. Khan North Dakota State University Electrical and Computer Engineering Assistant Professor samee.khan@ndsu.edu Poster Title: Evaluation of Task Assignment Policies for Differentiated Virtual Machine Workloads Abstract: The queuing model prototypes assume Internet traffic as a random phenomenon. The Poisson distribution of inter arrival time assumption for queuing model seems a bit unrealistic for Internet traffic. Based on the traffic characteristics, limited number of resources, and changing internet traffic a semi-empirical approach for finding appropriate service level for the end-users is desired. In this study, we have proposed a model that consider the characteristics of heavy tailed Internet traffic and provide an optimal allocation of resources based on the number of active servers. In our research, each host processes tasks either in processor sharing or first come first serve order based on the task variability attribute. The model is fair because it balances the load across the set of active servers in a way that expected waiting time for short and large jobs are in equal proportion.

Poster Title: Opportunistic Message Forwarding in Delay Tolerant Networks Abstract: In a Delay Tolerant Network (DTN), the nodes have intermittent connectivity and complete path(s) between the source and destination may not exist. The communication takes place opportunistically when any two nodes enter the effective range. One of the major challenges in DTNs is message forwarding when a sender must select a best neighbor that has the highest probability of forwarding the message to the actual destination. However, finding an appropriate route is an NP-hard problem. This research presents a concept of Checkpoint (CP) based message forwarding in DTNs. For the simulative analysis a synthetic human mobility model in OMNET++ simulator is constructed for the city of Fargo, ND, USA. The model is tested over various DTN routing protocols and the results indicate that using CP overlay over the existing DTN architecture significantly decreases message delivery time as well as buffer usage.

Ting Li North Dakota State University Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate Student ting.li@my.ndsu.edu Poster Title: 14 Bit Pipelined ACD Abstract: An analog-to-digital converter (abbreviated ADC) is a device that converts a continuous quantity to a discrete time digital representation. Based on the successive approximation register architecture, this ADC has resolution of 14 bit. A new dynamic comparator circuit is introduced to reduce kickback noise and eliminate static power consumption. Digital error correction circuits can correct the error within 3/16 reference voltage for the first two stages and 1/4 reference voltage for the left stages.

Ivan T. Lima Jr.; Val R. Marinov North Dakota State University Electrical and Computer Engineering Associate Professor; Associate Professor ivan.lima@ndsu.edu Poster Title: Volumetric display technology for traffic control of manned and unmanned aerial vehicles. Abstract: The information available for aerial traffic control from radar receivers and from global positioning system devices is usually visualized in two-dimensional displays. We developed a true volumetric display technology based on two-photon absorption in dispersed quantum dots excited by a low-cost, compact, Qswitched infrared laser that can be used to display in real time the three-dimensional information of the location and the flight direction of manned and unmanned aerial vehicles that can be visualized from all directions. The use of this technology, which we demonstrated theoretically and experimentally, can significantly facilitate the task of controlling the air traffic and can also enable a reduction of the safety zone required by each aircraft.

Artur Lutfurakhmanov North Dakota State University Mechanical Engineering Graduate Research Assistant Artur.Lutfurakhmanov@ndsu.edu Poster Title: Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Liquid Bridges between Capillary and Substrate Abstract: This paper focuses on experimental and theoretical study of a new micro/nano-lithography method. The goal of this method is to deposit small liquid droplets on a substrate using hollow capillary filled by liquid. The method was verified in experiments where water/glycerol mixtures were used to deposit liquid from capillaries of various diameters. These investigations revealed that the droplet size was about 1015% of the inner capillary diameter for all glycerol concentrations and the capillary sizes. Weak dependence on the retraction speed was observed. In addition to experimental consideration of the problem, the mathematical model of the capillary-based deposition process was presented where the static and dynamic bridge theories were developed. Modeling results were compared with experimental data, and dependency on the liquid properties, pressure, and retraction speed was discussed and analyzed.

Muhammad Mubeen Masud; Bilal Ijaz; Dr. Benjamin Braaten North Dakota State University Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate Student; Graduate Student; Assistant Professor muhammadmubeen.masud@ndsu.edu Poster Title: A Compact Dual-Band EMI Metasurface Shield with a Tunable Polarized Lower Band Abstract: A compact tunable metasurface for dual-band electromagnetic interference (EMI) shield is proposed. A 4*3 array composed of Jerusalem crosses intersecting diagonally is fabricated and is used for EMI shielding of 900 MHz and 1800 MHz GSM bands. Then 900 MHz band was made tunable by using varactor diodes. Measurements varify that by changing control voltage 900 MHz band can be tuned. All the measurement show good agreement with simulations.

Xiaofeng Qu North Dakota State University Mechanical Engineering Graduate student xiaofeng.qu.83@gmail.com Poster Title: Compound droplet motion via 3D spectral boundary elements Abstract: The stability and motion of compound droplets are important in applications in pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. In this work, we investigate the dynamics of compound droplets in a planar extensional flow using a 3D spectral boundary element method. We find that compound droplets with a larger inner droplet and/or a higher inner surface tension are less stable. Compound droplets with a more viscous shell have larger deformation at the steady state. Both outer and inner droplets migrate in the same direction when the inner droplet is initially eccentrically-placed.

Michael Quamme North Dakota State University Civil Engineering Graduate Student michael.quamme@ndsu.edu Poster Title: Removal of Selenium from Surface Waters using Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron Abstract: Bare nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles and NZVI entrapped in calcium (Ca) alginate beads were tested for the remediation of selenium (Se) species in aqueous solution. The study has demonstrated that NZVI is a very effective medium for the remediation of Se. In batch studies, bare NZVI reduced Se from 34 Âľg/L to < 1 Âľg/L (> 97% removal) in 3 h. The Ca-alginate entrapped NZVI achieved a slower yet effective removal (> 85% in 12 h). While the collection and disposal of spent bare NZVI were very difficult, the Ca-alginate entrapped particles were easier to be collected and disposed of. Ca-alginate entrapment appears to be a promising method for application in aqueous Se removal. . Permeable reactive barriers with entrapped NZVI can be installed for groundwater remediation, and batch application method can be practiced for surface water.

Michael Robinson North Dakota State University Mechanical Engineering Graduate Student m.robinson@ndsu.edu Poster Title: Particle Sizing via Fresnel and Fraunhofer Diffraction patterns of sub-10µm Particles Using Shadowgraphy Abstract: A Small Particle Sizing Algorithm (SPSA) was developed that utilizes Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction profiles to determine sizes of small spherical particles ranging from 1.0 to 10.0 µm in diameter. The SPSA uses standard shadowgraphy techniques to generate an image of the diffraction profile from which two characteristic parameters are measured, image size and image slope. Over specified ranges, the combinations of these parameters are unique, enabling the simultaneous calculation of particle size and distance from the object plane of the CCD camera. We describe how image size and image slope are measured and how the trends relating these two parameters with actual size are extracted from the experimental data. This non-intrusive method has particular value in the characterization of focused liquid and powder aerosol beams via measurements of particle distributions in which particles are smaller than 10.0 µm in diameter.

Mr. Hesam Sarvghad-Moghaddam; Dr. Yildirim Bora Suzen; Dr. Ghodrat Karami North Dakota State University Mechanical Engineering Graduate Student; Associate Professor; Professor h.sarvghad@my.ndsu.edu Poster Title: The Influence of Blood Constitutive Behavior on Hemodynamics of Cerebral Aneurysms Abstract: Cerebral aneurysm is pathological dilatation of intracranial artery and its rupture is the leading cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Hemodynamics is thought to be a fundamental factor in the formation, progression and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. In the current work, we will use CFD to analyze an aneurysm at the bifurcation of basilar artery The reallife geometry is modeled by Solidworks. To study the impact of the constitutive behavior of blood, various non-Newtonian constitutive models are examined along with a Newtonian representation of blood viscosity. The CFD simulation will be conducted using ANSYS-CFX. In the study, the distribution of the wall shear stress (WSS) as a deciding parameter in aneurysm rupture and the impact of the nonNewtonian constitutive behavior of the blood on WSS are investigated. The WSS is shown to be more significant at the inlet of the aneurysm which confirms its important role in predicting the aneurysm rupture.

Yildirim Bora Suzen North Dakota State University Mechanical Engineering Associate Professor bora.suzen@ndsu.edu Poster Title: Computational Fluid Dynamics Research Capabilities at NDSU Mechanical Engineering Abstract: NDSU Mechanical Engineering Department has active research on various topics in the areas of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and aerodynamics. The poster will provide an overview of the CFD capabilities including the available software and computational resources at NDSU and the current CFD related research topics at ME Department. The current research topics include transition-turbulence model development, simulation of turbomachinery flowfields, micro air vehicle (MAV) aerodynamics, biofluids, and wind turbine aerodynamics.

Annie Tangpong North Dakota State University Mechanical Engineering Assistant Professor Annie.Tangpong@ndsu.edu Poster Title: Wear Properties of Silane Treated Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Abstract: High density polyethylene (HDPE) is a popular bearing material in industrial and biomedical applications because of its low friction and relatively high wear resistance. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with silane coatings were added into HDPE to enhance the tribological performance of the HDPE/CNF nanocomposites. CNFs were treated with two silane coating thicknesses, 2.8nm and 46 nm. The nanocomposites were manufactured through hot-pressing with various weight ratios of CNFs (0.5 wt.% and 3 wt.%). The silane treatment effect and CNFs concentration on the wear behavior of the nanocomposites were investigated through pin-on-disc wear testing under dry sliding conditions. The friction coefficients of the nanocomposites were found to be lower than that of the neat HDPE. The nanocomposite reinforced with CNFs treated with the thicker silane coating at 0.5 wt.% loading level had the highest wear resistance with a wear rate reduction of nearly 65% compared to that of the neat HDPE.

Dr. Xinnan Wang North Dakota State University Mechanical Engineering Assistant Professor xinnan.wang@ndsu.edu Poster Title: Nanomechanical Characterization of Superlattice Assembled from Tobacco Mosaic Virus Abstract: Superlattice holds the possibilities to be used in mechanical and electrical industry for its excellent physical properties. Recently, it was found that superlattice structure can be formed by Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) in Barium ion solution. Based on that, the study of its nanomechanical characterization is reported in this paper. Atomic force microscopy based nanoindentation was used to probe the mechanical properties of the TMV superlattice. Theoretical study describes how the elastic modulus is to be determined from extended Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) follows to simulate the indentation process with a variety of elastic moduli for the superlattice structure being used. The TMV superlattice, with a 0.075Âą0.025 GPa elastic modulus from JKR model and a 0.5Âą0.1 GPa elastic modulus from FEA simulation, is found to be softer than a single TMV, whose elastic modulus is in the vicinity of 1 GPa.

Yechun Wang North Dakota State University Mechanical Engineering Assistant Professor yechun.wang@ndsu.edu Poster Title: Motion of Droplets in Creeping Flows and Electric Fields Abstract: Droplet motion in creeping flows and/or electric fields is getting more attention as technologies evolve towards small scales. For example, in pharmaceutical applications, fluid droplets in microfluidic channels are utilized as â&#x20AC;&#x153;micro-reactorsâ&#x20AC;? to precisely control the reaction rate. In Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorters in clinical applications, droplets are used as carriers to sort and collect biological cells. The ability to numerically simulate in a fast and accurate manner the dynamics of a small volume of fluid is thus demanded. A 3D Spectral Boundary Integral Algorithm for interfacial dynamics is presented. This method achieves an exponential convergence and good numerical stability. Several applications of the method are presented, including the droplet motion in a square microfluidic channel, droplet deformation and migration in a wall bounded shear flow, behavior of a compound droplet in linear flows, as well as droplet motion incurred by a steady electric field.

Om Prakash Yadav North Dakota State University Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Associate Professor Om.Yadav@ndsu.edu Poster Title: Modeling complex physical system to capture system interaction failure Abstract: Engineering systems are becoming increasingly complex due to the rapid technological integration and growth. Further, the use of hybrid system such as electro-mechanical in engineering system introduces more complexity in the design. This results in unanticipated failure phenomena in engineering system. Traditional failure analysis such as failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) are unable to capture unanticipated system level interaction failure. Therefore, an updated approach is required to capture these unanticipated failure modes of complex engineering system. In this work, a cognitive map based behavior modeling has been proposed to capture failure phenomena including system level interaction. Diesel fuel injection pump is used to demonstrate the methodology.

Poster Title: Effective Design Optimization Approach Capturing Life Cycle Behavior Abstract: Our Current research focuses on developing effecting design optimization methods considering physicsof-failure or degradation behavior of product or system. The effort is to develop and integrate reliability based robust design approach capturing degradation behavior during field life. Our Research uses existing physics of failure models if available or develops regression models using DOE or robust design techniques, for modeling degradation behavior .These degradation models are then converted into probabilistic models while taking into account its usage life distribution. The probabilistic degradation, thus developed, models are used to estimate product reliability of any product/ system for any given design life. This can further be used to optimize design parameters considering reliability target as well as user behavior. Our preliminary results show significant potential and better optimization results in comparison to traditional modeling approaches.

Jun Yang; Xuefeng Chu North Dakota State University Department of Civil Engineering Ph.D. Candidate; Assistant Professor jun.yang.2@ndsu.edu Poster Title: Modeling of Microtopography-Controlled Hydrologic Connectivity and Overland Flow Dynamics Abstract: Land surfaces are characterized by depressions, which break spatial continuity of various hydrologic features/properties. The varying connectivity of topographic surfaces and the threshold characteristics of a series of hydrologic and geomorphologic processes result in localized and independent hydrologic mass balance. This study centers on modeling the formation and evolution of the puddle-to-puddle (P2P) dynamic overland flow processes and further examining the effects of surface microtopography on hydrologic connectivity. An instantaneous-profile laser scanner is utilized to acquire high-resolution DEMs of various surfaces. A conceptual P2P overland flow model is developed to simulate the P2P processes and characterize hydrologic connectivity for microtopography-controlled overland flow systems. It is found that the number and normalized average of connected areas follow a similar nonlinear decreasing trend for small scale surfaces. Connectivity properties vary with different stages of the P2P overland flow dynamics, depending on the spatial patterns of puddles.

Mijia Yang; Mike Telste North Dakota State University Civil Engineering Assistant Professor; Graduate Student mijia.yang@ndsu.edu Poster Title: Identification of impact events through strain guage sensor networks Abstract: Impact causes damages over aerospace structures, which could be catastrophic when those damages go undetected. Through a strain gauge sensor network, the responses at different sensors are detected through the DATAQ system for an instrumented impact hammer excitation and used to back calculate the impact locations and the impact forces. Based on the tested three cases, the impact forces and impact locations were identified in 90% accuracy. Through these determined impact locations and forces, a mechanic analysis is also conducted to predict the stress level over a ½ in. composite plate. The possible damages generated through these impact events are estimated and compared with the experimental results. The comparison shows a good matching between the prediction and the actual testing results, which strengthens the potential application of the suggested system in structural health monitoring of aerospace and civil structures.

Qixin Zhou; Yechun Wang North Dakota State University Mechanical Engineering Graduate student; Assistant Professor qixin.zhou@my.ndsu.edu Poster Title: Flow induced degradation of corrosion protective coatings Abstract: Water percolation into metal-coating interface is the main cause for the loss of corrosion protective function of organic coatings and leads to coating delamination and underfilm corrosion. Flowing fluids are found to enhance the transport of ions and oxygen through the coating film, abrade the coating surface with fluid shear, and degrade the barrier properties of organic coatings. In this study, deionized water and NaCl solutions are employed as the working fluid which accelerates the coating degradation. A variety of coatings including epoxy and polyurethane based clear coating, commercially available air force coating, and marine coating are investigated under laminar flow as well as stationary immersion. We find that the electrochemical impedance modulus of coatings decrease with the immersion time and the decrease is more substantial for flowing fluids at higher flow rates. Different types of coatings respond differently to DI water and NaCl solutions for their degradation rates.

Zhengping Zhou North Dakota State University Mechanical Engineering Graduate Student zhengping.zhou@my.ndsu.edu Poster Title: Hierarchically PANI/CNTs/CNFs porous electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors Abstract: Among the various existing energy conversion and storage technologies, supercaapcitors are deemed as an effective, competitive solution to the increasing need for high-power density energy storage devices. Yet, supercapacitors usually have relatively low-energy density compared to batteries. In this study, electrospinning and post surface functionalization techniques were utilized to produce hierarchically carbon nanostructures coated with needle-like polyaniline (PANI) nanowires via in-situ polymerization. The materials were used as flexible, multifunctional, porous electrodes used in novel high-performance supercapacitors. The proposed electrodes have the advantages of both CNTs-grafted CNFs (low intrinsic contact electric resistance) and PANI nanowires (high-pseudo capacitance), and therefore show excellent electrochemical properties including high effective specific capacitance and excellent cyclability. The present experimental results demonstrate that the proof-of-concept electrodes based on hierarchically materials are excellent potential candidates for use in high-performance supercapacitors for energy storage and management.

Mahdi Farrokh Baroughi South Dakota State University Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Assistant Professor m.farrokhbaroughi@sdstate.edu Poster Title: Photovoltaic Energy Conversion: Nanoscale to Gigascale Abstract: A summary of research activities in Dr. Baroughiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s group in the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department of South Dakota State University will be presented. The poster will lay out projects in 4 major research areas including: 1) charge transport in nanostructured solar cells, 2) understanding and engineering of nanostructured photovoltaic interfaces, 3) plasmonics for upconversion of sub-bandgap photons, and 4) prediction of solar irradiance for photovoltaic virtual power plants.

Venkat Bommisetty South Dakota State University Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Associate Professor venkat.bommisetty@sdstate.edu Poster Title: Engineering Nanoscale Interfaces Structure in Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Abstract: Interfacial processes responsible for the enhancement in device efficiency of aluminum confined poly(3hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk hetero junction (BHJ) solar cells upon post-annealing were studied using current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CS-AFM) and intensity modulated photoelectron spectroscopy (IMPS). The Al confined post-annealed BHJ solar cells exhibit an improved device efficiency of 2.3% compared to 1.0% for the pre-annealed BHJ solar cells with similar photocarrier harvesting. The nanoscale topography and CS-AFM results indicate uniformly PCBM rich Al-blend interface, in contrast to non-uniformly distributed PCBM in pre-annealed solar cells. The ohmic and electrically inert nature of Al-PCBM contact reduced the density of trap states at the interface thereby minimizing the interfacial non-geminate carrier recombination. The IMPS measurements at various light intensities suggested reduced interfacial non-geminate recombination in post-annealed cells.

Jikai Du South Dakota State University Mechanical Engineering Assistant Professor jikai.du@sdstate.edu Poster Title: Advanced Ultrasound Techniques for the Evaluation of Composite Structures Abstract: Composite materials and structures are increasingly being applied in aerospace, marine, and wind power industries, as well as in commercial products. Nondestructive testing plays a key role during composite fabrication and maintenance in service. Among the variety of nondestructive techniques available, ultrasound technique has been the most reliable and promising approach. In our study, various ultrasound techniques are applied for the inspection of composite wrapped cylindrical structures. Ultrasound C-Scan technique is applied for the evaluation of composite layer and for the defects at the interface between composite/metal layers. Ultrasound surface wave technique is utilized for the detection of surface and subsurface cracks. The potential of ultrasound guided wave technique and phased array technique is also studied theoretically; simulation results show that the ultrasound traveling direction and its acoustic field intensity depend on ultrasound sensor parameters and on cylinder material properties, and this will determine the optimization of experimental parameters.

Shawn Duan South Dakota State University Mechanical Engineering Associate Professor shawn.duan@sdstate.edu Poster Title: Implementation of an Efficient Algorithm for Virtual Prototyping of Large-Sized Multibody Dynamical Systems on TeraGrid Abstract: The scientific problems in virtual prototyping of multibody dynamical systems are articulated. An efficient parallelizable algorithm is then introduced to address these problems. The implementation of the algorithm on TeraGrid computing systems is further discussed. Various simulation cases and computing results are presented to demonstrate impact of the TeraGrid to the performance of the algorithm

Qi Hua Fan South Dakota State University Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Associate Professor qihua.fan@sdstate.edu Poster Title: Thin Film Solar Cells and Technologies Abstract: This presentation outlines the research activities led by Dr. Qi Hua Fan in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at South Dakota State University. Major research areas in this group include thin-film inorganic solar cells, plasma technologies, nanostructured materials, and photonic crystals. Further information can be found at http://www.sdstate.edu/eecs/about/faculty/qihuafan/main.cfm.

Mahdi Farahikia South Dakota State University Mechanical Engineering Graduate Research Assistant mahdi.farahikia@sdstate.edu Poster Title: Research Projects on Evaluating Material Properties Abstract: A series of research activities with the purpose of evaluating the mechanical properties of different materials, mainly composites.

Shiling Pei South Dakota State University Civil and Environmental Assistant Professor shiling.pei@sdstate.edu Poster Title: A Need for Next Generation Resiential Buildings: Sustainabiliyt and Resiliency Abstract: Recent natural disasters, especially the 2011 Tornado outbreak in Southern U.S., had brought devastating turmoil to the affected communities. Climate change and extreme weather conditions imposed an increasing demand on residential structures in providing life safety and property protection. Failure and poor performance of residential buildings during recent natural disasters clearly illustrated that current residential infrastructure does not provide desired sustainability or resiliency against hazard events. Practical and revolutionary ways to renovate current residential construction and design practice is a promising future direction for hazard mitigation research. Several relevant efforts on next generation residential buildings conducted in the past year were presented in this poster.

Ms. Rubana B Priti South Dakota State University Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Graduate Student rubana.priti@sdstate.edu Poster Title: Nanoscale structure and charge distribution in hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon films studied by Electrostatic Force Microscopy Abstract: Hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) is a promising absorber material for solar cells. However nc-Si:H is heterogeneous material with significant variation in nanoscale electrical conductivity at nanometer length scales due to presence of crystallites, disordered regions and grain boundaries. This structural disorder results in poor carrier transport and also causes light induced degradation, which adversely affects the device performance. This work reports the local charge distribution at grains and grain/grain-boundary interfaces of nc-Si:H studied by Electrostatic Force Microscopy (EFM).

Qiquan Qiao South Dakota State University Electrical Engineering Assistant Professor qiquan.qiao@sdstate.edu Poster Title: Organic, organic/inorganic, and dye-sensitized solar cells Abstract: Dr. Qiao's research of next generation cost effective solar cells focuses on new approaches to enduring challenges in photovoltaic technologies. Specifically, his team is working on (1) increasing light absorption through the design and synthesis of new organic semiconductors, including broadband polymers; (2) enhancing charge transport through the growth and optimization of inorganic nanostructures with high carrier mobility, such as ZnO and CdSe nanorods; (3) maximizing power output by engineering donor/acceptor morphology; and (4) fabricating and testing high efficiency organic, organic/inorganic, and dye-sensitized solar cells.

Forrest Ames University of North Dakota Mechanical Engineering Professor and Associate Dean for Academic Affairs forrest.ames@engr.und.edu Poster Title: Experimental Investigation of Low Pressure Variable-Speed Turbine Aerodynamics: Benchmark Data Set Abstract: A closed loop compressible flow facility has been developed to study gas turbine aerodynamics at engine Mach numbers at low to moderate Reynolds numbers. The facility has been used to study vane aerodynamics and heat transfer over a broad range of Reynolds numbers (90,000 through 1,000,000) at engine relevant (0.7 through 0.9) Mach numbers. These data show the significance of Reynolds number lapse. The facility is currently being readied to investigate the influence of incidence angle (beta angle from -17째 to 40째) and Reynolds number (50,000 to 530,000) on the aerodynamics of a variable speed turbine blade design. This current research is funded by NASA and is being coordinated with the Turbine Branch at NASA Glenn.

Matthew Cavalli University of North Dakota Mechanical Engineering Associate Professor and Dept Chair matthew.cavalli@engr.und.edu Poster Title: Materials Research in UND Mechanical Engineering Abstract: Work is underway on a variety of materials-related topics in the UND Mechanical Engineering Department. These include polymer production from captured CO2, fatigue and repair of polymer composites, diffusion bonding of metals for high temperature applications, and laser cladding of aluminum and titanium substrates. This poster will present a brief overview of the work in each of these areas as the basis for further discussions and potential collaborations.

Saleh Faruque; Tasbirun Nahian Upal University of North Dakota Electrical Engineering Graduate Student; Associate Professor saleh.faruque@engr.und.edu Poster Title: Free Space Laser Communications for UAV Abstract: Orthogonal On-Off Keying is a coded modulation technique, where the input digital signal is mapped into a block of orthogonal codes. The encoded data, which is in orthogonal space, modulates the carrier frequency by means of On-Off Keying. At the receive side, the data is recovered by means of code correlation. This modulation technique offers channel coding and modulation, and synchronization without any additional circuits. These techniques are especially beneficial in high bandwidth and secure laser communication applications, such as for use in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

Saleh Faruque; Zahirul Islam University of North Dakota Electrical Engineering Graduate Student; Associate Professor saleh.faruque@engr.und.edu Poster Title: Cellular RF Coverage Design Using Google Earth Abstract: In planning for any radio system upgrade, expansion or replacement, the first set of priorities often involves improvements in coverage; it may be the only priority. These coverage predictions are invaluable for the assessment and selection of optimum site locations and equipment configurations. RF coverage maps can assist in planning efforts or perform complete system design and layout services. Coverage planning may also include field measurements and "drive testing". Here I have used Cloud RF to design the RF Coverage in Google earth platform.

Saleh Faruque University of North Dakota Electrical Engineering Associate Professor saleh.faruque@engr.und.edu Poster Title: Underwater Laser Communication Abstract: Traditionally, acoustic communications were used in the ocean, these originally superseded optical communications due to their ability to communicate over larger ranges. However, much like the on-land phenomenon, there is now an increased need for short-range, high-bandwidth wireless communications underwater. Acoustic systems are not suitable for this application as they are inherently band limited; systems undergo severe, frequency dependant dispersion, even at short ranges. A promising alternative is the use of visible light, particularly blue-green wavelengths. Light in this region propagates through water better by several orders of magnitude than the remaining electromagnetic spectrum.

Saleh Faruque; Sehtab Hossain University of North Dakota Electrical Engineering Graduate Student; Associate Professor saleh.faruque@engr.und.edu Poster Title: Performance of Orthogonal On-Off Keying During Atmospheric Turbulance Abstract: Orthogonal On-Off keying is proposed for Laser Communication during the time of atmospheric turbulence. A Gaussian laser beam propagating in atmospheric turbulence is examined by using a derived analytic expression. Expressions for average intensity, Bit error rate, gain are obtained by inspection and analyzing all data. These results provide a model for a free-space laser transmitter as well as receiver which is used to reduce pointing errors.

Reza Fazel-Rezai University of North Dakota Electrical Engineering Assistant Professor reza@engr.und.edu Poster Title: Research Activities at the Biomedical Image and Signal Processing Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, UND Abstract: In this poster, major research activities including brain-computer interface, electroencephalogram signal processing for seizure detection and prediction, development of a health monitoring device based on heart signals for a mobile device, and human performance evaluation using brain and heart signals are presented and discussed.

Juergen K.S. Fischer University of North Dakota Advanced Engineered Materials Center Senior Engineer juergen.fischer@und.edu Poster Title: Electrodeposition from ionic liquids Abstract: Ionic liquids are molten salts with melting points <100 oC. They can have an electrochemical window of up to 6 V. BenĂŠt Laboratories in Watervlies, NY and the AEM Center are working together on a project to bolster the domestic capability of developing lightweight corrosion resistant materials and surfaces for military weapons systems and surfaces. One project was regarding plating parts with tantalum. A second one is about plating parts made from magnesium alloys with aluminum to mitigate corrosion on these sensitive and expensive components. NASA ND EPSCoR sponsored the third project in this area, niobium plating. Niobium becomes superconductive at 9.2 K, which is the highest normal-to-superconducting phase transition temperature of any elementary superconductor. Electrodeposited niobium can be employed as superconducting lead material for cryogenic sensor applications such as high energy-resolution spectrometers from the microwave to x-ray energy band.

Erik Flaten University of North Dakota Mechanical Engineering Graduate Student erik.j.flaten@gmail.com Poster Title: Sign Classification Abstract: Recent Government mandates state that all traffic signs must be inventoried and inspected. The current manual method is labor intensive and costly. To address this issue we are working on a system to collect all the information needed for a sign inventory includingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;sign type, location, and appearance. The first step is to segment the sign from the image. Then a polygon is fit to the segmented sign. The classification algorithm determines the class of the sign based on the shape and relative color. The algorithm relies on Decision Theory to place detected signs into one of three categories; regulatory, warning, or guide. Once classified, the GPS location of the sign is estimated. The obtained data is stored in a KML file, which can be viewed using Google Earth.

Scott Gavett University of North Dakota EE Graduate Student scott.gavett@gmail.com Poster Title: Comparison of Paradigms for a P300 based BCI Virtual Speller Abstract: Brain Computer Interface (BCI) is the connection of the brain to be an input for a computer. There are many different ways this can be done, the P300 signal, which is a positive peak in the brain wave (EEG) 300 ms after a stimulus, is what we use to conduct three experiments to create a virtual speller. We have designed experiments to test different paradigms for accuracy, region error, and adjacency error. The first of three experiments consisted of comparing the single character (SC), row/column (RC), region based 1 (RB1), and region based 2 (RB2). The second took the RB paradigms and tested the errors per region while the third experiment looked at the comparison of the SC, RC, and RB2. Overall, the three experiments shared similar results, the RC and RB paradigms being statistically better than the SC paradigm, while the RB reduced errors caused by the adjacency problem.

Daba S. Gedafa, Ph.D., P.E. University of North Dakota Civil Engineering Assistant Professor daba.gedafa@engr.und.edu Poster Title: Relationship between Flexible Pavement Cracking and Surface Deflections Abstract: The Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) has a comprehensive pavement management system. Annual condition surveys are conducted. Currently, KDOT uses manual distress surveys to collect cracking data which is slow, labor intensive and somewhat hazardous especially in the urban areas. KDOT uses a falling weight deflectometer (FWD) to measure pavement surface deflection. The objective of this study was to investigate whether cracking of flexible pavements can be predicted in terms of surface deflection and some other objectively measured variables. Nonlinear regression procedure in the Statistical Analysis Software and Solver in Microsoft Excel were used to develop sigmoidal models. Sigmoidal Equivalent Fatigue Cracking and Equivalent Transverse Cracking models have shown low to high coefficients of determination. The lower the mean absolute deviation difference, the better the agreement between observed and estimated cracking values. These models can be used to estimate EFCR and ETCR at network-level.

Harvey Gullicks; Charles Moretti University of North Dakota Civil Engr. Assoc. Professor; Assoc. Professor harvey.gullicks@engr.und.edu Poster Title: GFWWTP Biosolids Management Abstract: Presents ongoing research and assessment of biosolids management/ultimate disposal options for the Grand Forks Wastewater Treatment Plant, including land application, landfilling, and composting.

Camerin Hahn University of North Dakota Electrical Engineering Graduate Student Camerin.hahn@my.und.edu Poster Title: Toward an Implantable Dielectric Properties Probe Abstract: Dielectric properties of biological tissues have been of interest for several years. In the available literature there is very little information available about in vivo breast tissue dielectric properties. While, there is an evidence that dielectric properties of ex vivo and in vivo tissues are different and this could dramatically affect the accuracy of breast cancer microwave imaging. In this poster we propose an implantable wireless sensor for measuring these properties.

Joseph Hartman University of North Dakota Department of Geology and Geological Engineering Professor joseph.hartman@engr.und.edu Poster Title: The importance of collection and data management systems: Modern loss of Late Cretaceous continental and brackish mollusks from the Fruitland Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico Abstract: In 1915, C. M. Bauer and his crew discovered important Late Cretaceous continental and brackish fossils while mapping coal resources on Navajo Nation lands in northwestern New Mexico. Bauer (1) and Bauer and Reeside (2) reported in detail on their coal study, while Stanton (3) identified the fossils (now at the Smithsonian) collected by their efforts. Since Bauer, Navajo and San Juan Mine operations have removed overburden to extract coal on both the north and south sides of the San Juan River, which resulted in the loss of primary type specimen localities. In the early 1980s, Hartman relocated the Bauer fossil locations and collected fossils from most of the threatened localities. Today, most of the surrogate localities are now also lost to mine operations. In 1997, the Grand Forks flood resulted in the loss of a number of the San Juan Basin fossils because of water in the basement of Leonard Hall. Quality U.S. Geological field data permitted relocation of the fossil locations. Similar collection management systems for UND fossil and data should be in place to allow for subsequent use of historically important national resources.

Sukhvarsh Jerath University of North Dakota Civil Engineering Professor sukhvarsh.jerath@engr. und.edu Poster Title: Seismic Analysis and Design of Wind Turbines Abstract: The role of wind turbines in the production of alternate source of energy continues to grow rapidly theroughout the world as the electric power generated by the wind is increasing.The growth has led to the increased interest in the seismic design of wind towers. The current turbines are taller because they are constructed in low wind velocity areas. So the seismic force may be larger than the wind force. the wind turbine structure consists of a tower fixed at the base, a nacelle that sits at the top of the otower and contains the rotor, and the hub attached to the front of the nacelle to which wind turbine blades are attached. The wind turbine is analyzed by the finite element method using the ANSYS program. The tower and the blades are modeled by shell elements, the hub and the nacelle are modeled by the solid elements in the finite element model. This research project is conducted to study the effect of damping, turbine size and weight on the seismic behvior. Three different earthquakes, Imperial Valley, Landers, and the Northridge, recorded in the literature are used in the study.

Srinivas Reddy Kamireddy; Yun Ji University of North Dakota Chemical Engineering Graduate Student; Assistant Professor kamireddy.srinu@gmail.com Poster Title: Effect and Mechanism of Metal Salt Catalysts in Biomass Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Abstract: The goal of this research is to understand the effects of different metal cations on biomass pretreatments (i.e. xylose and glucose yields and inhibitor product formation) and to evaluate the enzymatic saccharification performance of the metal salt enhanced pretreated solids. The metal salts chosen for the study were CuCl2, FeCl3, and AlCl3. The effects of these metal salts were studied at 150째C and 160 째C) with molar concentrations of 0.075M and 0.125M. The reaction time was kept constant at 10 min. Xylan solubility increased with increase in molarity and reaction temperature for FeCl3 or CuCl2. A similar trend was observed for cellulose digestibility for FeCl3 orCuCl2. However, the samples treated with AlCl3 has very low xylose yield since most of the xylose was degrading into furfural. The amount of furfural increased drastically for samples treated at 160 째C. This implies that Fe3+, Cu2+ and Al3+cations salts acidify the solution possibly through undergoing hydrolysis reactions.

Gautham Krishnamoorthy University of North Dakota Chemical Engineering Assistant Professor gautham.krishnamoorthy@engr.und.edu Poster Title: Computational Fluid Dynamics Research at UND Chemical Engineering Abstract: The poster summarizes four active research areas of investigation currently being undertaken within our group using a suite of in-house and commercial computational tools. Design and Optimization of Algal-Photobioreactors Simulations of radiative transfer within an air-lift photobioreactor (PBR) are demonstrated by coupling it to the fluid hydrodynamics and employing wavelength dependant properties for the participating media. To assist towards the design, scale-up and optimization of such reactors, a parametric investigation of the relative importance of the angular resolution of the radiation calculations, scattering phase functions of the bubbles, air mass flow rate and the bubble size are investigated by examining the 3D distributions of radiation within the PBR. Oxy-Coal Combustion: An Investigating of Ash Vaporization and Trace Element Evolution The emission of submicron particles during coal combustion can negatively impact the atmosphere as well as human health. The formation of these particles is known to be due to the vaporization of ash in coal. As newer coal combustion technologies for carbon capture such as oxy-combustion are being explored, it is important to determine how changes to the operating conditions will impact ash formation. Coal combustion simulations performed employing the commercial computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software FLUENT速 and its subsequent coupling to an ash vaporization model form the basis of this study. Oxy-Combustion: An Investigation of Gas Radiation and Chemistry Models Simulations of oxy-combustion employing different radiation modeling options are explored to achieve an optimum balance of speed and accuracy. The problems investigated consisted of both standalone radiation modeling of prototypical furnace geometries at a range of geometric dimensions as well as fully coupled computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of laminar and turbulent natural-gas flames operating in air-firing and oxy-firing modes. Employing benchmark solutions as a reference, the accuracies of our recently developed weighted-sum-of-gray-gases (WSGG) model was evaluated. Numerical predictions of flame length and radiative heat loss fractions are also compared against experimental data. Flow and Boundary Layer Transitional Behavior Around Hyper-Sonic Re-entry Vehicles This project summarizes the development of a computational framework for predicting the flow behavior around hypersonic re-entry vehicles using commercial tools. The features of commercial software that may help alleviate some of the problems encountered in existing computational aerothermodynamic codes will be highlighted.

Arun Kumar University of North Dakota Electrical Engineering Graduate Student kumar16@gmail.com Poster Title: Characterization of wireless channels for DSRC applications using SDR Abstract: Vehicular wireless communications and ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) is a by-product of our ever increasing use of wireless communications. The reduction in cost, worldwide prevalence, access to real time information time, has made wireless communications a necessity more than a luxury. A DSRC (Dedicated Short-range Communications) standard was formulated in 1999 and FCC (Federal Communications Commission) frequency allocated for all DSRC communications at the 5.9 GHz band. In the near future DSRC technology will be widely used for different applications ranging from safety alert, collision avoidance, congestion prediction, social networks integration and passenger â&#x20AC;&#x153;infortainmentâ&#x20AC;? delivery, just to name a few. While exciting possibilities of smart cars are entertaining, detailed behavior, reliability and robustness of DSRC technology under various V2V (Vehicle to Vehicle) environment remains an open question to both industry and research communities. Before widespread adoption of this technology can occur, different aspects of the wireless mobile to mobile channel needs to be researched and studied. Mobile-to-mobile channels differ from traditional cellular channels, as both transmitters and receivers are moving constantly in mobile-to-mobile channels. Channel models previously available from cellular wireless channels have to be remodeled to fit the new characteristics. Our work focuses on studying a key aspect of optimal antenna placement in intervehicular communications. Using SDR (Software Defined Radio) as a test platform to obtain data, we are able to cut down both costs and space associated with the use of traditional test equipment associated with such testing. A comparative study is performed between computer simulations and field-testing to verify results. Future work with MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) antennas is proposed as a method for more robust communications.

Nick Lentz; Steve Benson University of North Dakota Institute for Energy Studies Associate Director; Professor steven.benson@und.edu Poster Title: University of North Dakota Institute for Energy Studies Abstract: The University of North Dakota Institute for Energy Studies educates the next generation of energy experts and pursues new frontiers in energy research that enables the development of integrated energy technologies that are economically competitive, reliable, sustainable, and politically and environmentally acceptable.

Yeo Howe Lim University of North Dakota Civil Engineering Associate Professor howe.lim@engr.und.edu Poster Title: Recent Advances in Hydrologic and Hydraulic Modeling Abstract: This poster paper briefly presents the current main research areas involved by the author and his graduate students. These are: 1) water level quantiles of Devils Lake under current and projected future climates; 2) predicting evaporative losses over water bodies in cold regions using a temperature-based model; 3) flood frequency analysis of the Missouri river basin based on the L-moment flood index method; 4) major assessments and adaptation tools for flood management in the Northern Plains under potential climate change environment; 6) hydraulic model study of semi-permeable rubble mound weir; 7) protecting road embankments from overtopping flow; 8) efficient energy use in pump water supply systems in cold regions; and 9) Tongue River hydraulic modeling and stream bank stability assessment for the City of Cavalier, ND.

Iraj Mamaghani University of North Dakota Civil Engineering Associate Professor iraj.mamaghani@engr.und.edu Poster Title: STABILITY AND SEISMIC PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF STIFFENED THIN-WALLED STEEL TUBULAR COLUMNS Abstract: The paper deals with the elastoplastic analysis and ductility evaluation of thin-walled steel tubular columns subjected to cyclic loading. The important characteristics of the thin-walled steel tubular columns are noted and the basic seismic design concepts of such structures are presented. A performance based ultimate strength and ductility evaluation of thin-walled steel tubular columns is presented. The method involves an elastoplastic pushover analysis and definition of failure criterion taking into account local buckling and residual stresses due to welding. The application of the method is demonstrated by comparing the computed strength and ductility of some cantilever columns with test results. The method is applicable for both the design of new and retrofitting of existing thin-walled steel tubular columns. The effects of some important parameters, such as width-to-thickness ratio, column slenderness ratio, and residual stress the ultimate strength and ductility of thin-walled steel tubular columns are presented and discussed. It is concluded that the presented ductility evaluation method can be practically implemented for both the seismic design of new and the retrofit of existing structures composed of thin-walled steel tubular columns.

Sima Noghanian University of North Dakota Electrical Engineering Assistant Professor sima.noghanian@engr.und.edu Poster Title: Textile Antennas for Space Applications Abstract: The feasibility of using textile antennas on spacesuit is investigated. The spacesuit antennas should be flexible, low profile, and high gain. Textile antennas provide a lot of potential to be integrated with the suit. To increase the gain the feasibility of using Electronic Band Gap (EBG) and Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSS) are investigated.

Ashraf Qadir University of North Dakota Mechanical Engineering Graduate Student ashraf.qadr@gmail.com Poster Title: On-board Tracking with a Small UAV Abstract: In this work we present a real time tracking system that runs on-board a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The algorithm autonomously detects and tracks object of interest. The tracking system is completely autonomous. It detects failure and of re-detects the object of interest when needed. In addition, a neuro-fuzzy controller for a two axes gimbal system is presented. The controller takes the detected position of the object as input and generates pan and tilt motion and velocity commands for the gimbal in order to keep the object of interest at the center of the image frame. The controller is trained off-line until a desired error level is achieved. Training is then continued on-line to allow the system to accommodate for air speed changes. Several tests including lab tests and actual flight tests of the UAV have been carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the controller.

Ahmed Rabbi University of North Dakota Electrical Engineering Graduate Student ahmed.rabbi@my.und.edu Poster Title: A Real-time Heart Monitoring System for a Mobile Device Abstract: We developed a high performance and intelligent wireless measuring cardiac monitoring system for a mobile device that is characterized by small size and low power consumption. The hardware system consists of an one-chip microcontroller (Atmega 128L), a wireless module, and electrocardiogram (ECG) signal preprocessing including filtering, power noise canceling, and level shifting. The software utilizes a recursive filter and algorithms to detect ECG signal parameters, i.e., QRS-complex, Q-R-T points, HR, and QT-interval. A mobile health monitoring application program was also developed. To easily interface with a mobile device, an analyzer program operates on a Windows mobile OS. The application program consists of the following sub-systems: real-time signal receiver, ECG signal processing, signals display in mobile phone, and data management as well as five user interface screens. We verified the signal feature detection using the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. The detection algorithms were implemented in the mobile phone application program.

Hossein Salehfar University of North Dakota Electrical Engineering Professor and Interim chair hossein.salehfar@engr.und.edu Poster Title: Demand Response in Smart Grids Abstract: Demand Response (DR) is defined as: Changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time. It turns out, however, that demand response is the largest underutilized reliability resource in North America. This is partly due to the non-existence of a reasonably accurate DR model in the energy industry to allow utilities to properly apply and manage their current DR programs. In this work several DR models are developed providing more adequate results in long term and short term studies. Using these models, the reliability impact of DR programs on power system smart grid operation is studied and evaluated.

Wayne Seames University of North Dakota Chem Eng and ND SUNRISE Professor and Director wayne.seames@engr.und.edu Poster Title: Crop Cracking Technologies Abstract: A suite of technologies have been developed for the production of renewable transportation fuels and chemicals. The key step in the process is the noncatalytic cracking of fatty acid oils which can be produced from crops, algae, and microbes.

CJ Sitter; Doug Larson University of North Dakota Advanced Engineered Materials Center Graduate Student; Senior Engineer cj.sitter@my.und.edu; Doug.Larson@engr.und.edu Poster Title: Friction Stir Weld and Corrosion Studies Abstract: The Advanced Engineered Materials Center at UND is performing corrosion analysis of dissimilar friction stir welded alloys. Friction stir welding (FSW) is a relatively new welding technique that is generating significant interest for joining various metals including dissimilar metals. The process involves the stirring together of adjacent materials by a tool rotating within and traveling along a join seam. The material is heated by the rotating tool to just below the melting temperature of the joined materials, plastically deforming the material in the solid phase, causing them to join. FSW can produce a very strong homogeneous weld which in many cases is superior to other forms of welding or joining.

Nabil Suleiman University of North Dakota Civil Engineering Associate Professor nabil.suleiman@engr.und.edu Poster Title: Assessing the Rut Resistance Performance of Warm Mix Asphalts in North Dakota Abstract: Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) paving technology was developed in Europe to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this new technique, it allows to compact at a temperature range of 250°F to 275°F which is in between hot mix asphalt (HMA) and Cold Asphalt Mix. Laboratory studies of WMA samples (Warm Mix Asphalt Project “H-MDF-2-011 (025)035”) and control HMA sections near Valley City, ND was performed using Asphalt Pavement Analyzer (APA) test under dry and moisture conditions as per standard AASHTO TP63. The results of average rut depths from the six APA run show higher values of WMA mixes than HMA control specimen.

Clement Tang University of North Dakota Mechanical Engineering Assistant Professor clement.tang@engr.und.edu Poster Title: Heat transfer and flow of solid nanoparticles in liquid mixtures Abstract: Dispersions of solid nanoparticles in liquid base fluids (nanofluids) have shown enhancement in heat transfer capability. Dispersions of nanoparticles in liquid base fluids not only alter the thermal conductivity but also other thermophysical properties. The research objective of this project is to achieve a fundamental understanding of the thermal transport behavior of nanofluids with the potential to break through the performance barriers of conventional fluids. The research represents a comprehensive study of nanofluids thermal transport phenomena. It combines experimental evaluations of the thermophysical properties of nanofluids, the convective heat transfer performance, and the viscous pressure drop that dictates the pumping power required to transport the fluids.

Benjamin Waldera University of North Dakota Advanced Engineered Materials Center Graduate Student benjamin.waldera@engr.und.edu Poster Title: Laser Additive Manufacturing and Laser Surface Treatment of Alloys and Metal Matrix Composites Abstract: A high power laser beam can be used as an effective source of heat to melt metals and alloys and subsequently, making deposits on a substrate in layer-by-layer fashion. A continuous layer-by-layer deposition based on computer modeling helps attain pre-determined three-dimensional shapes, as desired. The process is called the direct laser metal deposition (DLMD), which offers many advantages, namely lower time-to-market, near-net-shape production, high energy efficiency, high material utilization rate, a faster processing speed and relative cleanliness. Similarly, a laser beam can also be used to melt or harden top surfaces of metals and alloys without affecting their bulk properties. Laser Surface Melting (LSM) achieves surfaces essentially in the solid solution from through rapid melting and cooling thereby improving desirable properties. LSM has potential of improving surface properties of alloys by refining/homogenizing microstructure, dissolving/redistributing precipitates and inclusions, and through phase transformation. At the Advanced Engineered Materials Center, DLMD has been successfully applied to develop thick coatings and freeform structures of different properties and performance. Applications of LSM are also being investigated. The poster presents the Centerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s unique capabilities and processes in the area of laser materials processing is presented.


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