Effective Use of Active Learning Application. Examples from Seven Countries
It has been proven by many researches that teaching science with the traditional methods is not an effective way in today’s world. However, it’s quite difficult to have the right conditions to apply to an active learning process while the students, teachers and the school boards are used to traditional methods. Due to this reason, a project was developed by nine different institutions, and applied to the European Union Life Long Learning Programme, Leonardo Da Vinci Sub-programme for the financial support. Finally, the project was supported by this programme and called ‘Creating active learning material for science educators of vocational education’ (project number: 2010-1-TR1-LEO04-15846 1). The project was performed from August 2010 to August 2012. There were nine different institutions on the project. In this study, it was aimed to explain and discuss the performed works during the project process.
EFFECTIVE USE OF ACTIVE LEARNING APPLICATIONS (EXAMPLES FROM SEVEN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES) Editor: PHd. Meryem Nur AYDEDE YALÇIN Effective Use of Active Learning Applications: Examples From Seven Different Countries Editor: PhD. Meryem Nur AYDEDE YALÇIN, Nigde University, Faculty of Education, Department of Science Education, Turkey Material Arrangement: Elena ANGHEL & Ionela POPA, Training Cons 2005 srl, Iasi, Romania PHd. Meryem Nur AYDEDE YALÇIN & Arzu ÇETİN, Nigde University, Faculty of Education, Department of Science Education, Turkey Cover of e-Book: Marta CUSTURA, Training Cons 2005 srl, Iasi, Romania Chapters Images: Christos Nicolaides, DekaPlus Business Services Ltd, Cyprus Writers: Elena ANGHEL, Training Cons 2005 SRL – Romania Lorena ANTONOVICI, Training Cons 2005 SRL – Romania Meryem Nur AYDEDE YALÇIN, Niğde University, Faculty of Education– Turkey Daniela BUSUIOC, Training Cons 2005 SRL – Romania Arzu ÇETİN, Nigde University, Faculty of Education– Turkey Jeanina COZMA, Training Cons 2005 SRL – Romania Georgeta Antonia CRĂCIUNESCU, Repere Association – Bacau Branch - Romania Sorin SPİNEANU-DOBROTĂ, Repere Association – Bacau Branch – Romania Giuseppe DOTI, Associazione Antares – Italy Vida DRĄSUTĖ, VšĮ “eMundus” – Lithuania Sigitas DRĄSUTIS, VšĮ “eMundus” – Lithuania Mihai KELLER, Training Cons 2005 SRL – Romania Diana KOSOVSKIENĖ, Trakų švietimo centras – Lithuania Ligita KUDZINSKIENĖ, Trakų švietimo centras – Lithuania Rūta KUKUČIONYTĖ, VšĮ “eMundus” – Lithuania Pedro José LEIVA PADILLA, Leiva Formacion – Spain Nijolė LISEVIČIENĖ, Trakų švietimo centras – Lithuania Gelu MAFTEI, Repere Association – Bacau Branch – Romania Christos NICOLAIDES, Dekaplus Business Services LTD – Cyprus János PALOTÁS, Foundation Of Knowledge – Hungary Ferenc SIMON, Foundation Of Knowledge – Hungary Elena ŠIŠENENA, Trakų švietimo centras – Lithuania Oana Cristina TURTOI, Repere Association – Bacau Branch – Romania Danutė VIZMANAITĖ, Trakų švietimo centras - Lithuania 2 Effective Use of Active Learning Applications: Examples From Seven Different Countries This publication is a output of a project which has been supported by European Commission, Life Long Learning Programme, Leonardo Da Vinci Sub-programme for the training of science teachers. All rights reserved to project called ‘Creatıng Actıve Learnıng Materıal For Scıence Educators of Vocatıonal Educatıon’ No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, eloctronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. 3 Preface In modern education approach, development in the modern science and technology is directly related with the getting a success on the science education is accepted. So, all societies should be able to develop, understand and use the technology, and each person in the society should be literate of the science in today's world. Therefore, learners of educational institutions/ organizations should be grown having specific features like problem solving skills, critical thinking, creativity, independence, self confidence abilities. As a result having these skills and abilities depend on to have a learning process which have developed perfectly. In science education, instead of teacher-centered methodologies, learner centered ones should be included. This idea refers to active learning. The idea is to bring together the international group to share experiences and work together in the field of effective use of active learning applications in science education arose Life Long learning programme Leonardo da Vinci Proect. During the project, the contact pearson of each institution, Meryem Nur AYDEDE YALÇIN from Nigde University-Turkey, Elena Anghel from Training cons. 2005-Romania, Giuseppe DOTI from Associazione Antares-Italy, Vida DRĄSUTĖ, VšĮ “eMundus-Lithuania, Pedro José LEIVA PADILLA, Leiva Formacion-Spain, Christos NICOLAIDES, Dekaplus Business Services LTD-Cyprus, János PALOTÁS, Foundation of Knowledge-Hungary, Oana Cristina TURTOI, Repere Association Bacau Branch-Romania, Danutė VIZMANAITĖ, Trakų švietimo centrasLithuania discussed the lots of situations in effectiveness of active learning in different European Regions. This book brings some new views to active learning approach with the selection of the outputs of this project. You can find different usage of active learning applications of seven different countries (Turkey, Romania, Spain, Italy, Hungary, Lithuania and Cyprus) in this book. After this project we will continue to work on active learning applications in science education. We would be pleased, if readers share their valuable comments and new ideas for us to raise the professional development of science educators in the world. PhD, Meryem Nur AYDEDE YALÇIN July 2012 4 CONTENTS CHAPTER I: AN OVERVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS..................................... 7 Education System of Turkey ....................................................................................... 8 Pre-Primary Education ....................................................................................... 9 Primary Education .............................................................................................. 9 Secondary Education .......................................................................................... 9 Vocational Education ....................................................................................... 10 Higher Education .............................................................................................. 13 Educational Administration .............................................................................. 15 Educational Financing ...................................................................................... 15 Education System of Italy.......................................................................................... 16 Introduction ...................................................................................................... 17 Primary Education ............................................................................................ 17 Secondary Education ........................................................................................ 17 Vocational Education ....................................................................................... 18 Higher Education .............................................................................................. 18 Financing of Education .................................................................................... 18 Education System of Lithuania ................................................................................. 21 Introduction ...................................................................................................... 21 General Information About Education System Approach ............................... 22 Primary Education ............................................................................................ 23 Secondary Education ........................................................................................ 23 Vocational Education ....................................................................................... 23 Higher Education .............................................................................................. 24 Educational Administration (Centralized or Decentralized) ............................ 25 Educational Financing ...................................................................................... 26 Financing of General Education ....................................................................... 27 Financing Education at Higher Education Level ............................................. 27 Education System of Spain ........................................................................................ 29 Introduction ...................................................................................................... 29 General Information About Education System Approach ............................... 32 Primary Education ............................................................................................ 33 Compulsory Secondary Education (Eso) ......................................................... 33 Spanish Baccalaureate (Bachillerato) ............................................................... 33 Qualifications ................................................................................................... 34 Vocational Training .......................................................................................... 34 Provision and Costs .......................................................................................... 35 Admissions To Publicly Funded Schools ......................................................... 35 Higher Education .............................................................................................. 35 University Level Studies .................................................................................. 36 Educational Administration .............................................................................. 38 5 Education Financing ......................................................................................... 38 Education System of Cyprus ..................................................................................... 42 General .............................................................................................................42 Pre-Primary Education ..................................................................................... 44 Primary Education ............................................................................................ 45 Secondary Education ........................................................................................ 47 Vocational Education ....................................................................................... 48 Higher Education .............................................................................................. 48 Educational Administration .............................................................................. 50 Education Financing ......................................................................................... 50 Education System of Hungary................................................................................... 52 Primary and Secondary Education ................................................................... 52 Grading Scale ................................................................................................... 53 Primary and Secondary Education Paths..........................................................54 Higher Education .............................................................................................. 54 Education System of Romania ................................................................................. 58 Access ............................................................................................................... 58 Financing .......................................................................................................... 58 Language Study ................................................................................................ 58 Religious Cults ................................................................................................. 59 The Content on Education ................................................................................ 59 The National Education .................................................................................... 59 Organization ..................................................................................................... 60 Facilities ........................................................................................................... 60 Professional Education ..................................................................................... 60 CHAPTER II: ACTIVE LEARNING OVERVIEW OF THE SEVEN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES .......................................................................................................................... 63 Active Methods – The Learning Centered on Student Methods ...........................64 The Use of Active Materials in Today’s Romanian Learning System................... 65 Approach landmark .......................................................................................... 65 Premises............................................................................................................ 65 Ice breaking games/ Ice breaking ..................................................................... 68 Methods of active learning taken from foreign pedagogy and frequently utilized in Romania .......................................................................................... 69 Active Learning Implications in Turkey .................................................................. 77 Active Learning Implications in Italy....................................................................... 79 Active Learning Implication in Lithuania ............................................................... 80 Active Learning Implications in Spain..................................................................... 81 Active Learning Implications in Cyprus .................................................................. 83 Active Learning in Education of Science in Hungary............................................. 84 CHAPTER III: INQUIRY BASED SCIENCE LEARNING ............................................. 86 Inquiry Based Learning in Science Teaching .......................................................... 87 Active-Participative Methods.................................................................................... 87 6 Developing Inquiry Based Science Learning Materials.......................................... 93 Interactive Methods of Teaching and Learning ...................................................... 97 Lesson Plans on Inquiry Based Science Teaching .................................................. 98 CHAPTER IV: OUTDOOR EDUCATION....................................................................... 117 Outdoor Education in Science Teaching ................................................................ 118 Developing Out-Door Science Materials ................................................................ 118 Lesson Plans on Outdoor Education Based Science Teaching ........................... 122 CHAPTER V: ICT BASED EDUCATION ....................................................................... 136 Using ICT in Active Learning ................................................................................. 137 Integratıng Fılms in The Fl Class: A Must or A Must Not?............................. 139 ICT in Science Teaching ......................................................................................... 142 Developıng ICT Based Scıence Learnıng Materıals.............................................. 145 Developing ICT Based Science Learning Materials.............................................. 148 ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) Based Education ........... 150 Lessons Plans For Developing ICT Based Science Learning Materials.............. 160 CHAPTER VI: THE APPLICATION OF CREATIVITY AND CRITICAL THINKING IN SCIENCE COURSE ....................................................................................................... 163 Developıng Creatıve, Crıtıcal Thınkıng Based Scıence Learnıng Materıals ...... 164 Importance of writing in the science classroom: ............................................ 164 Common writing practices in the science classrooms .................................... 164 10 useful ideas to integrate writing into the science classroom ..................... 164 Benefits for the students and the teachers ...................................................... 167 Developing Creative and Critical Thinking Methods Used in Science Learning168 The Cooperative and Creative Techniques............................................................ 173 Lesson Plan About Creative and Critical Thinking Methods.............................. 176 ANALYSIS RESULTS FROM SEVEN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS SCIENCE......................................................................................................... 185 7 CHAPTER I: AN OVERVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS Contents Education System of Turkey....…………….…....…………....................................Arzu ÇETİN Education System of Italy…...............................................................................Giuseppe DOTI Education System of Lithuania …................................Vida DRĄSUTĖ, Rūta KUKUČIONYTĖ Education System of Spain….........................................................Pedro José LEIVA PADILLA Education System of Cyprus ………………..…….............................…Christos NICOLAIDES Education System of Hungary… ………………............…………...……........János PALOTÁS Educational System of Romania………………….........……................Oana Cristina TURTOI 8 EDUCATION SYSTEM OF TURKEY Arzu Ă‡ETÄ°N Nigde University, Turkey GENERAL INFORMATION The Turkish education system is organized on the basis of: - Constitution of the Turkish Republic - Laws Regulating Education and Instruction - Government Programs - Development Plans - National Education Councils Picture 1: Ataturk introducing the Latin Alphabet on 20 September, 1928 Based on these factors, education principles have been defined as follows; - Education shall be national, - Education shall be Republican, - Education shall be secular, - Education shall have a scientific foundation, - Education shall incorporate generality and equality, - Education shall be functional and modern (Republic of Turkey Ministry of Education,2002) The general purpose of the Turkish National Education is to raise all Turkish citizens; - as individuals who are committed to Ataturk's principles, the revolution and the Ataturk. Nationalism defined in the Constitution, who assimilate, protect, develop the national, human, moral and cultural values of the Turkish nation, who love and continuously try to raise their family, country and nation, who are aware of their duties and responsibilities towards the Turkish Republic, a democratic, secular and social state of law based on human rights and the 9 basic principles defined at the beginning of the Constitution and for whom these duties have become a habit; - as individuals who have a balanced and healthy personality and character, who are developed in terms of body, mind, moral, spirit and emotions, free and with scientific thinking abilities and a wide worldview, who respect human rights, who value personality and enterprise, who are responsible towards society, who are constructive, creative and productive. - in line with their own interests and abilities, to prepare them for life by helping them to acquire the required knowledge, skills, behavior and cooperative working habits, and to ensure they have a profession which will make them happy and contribute to the happiness of society (Republic of Turkey Ministry of Education, 2001). The Turkish National Educational System is composed of two main sections: Formal Education and Non-formal Education. Formal education is the regular education of individuals in a certain age group and given in schools. This includes Pre-Primary education, Primary education, Secondary education and Higher education institutions (Republic of Turkey Ministry of Education, 2002). PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION Picture 2: Some pre-school students working on an activity Pre-Primary education is an optional education for children between 3-6 years of age who are under the age of compulsory primary education. The purpose of this education is to ensure physical, mental and sensory development of children and the acquisition of good habits, to prepare children for primary education, to create a common atmosphere of growth for those living in inconvenient circumstances and to ensure that Turkish spoken correct and well. Pre-school education is given in kindergartens, daycare homes, nursery classes in primary schools, and in private nurseries, all under the supervision of the Ministry. They are usually concentrated in larger towns and cities (Eurybase, 2009). 10 PRIMARY EDUCATION With a new Law in 1997, eight years of Primary school is compulsory today (former system was five years of compulsory primary school, followed by three years of middle or junior high school education). Primary education is compulsory for all boys and girls at the age of 6, and is given free of charge in public schools. These schools provide eight years of uninterrupted education. There are also private (and paid) schools under State control. In most of the primary schools, foreign language lessons start from 4th class. Most elementary school students dress similarly in a type of uniform to avoid any social class differences between rich and poor students. If the children fail to pass the class, he/she has to repeat the same class next year. At the end of 8 years, successful students get their Diploma and can go for the Secondary education (Eurybase, 2009). Picture 3: A primary school classroom is waiting for their teacher The purpose of primary education is to ensure that every child acquires the basic knowledge, skills, behaviors, and habits to become a good citizen, is raised in line with the national moral concepts and is prepared for life and for the next education level parallel to his/her interests and skills (Republic of Turkey Ministry of Education,2002). At the end of 8th grade, each student takes â€œThe SBS Examâ€? (Level Placement Exam). The SBS Exam is a standardized test and according to the marks of their SBS exams, students choose which high school they would like to study at. Therefore, students study tremendously hard to get high scores from this exam. After the SBS exam, according to their wish and of course the total marks of their exam results, the students may choose to study at general high schools, vocational high schools, anatolian high schools and science high schools (Varli, 2008). SECONDARY EDUCATION Secondary education covers general, vocational and technical high schools that provide four years of education (used to be 3 years until 2005). General high schools prepare students for higher learning institutions. Some of the secondary schools and the private 11 secondary schools have foreign language preparatory classes. These kind of private lycees have double language education (such as Italian Highschool, German Highschool, Austrian Highschool, French Highschool, and so on) (Republic of Turkey Ministry of Education, 2002). The purpose of secondary education is to give students a minimum common culture, to identify individual and social problems, to search for solutions, to raise awareness in order to contribute to the socio-economic and cultural development of the country and to prepare the students for higher education, for profession, for life and for business in line with their interests and skills (Eurybase, 2009). Picture 4: A high school classroom during history lesson In addition to normal high schools, there are also evening high schools usually operating in the same school building. These are designed to allow those who take up employment after primary (or middle school) to continue their formal education ((Republic of Turkey Ministry of Education, 2002). Most of the high schools are owned by the State and provide free educational opportunities. In order to provide equal opportunities for the children with limited finances, there are State high schools with boarding facilities. These schools are free of charge and the students are placed according to the results of an examination (Varli, 2008). Graduates of the high schools can attend universities if they can pass admission exams. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION Vocational and technical secondary education involves the institutions that both raise students as manpower in business and other professional areas, prepare them for higher education and meet the objectives of general secondary education. Vocational and technical secondary education includes technical education schools for boys, technical education schools for girls, trade and tourism schools, religious education schools, multi-program high schools, Special education schools, Private education schools and health education schools (Eurybase, 2009). 12 Picture 5: A vocational high school student learning how to level Technical high schools include special formations such as electricity, electronics, chemistry, machinery, motors, building, etc. Vocational high schools can be Industrial Vocational High Schools; Girls' Vocational High Schools (home economics etc.), Public Health Vocational High Schools, Commercial Vocational High Schools, Agricultural Vocational High Schools, Meteorology Vocational High Schools, Animal Husbandry Vocational High Schools, Land Registration and Cadastre Vocational High Schools, etc. At the end of high school education, students who wish to study at universities, have to take exams called Higher Education Examination and Undergraduate Placement Examination. These exams are based on the fields that students had studied during their high school period. To obtain a good future, students want to study in good departments at good universities. This is why they start studying for the entrance exams as much as two years in advance, generally taking private courses as well (Republic of Turkey Ministry of Education, 2002). 13 Picture 6: High school graduates taking the university entrance exams As there are more applications than quotas in universities not everyone could get placed. Generally speaking 1/3 of the students can attend an university. Because of this, most students go to private university preparatory institutions after school and in the weekends. HIGHER EDUCATION Picture 7: University students are listening a lecture Turkish universities are Republican institutions, following Ataturkâ€™s principles. Universities, faculties, institutes, higher education schools, conservatories, vocational higher education schools, police and military academies and colleges, and application-research centers are considered as Higher Education institutions. 14 High school graduates with good scores from the University Entrance Exams are qualified for the four-year undergraduate programs and at the end they can get a Bachelor's Degree (BA); those who have grades at the limit can be admitted to the two-year higher education programs and at the end they can get an Associate's Degree (AA). Dentistry and Veterinary Medicine courses last for five years and Medicine for six years (The Council of Higher Education, 2010). Picture 8: Some newly-graduated university students enjoying their graduation ceremony After a four-year faculty, one can go further for his/her Master's Degree which lasts for two years with thesis and non-thesis options. Access to doctoral programs requires a masterâ€™s degree and has duration of minimum four years with a doctoral thesis at the end. The graduates of Medicine, Veterinary Medicine and Dentistry can directly apply to PhD/Doctorate programs (The Council of Higher Education, 2010). The purpose of higher education is to raise the students in line with their interests and skills, in conformance to the science policy of the country and in consideration of qualified manpower needs of society at several levels, to do researches in scientific areas, to arrange for all kinds of publications that show the research and examination results and facilitate advancement of science and technology, to finalize the researches and examinations demanded by the government and to make comments, to make written or oral public announcements explaining the scientific data that shall increase the general level of Turkish society and enlighten the public, and to give non-formal education (The Council of Higher Education, 2010). According to the Law, higher education institutions are responsible for the training of their own academic staff. Meanwhile, Primary and Secondary school teachers are trained in universities or 4 years and they get a BA degree at the end (The Council of Higher Education, 2010). At present, enrolment in the private universities accounts for only 5% of the total. Clearly, state universities are by far carrying the major portion of the load of higher education in Turkey (Varli, 2008). 15 EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION The Ministry of National Education (MEB) runs educational administration of the country and it is responsible for drawing up curricula, coordinating the work of official, private and voluntary organizations, designing and building schools, developing educational materials and so on. The Supreme Council of National Education discusses and decides on curricula and regulations prepared by the Ministry. In the provinces, educational affairs are organized by the Directorates of National Education appointed by the Minister, but working under the direction of the provincial governor (varli, 2008). Universities, faculties and institutes of four-year higher education schools are founded by Law, while the two-year vocational schools, departments and divisions are established by the Council of Higher Education (YĂ–K). Universities are under the supervision of this Council and their programs must be regularly accredited. The Council of Higher Education is a fully autonomous national board of trustees without any political or government affiliation. Universities have their rectors, deans, senate, and administrative boards, as well as student councils. In the universities, the instruction is generally in Turkish (Eurybase, 2009). EDUCATIONAL FINANCING About 10% of the general budget is allocated for education. Public education at all levels receives major support from the central government, which is responsible for all educational expenses. Primary education is also supported locally, mainly for the construction and maintenance of schools. References 1.http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2/content_storage_01/0000000b/80/2a/15/f 8.pdf (Retrieved: 24.03.2006). 2.Eurybase, (2009). Organisation of the education system in Turkey. Retrieved from http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/eurybase/eurybasefull_reports/TR_E N.pdf 3.Republic of Turkey Ministry of Education, (2001). The Turkish education system and developments in education. Retrieved from http://www.ibe.unesco.org/International/ICE/natrap/Turkey.pdf 4.Republic of Turkey Ministry of Education, National education at the beginning of 2002. Retrieved from http://www.meb.gov.tr/Stats/apk2002ing/apage29_48.htm 5.The Council of Higher Education, (2010) . The Higher Education System in Turkey. Retrieved from http://www.yok.gov.tr/katalog/The_higher_education_system_in_turkey.pdf 6.Varli, Z., (2008). The structure of the Turkish educational system. Practice and Theory in Systems of Education, volume 3 (2), 96-103 16 EDUCATION SYSTEM OF ITALY Giuseppe DOTI Associazione Antares INTRODUCTION Education in Italy is compulsory from 6 to 15/16 years of age, and is divided into five stages: kindergarten (scuola materna), elementary school (scuola elementare), middle school (scuola media), secondary school (scuola superiore) and university (universitĂ ). Italy has both public and private education systems. In Italy a state-born school system, or Education System has existed since 1859, when the Casati Act mandated educational responsibilities for the forthcoming Italian state (Italian unification took place in 1861). The Casati Act made primary education compulsory, and had the goal of reducing illiteracy. This law gave control of primary education to the single towns, of secondary education to the counties, and the universities were managed by the State. Even with the Casati Act and compulsory education, in rural (and southern) areas children often were not sent to school (the rate of children enrolled in primary education would reach 90% only after 70 years) and the illiteracy rate (which was near 80% in 1861) took more than 50 years to halve. The next important law concerning the Italian education system was the Gentile Act. This act was issued in 1923, thus when Benito Mussolini and his National Fascist Party were in power. In fact, Giovanni Gentile was appointed the task of creating an education system deemed fit for the fascist system. The compulsory age of education was raised to 14 years, and was somewhat based on a ladder system: after the first five years of primary instruction, one could choose the 'Scuola media', which would give further access to the "liceo" and other secondary instruction, or the work placement, which was intended to give a quick entry into the low strates of the workforce. He enhanced the role of the Liceo Classico, created by the Casati Act in 1859 (and intended during the Fascist era as the peak of secondary education, with the goal of forming the future upper classes), and created the Technical, Commercial and Industrial institutes and also the Liceo Scientifico. The Liceo Classico was the only secondary school that gave access to all types of university, until 1968. The influence of Gentile's Idealism was great, and he considered the Catholic religion to be the "fundament and crowning" of education. In 1962 the work placement was abolished, and all children until 14 years had to follow a single program, encompassing primary education (scuola elementare) and middle school (scuola media).From 1962 to the present day, the main structure of Italian primary (and secondary) education remained largely unchanged, even if some modifications were made: a narrowing of the gap between males and females (through the merging of the two distinct programmes for technical education, and the optional introduction of mixed-gender gym classes), a change in the structure of secondary school and the creation of new licei, technical institutes and professional institutes, giving the student more choices in their paths. In 1999, in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the Bologna Process, the Italian university system switched from the old system, which led to the traditional 5-year degree, to the new system. The new system split the former degree into two different tracks: a three-year degree akin to the Bachelor's Degree, followed by the 2-year Master's Degree, the latter renamed Magisterial Degree in 2007. A credit system was established to quantify the amount of work needed by each course and exam (25 work hours = 1 credit), as well as enhance the possibility to change course of studies or to continue studies in a foreign country after the first 3 years. However, it is now established that there is just a five-year degree " Magisterial Degree Single Cycle" for programmes such as Law. 17 GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT EDUCATION SYSTEM APPROACH PRIMARY EDUCATION Primary school, also known as scuola elementare, is commonly preceded by three years of non-compulsory nursery school (or kindergarten). Primary school lasts five years. Until middle school, the educational curriculum is the same for all pupils: although one can attend a private or state-funded school, the subjects studied are the same (with the exception of special schools for the blind or the hearing-impaired). The students are given a basic education in Italian, English, Mathematics, Biology, Geology, History, Geography, Social Studies, Physical Education and Visual and Musical Arts. Until 2004, pupils had to pass an exam to access Lower secondary school, comprising the composition of a shot elaborate in Italian, a written Math test, and an oral test on the other subjects. The exam has been discontinued and pupils can now enter Lower secondary school directly. SECONDARY EDUCATION Secondary education covers eight years, divided into three years' Lower secondary school, followed by five years' upper secondary education. The upper secondary courses consist of classical, scientific, artistic, technical, vocational and teacher training options. Classical secondary school (Liceo Classico) lasts for five years, with emphasis on the Humanities, but with scientific subjects in the second cycle. Scientific secondary school (Liceo Scientifico) also lasts for five years, but provides more specialized preparation in scientific subjects. The Linguistic secondary school (Liceo Linguistico) focuses on the study of foreign languages together with the corresponding literature and civilization. The technical upper secondary programmes are offered by the Technical Institutes and last for five years. Vocational secondary education is provided by the Professional Institute, Artistic secondary school (Liceo Artistico), and Arts Institute. All these programmes used to lead to different types of “Diploma di Maturità”. A “Diploma di Maturità” was the minimum admission requirement to university studies, as well as to most programmes at non-university institutions of higher education. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION Vocational secondary education is provided by: • the Professional Institute, that offers a form of secondary education oriented towards practical subjects and enables the students to start searching for a job as soon as they have completed their studies (sometimes sooner, as some schools offer a diploma after 3 years instead of 5) and is even more specific in terms of vocational course offerings than the Technical Institute; • the Artistic secondary school, which is oriented toward arts teaching - both in a theoretical (i.e. Art History) and practical (i.e. drawing sessions) way • the Arts Institute, is a particular form of Professional Institute, which offers an education focused on art and drawing. 18 HIGHER EDUCATION Higher education is provided by universities, technical universities, university institutes, as well as by a wide range of academies, higher institutes/schools, especially, but not exclusively, in the artistic sector, and by a number of professional training institutions in a variety of fields related to commerce, e-technologies, fashion, industry, etc.. Most of the existing university institutions were established directly by the State, while a limited number, originally set up by private entities, were later recognized by the relevant Ministry. At present, the university system includes 89 university institutions (55 state universities, 3 technical universities, 17 non-state legally-recognized university institutes, 2 universities for foreigners, 12 higher schools/institutes regulated by special legislation). From 1989 to 1999, MURST was responsible for university education, some sectors of non-university education (interpretation and translation, psychotherapy) and the allocation of funds to the state universities and the private universities that had conformed with the structure of the public sector (i.e. legally-recognized university institutions). The main advisory bodies for university education are the National University Council (CUN), the University Student National Council (CNSU) in which the representatives of the various categories of university staff and students participate, and the Conference of Italian University Rectors (CRUI). In the same decade (1989-99), the supervision and development of primary and secondary education were entrusted to the Ministry of Education (Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione - MPI), whereas responsibility for the non-university sector of higher education was shared between the Ministry for the National Cultural Heritage (institutions and programmes in conservation and restoration) and MPI (institutions for fine and applied arts, dance, drama, and music, as well as, since 1998-99, all FIS programmes (higher integrated technical education). In 1999, the reform of the artistic sector (drama, dance and music) was entrusted to MURST (Law 508/99). More recently, the new Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR) was established and all the financial resources, staff and functions of the former MPI and MURST were transferred there. The merging of the two ministries took place in 2001. Degree programmes are structured in credits (crediti formativi universitari - CFU at universities and crediti formativi accademici - CFA at AFAM institutions). A CFU or CFA corresponds to a minimum of 25 hours of work, time for personal study included. The average annual workload of a full-time student is usually fixed at 60 credits. FINANCING OF EDUCATION The non-state schools now receive public money in the form of: direct subsidies for the management of kindergartens and primary schools (formerly officially recognized); funding of projects for the elevation of quality and effectiveness of the educational offerings of middle and high schools; contributions to the families of the maximum amount of â‚Ź 300.00 called "buoni scuola" and only available for the school. They were introduced by the Berlusconi government and no longer provided by the Prodi government. It should be noted that Art. 33 of the Italian Constitution, in paragraph 3, provides that: Organizations and individuals shall have the right to establish schools and educational institutions, without cost to the State. The D'Alema government with a law 62/2000 establishes the entry into full-fledged system of national education in private schools, which therefore must be treated "at par" including economic. The law also provides: â€˘ its scope to private schools of the tax treatment to non-profit organizations; the establishment of the school made good state (budget of 300 billion lire from 2001); 19 • an increase of 60 billion lire of the appropriation for contributions for the maintenance of elementary schools officially recognized; • an increase of 280 billion lire of the appropriation for the costs of participation in the development of integrated pre-school system; • the allocation of a fund of 7 billion pounds to help the inclusion of people with disabilities in private schools and construction of necessary facilities. The Berlusconi government, Minister Letizia Moratti, the DM makes the Law 27/2005 62/2000 the following changes: • no longer speak of "granting of" but "the costs of participation in secondary schools playing field"; • has lowered the threshold of pupils per class (10 to 8) for access to the contributions; • are raised levels of maximum contributions (12,000 euros for a junior high school, 18,000 for high school); • more than doubled funding for training projects (from about 6 million to more than 13 million). In 2005, the amount of contributions to non-state schools is around 500 million euros (see the Ministerial Circular 38/2005). The 2004 budget of the Berlusconi government, Minister Letizia Moratti, to raise the ceiling for 2005 to 50 million euros, with good access for all families who enter the ranking based on the income limit. The Equality Act does not provide good compatibility with any good regional state (referred to later by the Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli, Lombardia, Liguria, Toscana, Sicilia, Piemonte), for which good government and regional government has accumulated. In Lombardia, the education voucher system was introduced in 2000 by Roberto Formigoni: funding to families to support the payment of school fees and to ensure freedom of education, which according to its critics has benefited 80 % pupils in private schools (9% of the total school population), without merit or income, for a total of 400 million euro between 2001 and 2009. For others, the measure was also shown to be ineffective in promoting private schools, which were not increased in number nor in pupils, and it has favored the quality of training for students in Lombardia, and in the OECD PISA surveys (2003 and 2006) fell in the standings, but he made a simple transfer of funds from the Region to families of students in Private schools. References 1.Giuseppe Manacorda, Storia della scuola in Italia. vol. I: il Medioevo (due tomi). MilanoPalermo-Napoli, Sandron, 1914 (rist. Bologna 1978). 2.Paul F. Grendler, La scuola nel Rinascimento italiano, Bari, Laterza, 1991. 3.Donatella Balani, Marina Roggero, La scuola in Italia dalla Controriforma al secolo dei lumi, Torino, Loescher, 1976. 4.Angelo Bianchi (a cura di), L'istruzione in Italia tra Sette e Ottocento, Brescia, Editrice La Scuola, 2007 5.Giovanni Genovesi, Storia della scuola in Italia dal Settecento a oggi, Roma-Bari, Laterza, 2006. 6.Gaetano Bonetta, Storia della scuola e delle istituzioni educative. Scuola e processi formativi in Italia dal XVIII al XX secolo, Firenze, Giunti, 1997. 7.Ugo Piscopo, La scuola del regime, Guida, Napoli, 2006. 8.Ernesto Bosna, Tu riformi...io riformo, La travagliata storia della scuola italiana dall'Unificazione all'ingresso nell'Unione Europea,ETS, Pisa, 2005. 20 9.Giuseppe Decollanz, Storia della scuola e delle istituzioni educative. Dalla Legge Casati alla riforma Moratti, Laterza, Bari, 2005. 10.Marco Civra, I programmi della scuola elementare dall'Unità d'Italia al 2000, Marco Valerio, Torino, 2002. 11.Benedetto Vertecchi, La scuola italiana da Casati a Berlinguer, Franco Angeli, Milano, 2001. 12.Redi Sante Di Pol, Il sistema scolastico italiano, Marco Valerio, Torino, 2002 13.Angelo Semeraro, Il sistema scolastico italiano, Carocci, Roma, 1999 14.Luciano Pazzaglia - Roberto Sani (a cura di), "Scuola e società nell'Italia unita", Brescia, La Scuola 2001 15.Corbi E., Sarracino V., Scuola e politiche educative in Italia dall'Unità a oggi, Liguori, Napoli, 2003 16.Nicola D'Amico, Storia e storie della scuola italiana, Zanichelli, Bologna 2009. 17.Anna Laura Fadiga Zanatta, Il sistema scolastico italiano, il Mulino, 1976 18.L. Ambrosoli, Casati Gabrio, DBI, vol. 21, pp. 244–249 19.F. Boiardi, La riforma della scuola di Gabrio Casati in Il parlamento italiano, Milano, Nuova CEI Informatica, 1988, vol. I, pp. 317–318 20.D. Bertoni Jovine, La legge Casati, in II Convegno di studi gramsciani, Roma, 1962, pp. 441–447 21.M. C. Morandini, Da Boncompagni a Casati: la costruzione del sistema scolastico nazionale, in Scuola e società nell'Italia unita, a cura di Luciano Pazzaglia e R. Sani, Brescia, Editrice La Scuola, 2001, pp. 9–46 22.F. Targhetta, "Uno sguardo all'Europa". Modelli scolastici, viaggi pedagogici ed importazioni didattiche nei primi cinquant'anni di scuola italiana, in M. Chiaranda, (a cura di), Storia comparata dell'educazione. Problemi ed esperienze tra Otto e Novecento, Milano, Franco Angeli, 2010, pp. 155 - 176 21 EDUCATION SYSTEM OF LITHUANIA Vida DRĄSUTĖ, Rūta KUKUČIONYTĖ VšĮ “eMundus” email@example.com INTRODUCTION Education is a priority supported by the state, the field in which the Lithuanian Republic manifests its activity. When on 11 March 1990 Lithuania restored its independence from Soviet Union, on 25 June 1991, the Seimas of the Lithuanian Republic passed the Law on Education, which established the structure of the Lithuanian educational system and the basis for the activities and governance/management of the educational institutions (with the exception of higher schools). The adoption of the law had a decisive influence on the process of the educational reform. The ideas behind the educational reform and the process of their implementation triggered off radical qualitative changes in the functioning of the whole educational system. The year of 2001 saw the completion of the second stage of the educational reform during which a special attention was focused on modernization of education, upgrading of its quality, creation of the necessary conditions for social-pedagogical self- -development and strengthening of relations between educational institutions of different levels. In 2003, the Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania adopted a resolution approving the key provisions of the State Educational Strategy for the period 2003–2012 (Provisions of the National Education Strategy 2003–2012). The provisions of that strategy compliment the Long-term Development Strategy of the State and describe the goals of developing the Lithuanian educational system and the means of achieving them. The State Education Strategy started a new stage in the educational reform of Lithuania. The current educational strategy defines three major objectives: • To establish an effective and sound educational system based on responsible • management, accurate financing and expedient use of resources; • To develop a continuous socially well-balanced system of education providing life• long learning available to every member of society; • To ensure the quality of education catering for the needs of a civic-minded individual living in conditions of an open society and market economy. Within the process of the national implementation of the Lisbon Strategy, the guidelines for the Bologna and Copenhagen Processes, the Lithuanian National Long-term Development Strategy and the Implementation Programme of the Provisions of the National Education Strategy 2003– 2012 in order to create a European area of higher education and scientific research, the key short- term priorities for developing education and scientific research remain attempts to increase employment and improve the competitiveness of Lithuanian industry and also to strengthen the country’s intellectual potential. One of the key objectives of this strategy is to create conditions for developing a modern, knowledge-driven economy . According to second section of current Education law of Lithuanian Republic educational system of Lithuania involves: • formal education (primary, basic, secondary, vocational, higher education studies); • informal education (preschool and other informal education of children and adults); • self-education; • assistance for learners (informational, psychological, social educational and special aid and health care in school); 22 • assistance for teacher and school (informational, career counselling, training and other assistance). GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT EDUCATION SYSTEM APPROACH According to Invest in Lithuania, Lithuania has twice as many people with higher education than the EU-15 average and the proportion is the highest in the Baltic. Also, 90% of Lithuanians speak at least one foreign language and half of the population speaks two foreign languages, mostly Russian and English or Polish. The development of the current system of education in the Republic of Lithuania started in the 1990s. Since 2003, the system of education in Lithuania includes (figure 1): • primary (Grades 1-4), • basic (lower (senior) secondary) (Grades 5-10) and (senior) secondary • education(Grades 11-12), • vocational education and training, • higher education. Special education (to pupils with special needs) is provided according to all programmes of compulsory and general education. According to the Constitution adopted in 1992, education in Lithuania is compulsory for ten years, made up of four years of primary and six years of junior secondary (Basic) school, for Lithuanian citizens and for children with permanent or temporary residence permits. Therefore, a child has to start attending Primary School the year when turning 7 years old during the same calendar year. If desired, a 6 years old child can start attending school if she/he meets certain requirements. The continuity of education in the various types (levels) of educational establishments is implemented. According to the Constitution adopted in 1992, education in Lithuania is compulsory between the age of 7 and 16 for Lithuanian citizens and for children with permanent or temporary residence permits. Therefore, a child has to start attending Primary School the year when turning 7 years old during the same calendar year. If desired, a 6 years old child can start attending school if she/he meets certain requirements. Education at state and municipality general education schools, vocational schools and junior colleges is free of charge. Pre-school education is not mandatory. Education-related laws, government resolutions and orders of the Minister of Education and Science are legal acts that regulate standards for general education, professions and fields of specialization, and stipulate general requirements for curricula, including their constituent modules and qualification requirements. The documents drawn up pursuant to the legal acts are then classified into a number of national education-related registers, each concerned with different issues, such as the National Register of Education, Science and Study Institutions, the National Register of Study and Training Programmes, the National Register of Licences and the Register of Education Certificates. Except in the case of higher education, educational institutions work in accordance with teaching plans, the common core curriculum and study programmes directly or indirectly approved by the Ministry of Education and Science . 23 PRIMARY EDUCATION Primary education is provided by “primary school”, “kindergarten school” or other schools (same curricula). It is a four-year curriculum. According to the School Education Act, children start attending the first grade of primary education in the calendar year when they turn seven years of age. Upon their parents’ request, primary education may begin before the time specified above if the child has achieved the maturity required for this kind of education at that time. The purpose of primary education is to provide an individual with the basics of moral, cultural and social maturity as well as elementary literacy and numeracy. During primary education children are not given grades. The marking system in Lithuania starts with smiley faces, suns and stars up to grade 4. From grade 5, marking in form of numbers starts to take place. The marks range from 1 to 10 where 10 is the best mark.  Primary education for learners with special needs can be applied upon recommendation of the special education commission and/or pedagogical psychological service of the school. Special needs learners are taught according to the Modified Primary Education Programme, the Adapted Primary Education Programme or the Special Primary Education Programme. The adaptation of the curriculum to the pupil’s abilities and learning needs is aimed at making his progress as sizeable as possible. The curriculum is developed to encourage pupils’ self-esteem and motivation to learn.  SECONDARY EDUCATION After completing primary education, 10/11-year-old children are taught according to the basic education curriculum implemented by gymnasiums and secondary, basic, international baccalaureate, youth, vocational and other types of schools. Basic education is compulsory until years of age, after completing primary education it takes six years to finish the basic education curriculum (Grades 5–10). The purpose of basic education is to provide an individual with the basics socio-cultural and civic maturity, general literacy, and the basics of technological literacy; to raise national consciousness as well as to develop the quality of seeking the aim and ability to make decisions and choices and to continue learning.  The duration of the basic education curriculum is six years. Upon completion of this curriculum, a person gains basic education. If a pupil is successful in the final examination, this concludes with a basic education certificate. After completion of basic education, a two-year course of upper secondary education may be embarked upon. It is also possible to transfer to an upper secondary school upon completion of class 8, this school then continuing until class 12. In classes 11 and 12, pupils are permitted to select subjects in a targeted way in accordance with their personal interests and strengths. Unlike most of the secondary schools, gymnasiums provide an in-depth specialized general education and set higher requirements for pupils. To enter a gymnasium, pupils must have eight grades completed in an institution of basic education. Gymnasiums are generally designed for pupils who have a clear idea of what they want to do in the future.  After graduating from international baccalaureate school, pupils receive a diploma, which is recognized everywhere in Europe and in the US. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION Primary vocational training may be provided to individuals who have basic education and are at least 14 years old. Upon completing the primary vocational training curriculum and/or passing qualifying examinations, the student gets a primary professional qualification 24 and/or completes basic education. In these schools they can get both secondary education and qualifications necessary for a job.  Vocational training comprises the imparting of both theoretical and practical knowledge. Four types of training programme are differentiated. • Type 1 is for young people from the age of 14 who have not gained a basic education leaving certificate which forms the basis of vocational education and training. This framework affords the opportunity of gaining the lower secondary school leaving certificate. • Type 2 is 3-year vocational education and training for those who have gained the basic education leaving certificate. They acquire a VET (Vocational Education and Training) qualification (skilled worker status). • Type 3 is for those who have passed the upper secondary school leaving certificate, 1 to 2 years of vocational training. • Type 4 is for those who have passed the upper secondary school leaving certificate, 3 to 4 year course of training comprising higher education and occupational qualification. Some modules correspond to Bachelor level, and credit for these may be transferred to a later course of higher education study.  Vocational education and training, however, is not very popular with young Lithuanians, since it provides only limited knowledge which is no longer sufficient on the current labour market in the form is imparted. Many young people wish to obtain more knowledge about work within the private sector or about self-employment. Continuing vocational training is provided to people who have a primary Professional qualification. Its purpose is to upgrade the professional qualification or to obtain another one. Continuing vocational training encompasses both formal adult vocational training/learning and non-formal adult education. Youth schools provide initial work skills and a general education for those having trouble adapting to society or not wishing to study at other schools . HIGHER EDUCATION There are two types of higher education institutions in Lithuania: universities and colleges. In university-type institutions (akademija; seminarija; aukštojo mokykla), universitylevel studies dominate; in colleges, non-university-level studies dominate. Higher education institutions can be of two types: state and non-state. Non-state higher education institutions can carry out their practice according to a license issued by the Government . In Lithuania, higher education is provided by 44 higher education institutions. Higher education qualifications can only be acquired at higher education institutions. Non-universitylevel studies are organized in one-cycle undergraduate studies. University-level studies are organized in three cycles: first cycle (undergraduate); second cycle (graduate); and third cycle (post-graduate). Integrated studies lead directly to a Master's Degree and/or a professional qualification, by combining the first and second cycles of university-level studies. Professional specialization studies are organized at the second cycle after university-level studies (Bachelor or equivalent in the field of the specialization) to acquire a professional qualification in a certain field. The third cycle trains researchers; art teachers, artists and medical practitioners. Studies follow the programmes registered by the Ministry of Education and Science. The quality of the programmes as well as the educational and scientific activities of higher education institutions are periodically assessed by the Centre for Quality Assessment in Higher Education. The national credit system is based on an average of 1600 working hours per academic year, one credit corresponding to 40 hours or one week of work. 25 There are two basic modes of study: ongoing (daytime) and extended studies. Ongoing studies usually last for four years for bachelor studies. Extended studies can last up to six years. To apply to undergraduate programmes, the student must hold a secondary or equivalent education certificate. To apply to graduate programmes, the student must hold a Bachelor or equivalent degree. To apply to post-graduate studies, the student must hold a Master or equivalent degree in the selected field. Admission to all cycles takes place on a competitive basis according to the admission rules set up by the higher education institution and validated by the Ministry of Education and Science . Higher education is based on the European credit system . The duration of the course of study leading to the acquisition of a Bachelor degree (basic higher education study) is 4 years; duration of a Masters study is 2 or ½ years depending of a study programme and faculty policy. EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION (CENTRALIZED OR DECENTRALIZED) The purpose of education management is to assure the quality of implementation of State education policy through administrative means, including monitoring, planning, delegation and supervision of powers and responsibilities. The official strategic plans on education are developed by the Ministry of Education and Science and approved by the Lithuanian Government. The subjects of education administration include the Seimas, the Government, the Ministry of Education and Science, other ministries, governmental institutions, county governors, municipal institutions, the founder of the school and the principal of the school. It is only formal education that is governed by the state. Higher educational institutions have autonomy granted by the state. Activities of non-governmental and non-formal educational institutions are regulated by laws and procedures approved by the Government. Part of responsibilities for education administration may be delegated to self-governing educational institutions. It is not the process but the result of education that is governed centrally. The state defines the Register of Professions, compulsory requirements for curricula and separate modules by giving a right for the school and the municipality to determine part of the teaching contents, qualification requirements for teachers, learning conditions and control of evaluating the obtained knowledge and skills. Subject to the Strategy, strategic plans of state, county, municipality or schools are developed and agreed. The Ministry of Education and Science is the institution of the Lithuanian executive power that formulates and implements the national policy on education, science and studies. The Ministry of Education and Science is headed by the Minister who, in accordance with Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania, is appointed to and dismissed from office by the President of the Republic of Lithuania at the Prime Minister’s recommendation. Being in charge of education, research and higher education management, the Minister of Education and Science is accountable to the Seimas and President of the Republic of Lithuania and is directly subordinate to the Prime Minister. The public servants of the Minister’s political (personal) confidence – the vice-minister, advisor (advisors), spokesperson and others – help the Minister develop the education policy, determine priorities, as well as take and implement decisions. 26 The activities of higher education institutions are regulated by the HEI statute. The statute of a state university, its amendments or supplements are subject to the approval of the Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania; the statute of a state college Kolegija, its amendments or supplements must be given approval by the Government of the Republic of Lithuania.  EDUCATIONAL FINANCING Education is financed from the state and municipal budgetary appropriations and also from other funds. At the state level, investment funds necessary for the development of education (construction, renovation, development of human resources, etc.) are allocated in accordance with programmes defined in the Law on Approval of Financial Indicators of the State Budget and Municipal Budgets. One-year or long term investment programmes are developed by the Ministry of Education and Science subject to the National Education Strategy and the Government Programme. At the municipality level, investment funds necessary for the development of education are allocated in accordance with programmes defined in budgets approved by municipality councils. Municipality investment programmes are developed with regard to state investment programmes pursuant to education strategic plans. To finance, from state and municipal budgets, formal education programmes in state, municipal and private schools, except higher education institutions, as well as non-formal education programmes for children, the principle of education funds per pupil is applied. To finance programmes of pre-school, pre-primary, primary, basic, secondary and corresponding special or vocational training in municipality and non-state schools and also complementary modules of those programmes developed to meet the needs for pupils’ selfexpression in non-formal schools of children’s education, funds are allocated from specially earmarked subsidies in the annual state (government) or municipal budgets. State schools receive the above mentioned funds from the state budget allocations. Funds for the maintenance of schools are allocated by the founder of the school in line with the established procedure. Implementation of programmes designed for non-formal education of children is financed by the founder of the appropriate school, also by pupils (their representatives) and sponsors. Vocational, and non-formal adult education schools and institutions providing assistance to pupils and schools are financed by their founders. Higher schools are financed in accordance with the procedure established in the Law on Higher Education. On 14 December 2001, the Government of Lithuania passed a resolution, which approved the provisions of the general education financing reform. According to the provisions, the funds of the general education school are comprised of funds designated for pupils’ “baskets”, allocations to finance the learning environment, funds earmarked for carrying out specific programmes and projects, money donated by sponsors and other funds. A pupil’s “basket” contains funds per one notional pupil (attending grade 5−8 in an urban school). The number of notional pupils in a school is established by taking into account the real number of pupils attending this school and applying additional multipliers (e.g. for pupils with special educational needs, pupils of different types of schools, of urban and rural schools, etc.). The number of notional pupils in schools and the size of the pupil’s basket are calculated annually, following "The Methodology for Calculating the Pupil’s “Basket” and the Number of Notional Pupils".  27 FINANCING OF GENERAL EDUCATION General education schools are completely or partially financed from the state or the municipality budgets according to the estimates approved by the appropriations manager. Schools can receive non-budgetary means. Those could be the rent of school premises, support or charity extended by physical or legal persons, income from extra-curricular education, courses, events, manufactured production, etc. Non-budgetary means are used according to the procedure set by the Government. Vocational training in state vocational schools is financed from the state budget of the Lithuanian Republic. Non-budgetary means of the vocational school include: 1) income from the Lithuanian and foreign companies, organisations and people for specialist training, performed works and services; 2) income from the rent of the school premises and equipment; 3) income from the paid courses or other training services; 4) donations or charities provided by Lithuanian and foreign people, organisations, funds or private people. Youth schools Jaunimo mokyklos are financed by the founders. Non-budgetary means can be received from the school production activities, paid services provided, rent of the inventory (following the procedures set by the Government) and voluntary payments of legal and physical persons.  FINANCING EDUCATION AT HIGHER EDUCATION LEVEL Funds of a public higher educational institution include: state budget appropriations, other state funds, income from research and economic activities and provision of services, funds received from international organisations and foundations, contributions from students and tuition fees to cover the cost of studies and other funds obtained in a legitimate way. As specified in the Law on Higher Education, public higher education institutions may have income from research and economic activities or provision of services, funds received from international and other foundations and organisations or other lawfully obtained funds. A higher education institution is free to choose the types of activities to earn the abovementioned funds. Those funds as well as income received from students' contributions and tuition fees are used to finance special programmes of that public higher education institution. Higher education institutions may use those funds to accomplish objectives and goals laid down in their statutes and they manage, use and dispose of the funds on their own. Faculties of a higher education institution may also undertake financial activities and look for additional sources of funding on their own informing the central administration of a higher education institution of such activities and coordinating them with it. Funds for studies are determined with due regard to various types of study programmes, areas and fields of studies or their groups and mode of studies.  References 1. Organisation of the education system in Lithuania. In European Commission: http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/eurybase/eurybase_full_reports/LT_E N.pdf. 2. Analysis Of Distance Learning Marketing At Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (Lithuania). In International Conference on New Trends in Education and Their Implications. http://www.iconte.org/FileUpload/ks59689/File/52.pdf. 3. The educational system in Lithuania. In Modern Didactic Center: http://www.sdcentras.lt/credo/res/Lithuania_esystem.pdf. 4. Lithuanian Education System. In Dynamic Online tool for Guidance: http://www.dynot.net/index.php?Itemid=81HYPERLINK 28 "http://www.dynot.net/index.php?Itemid=81&id=46&option=com_content&task=view"&HY PERLINK "http://www.dynot.net/index.php?Itemid=81&id=46&option=com_content&task=view"id=46 HYPERLINK "http://www.dynot.net/index.php?Itemid=81&id=46&option=com_content&task=view"&HY PERLINK "http://www.dynot.net/index.php?Itemid=81&id=46&option=com_content&task=view"optio n=com_contentHYPERLINK "http://www.dynot.net/index.php?Itemid=81&id=46&option=com_content&task=view"&HY PERLINK "http://www.dynot.net/index.php?Itemid=81&id=46&option=com_content&task=view"task= view. 5. Lithuanian report on the development of education: http://www.ibe.unesco.org/National_Reports/ICE_2008/lithuania_NR08.pdf. 6. Education system in Lithuania. In Švietimo mainų paramos centras. www.smpf.lt/get.php?f.2027. 7. Structure of education system of Lithuania. In Teachers in practice and process. http://www.teachers-ipp.eu/Lithuania.html. 8. Lithuanian education system. In Švietimo mainų paramos centras. www.euroguidance.lt/getfile.php?id=480. 9. Structure of education system in Lithuania. In The European Education Directory. http://www.euroeducation.net/prof/lithuaco.htm. 29 EDUCATION SYSTEM OF SPAIN Pedro José LEIVA PADILLA Leiva Formacion – Spain INTRODUCTION In Spain, the Constitution of 1812 introduced the idea of education as a framework in which organization, funding and control the State has to take part and therefore laid the foundations for the establishment of the Spanish education system. However, it was not completely defined until the 1857 Ley de Instrucción Pública (Public Instruction Act) was passed. The Public Instruction Act, known as Ley Moyano (Moyano Act), is the first comprehensive regulation governing the Spanish education system. Its importance and influence were such that until 1970, no other acts regulating and structuring the education system as a whole were approved. It regulated educational levels as follows: Initial education, divided into elementary and higher education. Second education, which comprised six years of general studies and studies applied to industrial professions. Higher education, which included studies at the faculties, higher studies and vocational studies. • • The Moyano Act introduced cost-free elementary education for those who could not finance it, as well as its compulsory nature for children aged 6 to 9, although boys and girls had to remain separated and receive different types of education. The main contributions of the Moyano Act were: the eclectic and moderate response to problems such as Church intervention in education or the importance of science in secondary education, the legal promotion and the consolidation of private, basically Catholic education, at primary and secondary levels, and the definitive inclusion of technical and scientific studies in postsecondary education.1868 marked the beginning of a period of historic upheaval and agitation with rapid political changes which directly affected the field of education. A considerable boost was given to academic freedom with the proclamation of the First Republic in 1873. A balance between private and public education was achieved and the possibility was proposed for pupils of differing abilities to follow studies of differing duration. In 1874, the Constitutional Monarchy was restored and educational policy reflected the positions of the two extremes: on the one hand, the liberals, and on the other hand, the most conservative sector. The beginning of the 20th century in Spain marked what is known as the Restoration period. The rapid succession of different governments at this time, resulting from the internal crisis of the country, ushered in a period of instability in general and, particularly, in educational policy. Education was considered a means by which to salvage the situation and important educational reforms were introduced, such as those implemented in teacher training institutions for maestros (escuelas normales), secondary education and university syllabuses. The reforms also affected exam regulations, the teaching of religion, teacher qualifications, the restructuring of upper secondary education and university autonomy. The end of the Restoration arrived with Primo de Rivera´s coup d’état in 1923. His antiliberal ideology resulted in the denial of academic freedom and in reforms in upper secondary and university education. 30 In 1931, the Second Republic was proclaimed and a new Constitution was prepared. The latter recognized a unified system of schools, cost-free and compulsory primary education, academic freedom and lay education. During this period, important changes in the education system were introduced: access to education at all levels was facilitated, religious education was no longer compulsory, teaching in the mother tongue (in regions where there is another co-official language different from Spanish) was permitted, teachers’ initial training was reformed, and primary and secondary education inspection was regulated. The political dictatorship under General Franco, which was imposed after the 1936-39 Civil War, marked a breaking point with the previous system. Education, which had to be Catholic and patriotic, became a means of imposing ideology. The 1950s saw the beginning of open-mindedness in the educational world, which was reflected in certain legal amendments. In 1953, secondary education was reformed in an attempt to make upper secondary education –which had been very elitist up to that point– more accessible, dividing it into two levels: elementary (for pupils up to 14 years of age), and higher (14-16 years old) and establishing the pre-university course as a transition to higher education. In the 60´s, economic growth, the process of industrialization, demographic growth as well as the internal tensions of the political system made a total and in depth reform of the education system essential. The reform was carried out under the 1970 Ley General de Educación y Financiamiento de la Reforma Educativa, LGE (General Act on Education and Financing of Educational Reform). This Act attempted to overcome the internal inconsistencies caused by the different partial reforms which had previously been undertaken, but which had, however, turned out to be insufficient in the face of the rapid social and economic changes in the country at that time. The following were the most relevant characteristics of the education system based on the LGE: • The widening of compulsory education for the whole population aged 6 to 14, in a single and nondiscriminatory system. • Concern for the quality of education and the establishment of relations between the education system and the lab our market. • The end of the subordinate nature of the State, acknowledging its role as regards the planning of education and the evaluation of education at all levels and in all institutions. • The continuation of a significant presence of private educational institutions at nonuniversity levels. In 1978, the Spanish Constitution was approved and a parliamentary monarchy was established. As in other areas, the Constitution had a marked influence on the education system (see section 2.3.1). In 1980, the Ley Orgánica por la que se regula el Estatuto de Centros Escolares, LOECE (Act on the Regulation of the Statute of Educational Institutions), which regulated school statutes, was enacted. This Act was the first mandatory attempt to regulate education principles, the organization of educational institutions, and student's rights and duties according to the principles ratified in the Constitution. It is from this time that the reform process of the Spanish education system, in effect the system established by the LGE, commences. This process began in 1983 with the passing of the Ley Orgánica de Reforma Universitaria, LRU (Act on University Reform), which, apart from establishing the structure of university education, divided university education powers between the State, the different 31 Autonomous Communities and universities themselves. The university autonomy established by the Constitution and developed by the LRU involved autonomy in the following areas: statutory or self-government; academic, which allows, on the basis of some national guidelines, drawing up the syllabuses and the issue of qualifications; budget management; and staffing, both administrative and teaching. The LOECE was repealed and substituted, in 1985, by the Ley Orgánica Reguladora del Derecho a la Educación, LODE (Act on the Right to Education). Its main objectives were to guarantee both the right to education and academic freedom, and to encourage the participation of society in education, while rationalizing the provision of publicly funded school places (see section 2.3.2). Five years later, the 1990 Ley Orgánica de Ordenación General del Sistema Educativo, LOGSE (Act on the General Organisation of the Education System) was passed. This Act regulated the structure and organization of no university education, by establishing mainstream education (see section 2.4.1) and enseñanzas de regimen especial (see section 2.4.3). The reorganization of the education system as stipulated by the LOGSE aims at achieving, in addition to other objectives, the following general objectives: the effective regulation of education at the pre-compulsory stage; a thorough reform of vocational training, by establishing a postsecondary level; linking enseñanzas de regimen especial (artistic and language education) and other types of education; and the definition of basic education as envisaged by the Constitution, being of ten years, between the ages of 6 and 16 (see section 2.5). This education is compulsory, free of charge and comprises primary education and lower secondary education. In 1995, the Ley Orgánica de la Participación, la Evaluación y el Gobierno de los Centros Docentes, LOPEG (Act on Participation, Evaluation and Administration of Educational Institutions) was passed. It returned to the concept of participation laid down by the LODE and specified some aspects regarding the organization and functions of the governing bodies of publicly funded schools with the aim of modifying them to what had been established by the LOGSE. It also dealt with the participation of the different members of the educational community in the organization and governance of educational institutions, as well as the definition of their proyecto educativo. In the last years, two new consecutive reform processes have been undertaken. The first one took place with the passing of three new acts which modified the previous regulations: • The 2001 Ley Orgánica de Universidades, LOU (Act on Universities), which repeals the LRU and is passed with the aim of improving the quality and excellence of university education. • The 2002 Ley Orgánica de las Cualificaciones y de la Formación Profesional, LOCFP (Act on Qualifications and Vocational Training), whose main objective was the organization of a comprehensive system of vocational training, qualifications and accreditation, meeting social and economic demands by means of different types of provision: initial vocational training, in-service training in companies and occupational training, aimed at both the integration and reintegration of workers into employment. • The 2002 Ley Orgánica de Calidad de la Educación, LOCE (Act on the Quality of Education), which modified the LODE, the LOGSE and the LOPEG. It proposed a series of measures with the aim of achieving quality education for all. These measures were organized in accordance with five main principles: the promotion of the values of individual effort; the intensification in pupils’ assessment processes; the reinforcement of a system of equal opportunities; the acknowledgement and encouragement of the work of teachers; and the awarding of more autonomy to educational institutions. A 32 • • new reform process of the education system is currently taking place after the passing of the 2006 Ley Orgánica de Educación, LOE (Education Act) and the 2007 Ley Orgánica de Modificación de la LOU, LOMLOU (Act modifying the Act on Universities). The LOE, in an attempt to simplify the complex current legal situation, repealed the previous acts (LOGSE, LOPEG and LOCE) and became the basic regulation for the general organization of the Spanish no university education system. The LOMLOU aims at encouraging university autonomy and increasing the demands related to the evaluation of university functions. In addition, the adaptation of the university education to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) has led to the establishment of a new structure of official university studies and degrees. GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT EDUCATION SYSTEM APPROACH Below Higher Education the system can be seen as consisting of four levels: • Pre-school (Educación Infantil, segundo ciclo) - 3 to 5 years of age • Primary School (Educación Primaria) six years of schooling - 6 to 11 years of age • Compulsory Secondary Education (Educación Secundaria Obligatoria) four years of schooling - 12 to 15 years of age • Post-Compulsory Schooling (Bachillerato) two years of schooling - 16 and 17 years of age Children 3 to 5 years old in Spain have the option of attending the Pre-school stage (infantil or popularly known as preescolar), which is non-compulsory and free for all students. It is regarded as an integral part of the education system with infants' classes at almost every primary school. There are some separate nursery schools (Colegios Infantiles). 33 Children (whose parents chose that they should) enter pre-school (Educación Infantil) in the autumn of the calendar year in which they turn three years old. Following this pattern, the ages given here as corresponding to the different phases are the ages turned by children in the calendar year in which the academic year begins. Age ranges are inclusive: 3 to 5 years of age is 3 academic years. Spanish students aged 6 to 15 undergo primary (colegio) and secondary school (instituto) education, which are compulsory and (like the preceding preschool from age 3) free of charge. Successful students are awarded a Secondary Education Certificate, which is necessary to enter the post-compulsory stage of Schooling (principally the Bachillerato) for their University or Vocational (Formación Profesional) Studies. Once students have finished their Bachillerato, they can take their University Entrance Exam (Pruebas de Acceso a la Universidad, popularly called Selectividad) which differs greatly from region to region. The compulsory stage of secondary education is normally referred to by its initials: ESO (Educación Secundaria Obligatoria). PRIMARY EDUCATION Structured as three 2 year cycles: • First Cycle (6 and 7 years of age) • Second Cycle (8 and 9 years of age) • Third Cycle (10 and 11 years of age) COMPULSORY SECONDARY EDUCATION (ESO) Compulsory Secondary Education (Educación Secundaria Obligatoria or ESO) is structured as two cycles of two academic years each (total 4 years): • 1st Cycle (12 & 13 years of age) • 2nd Cycle (14 & 15 years of age) Upon finishing ESO the student has a number of options, including: • Spanish Baccalaureate (post-compulsory diploma) • Vocational Training. • Work (it is only possible to get a job from 16 onwards) SPANISH BACCALAUREATE (BACHILLERATO) Spanish Bachillerato is the post-16 stage of education, comparable to the A Levels in the UK, the French Baccalaureate in France or the International Baccalaureate. There are two parts, a core curriculum with the compulsory subjects, and a specialist part with a few pre-selected branches to choose from. The core curriculum is as follows: • Spanish Language and Literature: 1st and 2nd years • Co-official language (in case of Catalan, Basque and Galician): 1st and 2nd years • First foreign language (English, French, German or Italian): 1st and 2nd years • Philosophy: 1st and 2nd years • Physical Education: Only 1st year • Spanish History: Only 2nd year • Optional subject (2nd foreign language, psychology, information technology...): 1st and 2nd year • Catholic Religion/All World Religions Studies: Only 1st year (Optional) The specialist part has up to four subjects (depending on the branch taken). 34 Arts: History of art Volume (sculpture) Colours (painting) Nature and Health Sciences: Biology Chemistry Physics, Earth Sciences or Mathematics Sciences & Engineering: Physics, Maths, Chemistry or Technical Drawing Social Sciences: Applied Maths, Economics, Geography, World History (only 1st year) Humanities: Latin, Greek, History of Art/World Literature World History (only 1st year) At undergraduate level, some degrees have their own branch requirements (such as medicine, engineering degrees, law...) and some courses accept students from any branch, such as Language studies, Social Work, Educational Sciences or Tourism. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • QUALIFICATIONS On satisfactory completion of compulsory secondary education a student is awarded the ESO diploma (he/she is a Graduado ESO, formerly Graduado Escolar), and is eligible for the different types of post-compulsory schooling. After completing the Spanish Baccalaureate, the Spanish Baccalaureate diploma is awarded to those who pass every subject. Students with appropriate qualifications and wishing to enroll in Spanish universities must usually take an entrance exam called PAU (Prueba de Acceso a la Universidad or University Entrance Examination), that consists of six tests, one for each subject and a test for each history or philosophy, foreign language (commonly English) and Spanish grammar and literature (Autonomous communities that have a co-official language, have also another test about co-official language grammar and literature), after passing their Bachillerato. VOCATIONAL TRAINING The vocational training is also a common possibility after ESO or after the Spanish Baccalaureate. There are two different types of programs: Middle Grade Training Cycles (Ciclos Formativos de Grado Medio), which have the ESO diploma as a requirement, and Superior-level Training Cycles (Ciclos Formativos de grado Superior), which have the Spanish Baccalaureate as the principal requirement. After completion of the Superior-level Training Cycle, students are entitled to direct entrance to several related University degrees. 35 PROVISION AND COSTS Schools in Spain can be divided into 3 categories: • State schools (Colegios Publicos) • Privately run schools funded by the State (Colegios Concertados) • Purely private schools (Colegios Privados) According to summary data for the year 2008-2009 from the ministry, state schools educated 67.4%, private but state funded schools 26.0%, and purely private schools 6.6% of pupils the preceding year. All non-university state education is free in Spain, but parents have to buy all of their children's books and materials. This, nominally at least, also applies to colegios concertados. Many schools are concertados = state funded up to the end of ESO but are purely private for the bachillerato years. This drop in the fraction of pupils in educacion concertado is matched by increases of approximately equal size in the fraction in both state and purely private education for bachillerato. There are private schools for all the range of compulsory education. At them, parents must pay a monthly/termly/yearly fee. Most of these schools are run by religious orders, and include single-sex schools. Schools supply a list of what is required at the start of each school year and which will include art and craft materials as well as text and exercise books. Expect to spend a minimum of around ninety pounds (GBP) per child, but in some regions, the autonomous government is giving tokens to exchange them in book shops for free, this is being adapted in 2006 in regions, such as Andalucía, where kids from 3 to 10 will get the books for free, on the following years it is expected for all compulsory years. School uniform is not normally worn in state schools but is usually worn in private schools. ADMISSIONS TO PUBLICLY FUNDED SCHOOLS Article 84 of the governing law defines the principles to be applied in the admission of pupils to publicly funded schools. The details of the implementation of these principles vary from Comunidad to Comunidad. HIGHER EDUCATION The Spanish university system dates back to the Middle Ages. The oldest among Spanish Universities is Salamanca, founded in 1218. The present system, however, is actually descendant of the 19th century liberal university, inspired by the centralized French model. In the last years, it has experienced its greatest growth in history, while at the same time advancing towards a self-governing and decentralized system. Higher education is provided by both public and private institutions. Universities are divided into departamentos, facultades universitarias, escuelas tecnicas superiores, escuelas universitarias, institutos universitarios, and other centres, notably the colegios universitarios. The Ministry of Education with the departments of higher education in the universities coordinates the activities of state and private institutions and proposes the main lines of educational policy. The Consejo de Universidades sets up guidelines for the creation of universities, centres and institutes. It can also propose measures concerning advanced postgraduate studies, the defining of qualifications to be officially recognized throughout the country and standards governing the creation of university departments. The legislation on university autonomy provides for administrative, academic and financial autonomy. 36 The Ley de Reforma Universitaria (LRU) gave rise to a renewal of the existing plans of study, presently intermediate degrees (three years) and superior degrees (five years, six for medicine) which are being replaced by two different types of studies: those of the single cycle, which will run for three years and are directly professional; and those of three cycles in some cases, receiving diplomas which are professionally valid; the B.A.'s (always with various specialties) and the doctorate (two years and a final thesis). In certain studies, the student will be able to pass from the short cycle to the bachelor's degree with a new major after a course of transition. In addition to the doctorate, in many faculties, such as medicine, there are areas for specialization and at present, there are many types of master's degrees for graduates in law and economics. The basic unit of plans of study include required subjects grouped in courses that the students will have to follow consecutively and elective courses. The courses taken may be mainstream courses (at 30% of the total in the first cycle or 25% in the second), which are those that the University Councils declare obligatory; or electives, chosen freely by the student (at least 10% of the total). UNIVERSITY LEVEL STUDIES: University level first stage: Primer ciclo: The first cycle of university studies (short term courses), which is followed in Escuelas Técnicas Superiores, Escuelas Universitarias and Facultades lasts for three years and leads to the Diplomado, Ingeniero Técnico or Arquitecto Técnico degrees. These courses lead to long term courses. University level second stage: Segundo ciclo: The courses of study leading to Licenciado, Ingeniero and Arquitecto degrees consist in first cycle and second cycle studies (long term studies) but a degree is only awarded when the studies of both cycles have been completed successfully. The Ingeniero and Arquitecto degrees are awarded following an end-of-course project (proyecto fin de carrera). Medical studies last for 6 years but Odontology and Veterinary studies last for five years. These long term courses are followed at Facultades and Escuelas Técnicas Superiores. The former offer courses in Humanities and Science and the latter offer courses in Technology, Engineering and Architecture. There are also second cycle only studies that lead to the Licenciado or Ingeniero degrees. University level third stage: Tercer ciclo, ciclo de especialización para la investigación y docencia: The third stage is open to holders of Licenciado, Arquitecto or Ingeniero degrees and leads to the Doctor's degree (Título de Doctor) which is awarded after at least three years' further study and research, following the submission and defence of a thesis. Another postgraduate degree, although it is not officially recognized (Título propio de la Universidad) is the Master degree, awarded after 1 or 2 years of further study. Teacher education: Training of pre-primary and primary/basic school teachers Primary-school teachers are trained in Escuelas universitarias de Formación de Profesorado. A three-year course leads to the Título de Maestro. Training of secondary school teachers: In order to be able to teach in secondary schools, holders of Licenciado, Ingeniero or Arquitecto degrees must also hold the Certificado de Aptitud Pedagógica (CAP). This requirement does not apply to a) holders of Licenciado en Pedagogía degree or b) holders of Maestro degrees who also hold a Licenciado, Ingeniero or Arquitecto degree. Training of higher education teachers: 37 Higher education teachers are trained in Facultades universitarias or Escuelas técnicas superiores. They must hold Licenciado, Arquitecto or Ingeniero degrees. After two years of third-cycle study and the submission of a thesis, they are awarded a Doctor degree, which is the prerequisite for teaching in faculties and higher-technical schools. However, in Escuelas universitarias, only catedráticos (holders of a chair) must meet this requirement. The requirement for Profesores Titulares is a Licenciado, Ingeniero or Arquitecto degree. Non-traditional studies: Distance higher education The Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED) organizes distance learning courses in Law, History and Geography, Philology, Philosophy and Education, Psychology, Economics and Management, Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics, Political Sciences and Sociology, and Industrial Engineering. UNED also organizes courses giving direct access to university for adults over 25 who do not hold the required qualifications and distance courses for which no specific qualification is required. In 1992, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports created the Centre for Innovation and Development of Distance Education (CIDEAD). Other educational administrations, amongst which the education Departments for the Communities of Galicia, Navarre and Valencia, have established distance education for adults in their respective regions creating the relevant establishments for distance education. There is also the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya. Lifelong higher education Continuous vocational training is conceived as a number of training activities aiming at the personal, social and professional promotion of workers. The Instituto Nacional de Cualificaciones (INCUAL) is in charge of the setting up and management of the Sistema Nacional de Cualificaciones profesionales (SNCP) to facilitate the coordination of vocational training policies proposed by the Administración General del Estado, the Autonomous Communities and Social Agents.National agreements have been reached in order to promote continuous training. The Fundación Tripartita administers most of the funds on a nation-wide scale.Ministries, Autonomous Communities and different institutions in the public and private sectors also organize special courses outside the general education system for the personal and professional upgrading of their employees. Higher education training in industry Postgraduate professional courses are offered in universities and by private bodies and associations and lead to the award of a diploma. 38 EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION The State administration has adapted in order to accommodate the decentralised model established under the Spanish Constitution of 1978. In the field of education, this process has consisted on the undertaking on the part of the Autonomous Communities of powers in the area of education and the resources necessary for the exercise of such powers (e.g. human, operational, material). This has been a very long process, which ended in January 2000. In the case of the Autonomous Cities of Ceuta and Melilla, powers regarding non university education are still exercised by the Ministry of Education, as body of the State General Administration. This decentralised model of education administration divides educational powers between the State General Administration, the Autonomous Communities, local authorities and educational institutions themselves, pursuant to provisions laid down in the Constitution, the Statutes of Autonomy and the different acts on education. EDUCATION FINANCING Methods of financing education The total budget allocated to education in Spain has its source in: public funds, which are provided by the State, regional and local authorities; private funds, which are provided by families, and, to a lesser extent, from private institutions. The public or private nature of the ultimate funding agent, rather than the recipient of the services, is what determines whether spending on education is to be considered as public or private. Public funds earmarked to finance Spanish education are provided mainly by the Ministry of Education, Social Policy and Sport, the Ministry of Education and the education authorities of the Autonomous Communities. Other ministries as well as other regional and local authorities also provide funding. Regardless of the authority providing funding, public spending is not earmarked only for public education, but it is also allocated to subsidise centros concertados and finance student scholarships and grants. On the other hand, public investment on education is intended for educational programmes, general and complementary services, school and university sports, teaching and non-teaching staff training and educational research, inter alia. In public schools, schooling is cost-free at all non-university mainstream education levels, except for the first cycle of pre-primary education. However, at all levels both in public and private institutions, families usually pay for school materials, textbooks for personal use, as well as for the use of complementary services of transport and a canteen. Families can contribute to improve school materials and the organization of out-ofschool activities by means of voluntary fees to the parents association. The education authorities provide financial assistance to pupils every year for complementary services such as boarding, school meals and transportation. Therefore, in public schools and in centros concertados, private spending on education by families may be considered to be complementary to public spending, and is allocated to those aspects which are not covered by public funds. â€˘ Non-university education financing and budgeting The principal source of funding for non-university public institutions is to be found in the annual budgets for education allocated by the education authorities. Schools have autonomy in the management of their resources, but in order to guarantee the efficiency of their economic management, they have to prepare an annual budget showing the income and expenditure for the school year. The secretary or administrator of the school, as appropriate, is in charge of preparing the budget, which is assessed by the economic commission set up 39 within the Pedagogical Coordination Commission or similar body, and subsequently approved by the School Council of the educational institution. Funding for public pre-primary schools is similar to that provided for public primary schools, discussed below. Financing for some of them comes from both public funds and tuition fees paid by families, which are established on the basis of income and other factors. Concerning primary and secondary education, public schools are created and financed by the Autonomous Communities, which also grant subsidies to private schools by means of the system of the so-called ‘educational agreements’. As regards private schools, the 1985 Ley Orgánica Reguladora del Derecho a la Educación, LODE (Act on the Right to Education) and the 2006 Ley Orgánica de Educación, LOE (Education Act) establish a system of subsidy arrangements as a way of using public funds to finance schools meeting certain conditions, essentially those providing compulsory level education. Educational agreements have a dual purpose: they aim at achieving free compulsory education where there are not enough public schools places and at facilitating parents’ choice, by enabling them to choose a school other than those centres set up by public authorities. The amount of public funds earmarked for educational subsidy arrangements is determined in each year's national budget, which also specifies the sum designated for the economic amount applicable to each class unit on the various educational levels. This amount includes the salaries of teaching and non-teaching staff and the maintenance of facilities. There are two types of subsidy arrangements: general and singular. Schools that accept the general arrangements are wholly subsidised with public funds and must provide education free of charge. In schools with singular arrangements, public funds defray only part of their costs, so they may charge pupils tuition as complementary revenue. Such fees can under no circumstances exceed the limit established by the Ministry of Education for each educational level. Schools with singular arrangements are, generally speaking, those that provide noncompulsory level education. The agreements are renewed for four-year periods at the request of the school, provided that it continues to meet the requirements which were in place when the agreement was approved. The agreements may likewise be annulled for various reasons. In order to receive public financing, centros concertados must comply with certain requirements: providing free education; constituting a School Council as the major body for administration and control; applying the same admission criteria as public schools; using procedures for hiring teachers that are subject to control; having an average pupil/teacher ratio not below the one fixed by the education authorities; and complying with the minimum standards that ensure the quality of education. In accessing such arrangements, priority is granted to schools which, in addition to complying with the requirements mentioned, meet the necessities of economically disadvantaged pupils, cover schooling needs in the areas in which they are located or carry out trials of pedagogical interest. Preference is also given to cooperative schools. Centros concertados are entitled to define their own distinguishing characteristics, provided that the education they provide respects freedom of worship. Participation in religious services must be voluntary. Such schools may also organize complementary extracurricular activities and services as long as they do not discriminate against any member of the school community. Likewise, they should be non-profitable and conducted outside the school timetable. Any revenue deriving from such activities is subject to education authority approval. Private funding for education is the part of the total spending on education that comes exclusively from private funds, either families or private institutions. Private funding complements public spending in public schools as well as in centros concertados. Such financing is usually earmarked to cover those costs which are not publicly funded (books, school material, transportation, etc.) and for extracurricular activities. Enrolment and tuition 40 costs in private schools having no agreement with the education authority are paid by pupils or their parents. These fees are freely set by each centre. In order to guarantee the right to education, socio-economically disadvantaged students can be awarded grants and financial assistance for studies. For that purpose, the State has established a general system of grants and financial assistance for studies charged to the state budget. Education authorities allocate part of their budget to grants and financial assistance for studies. At the compulsory levels, despite the cost-free nature of education in public schools as well as in centros concertados, assistance is granted annually to pupils for complementary services (such as boarding, school meals and transportation) and for buying textbooks and complementary school material. Assistance is also granted to pupils who participate in initial vocational qualification programmes or who have special educational needs. Eligibility for this assistance is subject to means testing, as established by law. Grants and financial assistance are awarded to pupils at non-compulsory education levels (pre-primary education, Bachillerato, vocational training and university) are granted by the State in all the Autonomous Communities, with the exception of the Basque Country, which has competencies in this area. Assistance at this level is currently broken down into two categories, general and special. The former includes assistance for commuting to school, urban transport, board, school material and fee exemption. Likewise, general assistance aims to compensate for families’ low income. Eligibility for this assistance is subject to academic and economic requirements in each case, and pupils should not be in possession of an educational certificate enabling them to carry out a professional activity. On the other hand, special grants and assistance comprise the assistance for pre-primary education and special education pupils as well as for pupils with extraordinary academic performance, collaboration grants for university students, assistance towards transport costs for university students studying outside their Autonomous Community and grants for language courses abroad. • University education financing and budgeting Public universities have economic and financial autonomy. So as to meet that objective, they must have enough resources to enable them to carry out their functions. As far as the formulation and implementation of their budgets are concerned, each university may use the resources assigned to it at its own discretion when formulating and administering its budget, although its programme must include an annual budget. This budget must be adopted by the university Social Council, which is the body in charge of supervising all economic activity and of encouraging society's collaboration in financing the university. In public universities, pupils must pay part of the cost of their education through tuition fees. University tuition fees for studies leading to official university diplomas are established by the corresponding Autonomous Community, subject to the limits set by the General Assembly for University Policy. Registration fees corresponding to all other kinds of studies are determined by each university Social Council. In public universities, students’ registration fees represent a small percentage of the cost of their education. Universities also have other sources of income: ● Transfers for operating costs fixed annually by the Autonomous Communities. ● Subsidies or donations from public or private institutions. ● Treasury surpluses and any other type of income. ● Credit operations. ● Returns on their assets or other financial activities. ● Specialist courses and scientific, technical or artistic work commissioned from them by private or public entities. 41 Universities may also receive revenues from university property, returns on stocks and bonds, and from rentals and concessions (bookstores, cafeterias, etc.). The universities' major expenses are those of staffing (three quarters of the total) and running and service expenses for utilities, maintenance and repairs. Economic and financial resources are administered by the university administrator. 42 EDUCATION SYSTEM of CYPRUS Christos NICOLAIDES Dekaplus Business Services LTD - Cyprus GENERAL According to the 1960 constitution of Cyprus, education is offered in Greek and Turkish schools for the Greek-Cypriots and Turkish-Cypriots respectively. Education policies are formulated by the Ministry of Education and Culture and approved by the Council of Ministers. Education is provided through pre-primary and primary schooling, secondary general and secondary technical/vocational schools, special schools, third level institutions and non-formal institutions and centres. The Ministry of Education and Culture is responsible for the coordination of all evaluation systems in Cyprus undertaken by schools the Inspectorate and the Pedagogical Institute of Cyprus. The newly established Centre for Educational Research and Evaluation (CERE), set up as an independent unit within the Ministry of Education and Culture in 2008, is expected to give new impetus in the domain of educational research and evaluation. The general framework of the evaluation of schools and institutions in Cyprus comprises both internal and external aspects. The internal evaluation system which currently operates in schools is not a comprehensive set of procedures and the form of self-evaluation which is carried out lacks some of the important components of a rigorous system. The main players in internal evaluation are the teachers, deputy headteachers and headteachers of the schools. The Inspectors of each Directorate in the Ministry of Education and Culture are the evaluators in the external aspect of evaluation. The Education system in Cyprus consists of the following stages: Pre-Primary Education One-year pre-Primary education has recently become compulsory and it accepts children over the age of 3. This level of education aims to satisfy the childrenâ€™s needs for the development of a wholesome personality in an experiential environment which enables them to recognize their capabilities and enhance their self-image. Primary Education Primary education is compulsory and has a duration of 6 years. The aim of Primary Education is to create and secure the necessary learning opportunities for children regardless of age, sex, family and social background and mental abilities. Secondary Education Secondary General Education offers two three-year cycles of education - Lower Secondary Education and Upper Secondary Education to pupils between the ages of 12 and 18. The curriculum includes core lessons, interdisciplinary subjects and a variety of extracurricular activities. Instead of the Upper Secondary Education, pupils may choose to attend Secondary Technical and Vocational Education which provides them with knowledge and skills which will prepare them to enter the workforce or pursue further studies in their area of interest. 43 Services to drop-outs Students aged 14-16 who drop out from a secondary school can enter the Apprenticeship Scheme. The system is administered by the Ministry of Labour and Social Insurance and run by the Cyprus Productivity Centre and the Ministry of Education and Culture, which provides the theoretical part of studies within the Technical and Vocational Cycle described above. Dropouts can also attend evening classes run by the Ministry of Education and Culture , and obtain the school leaving certificates awarded at the end of the first compulsory and upper secondary levels. Higher Education: At present, public and private universities operate in Cyprus. Public Universities • • • The University of Cyprus The Open University of Cyprus The Cyprus University of Technology Private Universities • • • • European University Cyprus Frederick University Cyprus University of Nicosia Cyprus Neapolis University 44 PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION Pre-Primary Education is offered by education-oriented kindergartens for children from three years to five years and eight months. For children younger than three, there are day nurseries which are not considered to be schools. Their responsibilities are the care and protection of children, rather than education, and for this reason the day nurseries come under the remit of the Ministry of Labour and Social Insurance and not the Ministry of Education and Culture. All kindergartens and day nurseries are co-educational. There are no organisations in Cyprus that would come under the category of education-oriented, nonschool institutions. There are currently three different types of kindergarten institutions: public, community and private. Public kindergartens Children from four years and eight months to five years and eight months are accepted in public kindergartens. Additionally, children who attain the age of three before 1 September may enrol if there are sufficient free places. Public kindergartens are established by the Ministry of Education and Culture in cooperation with the parentsâ€™ association and the local authority for the area where the school is situated. The teaching personnel are appointed by the Education Service Commission and the government subsidises the equipment and covers the running expenses, the construction and maintenance of school buildings and the remuneration of any assistants. In 2008/09 there were two hundred and fifty-three (253) public kindergartens in operation in Cyprus. 45 Community kindergartens Community kindergartens only operate in areas where there are insufficient public kindergartens to meet the needs of the community. They are established either by a parentsâ€™ association, a charitable organisation or the local authority (or by a combination of all three) and must be registered with the Ministry of Education and Culture. Children from the age of three years to five years and eight months may enrol. Community kindergartens are non-profit making organisations and receive an annual subsidy from the government in the form of a part payment of the salary of the teacher. The rate for this is set by the government. The community kindergarten sector is regulated by the various laws on Private Schools and Institutes. The parentsâ€™ association, charitable organisation or local authority is responsible for the school buildings and equipment as well as the recruitment and remuneration of the school assistants. The kindergarten teachers must be suitably qualified and, as such, are appointed by a Special Committee of Appointment. It is becoming more and more commonplace for community kindergartens (and even for some kindergartens in the private sector) to recruit teachers from the waiting list of approved teachers of the Education Service Commission. In 2008/09 there were seventy-nine (79) community kindergartens in operation. Private kindergartens Private kindergartens are established and operated by private individuals with the approval of the Ministry of Education and Culture and run on a for-profit basis. The private sector is regulated by the laws on Private Schools and Institutes In 2008/09 there were one hundred and fifty-five (155) private kindergartens in operation. All of the different types of kindergartens are subject to inspection by the Ministry of Education and Culture. PRIMARY EDUCATION Pupils enter primary education when they reach the age of five years and eight months by 31 August of the year of their registration and attend for six years. Attendance is compulsory. At the end of this period they receive a school-leaving certificate, which entitles them to enter secondary education. There are both public and private primary schools. Public schools function in every town and village where more than fifteen children live â€“ areas with fewer than fifteen children are served by regional schools. Most of the large primary schools in urban and larger rural areas are divided into two cycles. Cycle A caters for grades 1-3 and Cycle B for grades 4-6. Teachers are allocated in such a way so as to ensure the total class size does not exceed the maximum numbers, as regulated by decisions of the Council of Ministers. According to the ten-year educational programme, the aim of primary education is to create and secure the necessary learning opportunities for children, regardless of age, sex, family and social background and academic ability. Strong emphasis is placed on skills in languages and mathematics, as well as health and environmental education and creative and artistic expression. Recent innovations include the increased use of modern technology, for example, the use of computers as a teaching and learning tool, and the expansion of all-day schools) (see section 4.2.) and the move towards integrating pupils with special educational needs into the mainstream. 46 New Curricula In 2008, a Committee made up of experts in curriculum issues was appointed by the Minister of Education and Culture with the mandate to set out general objectives and outcomes for the design of new curricula from pre-primary to secondary education. This Committee submitted its suggestions in December 2008. In 2009, a number of subcommittees were appointed by the Ministry made up of experts and practitioners in the field of education with instructions to design new curricula and syllabi per subject/area for all three levels of education including pre-primary and primary levels. Class size There have been several moves to bring down the maximum class size in the primary sector. During the 2003/04 academic year, the maximum class size in the first, second and third grades of primary school was reduced from thirty-two to thirty. The decision to implement this reform gradually was taken both for educational reasons and to avoid disruption to the pupils. In the 2004/05 academic year, the maximum class size in grade 4 was reduced from thirty-two to thirty. This continued into fifth and sixth grades, bringing the maximum class size down by the same number, in the 2005/06 academic year. Within the framework of the educational reform, two decisions of the Council of Ministers reduced further the size of the class from 30 to 25, beginning with grade one and gradually extending it to grade two and three, while by 2010/11 the maximum size of the class in all grades of primary schools not exceed 25 students. Optional All-day school This was a concept that was initially introduced on an experimental basis into nine primary schools (four in urban and five in rural areas) in the academic year 1999/00. Two of these schools operated as both morning and afternoon schools in which the school day ended at 4pm. In another two, the school day ended at 2.45pm and the remaining schools extended the school day for grades 1-3 until 1.05pm. This experiment was evaluated by a Special Evaluation Committee. The evaluation was completed in May 2000 and a report was submitted to the Ministry of Education and Culture. The findings of the report indicated that the experiment had been a success, both educationally and socially. These schools operate on a voluntary basis for grades 4, 5 and 6 from October to May of every school year, offering four additional hours, until 4pm, four times a week (Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Friday). No change has been made to either the curriculum or the timetable of the morning school. The afternoon programme includes one period for children's lunch, four teaching periods per week devoted to completing homework that has been assigned, four teaching periods for reinforcing teaching and four periods for two of the following optional subjects: English; Information Technology; Music; Physical Education; Art, Design and Technology. The number of pupils in each class ranges from eight to twentyfive, according to both the subject and the needs of each school. Provision for the preparation of meals is undertaken by the parents. The Ministry of Education and Culture also subsidises the meals of pupils from low-income families. 47 Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Since September 1993 the Directorate of Primary Education has initiated a programme to enhance the provision of ICT in the primary sector. Although the programme started on a trial basis, it was subsequently implemented fully in all schools in Cyprus (including the primary school in Rizokarpasso, in the occupied areas). As a result of this programme, one computer and one printer were installed in every classroom for each grade, from 1 to 6. Each computer has access to the Internet. In addition, computers were also installed in some ICT laboratories. ICT is not taught as a separate subject in the National Curriculum for the primary sector (except in all-day schools, see above), but is used as a dynamic tool in the teaching and learning process, aiming at a more effective implementation of the curriculum as well as the promotion of basic computer skills. Since 2001, there has been a systematic action plan for the enrichment of the Science Curriculum, aimed at exploiting ICT to the full in the learning process. This action plan has now also been extended into the Mathematics Curriculum. Since 2002 the Ministry of Education and Culture has adopted a programme entitled ‘The Integration of ICT’, which is funded by the European Development Bank and the Council of Europe Development Bank. The DIAS project is expected to further upgrade the existing ICT facilities, services and hardware equipment in pre-primary and primary public schools. Multicultural Education In recent years, a growing number of pupils from other countries (mainly from countries of the former Soviet Union) have enrolled in primary education in Cyprus. It is estimated that approximately 8,7% of primary level pupils in 2008/09 do not have Greek as a first language. The policy of the Ministry of Education and Culture has been to recognise the language and diverse cultural traditions of the different groups, whilst supporting those pupils who do not have Greek as their first language to improve their language skills in order to facilitate a smooth transition into Greek Cypriot society. SECONDARY EDUCATION The lower secondary school, the gymnasium, is the first three-year cycle of general secondary education providing education to pupils between the ages of twelve and fifteen. Education in Cyprus is compulsory until the end of the gymnasium at which point successful graduates receive a leaving certificate, which allows the pupil to enter an upper secondary school, the lyceum or a secondary level technical school. The main goal of the gymnasium is to promote the development of pupils according to their age potential and the requirements of society. The gymnasium is a self-contained unit of general education. It complements the general education offered by primary schools and prepares pupils for education in lyceums or technical schools. The structure and curriculum of the gymnasia have recently been updated and expanded to include subjects such as the arts, health, nutrition, environmental studies, design and technology. All pupils at the gymnasia study the same subjects. The introduction of the unified lyceum (referred to here by the more common term ‘lyceum’) in the academic year 2000/01 has been perhaps one of the most important reforms to the education system of Cyprus in the last two decades. The lyceum cycle offers a threeyear education programme for pupils aged fifteen to eighteen and has as its main focus the general education of pupils as well as the development of their personality. Pupils of the lyceum must follow a compulsory set of general educational subjects in addition to choosing optional subjects which they select in accordance with their interests, ability and future plans. These subjects provide more in-depth and systematic coverage of a 48 particular field of study. The pupils are assisted in making these choices by counsellors and the committee for the evaluation of pupilsâ€™ choices. Success in the lyceum leads to the schoolleaving certificate, which is the qualification for entry into university or any other higher education institution. There are also a number of private secondary schools in Cyprus, which are registered with the Ministry of Education and Culture and operate according to existing regulations. They offer courses lasting six or seven years: some follow the curriculum and timetables of the public school system wholly or partially, some do not. The language of instruction varies in the private schools, the main ones being Greek, English, French and Russian. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION Technical Technical Vocational Education represents about 21% of the total pupil population of Upper Secondary Education. It is offered to pupils who graduate from the Gymnasium and have opted to follow either the Theoretical or Practical Direction of Technical Education. The main difference between the Theoretical and Practical Direction is that in the syllabus of the Theoretical Direction more emphasis is given to science subjects; while in the syllabus of the Practical Direction the emphasis is given to technological subjects, workshop practice and industrial training. For this purpose, the needs and demands of local industries are taken into consideration. Courses in the Practical Direction are also of a three - year duration. During the third and final year of their studies, pupils of the Practical Direction follow a two- day per week scheme for industrial training. The scheme, which constitutes one of the main links between industry and education, is prepared in close cooperation with the Human Resource Development Authority and is coordinated by Instructors / Counselors, who visit the pupils working in Industry on a regular basis and ensure that they receive proper training according to the specifications and prescribed programme of training. Hotel and Catering Pupils of the Hotel and Catering Branch (Waiting and Cooking) follow their own industrial training programme. During the second term of the first year, they are placed at various hotels for two weeks. This induction training helps them to get an initial feeling of the Hotel and Catering Industry and acquire a first â€“hand experience of the operation of the various departments of the hotel and catering enterprises and particularly the kitchen and the restaurant. On completion of the second year of studies, they are placed in hotels for twenty weeks as apprentice waiters or cooks, where they follow a prescribed programme of training in different sections or areas of their speciality. The scheme operates in cooperation with the Human Resource Development Authority, the Hotel Owners Association and the Trade Unions. The Human Resource Development Authority contributes financially to the successful operation of the scheme. The above schemes are the main links between the industry and the Technical and Vocational Education. HIGHER EDUCATION Tertiary education is provided by the following four types of institution: 49 • • • • The three state universities: the University of Cyprus, the Open University of Cyprus and Cyprus University of Technology. The six public higher education institutions: the Forestry College, the School of Nursing and Midwifery, the Mediterranean Institute of Management (MIM), the Higher Hotel Institute of Cyprus (HHIC), the Tourist Guides School and the Police Academy. The four private universities: Frederick University, European University-Cyprus, Neapolis University Paphos and University of Nicosia. Private higher education institutions The administration of higher education institutions varies according to the role, functions, status and degree of financial and other independence they may have. The University of Cyprus is a legal entity under public law and fully selfadministered. The overall administration of the university is, at present, the responsibility of the following bodies: • University Council: This body is responsible for the management and control of the administrative and financial affairs of the university and its property. It is also responsible for the budget of the University of Cyprus, which is submitted to the Council of Ministers and the House of Representatives through the Ministry of Education and Culture. There are seven external members of the Council, four of whom are appointed by the Council of Ministers and three by the Senate. University members include the Rector (see below), Vice Rectors, two representatives of the academic staff, one representative from the administrative staff, one student representative and the Director of Administration and Finance. The Chairperson and Vice Chairperson of the University Council are appointed by the President of the Republic of Cyprus from among external membership. • Senate: The Senate is the university's highest academic body and is responsible for academic affairs. The Senate is made up of the Rector, Vice Rectors and Faculty Deans (see below), as well as three representatives from each faculty, student representatives (the number equalling the number of faculties), the Director of Administration and Finance and the Library Director. • Rector: The Rector is the head of the Senate, and is assisted in his/her duties and responsibilities by one or more Vice Rectors. The Rector and Vice Rectors are elected by the entire academic staff and representatives of both student and administrative staff. The university is made up of different faculties, each of which is headed by a Dean who is responsible for the management of the curricula and finances of the faculty or department. Deans and Deputy Deans are elected by members of the Departmental Boards of the Faculty (see below). The Faculty Board makes decisions on academic issues, which are then approved by the Senate. The Faculty Board is made up of the Dean, the Deputy Dean, the Chairpersons of the faculty’s departments, two academic members from the departments of the faculty and student representatives (equal in number to the number of departments in the faculty). Each faculty is subdivided into departments, which are administered by a Chairperson and Vice Chairperson (elected by the Departmental Board), and the Departmental Board, which deals with teaching and research. The Departmental Board consists of Professors, Associate Professors, Assistant Professors and Lecturers from the department, and student representatives (equal to one third of the total number of academic staff). Cyprus has one of the highest numbers of university and higher education students on a per capita basis. Moreover, about 82% of secondary school graduates attend some form of 50 higher education either in Cyprus or abroad (2007/08). There is a student body totalling 22.227, of which 5.961 were international students. Of this number, 7.152 were enrolled in public institutions and 15.075 in private institutions. At the same time, 20.969 Cypriot students studied abroad at tertiary level institutions. EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION Educational administration is centralized. The highest authority for educational policy making is the Council of Ministers. Overall responsibility for education rests with the Ministry of Education (extended in 1994 over Culture as well). However, a small number of vocational and post-secondary institutions come under the Ministries of Labour and Social Insurance, Agriculture and Health. The Ministry of Education and Culture is responsible for the administration of education, the enforcement of education laws and, in cooperation with the Office of the Attorney General, the preparation of education bills. The bills are tabled for debate and approval by the House of Representatives. Appointments, secondments, transfers, promotions and discipline of the teaching personnel and the inspectorate are the responsibility of the Education Service Commission, a five-member body appointed by the President of the Republic for a period of six years. The construction of school buildings is the responsibility of the Ministry of Education and Culture while their maintenance is undertaken by the local School Boards in collaboration with the Technical Services of the Ministry. The responsibility for equipment of school buildings is shared by the Ministry and the local School Boards. Overall Planning is done by the Planning Bureau, which is under the supervision of the Minister of Finance. Similar planning is done by all ministries which offer postsecondary specialised education. Their development policies are first submitted to the Planning Bureau, which comments on them before these policies are forwarded to the Council of Ministers for final approval. The Ministry of Education invites suggestions on its policies for the Educational Council, a widely representative body consisting of representatives of other government bodies, the Church, the parliamentary Committee for education, the Parentsâ€™ Associations, the Teachersâ€™ Associations and seven community members known for their keen interest in educational matters. EDUCATION FINANCING Public education is mainly financed by the Government either directly or through allotments to local authorities or School Boards while private education is supported by individuals and governing bodies. Private foreign language schools might be assisted by affiliated overseas authorities and organisations. Public and community pre-primary education is supervised and partially financed by the Government. As mentioned previously, primary and lower secondary education is compulsory up to the age of fifteen (15). Public primary education is free. The government provides the means for the public schools and awards annual grants to local authorities to undertake their responsibilities. In the public sector, financing covers every educational need including the free provision of books. Public secondary education is also free. In the case of general secondary education, financial provisions are the responsibility of the government either directly or through the School Boards (by awarding grants to them). Financing of technical and vocational secondary schools is the direct responsibility of the Government. Financing covers every educational need including the free provision of the majority of the textbooks that are used. 51 Public tertiary institutions are financed in various ways as they come under various ministries but essentially all their costs are covered by the public budget. The University of Cyprus is financed by the state. Nominally the University charges fees but the amount of grants awarded by the state is so extensive that no student pays any fees except in very extreme cases (e.g. failure in academic achievement). Education and Culture budget expenditure increased by 12.5% in 2009 reaching €1.071b. The increase could rise to 16% if €12m for the student aid package (see section 6.8.1.) and €26m for school infrastructure were added. As regards culture in particular, the allocated funds for 2009 had almost doubled, from €23.7m in the previous year to €46.5m. 52 EDUCATION SYSTEM OF HUNGARY Compiled by János PALOTÁS Foundation Of Knowledge – Hungary PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION Until recently, education in Hungary was compulsory from the age of 6 to 16. Since September 1998, however, the duration of compulsory education is 12 years. Attending kindergarten is compulsory only from the age of 5: during the last year at kindergarten, children are prepared for school. Basic education in Hungary is provided by the general (primary) school, during two cycles of 4 years. Children attend general (primary) school up to the age of 14, after wich they have to choose another school. Following economic and social changes and with regard to the decreasing number of pupils, in the 1990s the education system in Hungary was restructured. As a result of the changes, some of the general (primary) schools and general secondary schools provided longer or shorter schooling than formerly. Pupils received a wider range of opportunities, such as general secondary schools (gymnasiums) starting education for periods of 6 or 8 years besides the traditional 4-year-courses. These new school types made it possible to choose a school even at the age of 10 or 12. These two school types were initially favoured. However, at the end of the 1990s, their spreading was restricted by new regulations. As a consequence, these schools nowadays furnish only a small part of the secondary education. Children can choose among secondary schools as follows: • Technical schools • Special technical schools • Secondary vocational schools • General secondary schools (gymnasiums) Students who are not planning to obtain a secondary school leaving certificate and wish to begin work immediately after the compulsory period of education, have the opportunity to attend a technical school. The latest regulations state that, during the first and second years of the secondary school (the 9th and 10th grades), students have to be taught only general subjects. They can learn professional subjects from the 3rd grade on. The professional orientation and preparation for the technical training starts in the 9th and 10th grades. However, the real technical training begins in the 11th grade, partly in the school, and partly in factories or school-workshops. The conditions for entry to vocational training are defined by the List of National Training Possibilities. If the practical training is provided by an organisation operating with the agreement of the chambers of trade, a contract of apprenticeship has to be made. The duration of training in technical schools is from 2.5 to 4 years. At the end of the school year, students take technical examinations and can obtain qualifications as skilled workers. Mentally handicapped children can attend special trade schools. They first obtain the certification of the 9th and 10th grades, and subsequently start acquiring competence in a trade. These schools prepare students for simple jobs. The general secondary schools (gymnasiums) aim at preparation for universities and colleges, high level foreign language teaching and a thorough general education. After the last year of the gymnasium, the students take final examinations, on the basis of which they are entitled to apply for places at universities or colleges, to learn a trade, or to apply for a position demanding secondary school leaving certificate. The gymnasiums generally offer 4- 53 year-long education, starting in the 9th grade and finishing in the 12th grade. 6- or 8-yearperiods of education and gymnasiums in which subjects are taught in two languages are exceptions. The latter schools offer 5-year-courses of education. In the 9th grade, learning a foreign language is emphasized and from the 10th year on certain subjects are taught in a foreign language. Besides general education, secondary vocational schools offer the opportunity to learn a profession. In the 9â€“12th grades of the secondary school, students are taught general subjects. This is a preparation phase for the secondary school leaving certificate and further studies. The vocational orientation starts in the 9th grade. From the 11th grade on, theoretical and practical basic knowledge is taught in workgroups. The real vocational training begins only after the secondary school leaving certificate. The conditions for entry to vocational training are defined by the List of National Training Possibilities. The vocational training ends with a vocational qualification. Up to the 1990s, these schools offered a 4-year-period of training, which ended with a vocational qualification in addition to the school leaving certificate. The number of general secondary schools and secondary vocational schools increased in the 1990s. The reason was that more students decided to obtain the secondary school leaving certificate and to study further at universities or colleges. It was also a consequence of the economic changes in Hungary, as the demand for highly qualified people increased significantly. Today, a majority of secondary schools offer various training forms. Students can choose from among different specialisations in the same school and also have the chance to change their specialisation within the school. Previously, students could not move from one course to another without changing school. The recent education system facilitates mobility among the various training forms. In the 1990s, a new training form, short-cycled post-secondary Accredited Higher Vocational Training (AHVT) courses were introduced. These programmes are offered mainly by colleges (sometimes universities), and in many cases in cooperation with secondary vocational schools, for students with a secondary school leaving certificate. During the training participants earn credit points, which can be utilized when they apply for places at universities and colleges. Grading Scale 54 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATIONAL PATHS HIGHER EDUCATION The term higher education includes training at universities and colleges. These are mostly state universities and colleges; a smaller number are controlled by various churches and there are private colleges. Some foreign education institutions too exist in Hungary. There are altogether 72 universities and colleges with 176 faculties in the country. In the 1990s, several higher education institutions were merged. The number of universities and colleges decreased, but the training possibilities increased significantly. In the past decade, the numbers of students at universities and colleges have risen greatly. The academic year consists of two semesters: the autumn semester generally lasts from the middle of September to the middle of December, and the spring semester from the middle of February to the middle of May. State-funded students can obtain their first degree free of charge at state universities and colleges. However, foreign citizens have to pay a tuition fee even at state institutions (with the exception of foreign citizens with permanent residence permission). Students who 55 obtain a state scholarship can be exempted from paying the tuition fee. The tuition fee varies at the different institutions and faculties. Information can be found on site or on the homepage of the university. Applications for basic training can be submitted by students who have obtained the secondary school leaving certificate or have a degree. There is generally no age limit for applications. Both Hungarian and foreign students can apply. The main condition of application is possession of a secondary school leaving certificate, but this does not mean automatic acceptance. Most universities and colleges also have entrance examinations. Information can be obtained from the university. During recent years, the number of courses in foreign languages has risen markedly (English, German and French). Competence in Hungarian language is not a criterion, with the exception of courses provided completely or partly in Hungarian. There are foreign language programmes, particularly at the medical, economic and technical universities and colleges, where competence in Hungarian is not needed. The high-level institutions afford a good opportunity for student mobility, through numerous international cooperation and participation in different European programmes (e.g. ERASMUS and CEEPUS). The larger universities often offer Hungarian courses for students, for instance in the frame of summer university studies. Foreign students have the opportunity to take part in a preparation year in Hungarian if they wish to learn the language. The degrees available at universities and colleges are as follows: â€˘ Bachelor degree, particularly at colleges: 3-4 years â€˘ Master degree: 4-5 years; medical universities: 6 years â€˘ Doctoral degree, Ph.D, Doct. Of Liberal Arts (DLA ):3 years Universities generally provide students with a master degree, and colleges with a bachelor degree. HIGHER EDUCATIONAL PATHS 56 Higher Education Reforms in Hungary • Legal background: 1993 Law on Higher Education; 1996 Amended Law on Higher Education • Establishment of a new network of integrated higher education institutions from January 1, 2001, which resulted in a reduced number of colleges/universities (the names of institutions changed as well!) • Expansion of enrollments in higher education: 12% enrollment in 1991 (of the age group 18-22) increased to 28% by 2000 • Introduction of a student loan system from September 2001 • Introduction of the credit system in all higher education institutions from September 2003 • Reform of secondary school final examinations in 2005 • meeting the challenge of the EU-accession in 2004: creating a knowledgebased society, provision of the EU diploma-recognition principles, development of the ECTS-compatible credit system The number of students of higher educational institutions by branch, university and college education (1986-2005) School Full-time regular Part-time evening Part-time correspondence Altogether year education course course 1986/87 64 855 6 040 27 610 98 505 1987/88 66 697 5 851 26 477 99 025 1988/89 71 689 5 540 25 812 103 041 1989/90 72 381 5 255 23 232 100 868 1990/91 76 601 4 737 21 049 102 387 1991/92 83 191 4 372 19 516 107 079 1992/93 92 328 4 298 20 834 117 460 1993/94 103 713 4 640 25 603 133 956 1994/95 116 370 5 453 32 837 154 660 1995/96 129 541 5 764 44 260 179 565 1996/97 142 113 5 750 51 169 199 032 1997/98 152 889 6 538 74 230 233 657 1998/99 163 100 6 866 88 349 258 315 1999/00 171 612 7 861 99 524 278 997 2000/01 176 046 8 625 110 369 295 040 2001/02 184 071 9 665 119 502 313 238 2002/03 203 379 13 031 165 150 381 560 2003/04 216 296 12 950 179 829 409 075 2004/05 225 512 11 656 184 352 421 520 Resources/Information on Hungarian Higher Education (each website listed is in Hungarian and English) • http://www.om.hu/education: Ministry of Education: the most comprehensive and authentic homepage on the Hungarian educational system, including an updated list of all universities and colleges • http://www.mab.hu/: Hungarian Accreditation Committee • http://www.ftt.hu/: Higher Education and Scientific Council • http://www.hier.iif.hu/: Hungarian Institute for Educational Research 57 • • • • http://www.hok.hu/: National Association of Students in Hungary http://www.phd.hu/: Association of Hungarian PhD Students http://www.prof.iif.hu/: House of Professors (links to many other related websites) http://www.npk.hu/public/kiadvanyaink/2010/education.pdf: National Resource Centre for Vocational Guidance *** Sources: www.npk.hu/public/kiadvanyaink/2002/2002_2.pdf http://americancorner.hu/htmls/hungarian_education_system.html 58 EDUCATION SYSTEM of ROMANIA Oana Cristina TURTOI Repere Association - Bacău Branch The national system of education - organization and functioning of the national system of education - regulated by Law of Education. In Romania education is national priority. ACCESS Romanian citizens have equal rights of access to all levels and forms of education, regardless of social and material condition, gender, race, nationality, political or religious affiliation. State education promotes democratic principles and guarantees the right to education different, based on educational pluralism, for the benefit of the individual and entire society. The state promotes the permanent education. FINANCING Compulsory education is 10 classes. Attendance compulsory education 10 classes, the form of daily stops at 18. Education shall be free for taxes. For some activities can charge under the conditions laid down by law. State education is funded from the state budget and local budgets. Funds for education are nominated separately in the state budget and local budgets. Education can be financed directly to businesses and other natural or legal persons. Education can be supported through scholarships, study loans, fees, donations, sponsorships, own sources and other legal sources. The state supports its material, especially on students and students who obtained good results in learning skills and prove their special training for a profession in the field. State and other stakeholders subsidize the activities of performance, national and international, of the pupils and students. LANGUAGE STUDY Education at all levels is conducted in Romanian. It is developed in terms of this law, and in the languages of minorities and languages in traffic international. In these schools Romanian language and literature is considering teaching in Romanian and history of Romanians and Romania’s geography is teaching in minorities’ languages (according to the new Law of Education no.1/2011). In each city are organize and work units, classes or bands to study English language and, as appropriate, with teaching in languages of minorities or provide training in the language in the nearest town where possible. Learning Romanian language as the official state language is compulsory for all Romanian citizens, regardless of nationality. Plans for education should include the required number of hours and also will ensure conditions that allow acquiring the official language of state. Both in state education, and in particular at the school and university official, nominated by the Minister of National Education, is made in Romanian. The other school and university entries can be written in language teaching. Units and institutions of education can make and deliver, on request, the official translation of documents and other entries school and university own. 59 RELIGIOUS CULTS Plans framework of primary, secondary, higher and vocational include religion as school discipline, part of the common area. The student, with parent or legal guardian's established, choose to study religion and confession. Written at the request of parents or legal guardian established, the child can not attend classes in religion. In this case the situation school ends without this discipline. Similarly here, and for the student who, for objective reasons, have provided the conditions for attendance hours in this discipline. Recognized officially by the state may ask the Ministry of National Education organizing a specific theological education training staff of worship and social activity of religious missionary, only to graduates of Secondary Education or school, as appropriate, with proportional share of each numerical configuration of religious worship in the country, according to official census refreshed. The establishment and functioning of this school are made according to the law. Recognized by the state have the right to establish and administer their own units and private educational institutions, according to the law. Specific theological curriculum is worked out by the cult that is developed by the Commission for Education of each religious cult and approved by the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sport. Private education curriculum organized religions other than theological, are developed and approved according to law. For higher education curriculum are developed and approved according to law. THE CONTENT OF EDUCATION The organization and content of education can not be structured by exclusive and discriminatory criteria of ideological, political, religious or ethnic. Are not considered to be structured by exclusive and discriminatory criteria units and institutions of education needs created by linguistic or religious order, which corresponds to the teaching of choice parent or legal guardians set of students. Ministry of National Education, in consultation with stakeholders and the organization of some specific types of education, responsible for developing curriculum: education plans, programs and school textbooks for pre-university education. In higher education curriculum is determined in accordance with university autonomy and national standards. In the national education system, state and private, can be initiated and organized educational alternatives, with the Ministry of National Education, under the law. THE NATIONAL EDUCATION The national education system consists of all units and educational institutions of various types, levels and forms of organization of business training and education. The national education includes units and educational institutions, state and private. Privatization of the institutions and educational units shall be prohibited. The education is organized by level, ensuring coherence and continuity training and education, in accordance with the particularities of individual and age. The national education include: a) pre-school education: small group, middle group; large, preparatory school; b) primary education: grades I-IV; c) secondary education: gymnasium, lower secondary schools, classes V-IX;secondary school, upper secondary education, grades X-XII/XIII; vocational education: I-II/III years; 60 d) post-graduate education; e) higher education: university and post-university education; f) permanent education. Pre-school, primary, secondary, vocational and post-graduate education forms the pre-university education. ORGANIZATION The forms of organization of education are: day-time, evening, no attendance and distance learning. In the ongoing education can practice education through correspondence or distance. Education which includes primary and secondary education, are day time form. In exceptional, secondary education can be organize in the evening time or distance, for people who have exceeded by more than 2 years of age appropriate class. In the system of education can work units pilot and experimental application. In relation to the existing school can working groups which organizes education, high school and school, with a management system. Within the national system of education, under the direction and control of the Ministry of National Education, can be set up and can operate according to law, the structure of organized education through cooperation between units and institutions abroad, on the basis of intergovernmental agreements. FACILITIES The national education are open. In pre-university education students can shift from one school to another, from one profile to another and from one branch to another - this is possible under the conditions laid down by regulation of the Ministry of National Education. In higher education is open to the Charter provided by the university. Pupils and students with the skills and school performance can promote exceptional 2 years of studies in a year or graduate school. The Ministry of National Education, school inspectorates and local government authorities ensure the necessary conditions for students to attend courses in primary and secondary school, usually in the localities where they domiciled. In justified cases students in primary and secondary education, learning in another town, have ensure, if necessary, transport services, meals and school, with the support of the Ministry of National Education, the local government authorities, of the businesses, community Local companies. PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION The education is a priority for all governments in European countries, although the structure of education varies from country to country. In Romania is producing profound changes at all levels to create structures that are compliant with EU requirements. And the role of vocational education is very important. Strengths of Vocational Education Reform in Romania: - simultaneous and coherent development of the main elements that innovates providing education and training; - correlation with European developments in the field of training. And of these elements, the curriculum is the element with maximum visibility in the academic world. 61 The Lisbon European Council in education and training that emphasized education and training systems in Europe to adapt to the requirements of both society and the needs caused by the desire to improve the quality of employment. They must provide opportunities for education and training to target groups at different times of life: youth, adults, unemployed and persons whose occupations are affected by low powers they hold. With the extension of compulsory education to 10 years, the structure of initial vocational education and training has undergone major changes were: - Improving the educational offer - Increasing its attractiveness and flexibility - Changing the curriculum, the conditions for completion of various educational pathways - Development of social partnership Some characteristics of professional qualifications in vocational education should be that: - vocational training by providing training for lifelong learning; - the vocational training is undertaken to obtain a double recognition (academic and professional) which allow: 1. further studies 2. employment in the labor market; - vocational training in procurement is based on areas of key skills developed during compulsory education. Characteristics of Professional Qualifications can be obtained through vocational education are: - Extensive professional qualifications to practice more occupations; - Professional qualifications addressed in the context of lifelong learning; - Occupational mobility and flexibility - Labour market relevance - Transparency - validation - quality assurance; - Credit accumulation and transfer. Vocational Education Curriculum: As part of university education in Romania, operating in the context of professional education National Curriculum for compulsory education and post-compulsory secondary education: a. broadly - are all educational processes and student learning experiences through the car runs its course throughout the school; b. narrow - includes all those documents where the school record essential data on educational processes and learning experiences that schools provide students. This set of documents, or formal curriculum is called Official Curriculum. Vocational curriculum components are the same as the national curriculum: - learning environment plans - school programs - guides - norms - support materials - alternative textbooks. 62 The Fundamental purpose of curriculum development in vocational education: - professional skills necessary to adapt to the requirements of work are in a continuous and rapid change; - the acquisition of key transferable skills necessary for social integration, and rapid labor market success, but also to continue learning throughout life. Professional development objectives and curriculum implementation: a. promoting the use of teaching strategies based on student-centered learning; b. evaluation and certification based on learning outcomes; c. adapting teaching strategies to stimulate integration and performance of students with special educational needs (SEN); d. adapting training content to the economic and social development; e. design local curriculum development skills to adapt to local and regional labor market requirements. Teaching - learning - evaluation focuses on learning outcomes. They are, in fact, transposition professional skills in the context of education. Standard training includes: 1. key skills units (common to all qualifications training in all areas to a certain level of qualification); 2. general technical skills units (common to all domain-specific skills training to a certain level of qualification); 3. units of specialized technical skills (specific each qualification). They must meet the requirements of present and future of the economy to ensure the relevance of initial vocational training in relation to the labor market. Assessment - The purpose of certification - is done in line with European trends. The Certification is designed and made based on national public list of topics for the practical test and oral test. References 1.http://legislatie.resurse-pentru-democratie.org/84_1995.php 2.http://www.cautalege.ro/lege-268-2003-modificarea-completarea-legii-invatamantului-nr84-1995-(8A4F4B91F16C1BFB).jsp 3.http://www.dreptonline.ro/legislatie/legea_educatiei_nationale_lege_1_2011.php 63 CHAPTER II: ACTIVE LEARNING OVERVIEW OF THE SEVEN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES Contents - Active Methods – The Learning Centered on Student Methods......... Oana Cristina TURTOI - The Use Of Active Materials In Today’s Romanian Learning System ........Elena ANGHEL, Lorena ANTONOVICI - The Active Learning Implications In Turkey........................Meryem Nur AYDEDE YALÇIN - The Active Learning Implications In Italy ......................................................Giuseppe DOTI - The Active Learning Implications In Lithuania..............................................Vida DRĄSUTĖ - The Active Learning Implications In Spain ................................Pedro José LEIVA PADILLA - The Active Learning Implications In Cyprus........................................Christos NICOLAIDES - Active Learning In Education Of Science In Hungary.....................................Ferenc SIMON 64 ACTIVE METHODS – THE LEARNING CENTERED ON STUDENT METHODS Oana Cristina TURTOI Repere Association - Bacău Branch Often we hear that the education should stimulate our creativity and team work. Yes, it is true. From this statement, we can say that, by school, there is a complex process of transformation of the students’ behavior (in the way they think, act and feel). The main purpose of school is to prepare pupils for life to the existing requirements and also for the future. The school must develop the students’ independent thinking, creative motivation and desire to express their opinions. Each child has an enormous creative potential that, in school, must be developed and encouraged. The rate that our society is evolving is very fast and young people need to form better and faster. The educational process will also have to adapt to new demands of contemporary / modern society (from economically and socially). Due to these changes, the educational process is required to use different new methods and techniques to give pupils the most important and complex information in a form that they can absorb them more easily. It must provide to pupils direct access to information sources. In any European Union country, the educational policies are oriented, from the pedagogy point of view, so that the pupils are placed in the center of its concerns. That is an active and interactive teaching, it is a new pedagogy that promotes discovery by pupils and by teachers. By solving problems during our everyday life (whatever would be its degree of difficulty) the pupils are involved in knowledge and skills that can not be separated in the scope of an object of study or another one. The skills that prove to be important for solving the everyday situations are related to the ability of understanding and using the concepts, and the skills related to the exploration / investigation of reality and a problem solving. The role of our project is to show the trends of development of the active learning at the beginning of the new century. The interest in the active learning was decisive in shaping a complex “picture” of conceptual approaches for active learning. Through these project presentation materials, we tried to emphasize the implications of related concepts more clear to understand the phenomenon of teaching – learning. We also hope that our presented materials succeeded in capturing and developing the most important aspects of teaching perspective, in terms of identifying landmaks in terms of raising the school performance. References 1.Dragoş Viorel, “Predarea si invatarea interactiva in ciclul primar”, Cluj-Napoca, 2011; 65 THE USE OF ACTIVE MATERIALS IN TODAY’S ROMANIAN LEARNING SYSTEM Elena ANGHEL, Lorena ANTONOVICI Training Cons 2005 SRL – Romania Approach landmark From our observations, active methods are poor in the Romanian learning system, some of the professors not being familiar at all with this method or they simply lack the openness towards active learning. Some active methods are mostly used in specialized schools of universities, although not even here are they in the desired amount. Adjacent forming programs often compensate the gaps. In ecumenical scholar learning system, active learning is mostly present in primary school. Still, there are Romanian professors who got involved in the study of active learning and who also proposed a series of active learning methods, most of them derived and inspired from foreign specialty literature. We will present a part of these methods, those being the ones that we found to be popular amongst the conceptions of some Romanian professors, which we thought were more innovative or which we were able to observe directly in the learning process. Premises Romanian professor Ioan Cerghit (I. Cerghit, 1983) shows us that in order to magnify the educational value of the lesson; we must consider 2 essential premises 1. opening the lesson to life 2. emphasising the active and participative character of the lesson As far as the first premise goes, it can be achieved through a few devices: -valorization of the students’ life experience: the assimilation the new knowledge through personal experience and observations -prolonging the lesson through complementary activities: through additional reflecting, searching and documentation, besides school activity - translating lessons into life: in nature, in different institutions, etc. To accentuate the active and participative aspect of the lesson, a learning propitious atmosphere is needed. These principles are imposed: • The active lesson requires implication, full commitment, both individual and collective. For the lesson to succeed, we could take in account: • fully lived learning experience • genuine commitment of the student • full implication with all interest in the domain of learning • active and intensive participation in the process of learning • An active lesson is based on active and participative methods. Active and participative methods really involve students in owning knowledge, the professor having the role of a barely noticeable guide while the lesson becomes a real mental and operational exercise. 3. An active background 66 According to O. Pânişoară, in primary and secondary school, in order to insure an interactive learning environment, we can use a few group forming methods (O. Pânişoară, 2003). These are the methods proposed by this theoretician of education: • deck cards • for the creation of four member groups we can use as many card groups as how many groups we wish to form; we will create as follow: the group of teens, kings, jacks, etc. • numbered cards • by writing the numbers on the cars according to the number of groups then drawing out. • different symbols cards • instead of numbers we can use colors, images, symbols • puzzle • utilizing puzzles for little kids (4-6 pieces); building the groups based on the puzzle pieces specific “series” Starting from the specific of a certain discipline the groups are formed according to concepts, relations, phenomena categories, etc. For example: • in classes of mother tongue you can use, for example, literary characters( from novels, from theatre, masculine, feminine, children); • at chemistry you can group: metals, salt, bases, avoids; • at a foreign language you can group: animals, clothing items, food, furnishing items, school item. • anniversaries • by grouping the students according to the months they were born in • working materials • grouping the students according to the materials distributed, by marking them with numbers, symbols, pins, etc. On the other hand, scientist LIGIA SARIVAN shows that – in order to generate an active environment, at the majority of the learning levels, we can opt for more methods of arranging the furniture (Sarivan, Ligia & Col. 2009): 67 68 Still in the context of favoring an active climate, we could also include here the games of ice-breaking (games which were proposed by the specialists of The Catholic Action of the Children of the Diocese of IaĹ&#x;i, catholic association involved in education children and young people). These could be used especially in high school classes. Next we will present this strategy, which we could include in active learning techniques, like this: Ice breaking games/ Ice breaking Ice breaking Explanation Motifs techniques Each participant sais their name and a specific -knowing names The -memorizing presentation of thesign (gesture). The next participants their names names name and the sign and signs and the previousâ€™ name and sign. -telling one person from the other On a piece of paper, each writes their name -memorizing Name tag hanged around and draws something which represents them in a names positive way. Each puts the tag around their neck -symbol neck and explains what the symbol represents. differentiation -self presentation Participants collect from one another as many -knowing your I am a star autographs for 5 minutes. Who gets the most colleagues autographs from that person, will be a true star Everyone writes on a note one of their -finding something Definitions list characteristics which the rest donâ€™t know, without specific for everyone writing their names. You make a list of all of the -forming a bigger characteristics, all numbered. Through picture about the discussions everyone tries to identify the person group to whom the characteristics belong. After 15-20 -recognize/ minutes, you count the number of identified identify others persons. Those who were not identified by -realization of somebody say themselves their characteristic. direct communication Each participant receives 2 cards: Auto-self knowing Who am I? portrait and What I like. On the blank side of the Auto-portrait card each gives details about themselves: age, height, shoe size, eyes color, etc. On the blank side of the What I like card, a list of pReferences about sport, books, songs, movies, colors, animal, etc. will be made. The participants sit in a circle and each reads out loud the content of the 2 cards. The cards are gathered in 2 piles, are mixed and are set with the writing facing down. Taking turns, everybody will draw a card from each pile and reads it out loud. He/She has to guess who it is. If they guess they get a bean, if not they place the card back in the pile and the game continues. The one who has the most beans wins. You draw a latter on a board, on which you -self knowing The latter of life write, according to the ages of the participants, 69 different years. Taking turns, each person will put down beside only one year, the event which they consider to be the most important in their life. It’s about the distribution of each participant -expressing How do you feel to the activity of a datasheet which comprises of feelings and moods in today? facial expressions to illustrate a certain type of a certain moment experience, for a certain moment. Being numbered, the professor asks each student to indicate the number of the mimic which they consider to be suited for dear state of mind, and they write them down on the blackboard. Initially, all the participants sit on a chair. -relaxation Chair game Each participant says a characteristic and sits on -involvement in a the chair on their left. Those who accomplish this group game characteristic also move a chair to their left. -incitement of Those who don’t accomplish that characteristic imagination stay put. If the chair is take, the participant sits in -accepting and the lap of the one who does occupies the chair. supporting others After 10 people, you take out the empty chairs and the game continues. Pairs are formed. One move and the other -reflecting the Mirror tries to be the mirror of his partner. other -paraphrasing -empathy Six people groups are formed. Each team is -knowing one Kaleidoscope about to draw a symbolic character representative another of a characteristic of each person belonging to the team. For example: blue eyes like…, earrings such as…, etc. After 15 minutes, each team will present their drawing and the other participants will try to guess who the character is. The partners. Back to back, change 5 details -testing the spirit Pay attention to about their appearance. Face to face they have to of observation your partner identify the 5 changes. Five more changes are added. A team leader gives orders to which the group -realizing that “Simon sais” must comply only in the order is followed by advice isn’t always “Simon said”. In between usual orders, you give good and aren’t out orders which will place the participants in always executable ridiculous situations. At the end you give an acceptable absurd order (an unacceptable one). Methods of active learning taken from foreign pedagogy and frequently utilized in Romania Amongst the methods of active learning (M. Drăguleţ, 1974, I. Cerghit, 1997) frequently utilized we find in Romania the enriching conversation and the debate (as classic methods), but also more modern methods, such as: the Phillips-66 method, brainstorming, 70 problematization, group-focus, role play. These working methods are used at all study levels, but especially in high school and university students. In active learning, creativity plays an important part. The creative problem (Ana Stoica Constantin, 1983) can be a situation of a process still in progress which has the ability of being acceptable but which could function much better and more efficient. Role play plays a very important part in the development of creativity. Here is a classification of role playing proposed by Romanian professors M. Ionescu and V. Chiş ( M. Ionescu, V. Chiş, 1992). A. Role playing with a more general feel to them (they can be applied in high school and universitary cycle): • • • • • • The game of portrayal of structures helps understanding the functionality of some organizing structures belonging to a social-economic, social cultural system, etc. For instance, the organizing of an enterprise or institution can be reproduced -on a small scale- in a course class, through space distribution of the furniture, statuses and tasks that are to be accomplished. The games of portrayal of structures can successfully be utilized in teaching a discipline such as history (the structure of social classes in different historic eras), the science of leadership (organizational structures and leadership), political economics, etc. The decision game. Students are assigned statuses and roles meant to stimulate the structure of a decisional organism, confronting an important decisional situation. The students themselves are put in situation in which they have to make a decision. Before deciding, the participants of the game will know the objectives which are pursued by the decisional organism. According to them, a priority list of the objectives is made, the main solutions are formulated, the positive or negative effects are anticipated, which are generated by the application of the solutions and finally, a decision is made on the optimum variant. The method is utile in teaching and learning the science of leadership, history, judicial sciences or economical, etc. Arbitration game, used in teaching judicial disciplines and also financial-accountant, make it easier understanding and developing the capacities of solving conflict problems which occur between 2 persons, 2 groups, 2 economical units, etc. Through the arbitration game solving the litigation is also pursued; in its accomplishment these people are involved: the leader of the stimulating process (the professor, marked with C); the referees (participants-A); conflicting sides (people, groups – Pj and P2) and the experts (E). Competition game (of obtaining performances). This type of game pursues the stimulation of obtaining the performances of overpowering a real or imaginary adversary. The leader of the game splits the [participants into 2 micro groups or pairs of two people who are engaged in competition. Distributes the statuses and parts which belong to every side and breaks the news about the objective of the competition. The participants to the game are to choose between all possible variants of game, to adopt different strategies, determine optimum solutions by following the rules of the game. The players from one group will elaborate their strategies according to their adversary choices, each side trying to impose their solution as the most efficient. The competition game can be utilized at all subjects which contain competitive situations, for example in history (by simulating war strategies and tactics), political economics. 71 B. Games with a more specific nature (can also be used in secondary school) • The guide and visitors game. The professor starts from the structure of and hypothetical activity: visiting a social-cultural site or an economical unit, etc., by organizing the class accordingly with maps, board, fliers, and adequate photographs for the stimulating activity. Students are divided in groups and they are distributed guide roles or visitor roles. The following groups can be organized: – a small guide group (translators of either English, French, Russian, German) with the task of explaining and answering the visitors questions; – a larger groups of visitors. – a team of phoneticians who observe mistakes (of both guides and visitors) and the participants in the final analyses; – a team of lexicographers and grammarians, with similar missions as the one before. In a game like this, the students are placed in situations in which they can practice their knowledge and can develop their abilities of expressing themselves, of consolidating their skills and correcting their mistakes. Obviously the game previously presented is very efficient in teaching foreign languages. • The negotiation game has proven to be useful in the simulation of sale and buy kind of operations, of commercial and financial-stock exchange transactions, for the development of negotiation capacities of those working in the industry of commercial relations. The professor divides the students into 2 groups or micro groups which are put in the stun of making commercial transactions. Each micro group tries to convince their partners to negotiate, to accept their conditions. The Romanian professor I. Cerghit (1997) recommends, in his paper works, a series of active methods which are also found in foreign specialists: the Fishbowl method (can be applied in high school), Jigsaw (cam be applied in secondary school and high school), Buzz groups (can be used in secondary school and high school). These working methods are very poorly used in our country. According to A. Sima (A. Sima, 2009), active representation methods can also be the truss method, the Venn diagram, the cube, the water lily. These methods, which are also found in foreign specialists, can be used especially in secondary school. Here are some active game based on methods suggested for younger classes, by Roxana Gavrilă (Roxana Gavrilă, 2009): The mysterious journey The mysterious journey’s objective is to exercise orientation based on special representations through precise and short indications. It represents a game of imagination through which children are oriented according to special positions; usually it takes up a bigger time space than a still activity and is incorporated unwontedly (Romanian language and literature, mathematics, plastic education, practice abilities, knowing the environment). Next we will enumerate the main advantages of this imagination game: • it stimulate creativity, group competition, cooperation between participants; • it trains special orientation abilities; • collocates static activity with movement; • consolidates special representations; • evaluates knowledge, skills and competences. In organizing the game we will consider the following: • implication of the participants who manifest a creative spirit, logic thought, space orientation, observational spirit, communication; 72 • respecting the stages: a) group organizing: the children divide in groups of four; each group becomes, in turn, the guide of the trip; b) presenting the theme, the objectives and the didactic task; c) small group activity: each group secretly chooses a place which they ornate, research on the chose theme, makes a short presentation of the main element of the chosen place; each group prepares the space they chose (selects and lays books in the visual field of the traveler, they prepare an artistic moment, create characters portraits, etc.); d) the journey to the destination: the groups part to the destinations; the groups which proposed the first destination will lead a member of another group to the first station through spatial positions(Move 3 steps to the right, now 2 steps forward); e) the arrival at the destination of the mysterious place: the group who proposed visiting that place will present it as to attract the attention of the visitors; f) evaluation. Variants: The “Hot or Cold” game. Journey to the world of books (Second Grade) Journey to Europe “The train of friendship” (Sixth Grade) Knowing game: The rover ball You sit in a circle. One of you will throw a ball to a child, will say his/her name and a personal characteristic and then will step out of the group. So will do the others. The last child will say a characteristic of the group. Variant: The traveling ball A child throws a ball toward one of the other children, and then says his/her name a personal characteristic. The one, who catches the ball, holds the strings tight into their hand, says their name and a personal characteristic, and then throws the ball to someone else. When the ball gets to the last participant, the action will be reversed in order to rewind the string, but this time the person who catches the object will say their own name and then the name of the person who is about to receive the ball next. Knowing game: Autoportraits On A4 sheets of paper you will draw your own silhouette and you will indicate: your name, age, addresses and through drawing personal and physical characteristics, what you like to study or do at school, your passions, etc. The portraits will be put on a wall in the classroom to allow you to know each other better. Communication game: Switch place! You are sitting in a circle. One of you is sitting in the middle of the circle and sais something like: “Those who wear a hat!”All those who wear a hat switch places and the one who is left without a place come to the middle and makes another suggestion: all the girls/boys, blonde boys, girls who wear pants, those who are x years, etc. When a sentence which carries a qualifier is announced, such as: “Those who are happy/playful/demure”, the game ends because it is difficult to easily identify a quality of such magnitude. Identity game: The number game This game will help you to remember easier the name of other people or those who give you a positive feeling: Variant 1: Your are sitting in a circle with your teacher. The teacher sais his/her name: “My name is…”, then the child sitting to his/her right continues with: “My name is…, and your name is…” and it continues until the last child is named. 73 Variant 2: Everyone is to attribute themselves a quality along with their name: “My name is… and I like writing poetry, and your name is … and you like to sing.” Variant 3: Consists in expressing ones state of being, their feelings, along with their name: “My name is… and I am happy.” Variant 4: “Names and fruits” – Each child sais their name and associates it with a fruit name which begins with the same letter: “My name is Paul and I have a pineapple. My name is Olivia and I have an orange, and your name is Paul and you have a pineapple…” Each variant can be applied, either by saying your name and your neighbor’s name from your left, or – this being a requirement which solicitate one's memory and attention– Saying your name and the names of all the participants of the game. Identity expressing game: The line of life You are sitting in a circle on chairs or on the floor. In the middle a wool wire, a string or a cord stretches. A volunteer starts on the ”line of life”, by remembering important events from their own existence, presenting them in chronological order or in any other order they wish( in this case they will step forward or backward on the “line of life”), also having the opportunity to guess the future. Identity expressing game: The conversation circle In a circle, you will answer to the teacher, by continuing and completing the given sentences. Example: • what I prefer is…; • I would like to be …..; • I think that the meaning of my name is….; • I would not like to know….; • I am happy (sad) when….; • I would like to be more….; • one day I hope…; You are given the same amount of time to give the right answer, as well as the freedom to not respond, if you do not wish this, simply skip those who do not want to express their opinion or do not know how to express their option. International detectives! Form 3 teams. Each team gets a bag( or a box, in which there are previously placed suggestive objects or notes with clues which will lead to the finding of a certain country( for example, the Eiffel tour in miniature, a drawing of a musketeer, a note which has “Paris” written on it, etc.). The purpose of the game is for every team to guess in 7 minutes tops, by analyzing the given clues, which country it is( in this case, “France”). The team who figures out the clues first is the winner. Relay! Form a circle. The leader of the game will give one of you an object (a ball, a pencil box etc.) and will ask that person to say a word which is related with a given theme (for example: “institutions”, and the child will say “Government”) and pass down the object to the next student, who will also have to say a word related to a given theme (for example, minister), and then pass down the object. It is eliminated the one who hold the object in his/her hand more than the time allocated (for example: 2minutes), or that who ca not say another word from the new given category. Let’s make up a story! The leader of the game sticks an image on the blackboard or writes a suggestive sentence on it for the concept of “Nation”. Form 3 teams. Each team will write a story base on the image or the sentence on the blackboard. Each member of the team will write a sentence which will be related with one before it. At the end the team which had the most “fluid” and creative composition wins. Me too! Form a circle, sitting on chairs. One at a time, say out loud the chores or rights that you have (for example: “I make my bed every day”, “I eat healthy”, “and I get 74 good grades”, etc.) Those of you who share the same opinion stand up and say “Me too!”You sit back on your chairs and wait for the next colleague to say something. The purpose of the activity is to see that we all have the same chores and rights. Eco-mime! Form 3 teams. Each team will have to decide on an ecological company that they consider the most important (for example: recycle waste, cleaning an area, protect animals or an endangered species etc.)All teams will then mime the activity they have chosen, in turns. The teams the mimes will get a point if the other teams are able to guess the purpose of the campaign and another point in the others manages to guess the used method. Remember and repeat! Form teams of 5-6 children. The teams begin the game simultaneously. The first member of the team says his/her name and a normal situation (for example: “Ana is reading.”).The next repeats what the one before him said and they also say their names and a normal situation (for example: “Ana is reading and Lionel is eating.”).The game continues, each member of a team repeating all the names and situations said before. After the game is over, you will be able to find the predominant normal situation in the classroom (by counting how many of you chose to “eat” or “read” etc.) Team game: The human machine In groups of 5-6 children, build a human machine from moving pieces. Ask your colleagues to guess what machine it is about. Interrupted message You will sit in 3 parallel rows, a meter apart from each other. Each member of the first row will try to transmit a short message of appreciation (maximum 5 words) to his partner in the third row. Those sitting in the middle, being”jealous”, must do anything they can to avoid correct transmission and reception of the message, making all kinds of noises and gestures. After 2 minutes the game in interrupted and messages are compared. The row then changes roles, so that everybody gets to be the transmitter, the interrupter and the receiver. At the end of the game you can say which role suited you the best. Personal coat of arms (the Fotolangage method) All children will have magazines, scissors, glue and an A4 sized piece of paper. Choose from the magazines you have some illustrations that you like the motor which represent something for you and cut them out, then glut them on the paper, in order to achieve a poster. Each piece will be presented (Attention! The work is individual!), Each saying why they chose those images. Show us what you feel! The leader of the game will give out notes, on which there are noted different situations which are supposed to create a state of submission or outrage. For example: “Your mother make you clean your room exactly when your favorite show is on TV”, or “Your teacher got angry because you weren’t good and sent you in the corner”, etc. Taking turns, each of you will try to transmit; using only gestures and facial expressions, the state of mind that situation gives them. Group picture! Form teams of 7 people. Each team has to draw a character for every member of the group, which has a representative characteristic of each (for example: Joan’s black hair, Mary’s sandals).After 7 minutes of talking, each team will present their drawings, and the others will have to guess who is in the drawing. A true friend! Form four teams. Each team will have to establish the 7 most important qualities which a real friend must have. After 7 minutes of disruptions every team will have to present to the other the entire set of qualities discovered as a result of the discussions. The game leader will ask the teams to chose only 3 out of 7 qualities which the consider the most important, and at the end of the game they have to choose only 1.That way, identifying the 4 qualities which have made it to the finals you will have found the definition of a true friend. 75 On your birthday! Form a circle. Choose a birthday boy/girl. Taking turns you will each mime what present you want to give them for their birthdays. If the birthday boy/girl does not guess the present he/she will have to give the place to the one who mimed. Computer assisted learning; E-learning (because it is so accessible, it can be use at any level of leaning) has earned an appreciative expansion in Romania in the last 20 years. In Romanian system it is appreciated as a main way of active learning, which allows the educational subject to learn by himself/herself, to look for new courses of information and instruction, which he/she can use to fundament their own progress. According to Romanian researcher Cramariuc (Cramariuc, 2009) the best advantages of E-learning are: • the capacity to produce attractive and individualize contents • delivery meanings • efficient feed-back and evaluation mechanisms Through new technology, we have the possibility to utilize game and simulation in the process of learning – which lead to a faster way of learning, to a bigger retention and increase of motivation and interest. These strategies are rarely used because they are difficult to put in practice in standard classes. The technology of information and communication has an important part also in the care of children with special educational needs, these succeeding, through a simple touch of a button, in the realization of tasks which could not be solved otherwise. According to Tobolcea (Tobolcea & Col.), for the children with special educational needs, the advantages are: - promoting physical access to people with disabilities - the increase of motivation in the process of learning - facilitating collaboration and team work - the assumption of responsibility concerning learning and evaluating - planning and organizing ideas - bettering the quality of assumes knowledge - efficient control over the environment In conclusion, we can say that in the Romanian educational system, efforts are made to introduce the active learning system, by creating a part of the material base necessary for active learning (in every school there is a connection to the Internet, an ITC laboratory, Informatics classes in the school program, didactic materials used in interactive classes, a video projector, TV) - starting with younger classes. Unfortunately what it is missing is a proper training of the professors in order to apply these methods in classes, as well as the valuable learning materials of active learning. What remains to be done to improve the situation is as much as the acknowledgement of those who teach (professors, teachers etc) about the importance of active learning, but as well as training them to better utilize the methods and appropriate means. References 1.Caluschi M. (2001), Creative group of forming, Iasi, Cantes Printing House 2.Cerghit, I. (1983), “Perfecting lesson in modern school”, E.D.P. Bucharest 3.Cerghit, I. (1997), “Methods of education”, 3rd edition, Bucharest, Didactic and Pedagogical Printing House 4.Constantin, Ana Stoica (1983), “The creativity of students”, Didactic and Pedagogical Printing House 5.Drăguleţ, M. (1974), “Devices of student activisation”, E.D.P. Bucharest 76 6.Doise W, Mugny, G- Le développement sociale de l’intelligence”, Paris, Interdiction 7.Fryer, Marilyn, „Resolving conflicts and creativity – a psychological approach”, in the volume „ The psychology of resolving conflict”, Iaşi, 1998, Polirom 8.Ionescu, M., Chiş, V. (1992),”Teaching and learning strategies”, Scientific Printing House 9.Moraru I. (1997): The psychology of creativity, Bucharest, Victor Printing House 10.Pânişoara, Ovidiu (2003) „ Efficient communication”, Polirom, Iaşi 11.Perret Clearmont, Anne-Nelly , „La construction de l’inteligence dans l’interaction sociale”, Berne, Peter Lang, , 1979. 12.www.pastoratie.r 13.http://www.eed.usv.ro/SistemeDistribuite/2009oHYPERLINK 14."http://www.eed.usv.ro/SistemeDistribuite/2009o/Tobolcea1.pdf"/Tobolcea1.pdf 15.Sarivan, Ligia & Col. (2009), „The interactive teaching-learning based on the student”, Bucharest, Education 2000+,2009, 2nd edition, rev. 16.(http://api.ning.com/files/NF55eZ*yzpB9JfejCdR9cwgidBbUzOnb40jjl66w1U4_/Modul1 Predareanvareainteractivcentratpeelev.pdf) 17http://www.scribd.com/doc/17280034/Alina-SimaTehnici-de-Invatare18.www.eed.usv.ro/SistemeDistribuite/2009/HYPERLINK 19."http://www.scribd.com/doc/17280034/Alina-SimaTehnici-de-Invatare20.www.eed.usv.ro/SistemeDistribuite/2009/Cramariuc1.pdf"CramariucHYPERLINK 21."http://www.scribd.com/doc/17280034/Alina-SimaTehnici-de-Invatare22.www.eed.usv.ro/SistemeDistribuite/2009/Cramariuc1.pdf"1.pdf 77 ACTIVE LEARNING IMPLICATIONS IN TURKEY Meryem Nur AYDEDE YALĂ‡IN Nigde University, Turkey Nowadays, in the field of learning science, active learning based science education appliances become very popular subject. Many of the teachers are busy trying to find the best way to use the active learning methods where the students should be busy and stop with the passive learning (Fink, 1999). The reason why active learning turned out to be one of the most discussed subject is because the students are given the chance to make the necessary adjustments in process of education rather than being an inactive listener and note taker (Jayawardana, Hewagamage and Hirakawa, 2001). During the use of active learning, students move from being passive recipients of knowledge to being participants in activities (Bonwell and Eison, 1991). As a result of the discussions made, we focus on the science learning students to have an active and a responsible role on their learning process. (Lunenberg, Volman, 1999; Mattson, 2005). In other words, on an acive learning based science education, the students have responsibility to reach their academic goals and to their educational and research strategies (Carborano, 2003). Researches have demonstrated that students learn more if they are actively engaged with the material they are studying. In primary education, the students are very active and energetic because of their age. The aim of primary science course is to improve students' scientific investigation of the environment and the world where they are living. Therefore, the students can adapt themselves to the life very easily, observe the environment effectively, and they can detect the cause-effect relations between different events and facts to achieve a conclusion. Active learning forces the students to contemplate and to make comments on applied information by involving them in activity- based research practices. In this approach students not only listen to the presentations, but at the same time, they improve their skills through their practices, integrate and evaluate the knowledge which they have acquired by asking and writing at the end of the peer-work. In short, according to this approach, the students are forced to demonstrate their ideas and how they use them by means of research- based activities (Prostko, 1993) and consequently, results in deeper understanding and better application and transfer of the knowledge in the future. Students can utilize some active learning activities after having little faculty preparation and they can do them spontaneously. Active learning can occur in class or outside of the class (e.g., computer simulations, internships, www assignments, class Internet discussion lists, independent study research) (McKinney, 2004). In active learning, instructors are seen as designers of learning environments who improve the quality of student learning rather than delivering content knowledge (Barr and Tagg, 1995). References 1.Bonwell, C.C., Eison, J.A. (1991). â€œActive learning: Creating excitement in the classroomâ€? The George Washington University, Higher Education Report No:1 http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2/content_storage_01/0000000b/80/2a/15/f8. pdf (Retrieved: 24.03.2006). 2.Barr, R. B., and J. Tagg. (1995). From teaching to learning: A new paradigm for undergraduate education. Change, November/December, 13-25 3.Carbonaro, A. (2003). Personalization Mechanisms for Active Learning in a Distance 78 Learning System. International Conference on Simulation and Multimedia in Engineering Education 4.Fink, L. B. (1999). “A model of active learning” www.hanolulu.hawai.edu/intraret/committes/FacDev/guide6k/teachtip/active.htm (Ziyaret tarihi: 27.03.06). 5.Jayawardana, C., Hewagamage, K. P. ve Hirakawa, M. (2001). Personalization Tools For Active Learning In Digital Libraries. The Journal of Academic Media Librarianship. 8(1). http://wings.buffalo.edu/publications/mcjrnl/v8n1/active.html 6.Lunenberg, M. L. ve Volman. M. (1999). Active Learning: Views And Actions Of Students And Teachers İn Basic Education. Teaching And Teacher Education.15. 431-445 7.Mattson, K. (2005). Why “Active Learning” Can Be Perilous To The Profession. Academe. 91(1). 23-26. 8.McKinney, K. (2004). ‘Learning in sociology: Successful majors tell their story’ Journal of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, v:4, ss: 15-24 79 ACTIVE LEARNING IMPLICATIONS IN ITALY Giuseppe DOTI Associazione Antares To apply learning theories to instructional practices, we need to understand them as principles that have been tested and that have some power to explain how things work across different situations and contexts. These theories can give us some consistent ways of looking at classroom practice and some rational explanations for what occurs. However, the events in classrooms are influenced by many different variables, and no single theory explains how they will all come together under different circumstances. The teacher has a complicated job. She has to consider the various sources of knowledge and theory that exist, take into account the very specific classroom situation and students she is facing, and determine when and how theory can inform her practice. Teachers in the classroom experience what Dan Lortie (1975) called the “multidimensionality and simultaneity of teaching.” Every student, for instance, brings his/her idiosyncratic, individual unique challenges, personality, and ability to the classroom. As a teacher you experience your students’ individual differences. Even if there are some similarities in the developmental processes experienced by 7-year olds, or some commonalities in how high school students process information, every classroom, school year, and set of curricular demands is distinct and unique in certain ways. Teachers need to acknowledge these differences and build on students’ prior knowledge, languages, and cultures if the teacher is to build a bridge from where students start to the curriculum goals schools would like them to reach. The importance of these differences and means of addressing them are informed by an understanding of sociocultural and other learning theories (Oakes & Lipton, 1999:370). For these reasons there is not a one-to-one correspondence between theory and practice. Integrating theory into practice involves an iterative process of developing a deep understanding of how people learn and what influences motivation, what influences development, what counts in the social context, and how family and culture and teaching all make a difference. For teachers, theory provides some guidance in making decisions about curriculum and teaching strategies. Perhaps more important, it supports some sensitivities that enable a teacher to ask useful questions about what may be going on with his students and some indications about hypotheses that might be helpful in solving particular problems. Theory doesn’t give teachers a simple, direct answer to Johnny’s problem or a recipe for how to teach on Monday. It provides some lenses and some insights to help a teacher determine what could be going on with Johnny and how the teacher might plan the next lesson, given what the field has learned about learning and teaching and what she knows about her own teaching context. What the teacher does is to dip into a deep basket of intersecting theories, research, and personal as well as professional knowledge and decide how they come together for his or her classroom. The Active Learning, therefore, can be described as the process of "learning by doing". It is an educational process where the learner is an active participant in the learning process rather than a passive recipient of knowledge. Individuals or groups learn better when they participate actively in their own learning. In relation to teaching methods, approaches and methodologies are needed. The methods used should provide the learner opportunities to think, act and think. With the inclusion of these three dimensions active learning seeks to address the whole person. The active learning methods associated with EDC include: brainstorming, role plays, debates, discussions and project work. 80 ACTIVE LEARNING IMPLICATION IN LITHUANIA Vida DRĄSUTĖ VšĮ “eMundus” firstname.lastname@example.org Active learning is defined as a strategy that involves students in doing things and thinking about the things that they are doing . Active learning is anything that engages students in undertaking something besides listening to a lecture and taking notes to help them learn and apply course notes. There are a few teaching strategies that can be employed in active learning by an instructor, including problem solving, laboratory work, home assignments and group discussions. Even in a lecture, short, active learning activities can be introduced. Active learning is also known as cooperative learning, in which students work in small teams on problems or projects in order to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for his/her learning, but also for helping teammates to learn. Cooperative learning should be distinguished from collaborative learning, which refers to those classroom strategies that involve an instructor, with students placed on an equal footing, working together in searching for understanding or solutions, or in the creation of a product . Various active learning techniques could be implemented in almost any classroom learning activity, including lectures, tutorials, seminars and laboratory training . The active learning techniques includes development of critical thinking through debate, competition in national Olympiads, use of foreign language-only in the classroom, drama, student newspapers, public speaking clubs, science clubs, and the integration of social issues into lesson plans. References 1. Centre for Teaching Excellence, Active/Problem-Based Learning, http://cte.udel.edu/pbl.htm 2. Paulson, D.R. and Faust, J.L., Active Learning for the College Classroom, http://chemistry.calstatela.edu/ChemHYPERLINK "http://chemistry.calstatela.edu/Chem%26BioChem/active/main.htm"&HYPERLINK "http://chemistry.calstatela.edu/Chem%26BioChem/active/main.htm"BioChem/active/main.ht m. 3. Nickels, K., Do’s and don’ts of introducing active learning techniques. Proc. ASEE Annual Conf., Session 2793, St Louis, USA (2000). 81 ACTIVE LEARNING IMPLICATIONS IN SPAIN Pedro JosĂŠ LEIVA PADILLA Leiva Formacion â€“ Spain Research consistently has shown that traditional lecture methods, in which professors talk and students listen, dominate college and university classrooms. It is therefore important to know the nature of active learning, the empirical research on its use, the common obstacles and barriers that give rise to faculty members' resistance to interactive instructional techniques, and how faculty, faculty developers, administrators, and educational researchers can make real the promise of active learning. Surprisingly, educators' use of the term "active learning" has relied more on intuitive understanding than a common definition. Consequently, many faculty assert that all learning is inherently active and that students are therefore actively involved while listening to formal presentations in the classroom. Analysis of the research literature (Chickering and Gamson 1987), however, suggests that students must do more than just listen: They must read, write, discuss, or be engaged in solving problems. Most important, to be actively involved, students must engage in such higher-order thinking tasks as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Within this context, it is proposed that strategies promoting active learning be defined as instructional activities involving students in doing things and thinking about what they are doing. Use of these techniques in the classroom is vital because of their powerful impact upon students' learning. For example, several studies have shown that students prefer strategies promoting active learning to traditional lectures. Other research studies evaluating students' achievement have demonstrated that many strategies promoting active learning are comparable to lectures in promoting the mastery of content but superior to lectures in promoting the development of students' skills in thinking and writing. Further, some cognitive research has shown that a significant number of individuals have learning styles best served by pedagogical techniques other than lecturing. Therefore, a thoughtful and scholarly approach to skillful teaching requires that faculty become knowledgeable about the many ways strategies promoting active learning have been successfully used across the disciplines. Further, each faculty member should engage in self-reflection, exploring his or her personal willingness to experiment with alternative approaches to instruction. The reform of instructional practice in higher education must begin with faculty members' efforts. An excellent first step is to select strategies promoting active learning that one can feel comfortable with. Such low-risk strategies are typically of short duration, structured and planned, focused on subject matter that is neither too abstract nor too controversial, and familiar to both the faculty member and the students. Faculty developers can help stimulate and support faculty members' efforts to change by highlighting the instructional importance of active learning in the newsletters and publications they distribute. Further, the use of active learning should become both the subject matter of faculty development workshops and the instructional method used to facilitate such programs. And it is important that faculty developers recognize the need to provide follow-up to, and support for, faculty members' efforts to change. Academic administrators can help these initiatives by recognizing and rewarding excellent teaching in general and the adoption of instructional innovations in particular. Comprehensive programs to demonstrate this type of administrative commitment (Cochran 1989) should address institutional employment policies and practices, the allocation of adequate resources for instructional development, and the development of strategic administrative action plans. 82 Equally important is the need for more rigorous research to provide a scientific foundation to guide future practices in the classroom. Currently, most published articles on active learning have been descriptive accounts rather than empirical investigations, many are out of date, either chronologically or methodologically, and a large number of important conceptual issues have never been explored. New qualitative and quantitative research should examine strategies that enhance students' learning from presentations; explore the impact of previously overlooked, yet educationally significant, characteristics of students, such as gender, different learning styles, or stage of intellectual development; and be disseminated in journals widely read by faculty. In retrospect, it appears that previous classroom initiatives and written materials about active learning have all too often been isolated and fragmented. The resulting pedagogical efforts have therefore lacked coherence, and the goal of interactive classrooms has remained unfulfilled. Through the coordinated efforts of individual faculty, faculty developers, academic administrators, and educational researchers, however, higher education in the coming decade CAN make real the promise of active learning! 83 ACTIVE LEARNING IMPLICATIONS IN CYPRUS Christos NICOLAIDES Dekaplus Business Services LTD â€“ Cyprus Instruction in Cyprus in the secondary grades has been traditional, teacher-centred, and does not promote student involvement or group work. However, modern society requires critical thinking and creative participation by all students. In view of this, the reforms in the curricula which are currently being developed should i) provide opportunities for students to be exposed to active learning and cooperative learning and ii) provide guidelines for teachers as to how to achieve this. Considering the increased demand by employers for graduates who are able to work cooperatively to solve problems in their work environments, it is essential that students are provided with opportunities that help them develop their problem-solving skills as well as their verbal and written capabilities of presenting the results of their solution methods. In order to help students develop such skills, instruction may include the use of experiments and real data collected and analysed by the students themselves. Given the increased computer skills required by employers in Cyprus and the aforementioned benefits of using experiments and real data, reform science classrooms at the secondary level in Cyprus should aim at making use of these. Thus, the revised curriculum needs to i) provide opportunities for students to work on hands-on activities that involve data collection and analysis; ii) provide opportunities for students to use computer simulations to study statistical concepts; and iii) encourage secondary science teachers to use experiments and hands-on activities during instruction on probability and statistics. Reform efforts in any educational system may only be successful with the cooperation and adequate preparation of teachers to implement the suggested innovations. Given that teachersâ€™ knowledge may affect studentsâ€™ learning and understanding of the material taught, and that there is evidence that teachers are not adequately prepared to teach in this manner, teachers in Cyprus need to undertake professional development programmes in order to be prepared to teach using innovative teaching methods (e.g. active learning, cooperative learning, technology-based instruction). Given that we live in a data-driven society, secondary education should enable students to develop data handling and reasoning skills which they could transfer to their workplace upon graduation and to further studies at the tertiary level. The increased attention on science subjects during the last couple of decades implies that education in Cyprus should include a more extensive study of this domain by students in the secondary grades. Moreover, the implications of reform discussed above should be considered seriously by the Cyprus Ministry of Education and Culture. 84 ACTIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION OF SCIENCE IN HUNGARY Ferenc SIMON Foundation Of Knowledge – Hungary The purpose of education and postgraduate course of teachers • • • • • • • • the motivation of learners activity: development of efficiency for better achievements teacher-learner relationship: the role of helping pedagogue the teacher recognizes the learner’s special needs organization of the development of individual and communal competencies development of self-supporting and responsibility learner collects, selects, analyses and evaluates the information the learning of learning, the pleasure of knowledge the need and the beauty of lifelong learning Conditions of high quality education • the usage of the students’ previous experiences and knowledge • optimal teaching-learning environment (physical and mental situation, freedom and discipline, “learning adventures”) • the quality of learning material (curriculum, resources, technical devices) • the teacher’s personality and new role: competence developing mentor • results, competencies defined • examination, checking and measurements of learners’ competence The levels of active learning methods • basic level (elementary school, 6-14 years) • middle level (grammar school, vocational school, 14-18 years) • advanced level (college, university, 18-23 years) Conditions and types of active learning methods I. Complex Instructing Program (60 hours accredited postgraduate course of teachers) • usage of learners’ interactive cooperation • keywords: expectation and competence; each student should be equal, active and responsible • characteristic: various curriculum, special instructing strategy, interaction in smaller groups II. The cooperative learning (30 hours accredited postgraduate course of teachers) Principles: • constructive interdependence, individual responsibility, equal participation and simultaneous interaction • the most important methods: group work: round tables, interviews, word definition, practice, test, experiment, study excursion, project work, drama pedagogy, community constructing games, simulation, ICT and case study 85 Project method (30 hours accredited postgraduate course of teachers) Features: • the “student in the focus” – the problem-oriented model • the main resources of knowledge: experience, experiment, taking apart, assembling, presentation; learning by doing, ICT • the unity of the world taken apart into pieces: linking knowledge, multidisciplinary • the whole personality takes part in the cognition, creativity and a reproduction in learning • the teacher is a supporting partner, moderator, mentor Project types • multidisciplinary • interdisciplinary • subjects Work forms • individual • ability specific self work • group Documents of the project • project description • the full text of the tasks • requirements of documentation • criteria of the evaluation Drama: learning through dramatic action (120 hours accredited postgraduate course of teachers) Game: competition played according to rules Simulation: cognition by modeling Case study: presentation of the phenomenon based on an example Links http://www.szakma.hu/ http://www.opkm.hu/ http://pszk.nyme.hu/attachments/198_kooperativ_tanulas.pdf http://www.ofi.hu/ http://www.atomcsill.elte.hu/program/ http://edutech.elte.hu/ http://www.sulinet.hu/ http://www.educatio.hu/ http://www.kando-kkt.sulinet.hu/public/erdekes/naprend/index.htm http://celebrate.digitalbrain.com/celebrate/community/celebrate/resources/Hungary/hungary_ webpages/Hungarian%20-%20Language.db_psc?verb=view 86 CHAPTER III: INQUIRY BASED SCIENCE LEARNING Contents - Inquiry based learning In Science Teaching ……....…....….Meryem Nur AYDEDE YALCIN - Active-participative methods.........................................................................Jeanina COZMA - Developing inquiry based science learning materials.....................................Vida DRĄSUTĖ - Interactive methods of teaching and learning...........................Sorin SPINEANU-DOBROTĂ - Lesson Plans On Inquiry Based Science Teaching - Lesson Plan I: Inquiry based Learning Lesson Plan ............Meryem Nur AYDEDE YALÇIN - Lesson Plan II:Inquiry based Learning Lesson Plan ...........Meryem Nur AYDEDE YALÇIN - Lesson Plan III: Virtual laboratory („Crocodile Physics”).............................Mihai KELLER - Lesson Plan IV: Developing inquiry based science learning materials …...Pedro José LEIVA PADILLA - Lesson Plan V: Developing inquiry-based science learning materials........................Nijolė LISEVIČIENĖ, Ligita KUDZINSKIENĖ - Lesson Plan VI: Inquiry based Learning Lesson Plan .....................Christos NICOLAIDES - Lesson Plan VII: Active Learning By Making Researches.............................Ferenc SIMON - Lesson Plan VIII : Natural Sciences..................................................Oana Cristina TURTOI - Lesson Plan IX. Developing inquiry based science learning materials ........Giuseppe DOTI 87 INQUIRY BASED LEARNING IN SCIENCE TEACHING Meryem Nur AYDEDE YALÇIN Nigde University, Turkey Inquiry based learning is one of the methods which supports applying these recomendations in the classroom Inquiry-based learning (PBL) is a well-known method for imparting thinking competencies and creating flexible learning environments. The educational system usually directs talented students to extra-curricular programs in order to foster learning and develop thinking competencies. In addition, there are several features of inquiry works that may advance the adoption of favorable motivational orientations (e.g., task orientation and deep study orientation) by the students. The inquiry activities that are chosen or designed are relevant, but complex enough in order to induce students to generate questions of their own. As students define problems and generate questions they may develop a sense of ownership of the learning process. Teachers have same responsibilities in these conditions during the project development works. To effectively inquiry based works, the teacher needs to let go of the idea of being an expert and rely on the knowledge and ideas that the students are more than willing to share. During the inquiry process, teachers become sideby- side learners with the students and promote them to cooperative learning, inquiry, investigation, and the development of higher-order thinking skills. ACTIVE-PARTICIPATIVE METHODS Jeanina COZMA TRAINING CONS 2005 srl, Iasi, Romania Cluster Method THE "CLUSTER" TECHNIQUE is a teaching/learning method which stimulates the students’ active participation, through their own effort and aiming at their own training with a stress on their ability to think freely and openly. The "Cluster" is a "necessary Brainstorming", which stimulates the highlighting of the links between ideas, a way to build new connections in order to reveal new ideas or new meanings of these ideas. This is a technique of searching the access to their knowledge, beliefs and convictions, emphasizing the individual's own way of understanding a particular topic, a certain matter. It is a nonlinear method of brainstorming that stimulates the detecting of the connections between ideas, thus structuring the ideas just to stimulate the thinking process related to the connections between the ideas. İt can be used to stimulate the thinking proces before starting a thorough study of the topic, it may be used to summarize what has been studied as a way of building associations, or of picturing new meanings; a path finding strategy on accessing our own knowledge, understanding or beliefs on a particular topic, itserves to inform the students on some knowledge or a certain connection we were not previously aware of, or we didn’t think us possible to achieve. We can perform the “Revised Cluster” Technique during the focussing and consolidation phase, in which students are guided, by the help of some questions, to group the information according to certain criteria. This method can better fix the ideas and organise the information, thus facilitating the retention and the understanding. İt often can result in a "cluster with several satellites”. This type of interactive methods can ensure an optimum learning context for the students, both individually and in teams, aiming at their eficient individual and group learning. 88 The advantages of this learning techniques may be: - Through this technique the ideas are better consolidated and the information better structured; it will be easier to for the students to remember and understand them. - The "Cluster" Technique can also be applied individually (even in the evaluation stage) or to the whole class, to systematize and consolidate the information. - During the analysing phase the students can be guided through questions, by grouping the information according to certain criteria. The cluster technique greatly appeals to our creativity as teachers. It may be used in teaching, the verifying the students’ knowledge, systematizing and consolidating their knowledge. Application Steps (How do you apply this method in a science course) The technique of producing a Cluster involves the following steps: 1. The teacher writes a kernel-sentence or a simple word in the middle of the table/on a booklet page/ on a flipchart sheet; 2. The students are asked to work individually or in groups, 3. They write words/phrases which come to their mind in connection with the topic/issue under discussion; 4. They write down all the ideas that come to the students mind in connection with the theme/ issue up to the deadline assigned by the teacher or until they have put down all their ideas; 5. The words /ideas suggested by the intial word/phrase set as a starting point are linked in a chain, by drawing lines which should show the connections between the ideas (either presupposed or possible connections); 6. Each group present their own “cluster”; 7. The “clusters” are analysed and used to shape a unique “cluster” under the teacher’s supervision. 8. After solving the task, the students will use the obtained concepts and links to express ideas on the proposed concept. Thus, it will be created a structure like the one in the picture at the right: CONCEPTUL PROPUS - The basic rules of this method are: Do put down all that come in your mind; Do not write your ideas according to their importance or value, just put them down on the sheet of paper; Don’t worry about the spelling, th punctuation or the other rules that takes on the written text; Do not stop writing until the time is over; If the ideas do not come, don’t lose your hope: they will eventually appear; Let the connections flow. Do not limit the number of ideas and connections. Example 1. During the lesson designed for the 11th graders titled „The Chemical Balance” you can sketch the following cluster: 89 Example 2. During the systematisation and consolidation stage of knowledge based on the lesson â€ž The Chemical Properties of the Hydrocarbonsâ€? the students from the 10th grade can make the following clusters: 90 The method of the case study A particular case serves as a basis for the inductive knowledge, which is entangling both the personal premises and the general development process but also the deductive knowledge, in other words from the general to the particular. The Case Study Method has an obvious active characteristic and requires an intense individual or team work, linked to the collecting and using of information, the designing of the decisions, and the evaluation of the critical alternatives. They promote the development of anticipation, learn how to take valid decisions, to act quickly and appropriately in emergency situations, to cultivate the capacity of assessing the validity of practical solutions, to contribute to the formation of the skills required in order to become a good organizer. The introduction into the practical area of these methods requires for the teacher to ensure an appropriate choice viable in terms of teaching and translating. The method must take into account the following variables: - to be focused on clear and relevant objectives; - to exploit the full pedagogical potential of the case; - to assess the difficulty grade that it entails, as the analysis case should correspond to the actual level of theoretical and practical knowledge of the students; - to get a true grasp of true heuristic methods, to become an example of research, seeking the answers and scientific arguments. Application Steps (How do you apply this method in a science course) “Case-study” method - Chemical Corrosion – Chemistry; 9th grade students. The teacher will present a real-life case, the destruction in time of of the metal objects under the influence of chemical agents. It will show that the main form of electrochemical corrosion is based on electrochemical phenomena occurring at the interface between metal and electrically conductive solutions, which are microporous. Based on the already taught concepts on “the Galvanic element”, the students are required to study in the laboratory the factors which are affecting the corrosion rate and to propose ways of preventing the corrosion of iron and other active metals used in everyday life. Experimental work proposed: Pour out in 5 Berzelius glasses which will contain the solution of HCl with c = 10% one plate or copper wire, iron, zinc, lead, aluminum, previously cleaned with oxide layer. Carefully observe their interaction in time. Then answer the following questions : 1) Which metal reacts most easily? 2) Which one reacts harder? 3) How do you estimate the reaction of the speed (based on which observations)? 4) What do you think will happen to the iron bar, if it is left a few days in hydrochloric acid solution? Take a piece of unused (for a long time) aluminum and do not clean the protective oxide layer. Prepare a solution of dichromate potassium, concentration 1 M. Pour a few drops in several places on the surface of aluminum objects. Based on the observations answer the following questions: 1) How has the color of the dichromate solution changed in time? 2) Which was the reaction? 3) Write down the reaction equation that took place and analyzed the redox. 4) Why did not the reaction occur instantly? 5) Who played the role of oxide layer on the metal surface? 91 6) Which are the factors which are depending on the rate of corrosion? 7) How do you think we can protect metals from the corrosion? Based on the concepts of physics and chemistry, the students can give various solutions which will be selected only by those which may have practical application such as: Cathodic protection- the using of sacrificial anode, Cover with a protective layer of metal which corrode harder : zinc, chromium, nickel; The use of inorganic protective layer: enamelling, phosphate; The use of corrosion inhibitors. Operational objectives pursued: - Using the notion of the galvanic element, electrode potential, electromotive tension to explain the process of corrosion; - The experimental factors determination influenced by corrosion rate; - The extrapolation of those which are observed in the laboratory in everyday life; - Linking the interdisciplinary notions of physics and chemistry; - To stimulate the creativity by choosing ways of corrosion protection; - The correlation of experimental observations and other concepts studied in chemistry. The cube method The cube method is a strategy that facilitates the analysis of a topic, a situation, from multiple perspectives. This gives to the students the opportunity to develop the needed skills for complex and integrative approach. The method steps: - Create a cube with its sides inscribed with the following words: describe, compare, analyze, associate; apply and argue; - State the theme or the topic on the roll; - Divide the class into six groups, each group will examine the theme chosen form the perspective demanded on one of the cube side: a) Describe: color, shape, size, etc. b) Compare: which is similar, which is different; c) Associate: what leads you to think; d) Analyze: how it is made, what it is made of; e) Apply: What can you do with it? How can it be used? f) Argue: for or against, and lists a number of reasons that support your claim. The Cube method can be used with any subject or any group of age. The cube lesson may also be used as a contest. We have adapted this method to be used in chemistry classes. Application Steps (How do you apply this method in a science course) Example 1: The purpose of the activity is to verify and to implement the knowledge gained after finishing the studying of metals. The class is divided in three teams (“ALUMINIUM”, “FERRUM” and “COPPER”). Each team has a captain, a lucky-person (who throws the dice and chooses the topic threads of questioning) and four members – a total of six members. At each theme, the captain calls a member to explain in front of the class the answers of the questions which they receive (a crew member may be chosen to submit their replies). For each correct answer he will receive ten points. The lucky-person from each team casts the dice and chooses the topic from the field the team belongs. The areas included on each side of the dice are physical properties, chemical 92 properties, experiment, crossword, multiple choice test problem. For each of the five areas (excluding the test) there are three variants, denoted by 1, 2 and 3. For each area it is given a time for thinking and a time for presenting the response. Multiple choice test Experiment Rebus Chemical Property Issue/ Problem Physical Property The teacher tell the students the partial results, after completing the five areas and the level. He explains them that the so far obtained score is the base point for their final grade, obtained after the quiz. The final assessment is given after correcting the tests. Example 2: The cube method – used on the lesson “The Physical Properties of the İonic Substances” –9th grade. The activity of the six groups based on the following experimental observations: 1. The appearance of several solid substances : NaCl, I2, S, CaCO3, CuSO4 • 5 H2O; 2. Studying the solubility of that substances in water; 3. The electrical conductivity of NaCl solutions, and S in the adequate solvent; 4. The behaviour of the action from a force. The activity for the six groups of students are: Describe: by color and by aspect , the substances which you have on the table; Compare: the solubility of these substances in water and in alcohol; Associate: the aggregation state and the solubility of the compounds related; Analyze and answer: why ionic substances are soluble in water and the polar covalent bonds are insoluble in water and soluble in organic solvents; Apply: based on the observations made what can you say about the solubility of ammonium chloride and the phosphorus in the water; Extrapolate: based on your observations try to explain why metals are not soluble in water or organic solvents. The operational objectives pursued are : - The distinction between the ionic and covalent brace; - The correlation of the relationship type link-property for the studied compounds; - To explain the behavior of the water of ionic and covalent compounds - To better develop the training skills in the chemistry laboratory; - To develop the training skills of making comments and correctly interpreting them in terms of chemistry. 93 DEVELOPING INQUIRY BASED SCIENCE LEARNING MATERIALS Vida DRĄSUTĖ, Sigitas DRĄSUTIS VšĮ “eMundus” email@example.com In general it would be possible to say that Inquiry-Based Science Education (IBSE) refers to one of pedagogical approach in teaching and it is in contrast of traditionally used at schools approach “deductive approach” when teachers give the lesson, present the concepts explaining the theory and giving examples. Inquiry-Based teaching refers to “inductive approach” which gives more space to observation, experimentation and the teacher-guided construction by the learners of his/her own knowledge. Doing the research about inquire-based science learning we found that IBSE is the pedagogical model supported by Pollen, a European network for promoting IBSE . By combining global research, scientific learning, experimentation and evidence-based reasoning with language and debating skills, IBSE enables pupils to gain an understanding of the objects and phenomena around them, while nourishing their curiosity, creativity and critical skills. Experimental, evidence-based and inquiry-based teaching and learning are powerful methods that encourage learners to comprehend the very nature of the science. Inquiry-based learning or inquiry-based science describes a range of philosophical, curricular and pedagogical approaches to teaching. inquiry-based learning is an instructional method developed during the discovery learning movement of the 1960s. It was developed in response to a perceived failure of more traditional forms of instruction, where students are required simply to a memorize fact laden instructional materials. Inquiry learning is a form of active learning, where progress is assessed by how well students develop experimental and analytical skills rather than how much knowledge they possess . By definition , inquiry is the intentional process of diagnosing problems, critiquing experiments and distinguishing alternatives, planning investigations, researching conjectures, searching for information, constructing models, debating with peers and forming coherent arguments (Linn, Davis, & Bell, 2004) . An old adage states: "Tell me and I forget, show me and I remember, involve me and I understand. " The last part of this statement is the ssence of inquiry‐based learning, says our workshop author Joe Exline. Inquiry implies involvement that leads to understanding. Furthermore, involvement in learning implies possessing skills and attitudes that permit you to seek resolutions to questions and issues while you construct new knowledge . According to other source  inquiry based learning is mainly involving the learner and leading him to understand. Inquiry here implies on the possessing skills and attitude of yours, which allows you to ask questions about new resolutions and issues while you are gaining new information. Dictionary meaning of Inquiry is seeking knowledge, information, or truth through questioning. Inquiry-based learning can be applied on all disciplines which has been confirmed through different researches. Learners have different perspectives of viewing the world like economic, historic, scientific, artistic,etc. The disciplines can be interrelated through inquiry-based learning, which ensures the integrity of different disciplines and the world view about them. The teachers must organize their lesson plans according to the changing, interrelating and communicating of knowledge. A good teacher´s worksheet enables the student to increase its study skills by providing different ways of viewing the world. Questioning and finding answers is an extremely important factor of inquiry based learning as it aids you in effectively 94 generating knowledge. In the end, inquiry-based learning is basically teaching the students to have a greater understanding of the world they work, communicate, learn and live in . Introduction According to the study where the findings and recommendations of the experts group, selected by the European Commissioners responsible for Research and for Education and Culture, are summarized  inquiry‐based science education (IBSE) has proved its efficacy at different levels (primary, secondary, professional development, university) in increasing children’s and students’ interest and attainments levels while at the same time stimulating teacher motivation. IBSE is effective with all kinds of students from the weakest to the most able and is fully compatible with the ambition of excellence. IBSE and traditional deductive approaches are not mutually exclusive and they should be combined in any science classroom to accommodate different mindsets and age‐group preferences. IBSE emphasizes curiosity and observations followed by problem solving and experimentation. In addition, inquiry-based methods provide children with opportunities to develop a large range of complementary skills such as working in groups, written and verbal expression, experience of openended problems solving and other cross-disciplinary abilities. Key principles: The key principles of inquiry learning, found in Concept to Classroom website, workshops’ section “Inquiry-based learning” , are listed below:Principle 1: All learning activities should focus on using information-processing skills (from observations to synthesis) and applying the discipline “ground rules” as a means to learn content set in a broad conceptual context; Principle 2: Inquiry learning put the learner at the center of an active learning process, and the systemic elements (the teacher, instructional resources, technology and so forth) are prepared or aligned to support the learner; Principle 3: The role of the teacher becomes one of facilitating the learning process. The teacher also becomes a learner by finding out more about the learner and the process of inquiry learning. Inquiry-based lesson plans Inquire-based lesson plans are usually referred to as “facilitation plans” to help teaches remember their role as facilitator of learning, rather than fount of all wisdom. The notion also helps for teachers to structure lessons more loosely to allow student questions to drive the learning process without derailing it . Science Facilitation Plan provided by educator and an educational program developer Chris Collier: http://thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/inquiry/lp_science1.html Guidelines how to create “facilitation plan” is provided: http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/inquiry/implement_sub2.html Examples by VšĮ “eMundus” Cooperative work in group (based on presentations and discussions) 95 Building a classroom community with students is one of the examples how to inquirybased learning could be used. Firstly, it applies powerful principle of learning: learner is in the center, he/she is active, develops and find knowledge by doing and searching by him/herself. For inquiry to be successful, students need to fell well in classroom (not to afraid to discuss and say their opinion in front of others and teacher, they have to be open), share ideas, and believe ideas can lead to more ideas and questions, even if they are not correct. When students are involved in building their classroom community, they are empowered that their ideas are important - it is the foundation for inquiry. Cooperative work groups foster a sense of community and include all students. The groups could be small (made of two, three learners) for the work to begin (if method is used the first time, if classroom is made of schoolchildren, of classroom has not so big number of students, etc...). As you develop the interpersonal skills of the students and the complexity of the given work, it is suggested to expand the group size to bigger: three or four or more. Steps of Cooperative work in group (based on presentation and discussions): 1. To make the groups by selected number of students; 2. to prepare and give a specific task to learners (for the groups). Each student is assigned a role. For example, one student might be the recorder. The other student might be the presenter to the class. A few examples of student roles may include: leader (student who keeps the group focused on the task); recorder (student who keeps a record of discussion or finding of the group); facilitator (student who helps resolve conflicts); graphic designer (student responsible for art or design of project): and presenter (student responsible for sharing groups findings with the class); 3. Finish the task with presentations of group works on the specific given tasks which learners had to develop in groups and afterwards to make the discussion in the classroom. Steps of Cooperative work in group (based GoogleDocs): 1. To make the groups by selected number of students; 2. to prepare and to give a specific task to learners (for the groups). Each group is assigned to analyse given topic and to prepare Document using GoogleDocs (where several people can collaborate in one time filling the same document). Each student is assigned to fill in one part (it could be selected by student in the group or could be given by teacher) of the content . 3. After the documents prepared by groups are ready, these documents are given to other groups to read and to assess (also using GoogleDocs). Tasks could be finished with presentations of each group hoe they evaluated and what do they think about other groupÂ´s work and to make the discussion in the classroom. several pages where possible to find good examples of inquiry-based science learning are provided below: http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/inquiry/demonstration.html http://hea-www.harvard.edu/ECT/Inquiry/inquiry1text.html http://calgaryscienceschool.blogspot.com/2010/11/illustrative-examples-of-inquirybased.html http://sciencenetlinks.com/lessons/ - in this page there are examples of lessons of biology, physics, nature of science, earth science which use inquiry-based learning. 96 References 1. http://www.elearningeuropa.info/files/media/media23255.pdf 2. http://ec.europe.eu/research/science-society/document_library/pdf_06/report-rocardon-science-education_en.pdf 3. http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/inquiry 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/inquiry-based_science 5. http://www.teach-nology.com/currrenttrends/inquiry 97 INTERACTIVE METHODS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING Sorin SPINEANU-DOBROTĂ Repere Association – Bacau Branch – Romania The adjective „interactive” is addressed to both partners of any learning process, that both teachers (instructors) and students (learners), which requires their active participation in efforts to achieve common objectives. The arrangements for interactivity are different: in practice, only those that are preferred and prove effectiveness, enabling objectives designed with minimal time and effort. Wishing achieve interactivity, trainers sometimes look objectives and the results are affected: the acquisition of new knowledge, skills and achieve behavioral change (observable and measurable) and the beliefs/ attitudes. The following methods and forms of active learning is used not only for their attractiveness, but also proved effective in achieving objectives, especially in the time limit and limiting resources to the school/ training. The methods to stimulate creativity - these methods have a wide range of application, both in teaching and research, and in areas where they are made explicit requirements on stimulating creative spirit and innovation: • Synectics Method: the method is based synectics all confrontation of ideas for solving problems by stimulating intuition, imagination. The method encourages participants to invent, to settle personal, other than known or proposed by others. In this way, is created a climate conductive to creative thinking, generating ideas and original solutions which, before the application will, of course, analyzed and tested. In specialized literature are mentioned and other methods and techniques for stimulating creativity (creative workshop, box ideas cyber meeting etc.), are listed the main steps to be taken successively to reach creative solutions – defining problems, obtaining data; looking for ideas to solve problems, develop and put these ideas into action, evaluating ideas – but also defined the factors that stimulate or hinder creativity – habit, work climate, sources of information. • Simulation Method is based on the reproduction or limitation inartificial conditions (laboratory), the real situations, thus enabling learners to be have almost identically in reality. Mainly used for tactical training for decision – making exercise, the simulation method may be used in health education, through models, games and movies. • „Phillips 66” Method (named after the arrangement participants in discussion – six grouped and group discussion takes 6 minutes to formulate a view about a particular issue) is a „braingstorming method type”. The methos consists in discussing a problem initially in group, then in plenary, where representatives of groups presenting the views of their members as a pre-requisite for a critical problem for a constructive debate in the shaping of (some) solutions. (as Ion-Ovidiu Pânişoară, modern methods of educational interaction in Ion Cerghit others, educational lectures, Ed. Polirom, Iaşi, 2001). 98 LESSON PLANS ON INQUIRY BASED SCIENCE TEACHING Lesson Plan I: Inquiry based Learning Lesson Plan Meryem Nur AYDEDE YALCIN Nigde University, Turkey Course Science and Technology Grade 8 Learning Space Living creatures and life Unit Name / Number Organisms and energy relations Subject Process of decomposition. Suggested time 40' + 40' Objectives Students will observe and begin to understand the process of decomposition. Part II Steps of the learning process -Students will observe that teacher has gathered decomposing materials in his bags. Students predict and record the changes in the contents of the plastic bags. -Students will form groups and each group will start to discuss the following questions; -Compare the changes with your predictions -Where did you notice this kind of change before? -Where did you see examples of once-living things that changed and decomposed in the environment? -If leaves, twigs, old plant stems, and other natural materials are constantly dying and falling to the ground, why do you think we're not buried under them? -Explain to students that the same type of changes that occur in the bags constantly also occur outdoors. Once-living materials are broken down by millions of microscopic bacteria, fungi, and other decomposers. Ask: "How could we set up an investigation to examine whether soil helps once-living things to decompose?" -Students will work in small groups to design investigations. -Students will meet with the teacher to discuss small-group plans. -Whole-class discussion of plans for observation and care. Develop recording sheets. (Data collection could include measurable changes in weight, height, and temperature, Homework: Find out what your city or town does with materials that take a long time to decompose, and how we can reduce the amount of these materials in the environment and recycle what is already around 99 Lesson Plan II: Inquiry based Learning Lesson Plan Meryem Nur AYDEDE YALCIN Nigde University, Turkey Course Science and Technology Grade 8. Learning Space Matter and Change Unit Name / Number States of Matter and Heat Subject Heat and Temperature Suggested time40' + 40' Part I Objectives In relation to heat and temperature, the students; -will be able to state that heat is an energy which transferres from high temperature material to low temperature materials. -will be able to define temperature as a form of displays the average kinetic energy of molecules -will be able to establish a relationship between the direction of heat transfer and temperature Methods and Techniques Scenario based experimental technique; inquiry based learning Materials and Tools Photographs about the subject, experimental tools and equipments Steps of learning process After comparing this two photographs, answer the question 'What is the temperature?' First, in order to find out students' prior knowladge about heat and temperature the following questions will be discussed.; What is the temperature? Is heat a kind of energy or not? Second, the students will be divided into groups. Works sheets will be distributed to the students, and they will start to do activities with the teacher’s guidance. Activity: The following images belong to cities of Izmir and Erzurum of Turkey and they were taken on 16 March 2012. Please, explain the reasons for the differences between these photos. İzmir Daytime Temperature: 17 Night Temperature:6 Erzurum Daytime Temperature: 10 Night Temperature:-4 according to the conversations we had on the photographs …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… - Students will read the scenario about the 'Heat Transfer between the materials' 100 -Students will discuss the topics like the connection between heat and temperature and heat conduction between the materials. While Nuri is doing his science homework, suddenly a question comes to his mind. The question is 'How is the heat transferred in the materials’. At that time Nuri's older brother comes to home. Immediately, Nuri goes near his brother and asks him the question. His brother doesn’t want to explain the answer directly to him and decides to explain the subject of heat transfer with an experiment. Both of them go to kitchen. Nuris' brother puts four cups of water to pot and put this pot onto the stove to heat the water. Nuri’s brother takes two glasses and he puts an ice cube into one of the glasses and later he puts heated water into both of these glasses and watches the differences. Nuri tells he understand the heat transfer very well with the help of this experiment. Finally, Nuri's brother wants him to answer the following questions to reinforce his knowledge. First question: How does the water boil? Second question: According to you, when the water boils, what kind of changes occurs on the water molecules? * Third question: What are the differences in each glass? *The main idea of this scenario is ......... *what do you think about the answers of the questions asked by Nuri’s older brother? First question:.................................................................................. Second Question:.............................................................................. Third Question: ................................................................................ Please design an experiment similar to this scenario …………………………………………………………….................... ........................................................ ................................................................... Each group will design their experiments based on the main idea of the scenerio, they will create and present the steps of their experiment to other groups. All groups will discuss each group's experiment.When students finish their experiments, they will explain the other new problems which related to their experiment and create new hypothesis depending on their results? Each group will create new research hypothesis by changing the experiment variables. - Each group will present their own ideas about each experiment. Evaluation Experimental evaluation form and group evaluation form are filled. Homework Make an interview with the people around you about their usage of concept of heat and temperature. 101 Lesson Plan III: Virtual laboratory („Crocodile Physics”) Mihai KELLER Training Cons 2005 SRL – Romania Topic: Study of the amortized oscilations: Method: actively participatory, reflected in student-computer, student-teacher, student-student interaction. Motivation: virtual experiments are not designed to replace real ones (which are explicitly linked to an actual experimental work, destined to the generation of competences). They may, however, approach full range of academic procedure and it may gain through ability of being faster, more dynamic (multiple variations of the data / parameters) and going beyond the walls of the physics laboratory. Often, the laboratory does not allow the execution of a particular experiment: used components, decalibrated, oxidized contacts, ancient instrumentation, less reactive. In other cases there is even an effective opportunity to watch a phenomenon (very low running speeds, the lack of suitable devices, etc.). Crocodile Physics is a powerful virtual laboratory covering natural sciences, mathematics, computing and, last but not least, technology (http://www.crocodile-clips.com/). The work environment is extremely intuitive, items are easily configurable. There is a "library" which has quite extensive experiments on content categories (Contents) – predominantly mechanical, electrical and optical. In each category there are still many other resources for various extensions. The true "art" is but the designing of an experiment with the available components and tools (Parts Library). Even if they require perhaps more time for an "initial accommodation", it is worth it, because it allows many combinations and variations on the same subject matters and it does not lose sight of any "realistic" aspects such as, for example, puncturing a capacitor or burning a circuit item in case of a design or handling error. The study of the oscillatory circuit is quite difficult in laboratory conditions. It requires at least the existence of well-chosen values for L and C and a good oscilloscope. Even so time can be a frustrating factor: time base calibration of the oscilloscope can be sometimes difficult and the result (some weak viewed pulses) may be below the expectations of the "public", eager to see more. The solution is simple (if the student has a computer and Crocodile Physics installed): a 102 battery, a switch, a coil, a variable resistor and some measuring tools - all virtual . You can modify several elements: the values of the components, view mode. Any part of the workspace can increase or decrease and a convenient image capture can be extremely useful in taking an accurate graphics. Concrete activity: students (individually or in groups of two people) access the server program and, based on the instructions received at the beginning of the activity, build the circuit and test it in different conditions. The data collected will be interpreted and conclusions will be drawn in the final part of the activity. The study can be extended as you go: forced oscillations,transitory regime, different "combinations" between the frequency of the signal source and that of the oscillatory circuit possibilities which are excluded from the "arsenal" of a normal school laboratory (if we take into account the vizualisation of the oscillations, in real-time). References 1.Heller, Patricia; Heller, Kenneth; Cooperative Group Problem Solving in Physics; Minneapolis, University of Minnesota; 1999; p.19, p.38, p.48, p.50. 2.Crouch, Catherine; Watkins, Jessica; Fagen, Adam; Mazur, Eric; Peer Instruction: Engaging Students One-one-One, All At Once; Cambridge; Harvard University; 2006; p.5, p.14. 3.web: http://groups.physics.umn.edu/physed/Research/CGPS/CGPSintro.htm Lesson Plan IV: Developing inquiry based science learning materials Pedro José LEIVA PADILLA Leiva Formacion – Spain Science Facilitation Plan Topic: Decomposition Unit Grade Level: 4-5 Science as inquiry 1. Students will develop the abilities necessary to do basic scientific inquiry: • Ask questions about objects, organisms, and events in the environment. • Plan and conduct a simple investigation. • Employ simple equipment and tools to gather data and extend the senses. • Use data to construct a reasonable explanation. • Communicate investigations and explanations. 2. Students will understand basic ideas related to scientific inquiry: • Scientific investigations involve asking and answering a question and comparing the answer with what scientists already know about the world. • Scientists use different kinds of investigations depending on the questions they are trying to answer. • Simple instruments provide more information than scientists can obtain using only their senses. • Scientists develop explanations using observations and what is already known about the world; good explanations are based on evidence from investigations. • Scientists make the results of their investigations public, describing it in a way that allows others to repeat the investigation. • Scientists review and ask questions about the results of other scientists' work. 103 Life Science Students will learn about the life cycles of organisms: Organisms have life cycles that include different stages. The details are different for different organisms. 4. Students will learn that organisms cause changes in the environments where they live: • All organisms cause changes in the environment where they live. Some are harmful to the organism, while others are beneficial. Humans change environments in ways that can be either beneficial or detrimental for themselves and other organisms. Science in Personal and Social Perspectives Content Standard • Students will develop an understanding of changes in environments. • Environments are the space, conditions, and factors that affect an individual's and a population's ability to survive and their quality of life. • Changes in environments can be natural or influenced by humans. • Some environmental changes occur slowly, and others occur rapidly. 3. • Embedded Assessment Techniques -- Tools to Assess Science Skills: 1. Summary of Evidence. This is a narrative summary, written by the teacher and based on teacher observations and review of student work. It is used to evaluate students' questioning and observation skills as well as content understanding. Students' work will be collected from their individual science journals. Work reviewed will include sketches, investigation plans, data collections, observations, and questions. The teacher should look for expressions of attitudes and feelings, evidence of conceptual knowledge, indications that the student has achieved skills in using equipment, and indications that the student has carried out scientific processes. 2. Scale/Rubric. Use to describe students' progress in communicating their ideas and explanations. Materials and Resources Needed: Materials: Clipboards, science journals , trowels, drawing, writing, and graph paper, pencils, soil thermometers, bug boxes, magnifiers, plastic bags, plant debris, soil, fruit peels, lettuce, bread, twigs, grass clippings, newspaper, hay, empty 2-liter bottles, leaves, worms, seeds, water, measuring cups Resources: Books (examples): GROWING ACTIVITIES FOR GROWING MINDS; BOTTLE BIOLOGY: AN IDEA BOOK FOR EXPLORING THE WORLD THROUGH PLASTIC BOTTLES AND OTHER RECYCLABLE MATERIALS; GROWING IDEAS JOURNAL; ECO-INQUIRY: A GUIDE TO ECOLOGICAL LEARNING EXPERIENCES FOR THE UPPER ELEMENTARY/MIDDLE GRADES; NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION STANDARDS; ACTIVE ASSESSMENT FOR ACTIVE SCIENCE; PRIMARY SCIENCE: TAKING THE PLUNGE; IN SEARCH OF UNDERSTANDING: THE CASE FOR CONSTRUCTIVIST CLASSROOMS. Nonfiction library books related to ecology that include information on decomposers. People/Experts: naturalist from a state park; National Gardening Association staff member. You may of course substitute other experts. Lessons Prior to Unit: Work with students to gather samples of soil from schoolyard and dissect the soil -looking for and listing ingredients. Help students to note the importance of recording location and conditions when samples are taken. 104 Work with students on sketching observations in nature and on using descriptive language. Discuss the importance of capturing detail in sketches and words. Relate this to work of naturalists. The Teaching Cycle: 1. Laying the groundwork (how to inspire interest and find out what students already know) Objective: Students to observe and begin to understand the process of decomposition. Decomposition Unit: • Students observe that teacher has gathered decomposing materials in plastic bags. Students predict and record changes in the contents of the plastic bags. • Class Discussion: How did the changes compare with predictions? Where have you noticed this kind of change before? What do you think might be causing this change? Where have you seen examples of once-living things changing and decomposing in the environment? If leaves, twigs, old plant stems, and other natural materials are constantly dying and falling to the ground, why do you think we're not buried under them?Explain to students that the same type of changes occurring in the bags constantly occur outdoors. Once-living materials are broken down by millions of microscopic bacteria, fungi, and other decomposers. • Prepare for field exploration by discussing some do's and don'ts of field work. • Prior to boarding the bus, prepare for field exploration. Ask: "What could we see that would tell us if decomposition is occurring? Where do you think will be the best spots to look for decomposition? When picking up samples, why might it be important not to touch the item with your bare hand? What do you think will be important information to record in your journals?" • Using the list generated the previous week, review with students how scientists behave while doing research. (It might include: handling equipment with care, using time wisely in our outdoor classroom, not damaging plants, staying inside boundaries, not putting anything in our mouths, not throwing things or chasing animals, working quietly so as not to scare off wildlife, and not touching dead animals.) • Students undertake field exploration to look for examples of decomposition in the environment and for signs of decomposers. (This trip could also take place after the students have set up their explorations and are waiting for results before making connections.) • Back in the classroom: journal entries on the topic "The best part about doing field work is . . . " • Review students' previous explorations of soil, focusing on the parts of soil and the importance of living and once-living matter in soils. Ask students: "Based on what you saw in the plastic bags and on the field exploration, how do you think microorganisms might help create more soil? How could we explore this?" 2. Exploration (how questions for exploration will be chosen, investigations managed, and students grouped) Objective: Students to understand that soil hastens decomposition of living matter, which, in turn, becomes part of the soil. • Ask: "How could we set up an investigation to examine whether soil helps once-living things decompose?" • Students work in small groups to design investigations. You could use the Students meet with teacher to discuss small-group plans. • Whole-class discussion of plans for observation and care. Develop recording sheets. (Data collection could include measurable changes in weight, height, and temperature, and observable changes in smell and appearance.) 105 • • • • Make "decomposition columns" from 2-liter bottles and materials provided -- lettuce, twigs, leaves, fruit peels, etc. (A decomposition column is like a miniature compost pile or forest floor. Through the sides of the bottle, students can observe different substances decompose.) Set up investigations. Students make sketches in their science journals and add recording sheets for data collection. Students regularly record observations of their decomposition columns. Hand lenses, scales, rulers, and soil thermometers to be made available to students during this time. Discuss findings: "How did the materials in each of the decomposition columns change? Why do you think there might have been differences between the models? Did some materials decompose more quickly than others? Which? Did some materials show no signs of decomposition? Which?" Possible activities while observing decomposition columns over time: Examine the role of the earthworm as a decomposer. Build and maintain earthworm bins. Text-set go-round: students browse non-fiction books related to the investigation and chart their findings, as well as coming up with new questions. Students research some naturalists and scientists, looking at their record-keeping strategies and research techniques. 3. Making connections (how to help students make sense of investigations, communicate findings, and critically reflect on their investigation and the science process): • Possible discussion questions: "Why do you think the materials might break down quickly in soil? Based on your observations and experiences, what do you think happens to once-living things that decompose in the soil? How do you think these once-living materials might help support new life? What kind of materials do you think decomposers cannot break down? What do you think eventually happens to those materials?" • Share the following information with students: as decomposers break down these organic materials, they are releasing the nutrients back to the soil to be used by the next generation of plants, and the cycle begins again. Over time, the organic materials will actually become part of the soil, enriching it in the process. 4. Branching out (how to help students share their new knowledge and encourage them to take action on what they've learned): • Begin new investigations: investigate what conditions, such as moisture, temperature, and soil type, seem to promote the most rapid decomposition. Individuals and small groups can test conditions. See BOTTLE BIOLOGY: AN IDEA BOOK FOR EXPLORING THE WORLD THROUGH PLASTIC BOTTLES AND OTHER RECYCLABLE MATERIALS, by Mrill Ingram (Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 1994), for ideas. Give students time to set up experiments and create new datacollection sheets. • Find out what your city or town does with materials that take a long time to decompose, and how we can reduce the amount of these materials in the environment and recycle what is already around. Visit a local landfill or invite a guest speaker to the school. • Set up model waste systems that will help biodegradable plastic bags decompose. • Develop a school composting program to create rich compost for a garden. 106 Lesson plan V: Developing inquiry-based science learning materials Nijolė LISEVIČIENĖ, Ligita KUDZINSKIENĖ Trakų švietimo centras - Lithuania Subject: Chemistry Students´ age and class: 15-16 years old students, 9th class Teacher: Ligita Kudzinskienė Topic of the lesson: Acids The tasks of the lesson: while doing testing and research, using computer programs students has to clarify and find out how given solution (liquids) environment is determined according to the chemical indicators, also they learn to use the pH scale. Methods: division of students in mixed groups of different abilities, where students with more knowledge, more capable are able to help for the students with less experience. Tools to use: computer program “Crocodile Chemistry” 1.5 version and description of the experimental work LA0032a Main knowledge: 1. Acids pH<7; 2. In order to identify the acid solution may be to used indicators; 3. Acids change litmus solution´s paper to red color. Order of work for students: 1. To make sure that the Crocodile chemistry version 1.5 is installed and a simulation file LA0032a is available; 2. To present and explain the list of basic knowledge which is given above; 3. To do and present work LA0032a; 4. To discuss in groups the activities and point of contact listed at the bottom of the list. Statements for discussion in the classroom: 1. Influence of acid. Domestic situations (e.g. bee sting, vinegar, etc); 2. Acids and their properties use in everyday life examples: acid in our stomachs helps to break down the food; vinegar neutralizes the sting of the bees; 3. Safe working conditions with acids at household and in the lab. Practical work in purpose to check and improve the knowledge: add one kind of indicator into each glass and observe the change of indicator´s color, determine which solutions are acidic. Fill out the settlement sheet and provide for the teacher to evaluate. Evaluation: completion of experimental work LA0032a by student, monitoring of students´ work and participation in the discussion, evaluation (rating) . Lesson Plan 1.Before the lesson, at home, the students had to find information online about the origin of water pollution and the consequences of eutrophication, heavy metals, acid rain and so on; 2. during the lesson, the students draw circle of water circuit and remember al the details. We pose the question of how human activities can affect the individual componets of this circle; 107 3. Together with the students in classroom, the teacher discusses the various causes of pollution, water quality and disclosure of human interrelations; 4. All together fill in a table with these charts: the causes of water pollution, human exposure and environmental impact; 5. While the students complete the table, they discuss and dispute on how to remove the causes of pollution of water at these levels: personal, community, national; 6. The students decide what actions they could take by themselves, adding family members, they decide after how long they will discuss their achievements. Critical thinking is developed while selecting material from various sources, also in evaluation of this material process, and while assessing it collectively. The example: while reading a magazine, the students found out an article which names “Evidence of natural selection”. It is interesting what could it be about, maybe about Galapagos´ Islands or maybe about favourable living conditions, or perhaps about the populations of organism? Content of the article can be foreseen when remembering information that could be linked to new things. Learning to read effectively, before embarking on a new text, should be borne in mind what is already known from that theme. Activities encourage students to recognize the necessary, previously acquired information, it is a great way to encourage critical thinking, to make analysis, comparison. Lesson Plan VI: Inquiry based Learning Lesson Plan Christos NICOLAIDES Dekaplus Business Services LTD - Cyprus Course Science Title How speed is measured? Note different viewpoints while working as a team and modify ideas in light of new data Grade 4 Objectives Use of mathematical skills and metric units in measurements • Learn the relation of motion of an object Learning Targets Materials Toy cars, measuring tapes, stop watch or other device to measure time (one per group), ramp and object to be used to prop up one end of the ramp (one per team), measurements recording table, pencils Concepts distance- the extent or amount of space between two things, points, lines, etc time- a limited period or interval, as between two successive events speed- rate of motion or progress, as in how far something travels during a period of time; science equation speed = distance / time average speed- the speed that an object travels for a given period of time. It should not be confused with instantaneous speed, which is the speed an object is traveling at a particular moment. Lab work Pupils will work in teams, defined by the teacher. A collection of toy cars will be shown to the class, and the students will be given the problem of determining which car is the fastest. (It is not necessary to use cars; rolling balls down a ramp will serve the same purpose.) 108 Before the teams begin, they will be given a specific amount of time to collect data. Measurements will be recorded on their team table. The teacher will go around the room, assisting teams if necessary, guide students if need by posing questions, and make sure that all teams are on track. Information from all teams may be posted on the board so that is visible for a class discussion that follows. Pupils may notice that the cars do not travel the same speed all the time. This might prompt a discussion about average speed. Lesson Plan VII: Active Learning By Making Researches Ferenc SIMON Foundation Of Knowledge – Hungary Name of the Company: 11. class Name of the used active learning method Active learning by making researches Description of the method Topic: yeast and mildew, life conditions of microbes Group work, brainstorming, questions and answers, microscope, observation, conclusion, presentation Application steps (How do you apply this method in a science course) • the learners gather the life conditions of microbes: brainstorming • the learners make groups based on the life conditions of microbes: oxygen, temperature, pH value • each group writes questions on cards about the life conditions of microbes and also writes the answers on the other side of the card • the groups ask each other their questions and also answer them • the teacher helps to highlight the key questions • experiment, observation: the groups adjust their microscopes and observe, examine the nascent microbes • the learners write down the necessary life conditions of the examined multiplying microbes • teacher and self evaluation Lesson Plan VIII: Natural Sciences Oana Cristina TURTOI Repere Association – Bacau Branch - Romania CLASS OF PRACTICE: 4th CURRICULAR AREA: Mathematics and Natural Sciences SUBJECT: Natural Sciences LEARNING UNIT: Characteristics and properties of celestial bodies LESSON TITLE: Solar System Planets LESSON TYPE: Conveying new knowledge TIME: 45 minutes 109 - MAIN OBJECTIVE “Understanding and using of terms and specific concept of natural sciences in communication” - SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES 1.1. To identify connections between parts of the studied system. 1.2. To describe connections between systems in the surrounding environment. - OPERATIONAL OBJECTIVES O1. To answer the riddles addressed to them. O2. To note down the information obtained, in References to the Planets of the Solar System. O3. To describe the images where planets are drawn. O4. To solve tasks on worksheets. O5. To work together in teams. O6. To work individually. - TEACHING STRATEGIES METHODS : Explanation ( M1) Demonstration (M2) Conversation (M3) Exercise (M4) Team Work (M5) Quadrants method ( M6) 110 MEANS: Riddles (m1) Geographical atlas (m2) Drawings - Solar System (m3) Power Point Presentation (m4) Solar System Map (m5) Individual worksheet (m6) Encarta Software (m 7) Incentives (m 8) LESSON PLAN Teaching Time strategies Lesson’s steps/ stages 1. Arrangements Obj. Content Elements Evaluation Methods Means - to establish order and discipline necessary for a proper development of the 1 min. lesson; - preparation of the teaching stuff. The proper environment for performing the class is established, from the ambient, hygienic and emotional point of view. 2. Getting everyone’s attention M3 - I will address two riddles to O 1 the children then we will 3 min. discuss the answers. (Annex 1) M1 M3 M4 m1 Oral/ Spoken 3. Announcing the theme and objectives - Children, as you noticed, the answers to the riddles I have just asked you before are “the sun” and “the stars”. - Today, during the Natural Science class, we will proceed to the lesson called “The Planets of the Solar System”. 2 min. - In this lesson, we will discover the fascinating world M1 111 of the Universe, we shall learn new things about planets, stars, meteorites and also about the Sun. 4. Leading learning O2 O3 O4 O5 O6 - For starters, open books and note down the date and the title of the lesson “The Planets of the Solar System”. - We will watch together a short movie about the solar system. - Discussion based on the watched video: position of the planets towards the Sun, their size, the Universe, the stars and the galaxy. - I will locate with students’ help the planets on the electronic map of the Solar System using – Encarta 32 Software. min. - During the discussion students will write down important data about the things discussed. - Divided into three groups, the students make a map of the Solar System. They will locate each planet according to its position towards the Sun. (Annex 2) m2 m3 m4 Frontal m5 m6 m7 5. Providing feed-back - Students will receive a O 4 worksheet based on a method that involves solving quadrants 5 min. individually. (Annex 3) M1 Written M6 6. Evaluation - I make individual and collective remarks. - I reward students who have shown outstanding answers 2 min. during the class. (Annex 4) M1 m8 M3 Oral/ Spoken 112 PROJECT ANNEXES Annex 1 “This huge bulb it seems a little tricky he never burns illuminating the whole world.” (The Sun) “If the night is clear they give much light but when the big star rises in the distance during the day they hide and rest.” (The Stars) 113 Annex 2 Solar System Map Annex 3 Name: Date: Worksheet Method of quadrants I. Enumerate the planets of Solar II. Circle the correct version System 1. The Sun revolves around the planets. 2. The planets revolve around the Sun. 3. All celestial bodies are stationary. III. Draw the Blue Planet IV. Why is the Sun important for life? 114 Annex 4 Incentive References 1. Stefan Pacearca, Maria Luiza Popescu, “Stiinte ale Naturii”- manual pentru clasa a IV-a, Editura Academos Art, Bucuresti, 2006 2. Daniela Strat, Constantin, Furtuna, “Geografie generala” manual pentru clasa a V-a, Editura Teora, Bucuresti, 2001 3. Programa scolara pentru Stiinte ale naturii Lesson Plan IX: Developing Inquiry Based Science Learning Materials Giuseppe Doti Associazione Antares THE LEVERS The levers are defined for simple machines that tend to facilitate the work, but not to decrease it. F= focal point (the point around which the lever) P= power (power that is applied) R= resistance (force that opposes) br= arm strength (strength-center distance) bp= arm power (power-center distance) • In levers of the first kind (swing) is the core of strength and power. 115 • • In levers of the second kind (the wheelbarrow) is the resistance between power and focus. In the third kind (the clip for the ice sugar) is applied between the power core strength. The levers are advantageous if the arm of the power is longer than the arm of the resistance. Therefore, the levers are defined: • levers indifferent, those of the first kind • levers favorable than those of the second kind 116 â€˘ levers disadvantage, those of the third kind. 117 CHAPTER IV: OUTDOOR EDUCATION Contents - Outdoor Education In Science Teaching ................................Meryem Nur AYDEDE YALCIN - Developing Out-door Science Materials...........................Vida DRĄSUTĖ, Sigitas DRĄSUTIS - Lesson Plans On Outdoor Education Based Science Teaching - Lesson Plan I: Mysteries and Legends of Bucegi Mountains....ACADEMY OF MOUNTAIN - Lesson Plan II: Material on outdoor active learning.....................................Elena ANGHEL - Lesson Plan III: Outdoor Learning Lesson Plan...................Meryem Nur AYDEDE YALÇIN - Lesson Plan IV: Developing out-door science materials................................Giuseppe DOTI - Lesson Plan V: Developing Out-Door Science Materials.........Pedro José LEIVA PADILLA - Lesson Plan VI: A Lesson Plan For Developing Out-Door Science Materials .......... Nijolė LISEVIČIENĖ -Lesson Plan VII: Material On Outdoor Active Learning....................Christos NICOLAIDES -Lesson Plan VIII: Active Learning Out of the Classroom ..............................Ferenc SIMON 118 OUTDOOR EDUCATION IN SCIENCE TEACHING Meryem Nur AYDEDE YALCIN Nigde University, Turkey Outdoor education is a teaching method takes place at the outside the classroom. The aims of this teaching method are to inspire students through hands-on and experience-based activities. There has been a significant growth in the numbers of informal educators working within schools and colleges in Turkey. Thus, Informal science education takes place in many contexts, a home, a museum, a zoo, a street or a virtual or augmented reality game can provide informal science education experiences to students. In our school we apply informal science activities with our students to enrich and add value to their school experiences. Because, we believe, informal learning is the lifelong process in which every student acquires knowledge, skills, experiences, critical and creative thinking skills etc. Informal settings typically offer learners direct access to compelling and even unique phenomena in the natural and designed world attitudes, and values from daily experiences and resources in his or her environment. DEVELOPING OUT-DOOR SCIENCE MATERIALS Vida DRĄSUTĖ, Sigitas DRĄSUTIS VšĮ “eMundus” firstname.lastname@example.org Out-door education is one of the newest teaching methods, which is based on learning new knowledge and skills by teaching in a natural surrounding. Outdoor education is an interesting experience for students of different ages and at different proficiency levels, but also for the teacher. This organized learning process takes place in a natural surrounding, so students can experience direct contact with the environment and cooperate during active and attractive classes. team games, forestry stalking or sightseeing, in which the knowledge is passed between the teacher and every student and discovering new possibilities by the students themselves . “Education outside the classroom” describes school curriculum learning, other than with a class of students sitting in a room with a teacher and books. It encompasses biology field trips and searching for insects in the school garden, as well as indoor activities like observing stock control in a local shop, or visiting museum. It is a concept currently enjoying a revival, because of the recognition of benefits from the more active style . Outdoor education usually refers to organized learning that takes place in the outdoors. Outdoor education programs sometimes involve residential or journey-based experiences in which students participate in a variety of adventurous challenges in the form of outdoor activities such as hiking, climbing, canoeing, ropes course and group games. Outdoor education draws upon the philosophy, theory and practices of experiential education and environmental education . Some typical aims of outdoor education are to [2,3]: • learn how to overcome adversity; • enhance personal and social development ; • develop a deeper relationship with nature ; 119 • • • • awaken enthusiasm ; focus attention ; direct experience ; share inspiration . Outdoor education lets student develop different skills: independence, communication, cooperation in group, activity, resistance to stress, assertiveness, ability to build authority, efficiently managing a team and building self-confidence. By outdoor education students learn how to cope with different situation, deepening contact with nature. INTRODUCTION Out-door teaching/learning can play a key role in pupils´ engagement with learning and their motivation to succeed. Activity based learning in the out-door classroom is a highly powerful tool; it is not only crucial to a pupil´s emotional and social development but presents a whole new educational experience too. Younger learners can take part in imaginative and inventive playful learning; they can also learn the importance of taking risks and overcoming challenges and obstacles. Teaching outdoors is a perfect way to combine the healthy and natural environment with more practical learning. An outdoor classroom is the perfect opportunity for children to learn about habitats, migration and of course weather and climate, all key areas of our national curriculum. Being in an outdoor classroom can provide the stimulating environment learner need to learn, create and explore. The outdoor classroom presents an array of opportunities for pupils to take part in both independent and collaborative experimental learning. In the document Outdoor Education: Aspects Of Good Practice  described main findings about outdoor teaching are: • Outdoor education gives depth to the curriculum and makes an important contribution to students’ physical, personal and social education. However, not all students in schools benefit from such opportunities. • The quality of teaching in outdoor education in school‐based settings and in centres is generally good. Weaker teaching focuses on the activity itself with insufficient attention given to the way the activity contributes to students’ learning. In school‐based settings, this is often due to limitations in accommodation and resources but also to teachers’ insecurities in subject knowledge and fears of litigation. • The quality of teaching in centres is good or better in 80% of sessions. In 32% of sessions it is very good. Factors contributing to good‐quality teaching include small group size, teachers’ specialist knowledge and their ability to adapt tasks to provide an appropriate challenge for students. • The majority of centres provide good opportunities for students to engage in selfassessment. • However, insufficient use is made of these and other assessments to examine the effects or outcomes of students’ experiences on the formation of attitudes and values over the longer term. • In the majority of cases, teachers accompanying groups on courses play a supporting ole in sessions. In some cases, however, the school teachers keep to general supervisory duties and do not exploit the opportunities to use their skills and to develop them still further when working with specialist teachers. • Students generally make good progress in outdoor education, both at school and outdoor centres. They develop their physical skills in new and challenging situations as well as exercising important social skills such as teamwork and leadership. 120 • Students’ attitudes and behaviour during outdoor and adventurous activities and outdoor education activities are good and often exemplary, with mature responses to challenging situations. • In most cases, school and outdoor centre staff work closely to plan a programme with clear objectives that provide a purpose for each activity. However, the use of residential courses as part of a coherent scheme of work for outdoor education and personal and social education, with procedures for assessing and recording students’ work, is rare. • Leadership and management are good or better in over half the centres and at least satisfactory in the large majority. The majority of centres have a range of systems for evaluating the range of provision and various benefits for students, although few assess the impact of provision on improving students’ attitudes and achievements. Key principles : In purpose to develop successful outdoor teaching and achieve good results there are several principles which should be followed. Below are provide 12 general principles of action that can be applied to either ten-minute field trips or week-long resident outdoor education programs . 1. Purposeful: Have you established why you’re doing what you’re doing? Ideally, reach your answers by mutual involvement of instructors and participants. Goals can be educational, social and attitudinal, with equal importance attached to all three; 2. Begin where you are: Assess past and present experience of instructors and participants to promote growth and maturity for all involved. Getting children outdoors early in the year helps foster a “freedom with responsible learning” attitude so that extended trips can be embarked upon later; 3. Do more with less: Equipment is useful in attaining your environment objectives, but it is a means to an end, rather than an end in itself. Take the ordinary and make it special. Awareness leads to skills, skills to competence in the out-of-doors; 4. Discovery method: Questions have equal priority with the “right” answers. Often answering a question with another question encourages further discovery; 5. Use the here and now: The here can be the classroom and schoolyard. Its closeness and convenience help create more confidence and skills in the instructor. The now is the season with its unique and special happenings (i.e. seasonal changes, current events); 6. Teachable moments: The outdoor is a creator of many special events. As an instructor, facilitate in explanation of these events rather than providing the whole interpretation. When and where one teaches are just as important as what one teaches; 7. Involvement leads to commitment: Participants need a significant say in what they are doing. It then becomes “our” program. When participants play an essential part in decision making, they feel and give a commitment to the success of the program; 8. Environmental ethic: how can we educate learners to minimize their impact and maximize their reverence for life, to be a contributor, and not a conqueror? Short, repeated learning experiences are a good starting point. instructor actions and attitude should model the ideas being presented; 9. Fun: We learn best when we enjoy what we´re doing. Interest and self-directed behaviour come when fun is an important part of learning; 10. Serendipity: Happy moments in finding nature´s gift not sought for are memorable and rewarding; 11. Resources: Capital resources of the community need to be assessed and utilized to their full potential. But what of the human resources? Participant sharing, instructor talents, and parent promotion yield enthusiasm and immeasurable support; 121 12. Evaluation: As important as pre-planning and participation is the feedback from internal and external sources. Change, improvement, and growth are results of effective evaluation. EXAMPLES Several pages where it is possible to find good examples of out-door lessons concerned with science teaching are provided below: • http://flroutdoorscience.com/outdoor_classroom.htm - astronomy lesson; • http://outdoorphysics.educ.umu.se/en/links.htm - teaching physics outdoor examples; • http://www.gettingpractical.org.uk/documents/SSRDopplereffect.pdf physics outdoors; • http://www.togetherproject.info/imade/fi_7_Frictional%@0_Force_Tumaycius_EN.pd f - physics outdoors; • http://togetherproject.info/image/fi_15_geography%20EN.pdf - teaching geography in valley. References  A. Wystalska, J. Hadryś, Poland. Humanising Language Teaching. Outdoors. Available online: http://www.hltmag.co.uk/feb11/stud.htm  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outdoor_education  Roger Greenaway. Facilitation and Reviewing in Outdoor Education. Available online: http://reviewing.co.uk/articles/facilitating‐outdoor‐education.htm  Outdoor Education: Aspects Of Good Practice. Office of Standards in Education, 2004 (UK) Available online: http://www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources  Happenin” Habitats website. Tips for Teaching in the Outdoors. 2004 National Wildlife Federation. Available online: http://happeninhabitats.pwnet.org/pdf/Teaching_Outdoors_Tips.pdf 122 LESSON PLANS ON OUTDOOR EDUCATION BASED SCIENCE TEACHING Lesson Plan I: MYSTERIES AND LEGENDS OF BUCEGI MOUNTAINS Camp organized with support of ACADEMY OF MOUNTAIN Level: Primary, secondary, high school • The camp is aimed at young people over 8 years who want to discover the beauty of high mountains over 2000 meters altitude, secrets of mountain trip, knowledge of geology, flora and fauna of this mountain massif/ main group of mountains. Also, children will be initiated in alpine technique under the supervision of specialized monitors; • Activities and games of relationship and communication between children; • It will initiate the mountain trips, geography, mountaineering and climbing, speleology, geology, tourist orientation with map and compass, but also with GPS technology, photography and environmental education; • There will be monitoring from MOUNTAIN ACADEMY, which have experience to talk to children about equipment, danger/ hazards situations, about first aid, mountaineering, on field orientation, about mountains, in generally. • The purpose of the camp is to teach children to communicate with each other, learn to love the nature in general, and especially mountain. Bucegi Massif Map Location Period Buşteni Bucegi Massif June 3rd – 9th 2011 Accommodation Padina Chalet 123 Number of pupils: Animators Doctor Mountain rescue Monitor 20 2 Yes 1 climbing monitor Busteni – Babele cablecar. From Babele chalet will be 2 hours of walking until Padina chalet. Sinaia – 2000 meters altitude (cablecar) – Padina chalet – 3 hour of walking. The participants must have physical qualities that enable them trips between 3:00 to 8:00 hours. Specializing in climbing, tourist guidance, first aid Acces to Busteni hospital with cablecar. Permanent contact with mountain rescue and radio station. Accessibility - The children will be expected in railway station of Busteni until 11 o’clock by the Mountain Academy animators. - The departure from camp will be on September 10th, 2011, at 13 o’clock. Padina Chalet 124 Activities Trip Bucegi Massif– Jurassic Park Orientation Speleology Geocaching Activities and creative and relationship games Technical used - stick and flying fox; Bucegi Mountains offers more climbing routes of varying degrees of difficulty, both for beginners and for advanced routes designed to European standards; Technical equipment: - collectively - dynamic strings, insurance, selfClimbing and flying fox locking systems, lanyard etc. - individual - climbing harness, helmet mountain, insurance Collective and the individual equipment will be provided by the Academy of Mount. - Its will be addressed gradually the most interesting routes in the massif, culminating in reaching the highest peak in Bucegi - Omu Peak. - There will be days with casual activities, leisure activities between days long routes. - It will provide maps, compasses, led front, GPS, equipments needed for activities. - All animators are graduates of first aid courses. - Bucegi Massif was once covered by water. In the Jurassic, the life looks different today. We will recompose the Bucegi Jurassic puzzle with help of remains of fossils. - Bucegi Massif is an ideal location for initiation in geology. - In addition, the secret paths of the mountain we could stop to watch and photograph in silence the wildlife. Tramping this massif by children with map and compass will determine the skills’ development of field orientation. There will be applications of high-tech GPS technology. Ialomita Cave – is arranged for tourism, electric lighting; the cave impresses with huge entry and it hosts inside an old monastery of hundreds of years. Here, the children will be initiated in speleology with/ at specialized monitors elbow and they will learn how are formed these wonders of nature. The route through some of the most interesting rooms and galleries that can travel in a high security. The children will look for "treasures" using GPS. Geocaching is a new sport which it appeared in the world with millions practitioners from around the world. A variety of artistic activities. During the camp, the children will have activities and games which to develop their capacity of relationship, communication, adaptability and their abilities. Ialomiţa Cave 125 Minimum equipment Backpack; Personal sleeping bag; A pair of boots; Protective equipment: cloak (poncho) of rain, sunglasses, cap. It will provide: Equipment necessary for carrying out all activities. Additional equipment Camera Bottle of water at least 1 liter References 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geocaching 2. http://www.academiademunte.ro/ Lesson Plan II: MATERIAL ON OUTDOOR ACTIVE LEARNING Elena ANGHEL Training Cons 2005 SRL â€“ Romania Discipline: Geography Subject: environmental knowledge Work can be done with a class of students between 7-10 years. They will go in the natural environment (park, garden, forest, etc.) and here will be given various tasks of active learning, and enable, for example to discover, with trees, where North and South directions are. 126 Also, they can make investigations on plant species and their location on a specific soil type or their constituent characteristics depending on location in the shade or light, on a drier or wetter soil, etc. Students will be invited to highlight the features of studied plants and perform a classification based on location on a specific soil type, but also according to the varieties of which these plants are. Finally, students will be invited to write down those they observed in the natural environment. 127 Discipline: History Subject: Knowledge and understanding of human evolution Students will visit the history museum, where they will be invited to observe the evolution of tools and human settlements. They make connections between the type of used tools and the evolution of social life over time. Where the students will have difficulties will be helped by the teacher. Finally, they will receive the task to present in groups of 5-7 students the following subjects: - tools’ evolution in Paleolithic - tools’ evolution in Neolithic - tools’ evolution in Bronze Age - tools’ evolution in the Iron Age - evolution of tools in the Middle Ages 128 - evolution of tools in modern age Conclusions: Outdoor activities determine: - development of competitive, initiative and investigation spirit - child's personality development - develop creativity and critical thinking 129 - active and participatory learning - developing the capacity of orientation and adaptation to natural and social environment. Lesson Plan III: OUTDOOR LEARNING LESSON PLAN PHd. Meryem Nur AYDEDE YALÇIN Nigde University Turkey Unit Name / Number People and Environment Subject Process of decomposition. Suggested time: 40' + 40' Grade 7 Learning Space: Living creatures and life Course: Science and Technology Objectives Students acts to plants and animals around them with love Part II Steps of the learning processStudents will watch a documentary about how people effect the environment positivily or negatively. Than a whole class discussion will be done and students will disscuss how they can behave to environment friendly. Teachers helps students to makes groups. And he gives a project subject to them. Subject is ‘make something for your environment’ Firstly, students discuss and accumulate the background information needed for their project Students accumulate the materials necessary for the project. Students create their projects. First group find some ways for the beneficial use of waste materials and make an exhibition on the school garden. Second group created recycling boxes for the school 130 Third group organized a woter Finnaly students presented their projects results. Homework: Find out what your city or town does with materials that take a long time to decompose, and how we can reduce the amount of these materials in the environment and recycle what is already around. Lesson Plan IV: DEVELOPING OUT-DOOR SCIENCE MATERIALS Giuseppe DOTI Associazione Antares Subject: Learning nature visiting the Pollino National Park Studentsâ€˜ age and grade: 11-14 years old students Topic of the lesson: Changes and details in the nature Aim of the lesson: to improve the science learning through visiting Pollino National Park in Basilicata, Italy. The tasks of the lesson: to collect and analyse data from direct observation, to write reports and make presentations. Motivation: to make the science topics more attractive verifying them in the real nature development Observation skills are an important part of becoming a scientist. It is the first step in the scientific method. The aim of the project is taking the class outside to observe an environment 131 with many details, in this case the mountains of the Pollino national park. This area is suitable for science outdoor lessons because many different kinds of animals and plants live there, as the “Pino Loricato” which is a unique pine tree species. The students should sit quietly and write down their observations. Then they have to collect qualitative and quantitative data to discuss it during the science lesson in the classroom. The teachers have to prompt the students to make hypothesis about how to protect the area. The plan provides to return to the same place at a different time of year and repeat the activity noting the differences in the area. Lesson Plan V: DEVELOPING OUT-DOOR SCIENCE MATERIALS Pedro José LEIVA PADILLA Leiva Formacion – Spain The visit should be inspiring, involving and participative. The children should be able to fully immerse themselves in the day and find it safe, lively and fun. 1. Pre-Visit: Planning, administration and preparation • Pre-planning ensures that the ‘Out of Classroom’ experience fits into the wider learning context and ensures that the day goes as planned by each party, achieving preagreed objectives and ensuring safety for all. A quality provider should…. • • • • • • • • Achieve a shared understanding of responsibilities Agree learning outcomes Give context to the day Ensure Health and Safety Hold Adequate Insurance First Aid provision Child safety and welfare aspects Access for all and special education needs (SEN) 2. During the visit: Education content and teaching style • A quality ‘Out of Classroom’ visit offers the potential to extend and develop a curricular topic; for rewarding hard work; or to allow different teaching styles to involve the children in different ways. A quality provider should…. • • • • Maximise the percentage of the day spent outdoors Set the scene with the group Use a low pupil to leader ratio Accommodating different learning styles 132 • • • • Manage the energy of the group Bring out the awe and wonder of the location or activity Assess the environmental impact of their activities Ensure appropriate site Infrastructure 3. Post-visit: providing ideas for future learning • • Extending the visit A quality provider should offer opportunities to extend beyond the one off visit and work towards the experience being seen as part of an integrated work programme, anticipated, planned for and used consequently back at school. Ideally, the visit should not be in isolation from other work at school and should be reflected on and utilised when the students have returned to the school. A quality provider will, if possible, provide suggestions, activities and materials to enable teachers to carry this out. Provide Quality Assurance A quality provider should be working to ensure that evaluation of their scheme is an integral part of the process. Evaluation of a scheme by participants is a valuable and vital component in ensuring high quality. A high quality provider should be ensuring that feedback is sought from the participants and that this is a valued component of every visit. The provider should then use constructive feedback to further develop the provision where applicable and where funding allows. Ideally, the visit should not be in isolation from other work at school and should be reflected on and utilised when the students have returned to the school. Assessing the educational impact After the visit the teacher should evaluate for themselves the importance of the ‘Out of Classroom’ visit. Did it achieve the learning outcomes that it set out to do? What was the add-on value of having undertaken the visit? How can they share this good practice with others in the school and beyond? How are they going to reflect the impact within their own monitoring and recording? Subject: CONTEMPORARY SCIENCE Students‘ age and grade: 5-6 YEARS OLD STUDENTS; 1º GRADE "Fun, Games and Learning in the Forest" • • • • • • Ensuring a visit has definite learning outcomes, is set at the right pace, caters for a variety of learning styles and is fun can sometimes be quite a challenge! "Sierra de Segura, Cazorla y las Villas, (Jaén, Andalucia)", runs woodland visits throughout the year. Whether a curriculum linked visit, or part of a longer Forest School programme, sessions are carefully planned to manage the energy of the group and ensure the learners get the most from their day. Depending on age and ability, sessions involve a variety of pace and a mix of learning styles. Typically a session would begin with a game to engage learners and encourage 133 enthusiasm for the topic, followed by a variety of fun, fast paced learning activities and quiet, contemplative tasks, involving a mixture of looking, listening and doing. Sharing what has been learned is an important part of the session: another game can bring the children together, consolidate learning and be fun - all at the same time. There’s a flexible approach, with time built in for letting off steam over lunch, or just sitting quietly for thought and reflection. Grassy and wooded areas close to the centre provide ideal locations for these types of activities - and those with lots of energy can make use of the low ropes course if they want to! Lesson Plan VI: A LESSON PLAN FOR DEVELOPING OUTDOOR SCIENCE MATERIALS Nijolė LISEVIČIENĖ Trakų švietimo centras - Lithuania Subject: Chemistry Students‘ age and grade: 16‐17 years old students, 10th grade Topic of the lesson: Table salt. Aim of the lesson: to familiarize students with the salt mine of Wieliczka extraction in Polan d. The tasks of the lesson: to examine the information provided during excursion about table salt, to prepare presentations for given topics and introduce them. Motivation: to develop positive students’ provisions of the Chemical Science. Measures: textbook, notes, also information received during visits (excursions). Evaluation: assessment tasks are performed. Students’ knowledge: they have to have the academic knowledge about table salt. Know how to establish the salt composition and structure of the physical and chemical properties, explain how to extract the salt and understands the usage of it. Teacher’s work 1. To announce about the topic of the lesson Student's work 1. Students participate in the discussion, makes summary of information provided by the lecturers and provide their own questions. 2. According to the given task, students collect material while working in groups during main features excursions and also working individually. 3.Working groups (when students come back from slat mine) and develop presentations and reports of the given topic 2.A trip to the Wieliczka salt mine in Poland. Students are acquainted with the ways of obtaining salt, its main features. 3. Presented the tasks for students. 134 4. Students are divided into groups, for presentations and reports preparation. 5 . Gathered tasks which were carried out by students 6 . Listing of the tasks, their assessment, summary of works 4. Presents the presentation in the classroom. 5. Responds to the teacher’s and classmates’ questions. Students’ performances: to establish a capacity to listen to the lecturer, to understand, to ask questions, to use of chemical terms. Summarizes and consolidates existing knowledge. They are acquainted with salt extraction from the Wieliczka mine, use and discuss the structure of the physical and chemical properties. Test their knowledge and evaluate their achievements. Also students assess other students' knowledge. Additional tasks for students’ groups: 1. Salt production in Wieliczka salt mine; 2. Table salt is healing agent; 3. Table salt is “White Death”; 4. Salt solubility in water, its quantity in Lithuanian waters; 5. Traces of affection of salt in the world history pages; 6. Salt deposits on the planet earth. Lesson Plan VII: MATERIAL ON OUTDOOR ACTIVE LEARNING Christos NICOLAIDES Dekaplus Business Services LTD - Cyprus Discipline: Physics Subject: Solar Car The students are informed about the renewable energies and more specifically about: • • • • • • Solar energy Operation of photovoltaic energy Connection between photovoltaic elements to form a circuit Static energy and mass centre Torgue and the best car chasis Combination of research in physics and technology They use their knowledge and apply it to create a solar car model Discipline: Meteorology / Physics 135 Subject: urban island effect The students are trying to prove the urban island effect, where the temperature in the cities is higher than the one in the rural areas. They make hundreds of temperature measurements in various areas of Limassol. The records are then analyzed to prove this effect. Key elements of this study are: • • • • • • • Temperature records green house effect, urban island effect Meteorology Temperature monitoring in different areas Temperature change based on altitude Temperature change with respect to time of the day Lesson Plan VIII: ACTIVE LEARNING OUT OF THE CLASSROOM Ferenc SIMON Foundation Of Knowledge – Hungary Name of the Company: grammar school, 12. class (18 students) Name of the used active learning method Active learning out of the classroom Description of the method Study trip to the nuclear power station of Paks Group work, note making, photo taking, interview making, summary, PPT making Application steps (How do you apply this method in a science course) • visitor center: history of the settlement and local traditions • attendance to the presentations, individual note making: the theory, evolution and the operating principles of the nuclear power plant • interview with the presenters • observation of the background radiation • experiment: playful energy production with a home bicycle: the amount of energy that is sufficient to work a bit and light The visit • the works area: 33 m high; • protection equipment: helmet, ear-plug • block commander • fusion reactor area • turbine hall Exercises • group work: giving the tasks, individual and group work • written report (author: 3x6 learners) • taking photos for illustration (3 learners) • individual note making (18 learners) • summary, PPT making in 3 groups (author:3x6 learners) • evaluation, discussion Link: www.npp.hu 136 CHAPTER V: ICT BASED EDUCATION Contents: - ICT Using In Active Learning ........................................................................Elena ANGHEL - Integrating Films in the FL class: a MUST or a MUST NOT?....................Daniela BUSUIOC - ICT In Science Teaching ..................................................Georgeta Antonia CRĂCIUNESCU - Developing ICT based science learning materials …………..........…………Giuseppe DOTI - Developing ICT based science learning materials..................................Rūta KUKUČIONYTĖ - ICT (Information And Communication Technologies) Based Education .............Pedro José LEIVA PADILLA - Lessons Plans For Developing ICT Based Science Learning Materials - A Lesson Plan for the Development of The ICT Competence………...............Ferenc SIMON - A Lesson Plan For Developing ICT Based Science Learning Materials…...................Danutė VIZMANAITĖ, Elena ŠİŠENENA 137 USING ICT IN ACTIVE LEARNING Ph.D. Elena ANGHEL TRAINING CONS 2005 srl - Romania Usually, children and young people are attracted by the prospect of the Internet and surf the Net. Even if they are not as attracted to the idea of doing research in the library or by consulting the scientific Treaties, the idea to investigate and the Internet is much more attractive. This fact can be used during science classes (especially biology, chemistry, geography, physics) in which data on various topics and subjects are asked to search by using the Internet various information necessary to elucidate the matter in case. After collecting data, students will create individually or in groups of two students a Power Point material then they will present to their colleagues in the next lesson. Due to the specific PowerPoint presentations, students will be elementary ideas, find relevant keywords to develop operational and synthetic thinking, verbal competences, graphic design, etc. Based on presented materials, their colleges will have interventions, completions, will ask questions, and will have suggestions for improving the material. It will initiate a contest between those who make these presentations, the jury is comprised of students, which will give the notes that then they have to argue. To develop studentsâ€™ creativity and critical thinking, Power Point materials can be used as follows: - will eliminate some keyword ideas from the material and will require to the other students to find them - will put pictures of this subject and will require ideas or keywords from the students 138 - will be given key words or ideas, and suggestions will be asked to appropriate these images to the found ideas. All along the activities, students will be encouraged to ask questions, make suggestions and additions. The main advantages of this method are: - developing the creative thinking and ability to act independently - skills development of "learning to learn" - develop research skills - encourage active and participative learning - developing the initiative spirit - studentâ€™ centered learning 139 INTEGRATING FILMS in the FL class: a MUST or a MUST NOT? Daniela BUSUIOC Training Cons 2005 srl, Iaşi,Romania “To learn because you have to is one thing; to learn because you want to is quite another thing.” Seymour Sarason Teachers of foreign languages have always tried to find ways to make their students active participants in their own learning. This has proved to be a real challenge, especially nowadays, when students are different from those a few years ago: they have other interests, a different life style, and this is a real problem for their teachers. One question naturally arose: What is a teacher for? We all know that language learners do not always need teachers. They can set about learning in a variety of ways. Some learn by studying on their own at home with books, CDs, cassettes, multimedia computer programmes, video tapes and so on; others seem to “pick up” a language just by living and communicating in a place where the language is used (this is known as “immersion”). Of course, many students do learn in classes with other students and a teacher – whether that is a class they chose to come to (for example, at a language school) or maybe a class they were required to attend (such as in a high school). And much of the learning will involve elements of all three: self-study, “picking it up” and classroom work. But, if it is possible to learn successfully WITHOUT a teacher, then what difference does having a teacher make to the learning process? Why do some people pay to have a teacher? What do students expect from them? Being a teacher, I think it is important for me to consider such basic questions. When I asked my students to picture “a teacher” in their head, two basic images came to their mind: an entertaining, performing “Hollywood” teacher, someone being very jolly and witty, talking a lot, using their voice and gestures to be entertaining, maybe even jumping on the tables; a sort of generic, “traditional” teacher, standing at the front of the class, talking, explaining, while the class listen attentively, in polite row. Which type is better? Learners come to class to learn a language rather than be amused by a great show. Certainly no one would wish their lessons to be boring, but it is important to check out if the classes of an “entertainer” style of teacher are genuinely leading to any real learning. On the other hand, “traditional” teaching comes in many varieties, but it is often characterized by an emphasis on “chalk and talk” – in other words, the teacher spends quite a lot of class time using the board and explaining things. It is true that teachers need to be good “explainers” at various points in their lessons, yet a teaching approach based mainly on this technique can be problematic. Language learners seem to need a lot of other things beyond simply listening to explanations. For example, they need to gain exposure to comprehensible samples of language (not just the teacher’s monologues) and they need chances to play with and communicate with the language themselves in relatively safe ways. Students need to talk themselves; they need to communicate with a variety of people; they need to do a variety of different language – related tasks. So what is a teacher for? A short answer would be: to help learning to happen, to create conditions in which they might be able to learn and to create rich learning opportunities for students but also acknowledging that “you can take a horse to water but you can’t make it drink.” Using arts in teaching a foreign language could be one of the 140 solutions teachers have found to stir their students’ interest. The arts can thus become a tool to provide contexts for real-life communication in the foreign language. Why films? “Film as dream, film as music. No art passes our conscience in the way film does, and goes directly to our feelings, deep down into the dark rooms of our souls.” Ingmar Bergman A question that the teachers are being asked more and more these days is: “Do your students ever READ?” And this happens because we live in a so-called “media-crazed” society that devalues reading; the students are blamed for their lack of reading or their nearaddiction to film and video. It would be good if teachers could appeal to their students and motivate them to actually read. But if this seems to be almost impossible, what should a teacher do? The solution is for teachers to beat students at their own game, that is the teachers should use in the class what the students like and trick them into learning. Teachers often use media in the FL setting. But there are teachers of other subjects than English or other foreign languages who claim that the FL teachers use films to substitute for teaching. What they do not know is how effectively films can be used in the FL classroom, what a valuable teaching resource films can provide teachers with. Films, like other tools, can be used well by a good teacher and abused by a bad teacher. On the whole, films are a rich source of linguistic and cultural information. They add variety to the class and introduce an element of diversity in the language curriculum, becoming a powerful instrument to foster students’ motivation. Almost any video can be used to teach a foreign language: commercial films, TV programmes, holiday films, documentaries, etc. The most important reasons why teachers use these in teaching a foreign language are: to practise/ consolidate a range of language points; to introduce subjects for debate; to encourage conversations among students; to improve writing skills; to introduce new vocabulary; to develop language skills (with visual aid). As in the case of songs, when we select the films or when we accept the films chosen by the students, we should make sure that they meet some criteria: the protagonist of the film is more or less our students’ age; the film deals with issues of concern to them: questions of identity, friendship, coming of age, family relationships (horror, fantasy or martial arts films should be avoided as not all the students have such interests); students are not as likely to have seen the film (as the class time is limited, we shouldn’t spend it on something that the students are already so familiar with); the film is “teachable”: the teacher needs to be able to design some activities based on the film; the students should work, not just sit and enjoy the film; the language in the film is suitable for the students’ level (neither too easy, nor too difficult); the film does not contain excessive bad language or too many sex or violent scenes; as a group, the films present a wide variety of protagonists, settings and issues. There are various ways in which we can exploit films/ videos in the FL classroom: Films are traditionally used with a combination of reading a book, viewing the film, and then writing a compare and contrast paper. However, the use of films in language classes should go beyond the “read-the-book-see-the-film” pattern. The teachers 141 usually portray reading the novel as the â€œhard workâ€? and seeing the movie as a treat or reward. Even when the teacher engages the students in comparison/ contrast analysis of the book and film, the teachers often convey the message, intentionally or unintentionally, that books are inherently better than movies. But there are strategies that enable the students to understand what films do, not just what films cannot do. Films often motivate the students to read particular books or to find further information about certain aspects in it. Films in a FL setting can be also used as a sort of warm-up activity. The teacher chooses the film based on the topic that she/ he is planning to teach and shows it to them before starting to teach that particular topic. The teacher can give students a set of questions before they watch the film and the questions should be very clear (if necessary, the teacher also pre-teaches vocabulary). In this way, the teacher helps the students to deconstruct the film (its story). The questions vary from content-based questions to discussion questions, focusing on the themes of the film (e.g. self-image and perceptions, relationships, success, etc.). The teacher should help students be effective in deconstructing (analyzing) the film/ media that they access. It is about the message and how it is important to us as individuals and how it connects to what is being learnt in class. The teacher and the students can also discuss the use of camera angles, lighting, dialogue, symbolism, and other techniques used in the film to communicate ideas. Sometimes, studentsâ€™ concentration can wane if they watch a film for too long. Therefore, they do not always need to see a whole film, not even a whole scene, if it is not relevant. Another way to use films in the class is to stop the film at particularly critical points and then to question the students about a particular issue (or let the students come out with what they feel or how they react to what is happening); strategic stopping can sometimes be essential. This does not mean that the FL classes should be reduced to activities based on films. But the contribution of films to education is a reality and should not be ignored. 142 ICT IN SCIENCE TEACHING Georgeta Antonia CRĂCIUNESCU Repere Association – Bacau Branch - Romania The computer is one of the basic tools nowadays. Its functions can improve the educational process. The computer is very useful both for student and teacher, but its use must be made in order to improve the quality of the educational process, not to complicate it. The computer should be used in order to pursue the acquisition of knowledge and training of skills enabling students to adapt to a society in constant evolution. It must be prepared for changes, to meet them with enthusiasm, without fear and resistance. Teacher himself lives in a society in change, and fortunately, he is at the forefront of change, so will have to adapt, adjust, and continuously improve. Considering the computer a teaching tool, several ways of developing computer in teaching approach could be noted: • Using the computer for editing scholar documents; • Using the computer as tool of teaching during the communication lessons, reviewing lessons or lectures, for which the computer can be the support for a synthesis, image, figures that can be designed for the purpose of facilitating the knowledge; • Operating numerical calculations, more or less complicated calculation to form numerical skills; • Learning a programming language; • Draw accurate graphs of functions; • Acquisition of precise information on the Internet; • Use and / or creation of educational software. As regards the impact on students, many teachers believe that students are more attracted to the lessons due to the animation and multimedia content and the real-life examples and the virtual simulations capture the attention and help them memorise easier the content. Today, teachers can use multimedia or e-Learning platforms. For example, iEARN platform enables teachers and young people to work together online using the Internet and new communications technologies. Over 2 million students worldwide are engaged in collaborative project work. Since 1988, iEARN has set up online links between schools, giving students the opportunity to engage in important educational projects with peers in their countries and around the world. iEARN is: - An inclusive and diverse community from the cultural point of view ; - A safe and structured environment where young people could communicate; - An opportunity to apply knowledge in the service of earning projects; - A community of teachers and students who could make a difference as part of the educational process. By participating in projects on different platforms, students develop skills to become involved in community affairs to which they belong, thus they become better prepared for future civic participation. The key to successful work in the project is to develop effective relationships with the educators in the network. It is extremely important to establish human relationships between teachers, to make ease the difficult task of collaboration in various educational projects, taking into account the differences of time and scheduling of scholar year, cultural differences, 143 language barriers and learning environment "non-oral" and "non-visual" offered by telecommunications. E-Learning platforms are considered a high priority for building these relationships - both online and during some meetings between teachers and students. Through these platforms, you could meet with other teachers, you could introduce yourself to the forums for connecting people, and the best places to do these things are the forums "Teachers" and "youths" (the second one is especially for students). Teachers: - This forum is a place dedicated to teachers in order to meet and discuss, or to make different announcements. Here we share initial project ideas in order to find other people willing to help develop the project. As part of the introduction / presentation of your iEARN, send a message in order to introduce yourself on the "Teachers" forum and briefly describe any special interests you have. Youths: - Through the youths forum you could meet, share ideas or topics of interest and you could think of ways to work together. Forums and linguistic resources: iEARN hosts a variety of languages within its global network of participants which they are from all over the world. To work in projects is important to consider the following suggestions: 1. Use online forums instead of direct emails whenever possible. The forums cover a variety of school schedules, archiving the messages and allowing new participants to follow the progress / the development of the project, to understand who is involved, or if the work in the project would be of some interest to them. Using the Forums enables students and teachers to participate at thematic discussions / projects, hosted by servers from all over the, thus reducing the cost to a minimum. 2. Encourage the debate and the interaction among participants. The projects are designed to be collaborative and interactive. As project coordinator, a part of your role and your students is to facilitate interaction between participants. This increases the opportunity of students to receive feedback on their contributions to projects, and thus the responsibility of giving a feedback is not only the responsibility of answering to messages doesnâ€™t belong only to project coordinators. Our goal is that every student that sends a message to get a feedback. This can be achieved if people respond to two other messages for each message they send. 3. Involve participating schools and students in leadership roles. Nominating international editors and coordinators from students side provides not only a source of additional feedback, but also helps others students to see how the students can assume leading roles in a project. Participants can even choose to split the role of compiling project materials in a final publication, thus enabling many different classes to gain experience analyzing and presenting some part of the "final product" of the project. 4. Renew periodically information on the project. This activity helps existing participants and assures the new participants that it will not refer to outdated information on the project. Participants in another project! This is a great way to meet other participants and learn from many other projects initiated by other teachers and students in the world. In this way, your class becomes a member of a global community. Learning through projects is a modern and pleasant way for all project participants. It gives the opportunity to work with teachers of a school from your city or from other worldwide school via on-line platforms. These platforms aim to demonstrate that online education can extend learning and improve life on earth, it covers a wide variety of styles of teaching and learning, acknowledges that learning process can take place in and outside the classroom, and that in classroom learning process 144 should be shared with the local and global community and it offers the opportunity to build school partnerships. "We are so excited to work on projects, because we ourselves have learned so much about our own students, as if the project would have been touch the hidden strings of their souls, which have proved to be so good and interesting." - Elena Davidova, Russia, working in iEARN Kindred project. 145 DEVELOPING ICT BASED SCIENCE LEARNING MATERIALS Giuseppe DOTI Associazione Antares Biological information has been expanding at big-bang speed. Over the past three decades rapid development in field of genomics and other molecular research technologies have been generated a huge amount of biological data that has increasingly become difficult maintain through traditional computing processes. The developments in ICTs have combined to produce a tremendous amount of biological information. Development of multimedia learning resources of plant science combined with workbooks created the opportunities of exploring the essential concepts of a course by using the full pedagogical power of multimedia. Many universities in the world have already developed their own bioinformatics system as the de facto source of scholarly knowledge in the new teaching- learning environment. In this project ICT based interactive teaching-learning environment will be established in order to improve the quality of tertiary education in plant science. To do so all academic infrastructures of the department (class rooms, laboratories, seminar library, field work facilities etc.) will be renovated and modernized by incorporating ICT infrastructures such as computers, broad band internet connection, multimedia projector, CD-ROMs, DVDs, microfilms. Practical labs will be equipped with modern equipments. A new Bioinformatics lab will be developed as a departmental ICT platform for developing and maintaining new website containing interactive diverse forms of teaching-learning resources materials, such as, interactive examples, animation, video, narrative and written texts on all theoretical and practical courses in plant science. All academic and administrative staffs will be trained in order to be acquainted in the new teaching- learning environment. The new teaching-learning resources materials accessible to everyone that will break down the walls of traditional education system. The web-based interactive learning atmosphere will allow more effective interaction between the students and teacher. It will create a new access route for hundred and thousand of qualified, motivated students studying plant science in all public and private universities and in government colleges under national university. It will also keep students everywhere informed on what is available anywhere in the world, and at what price. This project is designed to improve the quality of teaching-learning and research capabilities of the Department of Botany through introducing ICT based interactive teachinglearning methods, by formulating a need oriented and student-centered academic curricula and by modernizing the departmental academic infrastructure and support facilities for the students. This project is designated to improve the professional skills of the academic and administrative staffs of the department for coping with increasing challenges of globalization and ICT before tertiary education in plant sciences. The main expected results include significant improvement in the quality of teaching and student learning, modernizing class room and laboratory environment. Access to use ICT in seminar library and class rooms for using electronic learning resources will significantly improve. This project will radically improve the teaching-learning capability of the plant science department. Plant science is one of the major branches of biological sciences. Exploring plant is one of the fundamental quests of human being because plants are closely related with food security and survival of humanity and other life forms. During recent times, all biological 146 observations were fundamentally anecdotal with high degree of precision. During last two decades the data have become more quantitative and precise. For example, in the case of nucleotide and amino acids sequences, the data become more discrete. At present it is possible to determine the genome sequences of individual organism not only completely, but in the exactly. That has changed traditional observational biology to functional biology or in other word biology becomes deductive science. Innovation of new techniques in the field of experimental molecular biology and successful integration of ICT to manage vast database plays major role in this change. The integration of biological information with ICTs has led to develop new horizon of science known as â€˜Bioinformaticsâ€™. Scientists have been developing oceanic amount of biological information every day that has been stored in virtual libraries in digital format. These knowledge resources are so vast that without the ICT it is impossible retrieve. As for example genome sequence in rice is written in A, T, C and G alphabet if printed in A4 size paper the volume height will be eight times bigger than the Washington Monument. Therefore, it is not possible to study modern day biological science without the help of ICTs. The integration of ICT with teaching and learning methods has also been revolutionized the teaching-learning capability in biological science. It facilitates the access to biological information and knowledge and their management, allowing the incorporation of diverse pedagogical and demonstrative techniques which favour better use of the time spent by students in the laboratory. Teachers will be able to demonstrate online teaching materials in diverse formats. They will be even able to organize live video conference with eminent scientists from different corners of world. Students will also be able to interact with their counterparts of contemporary world. This project will radically innovate the teaching-learning capacity in plant science department. Practical experimenters require more appropriate scientific equipment, as with current relevant technology. The incorporation of ICT facility and modern equipment, as well as the renovation of old instruments, will improve and update the laboratory capacity to conduct practical experiment more efficiently. Departmental central laboratory will be strengthened further with modern analytical equipment that will accentuate its capacity to conduct experiment in the field of molecular biology and biotechnology. Eleven laboratories will be improved and one new lab (Bioinformatics lab) will be developed that will create an unlimited opportunity of students and teachers to explore the unlimited virtual world of Bioinformatics as teaching-learning resources. The project is designated to improve and update departmental seminar library through the incorporation of ICT facilities and through the procurement of text books, journals and other forms of educational materials such as CDs, DVDs, microfilms etc. Important text materials for all theoretical courses will be translated into Bengali. The project will also update all laboratory guidebooks. All educational materials will be made available electronically. The project is aimed to upgrade Botanical garden and departmental research field for creating more opportunities of the students for the acquisition of practical knowledge on income generation technologies such as seed production, apiculture, high value crop cultivation etc. Implementation of the project will create new opportunities of the students to become more competent graduates and professionals to face the new challenges, relations and trades, established in the developed countries in the new knowledge based global economy. Approval rates of present condition of studying plant science are expected to improve from 25% today to 95% after project implementation; this will also have an effect on graduation time, graduation rate and grade average. Student satisfaction rate are also expected to improve from 25% to 90%. 147 This project will include the participation of all course leaders, 34 teachers (all the courses will be led by professors with Ph. D. degree), and technicians, who will be in charge of the maintenance and basic functioning of the laboratories. 148 DEVELOPING ICT BASED SCIENCE LEARNING MATERIALS Rūta KUKUČIONYTĖ VšĮ “eMundus” For any country to develop a technological society and pave the way for technical inventions and innovations, it is essential to build a strong foundation in Science, Technology, Engineering & Maths (STEM) in schools . A good level of education in STEM is the source of fundamental knowledge for technological development and when properly applied, it increases productivity in various sectors of the economy and helps build an entrepreneurial culture. Worldwide, the teaching of science in schools is seen as very important because it enables the individual and the community to understand and master and increasingly maintain their environment. A unique range of eLearning resources is created and placed in http://mkp.emokykla.lt/imo that provides interactive classrooms where students are actively engaged in learning, teachers have access to high quality teaching materials. These eLearning resources are combined with teachers demonstrating some experiments in the classroom and students repeating them in virtual laboratories (for example, teacher explains the basics of elctricity and then strudents try to build a simple electric circuit ). This technique the near future could be transformed in to a more advanced stage: the schools could be equipped with special hardware for practical demonstrations. The description and available range of this hardware is provided by LI Create Company in their company´s website: www.licreate.com. Digital learning materials placed in http://mkp.lt/imo was created with the funding of EU Lifelong Learning projects and the government of Lithuania Republic. Digital learning material consists of different kind of lessons, courses and lab activities. Some of them consist of the whole course of the subject, as in the book teacher uses in class ( with theory, practical tasks, tests and etc...), and some of them is created just for one topic. Introduction The aims and contents of this activity are to help students get a better understanding of topic analysed in class with teacher by assessing their gained knowledge as supplementary learning at home. However, this activity is not suggested to be taught at school a separate course, because it would take too much time and students can get “addicted” to computer if too much time is spent at it. These ICT based science learning materials – virtual laboratories – practical exploration of a topic is very interesting, entertaining and even beneficial and knowledge gaining activity for adults as well. These practical exercises are very well prepared, the environment of the website is nice, the colours are well selected, and so a student gets very engaged into it even after several minutes. As it is a supplementary learning material for self learning so it depends on the student how much time he spends learning and exploring. Virtual laboratories allows visualizing processes or systems and, moreover, user interaction with them. Computer simulations and virtual laboratories allow representing certain systems or contexts in which experimental procedures or phenomena take place, using specific languages (graphic, text, algebraic, diagrams, etc...) . In order to use computer simulations of laboratories efficiently, it is essential to guarantee that students understand the meaning of the elements represented and have certain knowledge in the scientific topic that is tackled. Moreover, students´ experimentation with virtual laboratories should be supported by a sequence of tasks that orient students in their work and promote students´ reflection during the manipulation of the simulation. 149 The second stage of virtual laboratories is real laboratories especially created for learning purposes (such as provided by LI Create). These laboratories are comprised from special hardware and software, which students can use to experiment, create different electrical circles or deliver chemical experiments. Key principles of virtual laboratories: 1 - Virtual laboratories engage students to find the truth by themselves while completing different tasks and tests, conducting experiments, etc... Teacher´s role in this active learning process is to guide, put emphasis on important points and to support the student. 2 - Virtual laboratories give an important and valuable visual material for students to learn non only in theory and 4-5 laboratory exercises in class, but to deliver a broad range of different experiments during physics, chemistry, biology or even math, geography or literature. Examples by VšĮ “eMundus”: Supplementary learning at home As for teacher´s preparation, this educational material is already prepared and is ready for use. The educator and the students simply have to look for material that he/she needs to explore. Students are given the instruction where to find this supplementary learning material, how to use it, which ones are the useful for them and etc... Some of the teachers use some of the courses (the ones that have tests for each lesson) for grading students. The strong point of this learning activities is that digital learning material contains all the information that is needed to get a better knowledge. There is theory for each topic and learning activities, such as tests, tasks. laboratory works, etc... The best part is that you can test your knowledge by completing test and getting the answers right away. However, these virtual experiments tend to delete any irregularity from graphs and experimental conditions are always ideal and stable. For this learning activity a student has to have a computer, an Internet connection, Internet browser, Java Script and Adobe Flash Player, thus it is widely accessible. Learning at class with a teacher LI Create, a company based in United Kingdom, creates, develops and provides educational institutions with advances experiments demonstration tools. The interactive, dynamic and multimodal nature of this kind of experiments application can facilitate students´ analysis of the influence of certain factors in the process that is observed. These tools have the potential of providing access to experiences not otherwise feasible because of their complexity, cost or danger. Although these tools and hardware equipment create mostly conditions that are mostly constant and are not influenced by other conditions such as the weather, accidents, and other factors that can´t be recreated in small laboratory set it is a better solution in order to give their students a real experience and real skills. These idealizations should be contrasted with real experiments to avoid misleading views or oversimplifications on how experiments are carried out in real setups . Further here are several pages provided where it is possible to find good examples of ICT based materials in science learning: • http://mkp.emokykla.lt/imo; • http://portalas.emokykla.lt/Puslapiai/SMP.aspx References  http://www.licreate.com/stem/world.asp  http://www.elearningeuropa.info/files/media/media23254.pdf 150 ICT (INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES) BASED EDUCATION Pedro José LEIVA PADILLA Leiva Formacion – Spain General Principles The use of ICT to enhance learning Learning in classrooms is mediated by tools and artefacts. These include books, film, objects, language and people. In the twenty-first century, ICT has an especially prominent, and growing, role. In March 2005, the DfES published its eStrategy ‘Harnessing Technology: Transforming learning and children’s services’. This describes the use of digital and interactive technologies to achieve a more personalised approach to education and children’s services. A group of school-based projects has explored the uses of ICT in teaching, learning and assessment in different subjects, and from pre-school settings to the end of secondary education. ICT is not intrinsically good or bad, but depends for its value on how it is used. Quality learning requires attention to be paid to the relationships between the use of new technologies and subject matter, the nature of the learner, and approaches to teaching and assessment. Background to ICT in Science Recent developments In the past, hardware and software limitations have tended to reduce the real impact of ICT on supporting science education. Recently, however, hardware costs have fallen, hardware has become more reliable and the ICT skills of teachers have improved. These factors combine to make significant progress in the use of ICT to support science teaching a real possibility. In recent years there has been a shift from the use of science as a vehicle through which students learn and use IT skills to the use of ICT skills as tools to assist learning in science. There has also been growing interest in the use of ICT to support whole class teaching and learning to complement ICT based activities for individual students. This has led to greater emphasis on the role of the teacher and a recognition of the need for training to help them learn operational skills to use new equipment and software and application skills to manage learning effectively using new technologies The benefits of ICT in science • There is considerable research evidence that learners are more highly motivated when their learning is supported by ICT. See Newton and Rogers, Teaching Science with ICT for a review of research evidence. • Students are more engaged in activities, they show increased interest and demonstrate a longer attention span. • ICT can provide access to a huge range of resources that are of high quality and relevant to scientific learning. In some cases the resources fill gaps where there are no good conventional alternatives; in other cases they complement existing resources. In some cases ICT resources are less good than conventional alternatives and do not add to learning. 151 • The multi-media resources available enable visualisation and manipulation of complex models, three dimensional images and movement to enhance understanding of scientific ideas. • ICT widens the range of material that can be used in teaching and learning to include text, still and moving images and sound, and increases the variety of ways that the material can be used for whole class and individual learning. This means that a teacher can go some way to meeting the needs of students with different learning styles. ICT also allows teachers with different teaching styles to modify materials and the way they are used in different and effective ways. • ICT can improve the quality of data available to students. Information gleaned from the internet can be more up to date, and data obtained from loggers can include more frequent and more accurate experimental readings. • Computers also allow repetitive tasks to be carried out quickly and accurately so that more student time can be spent on thinking about the scientific data that has been generated. • Many ICT tasks do not require the use of a specific classroom or laboratory. They can, therefore, extend learning beyond the teaching space and class contact time, and place the use of ICT at the heart of the learning process rather than as an additional peripheral experience. An activity, started in one classroom, can be continued in a different room later in the day or at home in the evening. • ICT provides opportunities for teachers to be creative in their teaching and in student learning. 2. Hardware Resources 2. 1 IT suites Over the last decade, the main thrust of introducing new IT hardware in schools and colleges has been to meet the needs of students working alone or in small groups. This has led, typically, to networked computer systems and groups of computers concentrated in dedicated IT suites as part of a whole school or college policy. Often the emphasis has been on learning about IT rather than using IT as a learning tool in curriculum areas such as science. This approach to introducing centralised IT resources has tended to create barriers to the use of ICT in supporting science. The logistical difficulties and time and forward planning required have proved a considerable disincentive for many science teachers to take advantage of the resources. In addition, the physical separation of ICT resources from the normal science teaching space means that ICT is perceived by teacher and student as an ‘add on’ to normal learning rather than an integral part of it. 2. 2 Laptop computers More recently, strategies to bring ICT support into the science teaching space have received much more attention. One approach is the use of a class set of laptop or notebook computers within a science area. These computers can be linked via a wireless connection to the school network to access the full facilities that this provides. Computers of this kind can be stored and recharged on a trolley so that they can be easily moved into different rooms on the same floor of a building. This is a flexible system that lends itself to individual or small group work in the science area and also provides ready access to data logging activities. The drawback is that class sets of laptop computers are expensive. 152 2. 3 Whole class viewing systems A different approach to bringing ICT into the laboratory or science classroom is to install a whole class viewing system for electronic resources. The advantages of this approach are: • ICT can be used as an everyday, integral part of learning, • the ‘teacher led’ style of teaching is one with which most teachers are familiar and comfortable, • it is a very effective solution to the problem of bringing ICT into a laboratory where overall space is limited or where existing bench space is needed for practical work, • it is more cost effective than the use of class sets of laptop computers. Data projectors The single biggest impact on the use of ICT in science areas is brought about by the installation of a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) projector, permanently fixed to the ceiling and wired to appropriate sockets placed near some form of permanent screen. This arrangement significantly lowers the threshold of difficulty teachers face in using ICT in support of science and thereby significantly increases the likelihood of real progress in this area. When choosing a projector the luminosity and sound are important. For most rooms a projector of at least 1000 and preferably 1200 ANSI lumens is needed so that the image can be easily seen without blacking out windows. The loud speakers in some projectors are fairly basic and may not do justice to the sound track of videos. It may be better to make connections to external loud speakers that are fixed to the wall. This is best included as part of the initial installation process. The projector system can be linked to a PC dedicated to this purpose or it can provide a plug in facility for a laptop computer. In some schools and colleges, each teacher is loaned a laptop which becomes used as a lesson folder. This arrangement does seem to drive forward whole staff ICT progress and promotes the sharing of expertise and ideas. Connecting the system to the school network expands the usefulness of the arrangement. There are many companies who will provide schools and colleges with projectors and laptop computers in a very competitive market. There are considerable economies of scale to be made if a large number of systems is purchased at the same time. Use of video with a projection system LCD projectors can readily be switched to video mode, which allows existing video resources to be viewed at an increased image size. Some schools have a VCR device permanently wired into the projector system which further reduces barriers to its use and facilitates sophisticated multi-media presentations using a single, permanently fixed viewing system. Use of cameras with a projection system The video input to a projector will also accept a signal from a range of cameras including flexible neck video cameras, camcorders, digital cameras and webcams. The application of these devices in the context of science is covered later in this report. 153 A simple camera will permit whole class viewing of any text, image or 3-D object, including studentsâ€™ written work, books, pictures and microscope images. It can act just like an overhead projector (OHP) except that there is no need to create a transparency first. Hardware devices such as these can be added once the main projection infrastructure is in place. Data logging Data logging in science is a very underdeveloped area of activity. Projection systems enable teachers to demonstrate data logging experiments and to help prepare students to use the associated computer software. Detailed applications of data logging in science are covered later in this report. 2.4 Screens and boards Screens and ordinary whiteboards There are several alternative ways of viewing the images from a LCD projector. The simplest method is to use an ordinary screen or whiteboard, which may often be already in place when the projector is installed. This low cost option is effective and trouble free. A white board has the advantage over a projector screen in that the image can be annotated using ordinary white board pens. Modern projectors are equipped with remote control devices that include a narrow infra-red beam, a zoom facility and the ability to act as a mouse for computer software. This means that the teacher and students can manipulate and place emphasis on images at some distance from the screen. Interactive whiteboards There is a range of interactive whiteboards available commercially that are connected to the computer and projector, and allow the image to be controlled from the board itself. Some boards are operated by finger pressure or the use of dummy pens, while others make use of an electronic pen specially dedicated to the system. The boards behave exactly like a computer screen, using the finger or pen instead of a mouse. Most boards also have specially designed software that allows images on the board to be annotated and saved, and permits rapid and very useful movement between current and previous screen images. Some manufacturers have developed notepads that link to the whiteboards, so that students can contribute to what is on the main board from their seat in class. The Mimio device is one example of a low cost piece of equipment that can be linked to a laptop and an ordinary, non-interactive whiteboard. It can be used to save what is written on the board to the computer for later use. The mouse pen also makes the board interactive when an image is projected onto it from an LCD projector. Plasma screens Plasma screens are large, flat surfaces that permit the viewing of big images without distortion. They can be free standing or wall mounted and, because they are quite thin, fit into limited spaces. They are connected to an LCD projector and a computer, but they are not interactive. They are currently quite expensive. 154 2.5 Scan converters Scan converters are a low cost alternative technology for whole class teaching using ICT. A signal from a laptop or PC is fed through the device and into one or several TV monitors. In this way the system allows any image that can be viewed on a computer to be seen by a class on a TV. The advantage of the system is that it is inexpensive to buy, and may make use of equipment that is already in the school or college. The disadvantage is that the size of the image is limited by the size of the TV monitor, and the system is not interactive. 2.6 Purchase and replacement of hardware Purchase of ICT hardware often involves institutions in considerable capital expenditure. Some items such as computers have relatively short useful lifetimes, and the policy of budgeting for replacement becomes an important issue. Some schools and colleges have opted for leasing rather than purchase agreements in order to ensure that they have up to date equipment. 3. Training and Support 3.1 ICT skills for teachers In the most effective examples of progress in the use of ICT to support science, training of teachers has accompanied the installation of hardware infrastructure. As it becomes easier for teachers to use ICT equipment, it becomes even more important that they should be sufficiently well trained to make use of the new opportunities they are presented. NOF (New Opportunities Fund) training has provided significant support for teachers in some schools and more emphasis is also now placed on the ICT training of teachers in colleges. The role of the teacher in using ICT in science is changing. When classes had to move to a computer suite to find IT facilities such as science CDs placed on the school network, the role of the teacher was fairly peripheral, and limited to organisation of the activity. When ICT facilities are brought into the science teaching space, the teacher becomes the main user and driver of ICT. A basic level of skills in the use of ICT hardware and software is required by all science teachers. This is usually a whole school or college issue and has implications for the provision of technical support and training for teachers. More important, and often much less well developed, are strategies to meet the training needs of teachers in terms of approaches to learning using the new technologies. In some schools and colleges, the introduction of an effective ICT infrastructure has led to a re-evaluation of styles of teaching and learning in science, and a sharing of expertise and ideas. In examples of effective practice, ICT activities are used in the laboratory or classroom, and students continue them outside of class time, sometimes at home, so that ICT becomes an integral part of learning. More frequent use of ICT by teachers may well give an impetus to the production of ‘in house’resources. This will have implications for the provision of training in software package skills such as MS Office, PowerPoint and Front Page, for the specific purpose of producing presentations and electronic worksheets. This is often a whole institution issue, and raises questions about sharing of expertise between teachers and the effective use of ICT champions. Training and ICT infrastructure need to be considered together. Where teachers have individual lap top computers, ICT can become a part of the teacher’s normal activity, and not as some ‘bolt on’ or enrichment experience. The very process of creating this kind of 155 infrastructure, however, immediately brings with it a demand for training, so that teachers can feel familiar with hardware and software. 3.1.1 ICT Skills Audit A useful first step when thinking about teacher ICT skills is to carry out an audit of the current situation. Many schools may have already done this in preparation for NOF (New Opportunities Fund) training. A helpful way forward is to compile a schedule of ICT skills that are needed by teachers, to make effective use of the infrastructure within the school or college. The schedule can be broken down into skills to do with hardware, and skills to do with use of software. This is often another whole institution issue, and it is possible to devise a set of key ICT skills that all teachers need to make use of generic hardware and software in a school or college. This list can be extended for particular groups of teachers, like those in science who have additional ICT skill needs to do with equipment such as data loggers. An audit sheet can be created based on the key ICT skills for teachers, and used initially to identify individual training needs. The audit sheet represents a set of descriptors which teachers can use to assess their initial and ongoing training and support needs. Such a set of descriptors can be used by new appointments to the institution in a similar way. In addition, they can be also used to audit the current state of ICT skills of teachers, and to provide a measure over time, of the increase of skills as a consequence of training. 3.2 Technical support The introduction of hardware infrastructure, and the raising of expectations about the integration of ICT within teaching and learning in science, has implications for the level of technical ICT support available to teachers. Systems need to be maintained in a Good state of repair and training is needed in the use of hardware and software. Training is also needed for technicians who work in science areas, since they will often be expected to make available equipment for teaching. Their training needs may include the use of general ICT equipment such as trolleys of lap top computers, as well as more dedicated science equipment. In examples of effective practice, support from the senior management of the school or college is often clearly evident. In some cases a senior manager has an identified role to lead progress in this area and to ensure that systems and resources are put in place to train and support teachers. Specific Examples 4 . Using Standard Applications 4. 1 Electronic worksheets Electronic worksheets may be produced â€˜in-houseâ€™ by teachers for use by students within class or as an extension to laboratory/classroom activities. They may well be designed for individual student use, but there is some evidence that learning in this format is promoted by small group interactions. A key strength of electronic worksheets is that they are interactive and require the student to be an active participant in learning. 156 4.1.1 Microsoft Word 4.1.2 Microsoft Excel 4.1.3 Microsoft Front Page 4.1.4 Test construction software 4.1.5 Mind Mapping 4.1.6 Other Software 4.2 Presentation software 4.2.1 Microsoft PowerPoint The interest in presentation software has increased recently as projection systems in laboratories and classrooms have become more common. The most widespread package used by teachers is PowerPoint. This is a powerful yet easy to use package that is capable of much more than a list of bulleted points. Slides can contain text, still and video images, animations and audio clips. Elements within a slide can be animated to attract attention and sequenced to closely follow the desired teaching pattern of ideas and information. Links can be created to allow easy movement between Different slides. Once created, presentations can be shared between groups of teachers and updated easily. They provide a useful, shared focus for whole class teaching, and provide a clear framework for learning. 4.2.2 Helpful PowerPoint tips • Choose a dark background colour for slides. • Use the same background, font style and font size for all slides in a presentation. • Don’t try too many fancy effects as they distract from the main message and quickly become very annoying. • Don’t put too much information into a single slide. It is better to use two simple, rather than one complicated slide. • Use short phrases rather than long paragraphs. • Use different text colour to create emphasis, but make sure that you can read it against the slide background. • Use simple diagrams. • Do include pictures. • Do include short video clips. 4.2.3 PowerPoint and students PowerPoint presentations can be made available to students after a class for any absentees and for revision and to reinforce learning. Groups of students can also be encouraged to create their own presentations on particular topics to show the rest of their class to assist their understanding of science, as well as developing their communication skills. One interesting variation is to provide the ‘bare bones’ of a PowerPoint presentation, and to ask students to complete it by annotating in text boxes etc. 4.3 Image manipulation software When constructing presentations or devising worksheets, it is often helpful to manipulate images that have been scanned or drawn. This can involve simple cropping and resizing, or much more elaborate manipulations. There is a number of commercial software 157 packages that will do this, ranging from the inexpensive Paint Shop Pro (www.jasc.com), PhotoImpact (www.ulead.co.uk), Photosuite (www.mgisoft.com), PhotoPlus (www.serif.com) and Photo Express (www.ulead.com), to the much more wide ranging and costly Photoshop (www.adobe.com). 4.4 Presentation by students The use of ICT packages by students to present their own work, or for student group or class presentations, is often very underused, even though it can prove a highly motivating learning strategy. This might include: • the use of word processing or desk top publishing packages, • annotating images captured from experimental or microscope work, • producing quality notes, • making worksheets or posters for use by other students. 4.5 Spreadsheets Spreadsheets such as Microsoft Excel are very powerful tools that can be used in science for the calculation, analysis and display of data. While the power and versatility of a spreadsheet lends itself to many uses in science, it also means that teachers and students need to spend time to acquire the operational skills needed to make use of the sophisticated features that are available. 5. Using Communication Technology 5.1 Using the internet 5.1.1 Searching for information The internet is a vast store of information that can be highly relevant, detailed and up to date. It can provide information ranging from data on atmospheric ozone levels and medical research to photographs from the Hubble space telescope. Unfortunately, much information can also be irrelevant, and a distraction from tasks set for students, so that they waste much time on fruitless searches. Search engines such as Yahoo, Google, Altavista and Ask Jeeves produce best results when the search request is made as specific as possible, using their advanced search facilities. If you are looking, for example, for information about the contribution of John Harrison to the measurement longitude, then in Altavista you could insert the advance search phrase of “John Harrison” AND “longitude”. The quotation marks ensure that John Harrison will be found as one phrase, and the AND means that only sites with both John Harrison and longitude will be listed. Other search engines use a + sign to link words in a single site together, or contain advanced search buttons to match the site with all the words that are being searched for. The key issues are again effective task selection and class management, to ensure that students spend most of their time engaging with science. This means that the teacher needs to have tried out the task beforehand and either transferred relevant information to the school or college intranet, or provided clear navigation instructions to enable students to find the appropriate resources quickly. Students often find, however, that the most difficult aspect of using the internet is not finding the appropriate resource but selecting that part of it which is relevant to their needs. It 158 is the same difficulty that they experience when selecting relevant material from a section of text and diagrams in a book. The skills required for successful use of the internet therefore need to be developed through appropriate, progressive activities. 5.1.2 Molecular modelling and chemical structure drawing packages In addition to providing information, the internet can also be a valuable source of free or inexpensive programmes, to support science education. Molecular modelling and chemical structure drawing packages are good examples. These programmes were originally designed for use in chemical and biological research. They have moved through several versions and become much more powerful, sophisticated and complex. While the up to date versions are very expensive, the older versions, which contain all the features required in schools and colleges, have been made freely available for download from the commercial web site. Molecular modelling and structure drawing packages allow ideas and concepts that may have been introduced using physical molecular models to be explored further, beyond the constraints of the classroom. Molecular modelling packages such as RasMol, Chime and Web Lab Viewer, and chemical drawing packages such as Chem Draw and ISIS Draw, are particularly useful in Advanced level courses in chemistry and biology. These packages can be downloaded free from the appropriate internet site. The site can be found by putting the name of the package into a search engine and following instructions on the web site to download the programme onto a computer. There are huge numbers of molecules available on the internet that can be viewed and manipulated using a molecular modelling package. One good site is www.webmolecules.com 5.1.3 Applets The internet is also a rich source of animated images, called applets or small applications, which are programmes designed to run in a web page. These include the following. • Simulations of experiments – often ones which are difficult to carry out in the laboratory, such the effect of changing the value of gravity on a spring. Experiments might also be chosen that take a long time to set up or require expensive equipment. The applet simulation can generate results very quickly, and so allow students to spend most of their time thinking about the data rather than gathering it. • Visualisation of ideas, concepts and mechanisms. Animated and three dimensional images can often provide easier access to concepts such as the electric motor, which may be very hard to grasp when described by text and a series of two dimensional diagrams in a book. Concepts such as the effect of mutation, or predator-prey relationships, that involve long timescales can also be illustrated very easily. The main technologies for creating applets are Java and Shockwave. Java file or files that make up an applet are called .class files, and they will automatically run in most modern web browsers. Unfortunately, some schools may have deliberately chosen to operate with Java–disabled browsers. Shockwave technology produces applets or animations specifically for browsers: these are called .swf files. More modern web browsers will automatically support Shockwave, but others will need a readily available ‘plugin’ or small helper programme available from www.shockwave.com. Search engines can be used to find applets, by using their advanced facility to look, for example, for electric motor and applet. 159 5.1.4 Internet video There are many excellent video clips available on the internet. Some common types include .mpg, .mov and .ram files. The streaming of video so that it can be viewed directly from the web site is becoming more viable as connection speeds to the internet increase. Alternatively, video clips can be saved to a local machine or network. Video clips do use up a lot of memory, but the cost of writable CDs has fallen in recent years which makes them a viable option for saving video, since each CD can store several hundred short video clips. Some internet search engines, such as Alta Vista and Google, allow the user to search specifically for video clips. 5.1.5 Three dimensional visualisation Impressive technologies have been developed to allow three dimensional visualisation of features of use in science teaching. There are specific, ready-made Java files to support 3D imaging, so that 3D Java applets are on the increase. The other main tool for 3D on the internet is VRML, or virtual reality modelling language. VRML files can be viewed in a web browser if a 3D plugin such as Cosmo Player (available from www.cai.com/cosmo/) is installed. VRML gives the user the ability not just to look from outside at objects, but to enter their 3D world. It is possible, for example, to go to the web site www.webmolecules.com and explore within a diamond or graphite crystal. 5.1.6 Freeware There are many other excellent examples of freeware available from the internet that will support and enrich science teaching. There are for example, many versions of the periodic table. One way of finding out about these resources is to go to a shareware site such as www.zdnet.com/downloads/ and to look under the relevant categories. Alternatively, it is possible to search using search engines using keywords such as science + freeware to see what emerges. 5.1.7 Publishing work on the web A number of science teachers place information on their institution web site. In some cases this consists of support material for students following particular courses, and in other cases it is interesting enrichment material. A particularly interesting use of the web is for students to publish and showcase their own work. 5.2 Communicating Electronically As the electronic infrastructure of a school or college increases, so do opportunities to use it to communicate within and outside the institution. 5.2.1 Communicating via e-mail E-mail can be used for the exchange of information such as experimental data, presentations and assessments between teachers and students within a school or college. It can also be used in a very imaginative manner to link different schools and even different countries together through the science curriculum. This can prove particularly useful where several schools with small post-16 provision operate a consortium arrangement in which a particular subject is taught on a single site. 160 LESSONS PLANS FOR DEVELOPING ICT BASED SCIENCE LEARNING MATERIALS AN EXAMPLE ON DEVELOPMENT OF THE ICT COMPETENCE Ferenc SIMON Foundation Of Knowledge – Hungary Name of the Company: grammar school, 12. class Name of the used active learning method : ICT Internet rally: development of the ICT competence Individual knowledge gathering, pair work, group work Description of the method • motivation for learning • sense of achievement • aim of the method: practice of the selective and close reading, controlled information gathering in a topic • partition of relevant and irrelevant • develops the individual critical and orienting skills • teaches with the individual assemblage of the curriculum Task: presentation (PPT) making Subject: physics Topic: Sun Appliances: computer, internet, projector Application steps (How do you apply this method in a science course) • Introduction • Energy production of the Sun • The atmosphere of the Sun • Sunspots • Sun activities • Protuberancy • Sun eruption • Solar Wind Source • Lifetime of the Sun • Links • Presentation making (PPT) • Presentation in the lesson • Comparison of the solutions in pairs and groups • Evaluation, discussion 161 A LESSON PLAN FOR DEVELOPING ICT BASED SCIENCE LEARNING MATERIALS Danutė VIZMANAITĖ, Elena ŠİŠENENA Trakų švietimo centras Subject: Physics Students´ age and class: 15‐16 years old students, 9th grade (1st gymnasium class) Topic of the lesson: Electronic circuits up to the Crocodile Clips program Aims and tasks: 1. To get acquainted with Crocodile Clips program 2. To teach to create an electronic circuit 3. Perform multiple calculations in purpose to set up an electronic circuit and make conclusions 4.To describe the procedure of the work using the Microsoft Word program Type of lesson: self‐study lesson Lesson Plan: 1. Students are acquainted with Crocodile Clips program, it is explained and demonstrated how an electronic circuit is formed 2. Self‐work: according to provided data each student has to create an electronic circuit, to do calculations, to make conclusions and description. The teacher monitors and helps to solve problems. Provided tasks according to the different choices: I choice Task: to create an electronic circuit in accordance with these instructions A) to set out circuit elements in a clockwise direction. On the left side of the circuit must be only the current source. Negative pole of the source must be on the bottom. B) circuit element parameters: • 25 V power source • 350 Ω resistor C) For this choice elements of circuit are: source, resistor, switches, bell, light (bulb). Make a power circuit in accordance with the cell binding sequence. D) With the help of switch make sure that the circuit works, and show how it works. Deliver a working chain of the scheme. II choice Task: to measure the current strengthening in the circuit A) Insert the ammeter among all the circuit elements. 162 B) Turn on the switch, capture ammeter showings and deliver (and show) a working circuit diagram C) Ammeters showings add to the table and make (form) conclusions A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. After the works it is summarized the tasks results. Students evaluate themselves, also teacher assesses their work. Also other practical works can be given: for example, parallel‐wire circuit, etc. 163 CHAPTER VI: THE APPLICATION OF CREATIVITY AND CRITICAL THINKING IN SCIENCE COURSE Contents Developing creative, critical thinking based science learning materials……..Giuseppe DOTI Developing creative and critical thinking methods used in science learning...Vida DRĄSUTĖ The Critical and Creative Techniques based Groups.........................................Mihai KELLER Lesson Plan About Creative And Critical Thinking Methods………………...Mihai KELLER Critical Thinking based Lesson Plan (I)..................................Meryem Nur AYDEDE YALÇIN Critical Thinking based Lesson Plan (II).......................................Pedro Jose Leiva PADILLA Critical Thinking based Lesson Plan (III)..........................................................Gelu MAFTEI Critical Thinking based Lesson Plan (IV)..........................................................Ferenc SIMON Critical Thinking based Lesson Plan (V)................................................Danutė VIZMANAITĖ, Diana KOSOVSKİENĖ 164 DEVELOPING CREATIVE, CRITICAL THINKING BASED SCIENCE LEARNING MATERIALS Giuseppe DOTI Associazione Antares Importance of writing in the science classroom: Mastery of scientific concepts is inextricably linked with effective communication. Novel experiments and new discoveries made by scientists reach the wider community and gain greater visibility through written documents in the scientific journals. Good science writing skills include usage of appropriate scientific terminology, demonstration of clarity of thought and expression, logical reasoning, ability to describe the results of experimental findings qualitatively and quantitatively, formulation of ideas and drawing of conclusions supported with sufficient data and evidences. The writing needs to be in an objective, precise and logical manner. Common writing practices in the science classrooms Normally, in the science classrooms, common writing experiences of the students include taking notes dictated by the teacher or written on the board, answering worksheets, tests or exam questions and writing formal lab reports or essays. However, these, though essential components of the educational system do not trigger thinking and alone cannot provide meaningful prospects for the students to improve or build the writing skills within the context of the science disciplines. Hence the onus lies on the science teachers to design written assignments which will stimulate creative and critical thinking, a crucial part of science education. The best practices will be to consistently integrate informal free-writing activities into the science classrooms while delivering the lessons. These writing assignments will yield enormous benefits for both the student and the teacher community. 10 useful ideas to integrate writing into the science classroom After doing some research and thinking in this line, I came up with the following ideas of amalgamating writing with the science teaching. Some of these are tried and tested in real classrooms and gave great student response. 1. ‘Open-ended question’: Begin or end the class with an open-ended question. Let the students know that ‘open-ended questions’ can have more than one possible answer, which will reflect their original thoughts and ideas and in most cases no answer is considered wrong. In this way, even the quiet and less confident students will get involved in active learning and make an effort to pen down their ideas. Examples: After a biology lesson on plant growth and development with the seventh graders, you could ask, “How would you explain photosynthesis to a class of fourth graders?” After introducing a new topic, such as periodic table you could pause and ask, “What do you think is the relevance of this topic in real life?” Before starting a new topic, you could ask them to write what they already know about the topic. You can think of questions starting with, “Why do you think……?” or “How do you think …………?” Key words such as describe, explain, compare, explore or predict can help create the context for an openended question. Open-ended questions, if relevant to the content of 165 learning will stimulate productive thinking. 2. ‘Compare and contrast using Venn diagrams”: Scientific proficiency often requires the skill to distinguish between different processes, concepts and to compare and contrast between various phenomena and organisms. You could ask your students to compare and contrast between two different processes using Venn diagrams. Encourage them to use coloured pens. Examples: Compare and contrast between concave and convex lenses using a Venn diagram. Write down the differences and similarities between alkali metals and halogens using a Venn diagram. 3. “Create science cartoon strips”: Have students develop creative thinking skills through this writing activity. Examples: After discussing the earlier models of atomic structure, you could ask, “Create a comic strip bringing out the conversation that might have took place between J.J. Thomson and Ernest Rutherford” After teaching a chemistry lesson of elements, compounds and mixtures and discussing various methods of separation of mixtures you could ask, “Imagine that you are alone in an island surrounded by sea on all sides. You are thirsty and need water for drinking. You could only manage to find a kettle with a lid and spout, a matchbox with a few matchsticks, a knife, a piece of cloth, a copper wire and a plastic bottle. Draw cartoon strips to show how you will convert sea water into drinking water.” Science Cartoons Plus The Cartoons of S. Harris The cartoons of S. Harris, covering a wide range of subjects, including science (biology, chemistry, physics, et al.), medicine, psychology, the environment (including a new book on global warming), sociology, religion, business and the economy, art. 4. “Analyze illustrations, graphs and diagrams’: Collect some relevant illustrations, graphs, diagrams, charts or tables from the internet, news magazines or any textbook and ask them to analyze in a few sentences. Provide some guided questions to maximize results. Examples: Analyze the following graph: What type of graph is shown? What does the graph represent? What is on the x-axis? What is on the y-axis? What are the units on the axes? What is the numerical range of the data? What kind of patterns/trends can you see in the data? How do the patterns you see in the graph relate to other things you know? 5. ‘Sort into groups’: As you begin or end the class, list some words on the board, that are relevant to the content and ask them to classify the words into two or more groups and mention the basis of their classification. Examples: Randomly write the names of 15-20 elements on the board and ask, “Classify these elements into two groups and mention the basis of your classification” Randomly write the names of some organisms and ask, “Classify these organisms into three groups and mention the basis of your classification” 166 6. ‘Explain the relationship between key terms’: After completing a lesson, you could write some key words related to the recently taught topic on the board. Ask them to explain the relationship between the words or meaningfully connect the key words in a few sentences. Examples: Give a list of key words: atom, cation, anion, electron, oxidation, reduction. Ask them to briefly explain the connection between all these words using the knowledge they have acquired during the lesson. 7. ‘During lab sessions’: Before a lab demonstration, ask, “predict what will happen when ………………” questions. During a lab demonstration, make them write detailed observations in their own words and after the experiment, let them draw inferences from the observed data. During the lab session, you could ask, “What would you expect to see if …………. is replaced by ………….? “What would you expect to see if …………. is heated? Design questions by changing the conditions of the experiment or by changing different variables. 8. ‘During multi-media lessons’: When you plan your lessons to show some relevant video clips or slide presentation to your students, get them involved in brief writing activities, so that they concentrate and make an effort to absorb what they see. For example: After the lesson on radioactivity, you would like to show them You Tube videos on Chernobyl disaster and Nagasaki/Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion. Ask questions such as, “What are the significant differences between the two disasters?” “How can we avoid such disasters in future?” You could also ask them to simply write the summary of the videos and identify the ‘big idea’ in a few sentences. 9. ‘Using science news articles’: Providing opportunities to read science news article associated with the topic being taught in the classroom will help students connect to the real world issues. Have students write a short evaluation of the article, provide them some guided questions so that they can focus on specific aspects of the article. Discuss about authentic research findings and biased findings based on preliminary research. Tell your students that as readers, we have the right to critique and question a scientific article if we think that the results were not supported by sufficient, reliable data. For example you could ask, “Do you think the evidences provided in the article are sufficient? Why?” “Who do you think will be benefitted the most by this scientific breakthrough?” “Write two things you found most interesting about the article” “Being a critic, judge whether the scientific results mentioned in the article is truly important for mankind and such expensive research should be continued?” Science News, Articles and Information | Scientific American Latest news and features on science issues that matter including earth, environment, and space. Get your science news from the most trusted source! Science Daily: News & Articles in Science, Health, Environment & Technology Breaking science news and articles on global warming, extrasolar planets, stem cells, bird flu, autism, nanotechnology, dinosaurs, evolution -- the latest discoveries in astronomy, anthropology, biology, chemistry, climate & environment, computer 10. ‘Concept-mapping’: Ask your students to read a short paragraph from the text book or any handout provided and have them break down the information into parts and organize graphically or pictorially using minimum text. Encourage them to use various visual aids, such as tables, flowcharts, cycles, graphs, venn diagrams, spider web etc. Example: Depict the process of extraction of aluminium in a flowchart 167 Benefits for the students and the teachers Benefits for the students: Ongoing in-class writing assignments have manifold benefits for the students of different learning styles. The advanced students are hooked as they find the assignments challenging whereas the withdrawn ones gain confidence as they get frequent opportunities to write their own ideas without the fear of making a mistake or losing marks. Relevant writing about what they learn or read in the classroom: • Compels students to clarify doubts during the writing process • Allows students to make connections with prior learning • Encourages students to formulate their own ideas • Enhances understanding of the science concepts • Stimulates the higher-order thinking skills • Strengthens their science writing skills • Expands their science knowledge • Helps better retention Benefits for the science teachers: Brief, well-designed free writing exercises incorporated within the lesson period will be of immense help to the science teachers. Instead of directly judging the student by his/her written work, the teachers can guide them towards improved writing through planned assignments and give individual/collective feedback. The science teachers: • Will get a window into the students’ understanding of the content taught through their written work • Will get an opportunity to design ‘student centered’ activity and encourage active learning in the classroom • Will find the correction load manageable as weekly the notebooks can be collected and the feedback given 168 • Will get a clear glimpse of the students’ strengths and weaknesses and guide them accordingly over a period of time • Can use these as essential formative assessments in the continuous and comprehensive evaluation system • Can tailor these writing activities according to his/her class size and level • Will be able to emphasize the importance of writing within the context of science • Will feel rewarded being able to challenge the advanced, enthusiastic learners as well as draw out the quiet students at the same time. DEVELOPING CREATIVE AND CRITICAL THINKING METHODS USED IN SCIENCE LEARNING Vida DRĄSUTĖ, Sigitas DRĄSUTIS VšĮ “eMundus” email@example.com Creativity is a process that involves the discovery of new ideas. It is fuelled by a conscious or unconscious insight. We must consider pedagogical delivery methods and learning environments that not only engage pupils in new and exciting discoveries, but also ones that consolidate their knowledge and build upon existing ideas for future success in life. Critical thinking is relatively new, not so deeply systematically researched educational expression. Although the word “critical” has the semantic evaluation component, critical thinking is not identical to the criticality or criticism, it does not mean negative evaluation or criticism. The term in the education is used for many decades, but until now the single concept of what should be called critical thinking there is not developed. Critical thinking defining a person´s mental activity and skills has become the major category in modern economic-knowledge based society, indicating an individual´s ability to recognize, conceive, understand and estimate knowledge as well as reverse and recreate the information received [1,3]. Critical thinking is about how to think, not what to think. It is an ongoing process that usually begins with questions. The process does not end, but often leads to a new question. The critical thinking process arises from a critical attitude or stance. That attitude has been described as “critical-mindedness” . It includes curiosity, open-mindedness, scepticism and persistence. Once developed, critical-mindedness and the critical thinking process can be applied to any text or medium, and to all aspects of life . Critical thinking is a complicated process, but not an outcome and is composed of several stages. M. Scriven and R. Paul identify two components of critical thinking, stating that it is “1) a set of information and belief generating and processing skills and 2) the habit, based on intellectual commitment of using those skills to guide behaviour” . Besides, critical thinking can be defined by three stages, indicated further: 1. The ability to understand, conceive and estimate once knowledge. 2. The ability to reconsider once knowledge. 3. The ability to modify and recreate once knowledge. Encouraging students to use critical thinking is more than an extension activity in science and math lessons, it is the basis of true learning. 169 Teaching students how to think critically helps them move beyond basic comprehension and rote memorization. They shift to a new level of increased awareness when calculating, analyzing, problem solving and evaluating . Introduction The educational institution, beginning from primary school till the university, not excluding professional education centres and schools, as a teaching/learning service providing institution emphasizes the importance of critical thinking in a teaching/learning process as it seeks not only to educate students, but to teach them to think, as the majority of students - the recipients of the information just simply repeat the information they read, hear or see with no modifications, thinking or consideration if all the information content meets their specific purposes and needs . According to Steven D. Schafersman  the purpose of specifically teaching critical thinking in the sciences or any other discipline is to improve the thinking skills of students and thus better prepare them to succeed in the world. But, you may ask, don't we automatically teach critical thinking when we teach our subjects, especially mathematics and science, the two disciplines which supposedly epitomize correct and logical thinking? The answer, sadly, is often no. Please consider these two quotations: "It is strange that we expect students to learn, yet seldom teach them anything about learning." Donald Norman, 1980, "Cognitive engineering and education," in Problem Solving and Education: Issues in Teaching and Research, edited by D.T. Tuna and F. Reif, Erlbaum Publishers. "We should be teaching students how to think. Instead, we are teaching them what to think." Clement and Lochhead, 1980, Cognitive Process Instruction. Critical thinking is one of the most important skills in an open and democratic society. Critical thinking is an active process of knowledge which requires communication; it could be developed in parallel with various educational levels. Using a variety of teaching methods, techniques and strategies teachers can promote children´s critical thinking and independent learning, to create a class environment in which an open and responsible communication is prevailed. Key principles of critical thinking The key principles found in Teach Science and Maths, a community website, section “How to encourage critical thinking in science and maths”, are listed below: 1. Teaching Critical Thinking: encourage students to use critical thinking. Many students do not have this innate skill and need to learn how to ask higher order questions. Students will inherently follow their teacher´s lead; this is why it is important to practise what we preach. Probing • The following are examples of questions to ask your students to encourage them to think critically (Richard Paul ). What additional information do you need to solve the problem? • How does the data relate to your findings? • How does the evidence support your conclusions? • What would you need to do to determine if the solution is true? • How can you compare this with other problems? 170 Viewpoint • Are their alternative solutions to the problem? If so, what are they? • What else may be true if this is correct? • What effect would it have? • What do you mean by that statement? Implication • How could you ask that question differently? • What did you learn from solving this problem? • Is this the most important question to ask when solving the problem? • What questions need to be answered before answering this question? • What does this presume? These questions all have one purpose – keeping the train on the track by guiding students through the critical thinking process. When you ask these and similar questions, you are encouraging your students to move from passive to active learning. 2. Avoiding questions easily answered on the Internet: questions and problems easily answered through a quick query on the Internet are not an effective strategy for teaching critical thinking. Students need questions which require them to create a product to show what they learned. The following examples are referred to “Google‐Proofing” in some circles. Construct a data table and graph to display a comparison of cost of three competing cell phone companies. • Design an investigation to determine the best materials for building a hurricane proof house. • Compare the organs in the human body with other mammals. • Create a board game based on geometric shapes. • Redesign an existing product to reduce its carbon footprint. The goal is to help students learn how to develop higher level questions and make connections whensolving math problems or analyzing experimental data. 3. Quality Thinking: in order to support quality critical thinking, the frequency of questions is not as important as the quality of questions. Also, increasing wait-time between teacher-student-teacher is important to success with teaching quality thinking. According to Kathleen Cotton , the following are factors to consider when asking students questions. • The average level of questions asked by teachers are 60 percent lower cognitive, 20 percent procedural, and 20 percent higher cognitive. • Increasing the frequency of higher cognitive questions to the 50 percent level produces superior gains in middle and high school student achievement. • Asking higher cognitive questions does not reduce student achievement on lower cognitive questions. • With predominate use of lower cognitive questions; students tend toward lower achievement. The use of higher cognitive questions tends to elicit longer student answers in complete sentences, quality inference and conjecture by students, and the forming of higher level • 171 questions. This in turn results in increased student use of critical thinking and classroom participation. There is never a wrong time to begin encouraging your students to use critical thinking skills, so why not start today. Examples by VšĮ “eMundus”: In purpose to develop critical thinking skills some of the activities, used during the courses, are listed below: 1. Brainstorming activities; 2. Group work with a particular emphasis on critical thinking, applied in debates, discussions and the defense of one´s point of view; 3. Role-play activity games; 4. Evaluation which involves students in the assessment process when making presentations and enables students to evaluate their group mates with responsibility and objectivity; 5. Other additional teaching handouts with tables, charts, diagrams, evaluation forms, requiring critical thinking, originality and creativity. The table indicates some of the possible tasks, used for the application and mastering of critical thinking methodology in the English language classroom. Description of task Task Debates in groups Students are divided into groups that have to prepare arguments which would prove that group statements are the most convincing in comparison with other groups Listening (students must learn to listen and hear the opinion of other groups); Fulfilling assignment, students try to think in a critical and creative way, assessing and reorganized the information they acquired. All groups took an active part while participating in debates. Every member of the group is asked to express his/her opinion, trying to defend his group´s position. Developed skills Results Writing (group arguments must be structured in a written form); Speaking (arguments are presented aloud, employing rhetoric means in order to convince judges); Critical thinking (groups need to rearrange the argumentative statements of the opposite groups in order to use them for their purposes and benefit. While doing this, groups are pushed to group information and reject what is not necessary). 172 Grid “Agree, disagree, question, new information” Listening to group presentations, students are required to fill in the grid that consists of four parts, making in the information with which they disagree, agree, which information in new to them and what they would like to ask. Listening (the learners have to the presented information in order they could fill in the grid and ask logical questions); Writing (all the information has to be grouped, abbreviated and formed in clear statements and questions); Speaking (all the groups must introduce the information, presenting their assessment); Critical thinking (groups must analyze and evaluate the received information in order they could provide logical and creative statements, grounding group´s opinion). All students were made to listen to the information as they did not know which group member would be asked to provide statements the group disagreed or agreed with. Questions encouraged the learners to think in a critical way as the groups had to defend their point of view, what develops speaking skills. Besides, the degree of responsibility was higher in comparison with that one of individual members and each group speaker felt stronger responsibility when introducing the opinion of his group. Further it is provided several pages where possible to find good examples of critical thinking methods used in science learning: • http://bhhs.bhusd.org/ourpages/auto/2008/10/24/41959650/BHHS%20CT%20Cells.do c - critical thinking questions in biology; • Emeline J. Ribot, Fostering critical thinking and student participation in biological sciences. Teaching innovation projects. Vol. 1, Issue 1, Art. 10. (Available in Internet); • Danys S. Adams, Teaching critical thinking in a developmental biology course at an American liberal arts college. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 47: 145-151 (2003) (available in Internet); • http://www.slideshare.net/zollnera/critical-thinking-in-high-school-physics - critical thinking development in physics; • http://www.palgrave.com/skills4study/subjectareas/science/physics.asp#Critical critical thinking development in the laboratory while teaching physics. References 1. Motekaitytė Vida, Draşutis Sigitas, Tesileanu Angela, Effective use of media education in the development of critical thinking // Media inspirations for learning. What makes the impact? [elektroninis išteklius]: 2010 EDEN annual conference, 9-12 June 2010, Valencia, Spain. [S.I.]: European Distance and e-Learning Network, 2010. ISBN 9789630694292, P.[1-8] 173 2. Aspects of Critical Thinking, 1-Teaching Backgrounder. Reprinted with permission from Pat Kipping, Think TV: A guide to managing TV in the home. The excerpt is based on the work of Dr. Stephen Brookfield. Nova Scotia Development of Education, 2000, pp. iv-vii. Available from: http://www.mediaawareness.ca/english/resources/educational/teaching_backgrounders/media_literacy/as pects_critical_thinking_1.cfm 3. Maumevičienė D., Critical thinking while teaching English // Kalba ir kontekstai = Language in differnet contexts: mokslo darbai. ISSN 1822-55357, 2007, T.2. (pp.1-9) 4. An introduction to critical thinking by Steven D. Schafersman, January, 1991. Available from: http://smartcollegeplanning.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/CriticalThinking.pdf 5. Scriven M., Paul R., Statements for the National Council for excellence in Critical Thinking Instruction . The critical Thinking Community. Foundation for Critical Thinking , (2006). Available from: http://www.criticalthinking.org 6. Teach Science and Maths is a community site. Available from: http://teachscienceandmath.com 7. Paul, Richard, Critical Thinking: How to Prepare Students for a Rapidly Changing World, Foundation for Critical Thinking 8. Cotton, Kathleen, Classroom Questioning, North West Regional Educational Laboratory. THE COOPERATIVE AND CREATIVE TECHNIQUES Mihai KELLER Training Cons 2005 srl –Romania Description of the method: This method is based on defining characteristics of the activities of a ”cooperative and creative”group, i.e.: • It is focused on the group performance. • The group members can only succeed together: ”If you win, I win!”. • Both the individual and group achievements are rewarded. • The teamwork skills are emphasized: the cooperation is necessary and encouraged. • The leadership role is less important - it is temporally taken on by whoever can make the group’s development efficient. Within the group, students are asked to adopt specific roles: as a manager, secretary, the skeptical or the enthusiastic one. In the groups made up of three people the role of ”the enthusiastic one” is redistributed among the members of the group: thus, the ideas augmentation and conclusion drawing falls on the manager’s part, while the ”energizing” business, to every and each of the participants. If you cannot establish only groups of three, the fourth person in the group will have this role. The teacher must ensure that these roles are taken cyclically by each member of the group. The group stays together at least until they all acted their role at least once. To minimize the risk of a member of the group quarantineing themselves or make use of the others, the workspace must allow group members to communicate freely, preferably face to face. The group results are presented by a member randomly/cyclically chosen (who is 174 not necessarily the secretary). The group may be subjected to both collective and individual testing (in a sequential manner, in which the requirements differ from one member to another). The information provided by the initial group should cover only the minimum required data, according to the following sections: the introduction to the given context, the description of the equipment (in case of the laboratory work), asking for predictions on the outcome, and working methods that will be addressed, accommodation/exploration, measurements (for a lab task),results analysis and drawing conclusions. It is important that the students not to be told if their predictions are correct or not, whether the methods chosen are appropriate or not - they have to verify/experiment and thus achieve expected results and conclusions. Group discussions, and the plenary ones can then clarify many questions, and the remaining can be identified from reports/work papers (for laboratory tasks) or tests/future activities. A minimum period of time should be granted to the assessment of the group's work - a brief discussion and/or a designing of a questionnaire focused on the process (and not necessarily on the result). It may raise questions like: "Which were the methods/paths correctly taken over by the group?";"Which problems of communication/collaboration have you experienced?"; "What action/practical approach can help you improve your group cooperation?". The students need to process the information â€“ the discussions in which the final conclusions are confronted and those concerning the functioning of the groups make up a necessary feedback. The method is actively participative, reflected in the student's activity within the group. What does the group receive? The file with the set of papers containing a short briefing of the theme, on which are formulated the objectives: to fully describe an object moving in a single direction using the given position, time, velocity and acceleration; to make the distinction between the instantaneous and average values of the determined quantities; to put down the relationships between position, time, speed, average speed, average acceleration and medium acceleration in concrete situations; to graphically analyze the motion of an object; to complete a "record of observations" and write a report/account of the paper. There are also issued some "preliminary requirements" necesary to be accomplished for the activity to be effective: the defining and recognizing of differences between following concepts: position, displacement, distance, average speed and instantaneous speed, average acceleration and instantaneous acceleration; the drawing of the slope of a line from a graphic representation; the drawing of the proper slope of a point on a curve (line); the drawing of the change of a size, in time, on the corresponding chart; the using of these relationships for the sine, cosine and tangent of an angle in a triangle at a 900 angle. These "requirements" are carried out as the preliminary result of other activities (the teaching and learning of the undertaken activities, as appropriate, in a more or less classical manner). 175 Application Steps (How do you apply this method in a science course) Study topic: One-dimensional Movements The Experimental Issue: THE MOTION ON AN INCLINED PLANE You are working in a team which studies the traffic accidents. During an investigation you are to determine the acceleration of a car which is falling down a slope without brakes. Everyone agrees that the car's speed increases as it descends the slope, but your boss believes that the car's acceleration increases too. Do you agree with this assumption? To test your bossâ€™ idea, you have decided to determine the acceleration of a trolley down an inclined plane, in laboratory conditions. Equipment: an inclined surface, a mobile, a ruler, a stopwatch. Prediction: How do you think the trolley's acceleration change will look like in the given circumstances? If the acceleration varies, how will this change (will it increase or decrease)? Or do you think that the acceleration will remain constant? Formulate a brief explanation! Method: The following questions will help you explore different scenarios for the problem. How do you expect the chart of instantaneous acceleration dependant on time to look like, in the case of a constant accelerating motion? What about in that of asteadily increasing or decreasing acceleration? Outline a graphic representation for each situation and briefly explain the results. Write the correct equation right next to it. To compare them easily, draw the charts on the same scale. How can you determine the values of the dimensions which interest with the help of your chart? 1. Write the relationship between the acceleration and the speed of the trolley. Use this relationship to build the charts for the momentary speed variation over time, for each situation referred to in paragraph 1, (underneath). Write the right equation alongside. Are these equations represented in relation to the sizes above? Write the relationship between the speed and the position of the trolley. Use this relationship to build the charts of the position of the trolley which changes over time, 1. in each case referred to in paragraph 2, (underneath). Write the right equation alongside. Can you determine the values of the quantities showed in these graphical representations of the previous paragraph? 2. After analyzing these scenarios, you can modify or you can keep the prediction made above. Exploration: outline a working plan: What is the total distance the mobile will cover? How long does it take to run this distance? How many measurements do you need? Measurements: Follow the devised plan. Finally, you must have sufficient data to construct some position-time and velocity-time graphics to a known value of the slope of the inclined plane. Make sure that the measurements have adequate precision and that the collected data are appropriate and relevant. Analysis: Calculate the average acceleration based on time-distance measurements. Build the x (t) and v (t)graphs. From graph v (t) determine if the acceleration increases, decreases or remains constant. Using the explicit form of the function v = f (t), determine the explicit expression of the acceleration based on time. Graphicly represent this variation. Is the momentary acceleration equal to the average one? 176 Conclusions: What do the charts indicate compared with the predictions made? Was your boss right? If so, formulate appropriate conclusions in a report. If not, describe how you convinced him of the righteousness of your conclusions. What are the limitations on measurement accuracy and the relevance of the tests carried out? If your results are as expected, you can use simulation experimenting to explore what happened. Set the initial conditions so as to coincide with the real situation monitored. Can you obtain the expected behavior? If you think that the friction or air resistance have affected your measurements, explore their effects through simulation. Is the shape of the graphs changing in the manner expected? How large were the errors? Have they affected the final conclusion? LESSON PLAN ABOUT CREATIVE AND CRITICAL THINKING METHODS Mihai KELLER Training Cons 2005 srl â€“ Romania Study topic: One-dimensional Movements The Experimental Issue: THE MOTION ON AN INCLINED PLANE You are working in a team which studies the traffic accidents. During an investigation you are to determine the acceleration of a car which is falling down a slope without brakes. Everyone agrees that the car's speed increases as it descends the slope, but your boss believes that the car's acceleration increases too. Do you agree with this assumption? To test your bossâ€™ idea, you have decided to determine the acceleration of a trolley down an inclined plane, in laboratory conditions. Equipment: an inclined surface, a mobile, a ruler, a stopwatch. Prediction: How do you think the trolley's acceleration change will look like in the given circumstances? If the acceleration varies, how will this change (will it increase or decrease)? Or do you think that the acceleration will remain constant? Formulate a brief explanation! Method: The following questions will help you explore different scenarios for the problem. 1. How do you expect the chart of instantaneous acceleration dependant on time to look like, in the case of a constant accelerating motion? What about in that of asteadily increasing or decreasing acceleration? Outline a graphic representation for each situation and briefly explain the results. Write the correct equation right next to it. To compare them easily, draw the charts on the same scale. How can you determine the values of the dimensions which interest with the help of your chart? 2. Write the relationship between the acceleration and the speed of the trolley. Use this relationship to build the charts for the momentary speed variation over time, for each situation referred to in paragraph 1, (underneath). Write the right equation alongside. Are these equations represented in relation to the sizes above? 3. Write the relationship between the speed and the position of the trolley. Use this relationship to build the charts of the position of the trolley which changes over time, in each case referred to in paragraph 2, (underneath). Write the right equation 177 alongside. Can you determine the values of the quantities showed in these graphical representations of the previous paragraph? 4. After analyzing these scenarios, you can modify or you can keep the prediction made above. Exploration: outline a working plan: What is the total distance the mobile will cover? How long does it take to run this distance? How many measurements do you need? Measurements: Follow the devised plan. Finally, you must have sufficient data to construct some position-time and velocity-time graphics to a known value of the slope of the inclined plane. Make sure that the measurements have adequate precision and that the collected data are appropriate and relevant. Analysis: Calculate the average acceleration based on time-distance measurements. Build the x (t) and v (t)graphs. From graph v (t) determine if the acceleration increases, decreases or remains constant. Using the explicit form of the function v = f (t), determine the explicit expression of the acceleration based on time. Graphicly represent this variation. Is the momentary acceleration equal to the average one? Conclusions: What do the charts indicate compared with the predictions made? Was your boss right? If so, formulate appropriate conclusions in a report. If not, describe how you convinced him of the righteousness of your conclusions. What are the limitations on measurement accuracy and the relevance of the tests carried out? If your results are as expected, you can use simulation experimenting to explore what happened. Set the initial conditions so as to coincide with the real situation monitored. Can you obtain the expected behavior? If you think that the friction or air resistance have affected your measurements, explore their effects through simulation. Is the shape of the graphs changing in the manner expected? How large were the errors? Have they affected the final conclusion? Critical Thinking based Lesson Plan (I) Meryem Nur AYDEDE YALĂ‡IN Nigde University, Turkey Course Science and Technology Grade 8 Learning Space Living creatures and life Unit Name / Number People and Environment Subject renewable and unrenewable energy sources Suggested time40' + 40' Objectives Students emphasizes the importance of using renewable energy sources students. Part II Steps of the learning process When teacher comes the classroom, she talks about an article to her students. The article is about the nuclear power central which is planed to established in Sinop. Than each students tells his/her own ideas about the nuclear power centrals to her teacher and classmates. Students talks about the benefits and damages of the nuclear power centrals to the environment and disscus critically. 178 Why the politicions supports to nuclear power? Why environmentalists are opposed to this view? Than, the teacher wants from the students thinks as a jurnalist and tells them to write his own article about renewable energy sources and unrenewable energy source. So a criticall writing process starts. Each student writes their own article about the renewable energy sources and unrenewable energy sources, and nuclear power centrals’ place in these energy sources. After each student finish to write own article, they start to read her own article to other students. After each article, a critical discussion is done. Finnaly, each student hangs on her own article to a suitable board at the school to share their own articals to other students Critical Thinking based Lesson Plan (II) Pedro José LEIVA PADILLA Leiva Formacion – Spain INTRODUCTION Fundamental understanding Students will understand that science is a cyclic process of research, experimentation, and application. Students will increase their critical-thinking skills by participating in this process while learning various contents in eighth grade science. Essential questions How do you answer a question or solve a problem? Knowledge and skills • Students will understand the pieces of an experiment and use their knowledge to design experiments to answer self- and teacher-generated questions. • Students will collect and organize various types of data. • Students will analyze the collected data. • Students will use experimental and research-based data to answer questions, make predictions, and create an organized content guide. • Students will communicate their findings through various means. • Students will use their findings for the “what next” portion of science. EXAMPLE: • SUBJECT: Science • STUDENT'S AGE AND CLASS: 5-6 Years old. Year I • TEACHER: Ron Iacone • TOPIC: Recycling (How to used the recycling bins and what we can recycling) • LESSON PLAN Teacher explain the different material (plastic, glass, ....etc) 1. The teacher and children maked 3 different bins for the class (yellow, blue and green) then the teacher explain which bins do we need for recycling and why?. 2. Every children needs to bring to the class one littler for recycling and they need to used the bins that they made before. 3. They play with the interactive board to different recycling games. 4. Finally they can speak in the classroom about recycling and reuse 179 Critical Thinking based - Lesson Plan (III) Gelu MAFTEI Repere Association – Bacau Branch – Romania Department of Education: PHYSICS XII Grades Number of students: 24 Title of Lesson: The strengthen knowledge of atomic physics using the “mosaic” method (The Jigsaw method) The purpose of the lesson (lesson category): The strengthen knowledge of atomic physics Learning capabilities available: a). Slow learning students; b). Students with average rate learning; c). Fast learning students. Operational objectives: O1. Determining the wavelengths values of spectral lines of hydrogen (directly observed on a spectrum that is provided in the worksheet). O2. Calculation photon energies corresponding wavelengths of the visible spectrum of hydrogen. O3. Calculation of differences Ek - E2 (in eV), knowing E1 = -13,6 eV. O4. Calculation wavelength of photons with energies hν32 = E3 - E2; hν42 = E4 - E2; hν52 = E5 E2; hν62 = E6 - E2 , knowing E1 = -13,6 eV. Teaching Strategy: a). Methods of teaching - learning: brainstorming, discussion, mosaic (Jigsaw technique). b). Learning means: handbook, worksheets individually and in groups, markers, sheets of flip chart, flip-chart, markers of different colors, pictures of hydrogen spectra, tables of values of the constants required in the lesson, including the wavelength of the lines of visible spectrum of hydrogen, modular furniture. c). Forms of organization: groups (working groups and expert groups). 180 The Lesson Stages of the lesson Operation al objectives Essential content Teaching-learning activities teacher’ activities students’ activities Announcing application an interactive learning method and request of student to make groups of 4 students, according to criteria established before class (working groups). Providing students as a badge which will have entered a number (symbol) from 1 to 4, corresponding operational objective. Using the ratings Capture and maintain attention - - The students are grouped in groups of 4 students. They put the badge with number (symbol) received. - The statement of lesson’s title and operational objectives - - Notify the lesson’s title and Writing the lesson’s operational objectives. title and operational objectives. Share to student worksheets numbered from 1 to 4 which its have specified information as follows: 1. The values marked of the mercury spectrum wavelengths and hydrogen’s spectrum spectral lines whose corresponding wavelength values have not marked. 2. The values of the wavelength of visible lines forming hydrogen spectrum. 3. The value of the first level calculated in eV: E1 = - 13.6 eV 4. The value of the first level calculated in eV: E1 = - 13.6 eV Ask of students, that have same number, to be organized separately at tables indicated (marked in advance), forming groups of “experts”. - Updating the learned - - The students receive worksheet, the number of worksheet is the same number on the badge, flipchart sheets, markers. - - - Students that have same number are organized into groups of “experts” at tables indicated. - 181 O1 CO1: spectra, spectral lines Require of students with no. 1 to determine the wavelength’s values of spectral lines of hydrogen in comparison with the known spectral lines of mercury. Students from first group determine the wavelength’s values of the spectral lines of hydrogen (observed). Students from second group show that the emitted photons (whose wavelengths are given in advance by the teacher on the worksheet) should have the energies: 1,89 eV; 2,55 eV; 2,86 eV; 3,03 eV Students from third group show the possible values for energies of photons emitted from the transitions on higher level to n = 2, (mathematically calculated as Bohr's model): 1,89 eV; 2,55 eV; 2,86 eV; 3,03 eV. Students from fourth group show the values of wavelengths of photons having energies given by worksheet. Perform individual tasks distributed, they consult on the results obtained, reach a consensus, record the results agreed. Evaluation of the accuracy of wavelength’s values obtained by students. O2 CO2: Bohr model, Bohr's postulates Request of students with no. 2 to calculate the differences Ek – E2 (in eV). Evaluation of how to obtain energy values recorded for differences required. Presentation of tasks CO3: Bohr model, Bohr's postulates Require of students with no. 3 to calculate the energies of photons emitted by the electron’s transitions from higher levels of n on it. O3 Evaluation of the accuracy of values for energies of photons emitted from the transitions on higher level to n = 2, calculated by the students. Evaluation of the accuracy of wavelength’s values obtained by students. O4 CO4: Bohr model, Bohr's postulates Require of students no. 4 to calculate the wavelengths of photons with energies: hν32 = E3 E2; hν42 = E4 - E2; hν52 = E5 - E2; hν62 = E6 - E2. Require of students to achieve individual activities, then to consult with the team, to draw conclusions in agreement, to record the final results, behind the conclusions. Leading learning - - - 182 - - Require of students to assemble in original work groups, where, in turn, the students present to their colleagues workloads of the team of experts. Students assemble in original working groups and presents, in turn, their results obtained and agreed in groups of experts. - Insurance reverse connection - - Require the leader’s students of the group designated to fill a sheet of flip-chart with a marker the results summarized of labor all working groups; then, request the leaders the presentation, in turn, frontal presentation, of the results recorded on flip-chart sheets. The leader of the group completes under the supervision of colleagues on a sheet of flip-chart with marker hte results summarized of their work – all working groups; the leaders have reportedthe frontal results on sheets of flip-chart. - - Appreciate the results of students' work, both within groups of experts, and in the working groups; appreciate quality of frontal presentation of the teams. Appreciate, in turn, the work of all colleagues, the quality of frontal presentation of groups, make judgments of value. Obtaining performance Individual, in groups of experts, working groups, by direct observation, using the ratings, which will be recorded in a special notebook of teacher. Evaluation by teacher of homework Insurance retention and transfer - Presents homework: achievement by each student, the choice of a free essay, a conceptual map or a mind map using the results of teamwork. Writing homework References: V. Malinovschi. Didactica Fizicii, EDP, R.A., 2003. G. Maftei, M. Maftei, The strengthen knowledge of atomic physics using the “mosaic” method (The Jigsaw method). Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 1605–1610, (2011). F. O. Călţun. Capitole de Didactica Fizicii, Editura Universităţii ”A.I.Cuza” Iaşi, 2006. G. Maftei. Predarea modelelor atomice în liceu. Revista Ştiinţifică V. Adamachi, 2010. 183 Critical Thinking based Lesson Plan (IV) Ferenc SIMON Foundation Of Knowledge – Hungary Name of the Company: grammar school, 12. class (18 students) Name of the used active learning method Active learning with the application of creativity and critical thinking Description of the method Topic: nuclear power plants Group work, pair work, discussion, argument, PPT making Application steps (How do you apply this method in a science course) • group work: giving the tasks based on individual interest and competence • PPT making • World famous Hungarians in atomic energy research • Teller Ede (2 students) • Szilárd Leo (2 students) • Wigner Jenő (2 students) • Hevesy György (2 students) • The theory and the operating principles of the nuclear power plant (2 students) • Comparison of the background radiation of different materials (2 students) • Safety of nuclear power stations (discussion) (6 students) • Pros and cons (18 students) • Links www.iaea.org www.oah.hu Critical Thinking based Lesson Plan (V) Danutė VIZMANAITĖ, Diana KOSOVSKİENĖ Trakų švietimo centras - Lithuania Subject: Biology Students‘ age and class: 15-16 years old students, 9th class Teacher: Diana Kosovskienė Topic of the lesson: Quality of the water. (To save impossible to destroy. Decimal point position is by student choice.) The task of the lesson: after naming the water pollution problems and pollution sources, to suggest the ways to reduce water’s pollution and to find the ways how to contribute to their implementation. Tools to use: tutorials, site of an environment friendly lifestyle www.rec.com Lesson Plan 1. Before the lesson, at home, the students had to find information online about the origin of water pollution and the consequences of eutrophication, heavy metals, acid rain and so on. 184 2. During the lesson students draw circle of water circuit and remember all the details. We pose the question of how human activities can affect the individual components of this circle. 3. Together with students in classroom teacher discusses the various causes of pollution, water quality and disclosure of human interrelations. 4. All together fill in a table with these charts: the causes of water pollution, human exposure and environmental impact. 5. While students complete the table they discuss and dispute on how to remove the causes of pollution of water at these levels: personal, community, national. 6. Students decide what actions they could take by themselves, adding family members, they decide after how long they will discuss their achievements. Critical thinking is developed while selecting material from various sources, also in evaluation of this material process, and while assessing it collectively. The example: while reading a magazine students found out an article which names â€œEvidence of natural selectionâ€œ. It is interesting what could it be about, maybe about Galapagosâ€™ Islands or maybe about favourable living conditions, or perhaps about the populations of organisms? Content of the article can be foreseen when remembering information that could be linked to new things. Learning to read effectively, before embarking on a new text, should be borne in mind what is already known from that theme. Activities encourage students to recognize the necessary, previously acquired information, it is a great way to encourage critical thinking, to make analysis, comparison. 185 ANALYSIS RESULTS FROM SEVEN DIFFERENT COUNTRIESâ€™ ATTITUDES TOWARDS SCIENCE Today, economic, social, scientific and technological developments changes and has a significant impact on people's lifestyles. These developments and changes will continue to effect people's lives in the future. Because of the increasingly developments in science and technology, training of students in science and technology attitudes has become a necessity. So every country give more importance to grow students who has critical thinking, problem solving and decision-making, inquiry and life long learning skills, which is necessary for science about the pozitive attitudes. In the study, partner countriesâ€™ attitudes towards to science was calculated. The profiles of the researchers from these countries are as follows: 186 Table 1: Participant Countries of the Study Countries Romania Cyprus Turkey Lithuania Hungary Total N 78 30 47 58 40 253 % 80 70 30,8 11,9 18,6 22,9 15,8 100,0 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Romania Cyprus Turkey Participant Countries Lithuania Hungary 47 people from Turkey, 78 people from Romania, 58 people from Lithuania, 30 people from Cyprus and 40 people from Hungary participated in the study. Tablo 2 shows participating countries in terms of participants’ sex; Table 2: Sex Distribution of Participating Countries Countries Sex Female Romania Cyprus Turkey Lithuania Hungary Total 40 21 35 39 15 150 Male 38 9 12 19 25 103 78 30 47 58 40 253 Total 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Romania Cyprus Turkey Lithuania Hungary Female Male As the table two shows, 40 females and 38 males participated to study from Romania, 21 females and 9 males participaed to study from Cyprus, 35 females and 12 males participated to study from Turkey, 39 females and 19 males participaed to study from Lithuania, 15 females and 25 males participated to study from Hungary. Table 3 shows partner countries’ participants’ distributions in terms of age. 187 Table 3: Age Distributions of the Participants Ages Countries 25-30 30-45 45-50 Romania Cyprus Turkey Hungary Total 1 6 0 5 12 32 9 20 26 87 7 12 15 5 39 50 and up Total 38 3 12 4 57 78 30 47 40 195 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Romania Cyprus Turkey Hungary 25-30 age range 31-44 age range 45-50 age range 50 and up 1 paticipant from Romania were between 25-30 age range, 32 of them were between 30-45 age range, 7 of them were between 45-50 age range, and 38 of them were from the 50 and up range. 6 paticipants from Cyprus were between 25-30 age range, 9 of them were between 3045 age range, 12 of them were between 45-50 age range, and 3 of them were from the 50 and up range. 20 paticipants from Turkey were between 30-45, 15 of them were between 45-50 age range, and 12 of them were from the 50 and up range. 5 participants from Hungary were between 25-30 age range, 26 of them were between 30-45 age range, 5 of them were between 45-50 age range, and 4 of them were from the 50 and up range. Totally, 12 paticipants were between 25-35 age range, 87 participants were between 30-45 age range, 39 participants between 45-50 age range, and 57 participants were from the 50 and up range. Table 3 shows the partner countries participants in terms of their professions. 188 Table 4: Profession Distributions of the Participants PrimarySchool University Teacher 6 0 0 31 7 44 sch.And Education Institution School Teacher Teacher Countries Romanya Cyprus Turkey Lithuania Hungary Total 16 9 16 3 0 44 8 12 0 13 6 39 33 6 20 4 1 64 13 3 11 7 21 55 2 0 0 0 5 7 Other 78 30 47 58 40 253 Primary school Vocational school and educational institution Secondary school High school University Other 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Romanya Cyprus Turkey Lithuania Hungary 16 participants from Romania were primary school teachers, 8 of them were professional sch.and education institution teachers, 33 of them were secondary school teachers, 13 of them were high school teachers, 6 of them were university teachers and 2 of them were other professions. 9 participants from Cyprus were primary school teachers, 12 of them were professional sch.and education institution teachers, 6 of them were secondary school teachers, 3 of them were high school teachers. 16 participants from Turkey were primary school teachers, 20 of them were secondary school teachers, 11 of them were high school teachers. 3 participants from Lithuania were primary school teachers, 13 of them were professional sch.and education institution teachers, 4 of them were secondary school teachers, 7 of them were high school teachers, 31 of them were university teachers. 6 participants from Hungary were professional sch.and education institution teachers, 1 of them was secondary school teacher, 21 of them were high school teachers, 7 of them were university teachers and 189 5 of them were other professions. Totally, 44 participants were primary school teachers, 39 of them were professional sch.and education institution teachers, 64 of them were secondary school teachers, 55 of them were high school teachers, 44 of them were university teachers. Untill now, descriptive features were described. These descriptions were necessary to interpret the results of the scale. Partner countries’ attitude scores towards science course are as follows; Table 5: Mean Scores of Partner Countries’ Attitude Scores towards Science Course Points Std. Deviation 16,86348 5,83302 4,77505 5,65132 6,43188 16,7076 Countries Romania Cyprus Turkey Lithuania Hungary Total Mean 44,5769 35,9000 63,6383 61,4655 75,5000 55,5341 N 78 30 47 58 40 253 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Romania Cyprus Turkey Lithuania Hungary Mean Scores Looking at the table, it is seen that, the highest mean score belonged to Hungary, the mean scores of Turkey and Lithuania are close to each other and the lowest score belonged to Cyprus. Table 6 shows the science attitude scale scores of participant teachers in terms of sex. Table 6: Mean Scores of Partner Countries’ Attitude towards Science Course Scale Points in terms of Sex Std. 64 Sex Female Male Total Mean 51,9732 60,8400 55,5341 N 150 103 253 Deviation 17,66312 13,61425 16,70763 60 56 52 48 44 40 36 32 28 24 20 Fem ale M ale Sex distribution From the table, it is seen that the science attitudes of males are higher when compared the females. Table 7 shows science attitude scores of participant teachers in terms of their ages. 190 Table 7: The Science Attitude Scores o Participant Teachers inTerms of their Ages Std. Deviation 12,33129 15,37162 12,37969 13,43218 15,21492 Age 25-30 30-45 45-50 50 anp up Total Mean 40,3333 44,0519 50,4865 57,4035 49,2678 N 12 87 39 57 195 From the table, it is seen that the science attitudes of teachers climb up as the age of the teachers climb up. Table 8 shows science attitude scale mean scores of participant teachers in terms of their professions Table 8: The Science Attitudes Scale Mean Scores of Participant Teachers in Terms of their Professions Std. Deviation 15,50485 16,39435 16,28653 7,66981 5,39951 4,94975 16,70763 Professions Primary School Professional sch.And Education Institution Secondary School Teacher High School Teacher University Teacher Other Total Mean 60,7400 45,0541 43,2462 62,4571 62,8919 65,5000 55,5341 N 44 39 64 55 44 7 253 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Primary School Professional sch.And Education Institution Secondary School Teacher High School Teacher University Teacher Other Mean Scores 191 192