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04

I N T E R U N I V E R S I T Y S T U D E N T - R U N I N T E R N AT I O N A L A F FA I R S M A G A Z I N E

SPRING 2013

THE HIDDEN TRANSCRIPT issue 04 spring 2013

THE HIDDEN TRANSCRIPT

1

STAFF REID STANDISH The University of Glasgow Editor-in-Chief ALEXANDER DIRKSEN The University of Toronto Associate Editor ADAM KINGSMITH McMaster University Associate Editor ADAM CRISTOBAL Emily Carr University of Art + Design Design Editor KAISA HARTIKAINEN The University of Glasgow Communications Director

WRITERS Reid Standish Adam Kingsmith Alexander Dirksen Lani Seelinger Timothy Choi Paolo Sorbello Alexis Zimberg Gustavo Destro Ahtziri Gonzalez

CONTACT THEHIDDENTRANSCRIPT.COM thehiddentranscript@gmail.com @HTranscript

SPECIAL THANKS THE UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW Centre for Russian, Central and Eastern European Studies The Hidden Transcript reserves the right to edit all submissions for length, as well as stylistic, grammatical, and legal guidlines. The Hidden Transcript also reserves the right to reprint submissions at any time, in both written and electronic formats.

TABLE OF CONTENTS 04 08 14 18 20 24 28 32 36

THE CULTURAL HEGEMONY OF CAPITAL The greatest empire of the 21st century? / Adam Kingsmith THE KINGDOM OF THE GENETICALLY MODIFIED SEED Understanding the nexus of multinational corporations, civil society and the future of food / Reid Standish THE NEW GREAT GAME IN CENTRAL ASIA Modern rules for the oldest game on earth / Paolo Sorbello THE WHITE MAN’S UNBURDEN An analysis of imperialism through literature / Ahtziri Gonzalez FRANÇAFRIQUE ALIVE AND WELL How France still hasn’t let go of its African empire / Gustavo Destro THE LEGACY OF THE DUAL MONARCHY Why the Habsburg Empire still matters today / Lani Seelinger NOSTALGIA AND NOTIONS OF FALSE EMPIRE The (un)historical rise of the right in Hungary / Alexis Zimberg AN ORWELLIAN OVAL OFFICE A look inside the expansion of the executive branch / Alexander Dirksen IMPERIAL REACH ON THE CHEAP? +RZ&KLQDEHQHȴWVIURP$PHULFDQ supremacy / Timothy Choi

THIS ISSUE Many people think of empire as a thing of the past, a remnant of a forlorn colonial era that died with the Cold War. In its place, an apparent “End of History,â€? where the globalisation of Western liberal democracy and unmitigated transnational capital are seen as having signaled the successful end point of humanity’s sociocultural evolution. Yet, things have not exactly wrapped up nicely for history. New challenges to the status quo spring up every day - digital technologies are changing the rules of the game, corporations now ZLHOGPRUHLQČľXHQFHWKDQQDWLRQVWDWHVRUJDQL]HGFULPHLVPRUHLQČľXHQWLDOWKDQHYHUDQG embattled nation-states are turning to increasingly violent means in an attempt to curb the disintegration of their monopoly on power. Instead of experiencing an end of history or empire, what we are seeing is a whole new chapter; a chapter that is much messier, more complicated, and with higher-stakes than ever before. That is why we have dedicated our latest issue to compiling these diverse perspectives on empire. Not an attempt to speculate, but in an attempt to understand. And as the quest for empire continues to intensify because more and more are contending for less and less, understanding will be needed above all else. One of the strengths of The Hidden TranscriptKDVDOZD\VEHHQLWVGLYHUVHFRQWULEXWRUVZKRRÎ?HUXQLTXHLQVLJKWVLQWR WKHHYHQWVDQGLVVXHVWKDWLPSDFWDQGLQČľXHQFHWKHZRUOGDURXQGXV6XFKLVWKHFDVHIRURXUIRXUWKLVVXHZKRVH articles span a diverse subject matter pertaining to the broad theme of “empireâ€? in all its iterations. Associate Editor Adam Kingsmith opens the issue with his examination of the incredible reach of the global market system in “The Cultural Hegemony of Capital,â€? continuing his excellent coverage upon the transformative forces in the physical and digital world that have become a keystone of his column on the Hidden Transcript website. In “The .LQJGRPRIWKH*HQHWLFDOO\0RGLČ´HG6HHGČ‹(GLWRULQ&KLHI5HLG6WDQGLVKGHOYHVLQWRDYHU\GLÎ?HUHQWW\SHRIJOREDO empire - the misunderstood world of GMOs and the long-term impact of agricultural empires. From the “Monsanto 3URWHFWLRQ$FWČ‹WRWKHOREE\LQJHÎ?RUWVRIPXOWLQDWLRQDOFRUSRUDWLRQVWKLVLVDPXVWUHDGIRUWKRVHFRQFHUQHGDERXW WKHFURSVZKLFKČ´OORXUJURFHU\DLVOHV7KHJHRSROLWLFDOKRWVSRWRI&HQWUDO$VLDLVWKHIRFXVRIČŠ7KH1HZ*UHDW*DPHLQ Central Asiaâ€? by Paolo Sorbello — with the American withdrawal from Afghanistan and the imminent political rivalries in the region, it is an area of increased focus for the world’s more powerful states. From a look to the future the focus shifts to the past - how the concept of colonial empire has been embodied in literature is the fascinating backdrop for “The White Man Unburdenâ€? by regular Hidden Transcript columnist Ahtziri *RQ]DOH]&RORQLDOOHJDFLHVDUHDOVRWKHIRFDOSRLQWIRUČŠ)UDQFDIULTXH$OLYHDQG:HOOČ‹E\+LGGHQ7UDQVFULSWFROXPQLVW Gustavo Destro. This trend continues as Lani Seelinger and Alexis Zimberg examine historical empires, looking at GLÎ?HUHQWVHFWLRQVRI+XQJDU\IURPWKH+DEVEXUJ(PSLUHWRUHVXUJLQJQDWLRQDOLVPLQFHQWUDO(XURSH The issue concludes with two pieces on the world’s “superpowerâ€? and the domestic and international impacts of its SROLWLFDOČŠHPSLUHČ‹ΖQČŠ$Q2UZHOOLDQ2YDO2É?FHČ‹$VVRFLDWH(GLWRU$OH[DQGHU'LUNVHQORRNVDWWKHOLQJHULQJLPSDFWVRI the “War on Terrorâ€? which go largely unnoticed by the American people, but which nevertheless raise considerable concerns over citizen privacy, freedom and rights. The issue concludes with a piece from longtime contributor Tim &KRLZKRH[DPLQHVWKHRGGIDFWWKDW$PHULFDQPLOLWDU\VXSUHPDF\DFWXDOO\EHQHČ´WV&KLQD From all of us at The Hidden TranscriptZHKRSH\RXHQMR\WKHXQLTXHSHUVSHFWLYHVKHOGLQWKHVHSDJHVDQGZH thank you for your continued readership. — EDITORIAL TEAM

THE CULTURAL HEGEMONY OF CAPITAL THE GREATEST EMPIRE OF THE 21ST CENTURY? ADAM KINGSMITH McMaster University Hamilton, Canada

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the petty spatial limitations of the nation-state. Its

amount of time and resources on the pursuit of

borders circumnavigate the globe, from Boston to

gratifying experiences as opposed to mildly amusing

Barcelona to Beijing and back again. It is bigger than

consumer goods? You’d think so, but then why is it

Russia, more populated than China, and more pow-

in our contemporary consumer culture we never

erful than America. And its hegemony derives from

seriously speak of progress in terms of general

manipulating the beliefs, perceptions, values, and

public health and overall happiness?

cultural ethos of our so-called “progressive� society.

Sure, we make insincere references to glossy

Its advocates — wealth-obsessed titans of indus-

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try, do this so their ruling-class principles become

Millennium Development Goals, but for the most

the world view, imposed and accepted as cultural

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norms and universally valid dominant ideologies,

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rates, and stock market values which serve as mark-

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ers of societal progress.

for everyone participating. This empire is the global market system, and its cultural hegemony is so absolute, so omnipresent, so banal, that those dominated by it — both governments and their citizens alike — are utterly oblivious to their servitude. For true empire comes from dominating discourse so outright, that one never has to use force to achieve power. Bold claims — I know. But perhaps we all need to stop mindlessly consuming for a moment and really think about it. EXPOSING THE EMPIRE Prior to the 2008 economic meltdown, the largest 100 economies in the world, 51 are multinational FRUSRUDWLRQV 01& $VRIFRUSRUDWLRQV make the top 100 largest global economies. Due to

THIS EMPIRE IS THE GLOBAL MARKET SYSTEM, AND THOSE DOMINATED BY IT ARE UTTERLY OBLIVIOUS TO THEIR SERVITUDE. FOR TRUE EMPIRE COMES FROM DOMINATING DISCOURSE SO OUTRIGHT, THAT ONE NEVER HAS TO USE FORCE TO ACHIEVE POWER.

their relative size, economic wealth, and technological PRQRSROLHVWKH\ZLHOGVLJQLČ´FDQWLQČľXHQFHRYHU local and national governments through the threat RIPDUNHWZLWKGUDZDO7KXV01&VXVHWKHVHSRZHU relations to exploit local labour, funnel resources

Yet these abstractions reveal very little when it FRPHVWRTXDOLW\RIOLIH Take GDP for example. It is as much of a measure of

away for foreign export, and continue to expand

the market value of all goods and services produced

disparity gaps between classes and nations in a

within a country over a given period of time, as it is

21st century version of economic imperialism.

a marker of industrial misappropriation and societal

But this isn’t news. Anyone who skims the news

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or environmental degradation, and it only indicates

countries like a personal piggy bank. However, what

average output per-person, not how this output is

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disproportionally divvied-up amongst the population.

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This means that while someone who only works

the developed world as well, advocates of the global

four days a week may be much happier, that extra

market system are discreetly practicing dominant

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hegemony over populations in the developed world.

in an unhappy country where the people are over-

For example, wouldn’t it make sense for an advanced

worked, the environment is overexploited, and the

industrialised society such as ours to value wellbeing

majority of wealth is highly concentrated, the GDP

THE HIDDEN TRANSCRIPT issue 04 spring 2013

The greatest empire of the 21st century transcends

5

THE TOP 50 GLOBAL ECONOMIES IN MIILLIONS OF US DOLLARS

1European Union $17,549,214 US

2USA

$15,094,000 US

11 India $576,824 US

$1,736,051 US

22 Sweden

$538,131 US

31 South Africa 41 Greece

$298,734 US

$1,490,810 US

23 Poland

$278,671 US

43 Finland

$266,071 US

may in fact be relatively high. In fact, as opposed to fostering overall happiness and

$3,570,557 US

$1,371,764 US

$511,533 US

33 Sinopec Group $375,214 US

44 State Grid

5Germany

14 Australia

24 Belgium

$514,496 US

$386,463 US

42 Malaysia

$5,867,154 US

13 Spain

32 BP

$408,23 US

4Japan

$7,298,097 US

12 Canada

$1,847,981 US

21 Saudi Arabia

3China

$259,142 US

15 Mexico

$1,155,316 US

25 Norway

$485,803 US

34 UAE

$360,245 US

35 China National Petrol $352,338 US

45 Chile

$248,5854 US

to an employer, and said employer selling the fruits of these labours to the consumer in the form of

general public health, many of the services that con-

goods and services, with both the employee and

tribute to the continued growth of such “progressive�

the employer performing duel roles by simultane-

economic indicators — military spending, surveillance,

ously participating in the consumption process as

incarceration, over-policing, media regulation, and

feverent consumers themselves.

the burning of fossil fuels, actually serve to make people unhappy.

The global market system is then based on the assumption that there will always be enough

What these economic indicators really measure is

demand in society to move enough capital around

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at a rate that keeps the cyclical consumption going

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— the faster the rate, the more growth is assumed.

sumption, not happiness, which is the driving force behind our contemporary consumer culture.

The inherent problem is that this pressure to keep producing and consuming in order to sustain the cycle leads to waste and exploitation. Hence

HEGEMONY IN ACTION

everything created for sale is inferior as soon as it

Modern consumption — more accurately titled

gets produced — both indirectly by using cheap

cyclical consumption, has three major players —

materials and labour in order to keep costs low, and

the employee, the employer, and the consumer,

directly through a planned obsolesce which forces

and it is an ongoing process of monetary exchange

consumers to incessantly upgrade to newer models.

via production and consumption which cannot be

This often leads to the intentional hindering of

allowed to stop or slow down if our current socio-

the development of new technologies and mate-

economic system is to survive.

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It works by an employee selling his or her labour

— i.e. the death of the electric car, in order to keep

THE HIDDEN TRANSCRIPT issue 04 spring 2013

7 6France

$2,773,072 US

7Brazil

$2,476,652 US

16 South Korea $484,489 US

$345,649 US

46 Chevron

$245,621 US

47 Hong Kong

$243,666 US

$331,655 US

48 Israel

$242,929 US

30 Austria

$445,989 US

38 Columbia

$332,677 US

$17,549,214 US

29 Argentina

$446,950 US

37 Denmark

20 Switzerland

$773,091 US

28 Wal-Mart Stores

$452,92 US

$1,857,770 US

19 Turkey

$836,257 US

27 Exxon Mobil

10 Russia

$2,194,750 US

18 Netherlands

$846,832 US

36 Thailand

9Italy

$2,431,589 US

17 Indonesia

$1,116,247 US

26 Royal Dutch Shell

8United Kingdom

$418,484 US

39 Iran

$331,015 US

49 Singapore

$239,700 US

40 Venezuela

$316,482 US

50 Portugal

$237,522 US

consumption rates unsustainably high. Moreover,

do with this continual cycle of exploit, purchase,

corporations engage in the relentless brainwashing

consume and waste. Instead, the very word means the

of consumers via commercial advertising where

careful, thrifty, environmentally minded management

many spend more on ads then on the products the

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ads are selling.

of materials for the production and distrib--ution of

As you can see, product durability and consumer agency are inversely correlated to our current

life-supporting goods. (DUWKLVDČ´QLWHSODQHWDQGOLYLQJWKHZD\ZHFXU-

V\VWHPRIHFRQRPLFČŠJURZWKČ‹7KHUHIRUHHÉ?FLHQF\

rently live is anything but “economical.� A system that

sustainability, and preservation are enemies of the

deliberately promotes continual and even acceler-

current processes of cyclical consumption.

ated consumption for the sake of some abstract

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indicators of “economic growth� which actually serve

Č´[HV&ULPHGLVHDVHWHUURULVPHQYLURQPHQWDOGHJUD-

to make us substantially less happy is illogical and

dation, even warfare — in our current socio-economic

even suicidal.

paradigm, these are all good things insofar as they

Yet, that is true hegemony — an empire so domi-

keep people employed — thereby earning capital,

nant, so authoritative, that few are ever even aware

and feeding it back into the cycle by supporting more

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consumption.

why it is that we need to consume so much, waste so

This is how we slowly but surely get the hegemonic

much, and allow wealth gaps to increase both within

wool pulled over our eyes — waste, overconsump-

our own country, and between the developed and

tion and unsustainability rule the day, and progress

developing worlds, the rulers of capital — not the

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LQGHQWXUHGFRQVXPHUVČƒZLOOFRQWLQXHWRČľRXULVK

augmented materialism and greed. Ironically, the term “economy� has nothing to

THE KINGDOM OF THE GENETICALLY MODIFIED SEED UNDERSTANDING THE NEXUS OF MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS, CIVIL SOCIETY AND THE FUTURE OF FOOD REID STANDISH The University of Glasgow Glasgow, Scotland

life’s savings on expensive GM seeds. The problem

ample of the collusion between big business and

is compounded by the fact that all of the above posi-

government. Slipped into the Agricultural Appropri-

tions may actually be true.

ations Bill, which passed through Congress in April 2013, was a small provision with big implications.

PLANTING THE SEEDS FOR CORPORATE GROWTH

The provision, which was added as part of a spend-

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ing bill that President Obama was eager to sign,

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U.S. and in several other countries. Production in

from litigation in the face of health risks. Later

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dubbed the “Monsanto Protection Act� by activists

still accounts for about half of total global area, but

who oppose the corporate behemoth and biotech

from the initial years over a million hectares have

leader, the bill sparked intense debate on what is

been sown outside the United States. Since then,

one of the world’s most divisive issues.

the areas under GM production have expanded

Since their inception, GM crops have emerged as

rapidly across the globe, at a rate over 10 per cent

a nexus for a host of competing political, social, and

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HFRQRPLFFODLPV5HSUHVHQWLQJDYDULHW\RIFRQČľLFW-

cade. By 2005, 21 countries around the world were

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producing GM crops, most notably amongst them:

GM varieties to environmental and anti-globaliza-

the U.S., China, Argentina, Brazil, and India. Today,

tion groups who see the crops as exploitative and

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dangerous. Even though the Monsanto Protection Act is set to expire after a few months, it highlights the debate on GM crops between critics, supporters and everyone caught in between. At the heart of the GM debate is the issue of food SURGXFWLRQIRUWKHIXWXUH+RZHYHUWKHGLÉ?FXOW\ is that the issue is shaded in so many varieties of JUH\2YHUWKHQH[W\HDUV\LHOGVLQFURSVQHHGWR rise by around 1.5 per cent a year in order to feed mankind. GM technology may be able to help shore this gap. GM maize, which has had by far the most genetic research, has achieved yields above 1.5 per cent. If genetic research can be extended to wheat, rice, and soybeans, a huge portion of the food gap PD\EHČ´OOHGE\+RZHYHUWKLVLVDELJLI0XOtinational biotech corporations have generally shied away from this avenue of research and opposition

GM CROPS COME WITH A HOST OF POTENTIALLY REVOLUTIONARY BENEFITS. YET, IN PRACTICE, MOST FARMERS HAVE BEEN EFFECTIVELY PRICED OUT OF GM CROPS OR HAVE ACCUMULATED MASSIVE DEBTS, WHICH HAVE CAUSED BANKRUPTCY.

groups have outright denied it. 7KHUHDUHVRPHVXFKDVWKH%ULWLVKEDVHG1XÉ?HOG Council on Bioethics, who view the technology itself

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as sound, but see it as shrouded in a corporate,

changes because the science of agricultural biotech-

patent-based model that prevents the technology

nology was a major departure from conventional

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breeding. Moreover, the process of developing a GM

there are supporters at each extreme, who either

crop, from laboratory experimentation to the farm-

see the corporate dominance of giants such as

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Monsanto as a necessary evil that pays for ground-

process, but also biosafety testing, and commercial-

breaking research and development, and others

ization. Due to these hurdles, a substantial amount

who see GM crops as 21st century serfdom, forcing

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poor farmer’s into debt and contractual bondage

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that they can never escape as they spend their

The change that was to follow was mostly U.S.

THE HIDDEN TRANSCRIPT issue 04 spring 2013

There couldn’t have been a more illustrative ex-

9

1996 1997

1.7 11.0

1998

27.9

1999

39.9

2000

44.2

2001

52.6

2002

58.7

2003

67.7

2004

81.0

2005

90.0

2006

102.0

2007

114.3

2008

125.0

2009

134.0

2010

148.0

2011

160.0

2012

170.3

GLOBAL AREA OF BIOTECH CROPS 1996-2012 IN MILLIONS OF HECTARES

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new conditions for GM crops to thrive as an indus-

market became revolutionized, with multinational

try. Chemical companies, like Monsanto, lobbied for

corporations like Monsanto as regent at the top.

new regulations about licensing technology from universities. In turn, the U.S. government adopted

REAPING WHAT YOU SOW

pro-biotech policies, including sizable funding for

The spread of GM crops has varied greatly across

research. The U.S. government then lifted restric-

the globe, mostly due to varying levels of farmer

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demand and the high costs of seeds due to patents.

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However, there have also been a variety of advan-

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tages associated with GM crops to help warrant the

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high cost of seeds. For instance, the pest-resistant

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GM crop, Bt cotton, has been shown to be superior

their own intellectual property.

to conventional varieties in a multitude of studies

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DFURVVVHYHUDOGLÎ?HUHQWUHJLRQVDQGFOLPDWHV<HW

in an environment of weak patents in the U.S. and

the extra costs of Bt cotton have had detrimental

beyond. Patents were limited to horticultural crops

impacts on the livelihoods of local farmers. Seed

and to plants covered through the Plant Variety

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costs for non-GM varieties, while in China they are

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vention. UPOV provided 20 years of a loose form of

GM crops come with a host of potentially revolu-

patent protection, but still allowed farmers to save

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seedsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;something that removed the corporate

exports, a competitive niche on international agri-

incentive for investment because customers would

culture markets, increased farm incomes, reduced

only need to buy seeds once. Moreover, under

poverty, reduced hunger, improved food security,

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and decreased chemical use, thereby reducing envi-

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ronmental and health hazards. Yet, in practice, most

However, the environment changed substantially

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ZLWKWKH'LDPRQGYV&KDNUDYDUW\GHFLVLRQ

crops or have accumulated massive debts, which

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have caused bankruptcy.

plant varieties and genes could be patented. In

This has mostly developed because multinational

the same year, the Bayh-Dole Act authorized the

corporations, who are investing large sums in bio-

patenting of federally funded research. This meant

technology and plant breeding, need large markets

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for their products and strong patent protection to

patent their discoveries and license them to com-

guard their investments. As a result, investments

mercial investors, which ultimately made biotech-

in more poor-friendly GM seeds that cater to the

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needs of developing world farmersâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;like increased

These landmarks were followed by more lobby-

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ing by the biotech industry for tighter intellectual

generation of GM crops is a story of a product that

property protection globally through the WTO and

bypasses the needs of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s poor and hungry.

other trade agreements. The enforcement and

This has led to two major, and somewhat contra-

spread of the international patent regime was a

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vital force in being able to create the necessary re-

movement and a black market for GM seeds.

search to bring GM crops to market. However, the

The criticisms levied by anti-GM advocates tend to

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vary, but are generally concerned with the corpo-

and spread has had a severe impact on several

rate nature of GM seeds and the corresponding

socioeconomic factors across the globe, leading

cycle of debt, issues of crop-diversity and a lack of

many small farmers to being priced out of the

testing for GM crops before their introduction into

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the marketplace. Like many aspects of the GM sto-

the course of a few decades, the regulatory envi-

ry, the outcome of lobbying by the anti-GM move-

THE HIDDEN TRANSCRIPT issue 04 spring 2013

lead, with both private and public sectors creating

11

ment has been contradictory and has had many unintended results. For instance, organizations with anti-GM agen-

lowers or outright removes lofty pesticide costs. Yet, due to the lower levels of research and develRSPHQWLQEODFNPDUNHWVHHGVWKHLUHÎ?HFWLYHQHVVLV

das such as Genewatch in India and The Land-

much lower than authorized seeds. Recent studies

less Movement in Brazil, have been able to make

in both India and China showed that the informal

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market seeds did not perform as well as the autho-

the approval of further GM varieties being brought

UL]HG*0VHHGV7KHQHWHÎ?HFWRIWKHVHVFHQDULRV

to market. While this could lead to better tested

is a theme that is universal across the globe as the

FURSVLQWKHIXWXUHWKHHÎ?HFWVRIDUKDVEHHQ

seed market has been regulated through domestic

the strengthening of corporate control in the GM

and international institutional changes: those in

market. In both India and China, the cost of a more

greatest need have been phased out and made

stringent biosafety process and more obstacles be-

more or less redundant.

fore release have created a less competitive market, ZLWKORFDOVHHGSURGXFHUVČ&#x192;WKRVHEHVWHTXLSSHGWR developed varieties for the needs of country-speFLČ´FPDUNHWVČ&#x192;QRWEHLQJDEOHWRČ´QDQFHWKHQHZ stricter testing regulations. This has left Monsanto and its local joint ventures with virtual monopolies on most approved GM crops in several countries. Besides lobbying for tougher regulations, some anti-GM organizations have called for the abandonment of the technology altogether, calling genetic PRGLČ´FDWLRQDKHDOWKULVN2QHRIWKHPRVWIDPRXV critics is the Prince of Wales himself. Prince Charles has long called for a moratorium on GM crops, call-

OVER THE NEXT 40 YEARS, YIELDS IN CROPS NEED TO RISE BY AROUND 1.5 PER CENT A YEAR IN ORDER TO FEED MANKIND. GM TECHNOLOGY MAY BE ABLE TO HELP SHORE THIS GAP.

ing them unsafe, while simultaneously championing WKHHÎ?HFWLYHQHVVRIRUJDQLFIDUPLQJ2IFRXUVH Prince Charles is also the founder of the Duchy 2ULJLQDOVRUJDQLFIRRGFRPSDQ\DQGFRQVHTXHQWO\ KROGVDODUJHČ´QDQFLDOVWDNHLQWKHJURZWKRIRUJDQLF

FROM SEEDS TO HARVEST

farming and the downfall of its main competitorâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;GM

The political landscape surrounding GM crops is

crops. Like other aspects of the GM debate, even the

so divisive because it is an issue that encompasses

anti-GM movement remains shrouded in grey, unable

VRPDQ\GLÎ?HUHQWVWRU\OLQHV7KHSRWHQWLDOWKDW*0

WRVHSDUDWHLWVFDXVHIURPLWVČ´QDQFLDOLQWHUHVWV

technology holds is great and could lead to substan-

Meanwhile, caught between two giants, a black

tial breakthroughs in global food production and

market of GM seed dealers has developed. In many

poverty across the developing world. However, the

FRXQWULHVFRPSDQLHVUHTXLUHIDUPHUVWRVLJQD

corporate nature of the GM system has prevented

contract agreeing not to save their own seeds, mak-

the technology from reaching its full potential. Also,

ing them buy GM seeds annually from a licensed

UHFHQWGHYHORSPHQWVKDYHEURXJKWWKHHÎ?HFWLYH-

supplier. In the U.S., enforcement is handled by the

QHVVRI*0WHFKQRORJ\LQWRTXHVWLRQ1HZUHVHDUFK

seed companies themselves, which have an incen-

IURPWKH6ZLVV1DWLRQDO6FLHQFH)RXQGDWLRQKDV

tive to take care of it. However, in many developing

found that Bt cotton crops, which contain a toxin

FRXQWULHVDJUHHPHQWVDUHPXFKPRUHGLÉ?FXOWWR

poisonous to bollworms, the primary pest of cotton,

enforce and like with many other forms of patented

have considerably weaker defenses against their

intellectual property, a burgeoning counterfeit black

secondary pests, such as aphids. While this does

market has emerged. These counterfeit seeds are

not imply that the technology is a fraud, it does,

VROGDWPXFKORZHUSULFHVDQGFRQVHTXHQWO\KDYH

KRZHYHUUDLVHWKHTXHVWLRQDERXWWKHHÎ?HFWLYHQHVV

reached a much wider market, allowing more farm-

of GM crops and whether they are everything that

HUVWREHQHČ´WIURPSHVWUHVLVWDQWWHFKQRORJ\ZKLFK

supporters have chalked them up to be.

ger to cry corporate wolf, while neglecting the commercial interests within their own lobby. Moreover, anti-GM civil society is yet to come to terms with the fact that the emergence of a black market of GM seeds is a sign that true demand for the product exists and that it could be the international patent system responsible for the disparities amongst WKRVHZKREHQHȴWIURP*0WHFKQRORJ\ All of these interests converge within the topic of GM seeds. Like competing kingdoms on the same continent, the nexus of big business, globalized civil VRFLHW\DQGTXHVWLRQVVXUURXQGLQJWKHIXWXUHRI food production are often at odds with one anothHU7LPHLV\HWWRWHOOLIRQHNLQJGRPFDQFRQTXHU the other, but with developments like the Monsanto Protection Act as a reminder, the politicization of GM crops is still underway. It may not be empire in the conventional sense, but the kingdom of the seed is still expanding across the globe.

THE HIDDEN TRANSCRIPT issue 04 spring 2013

Meanwhile, the anti-GM movement has been ea-

13

THE NEW GREAT GAME IN CENTRAL ASIA MODERN RULES FOR THE OLDEST GAME ON EARTH PAOLO SORBELLO The University of Glasgow Glasgow, Scotland

Recent developments in Central Asia have shown

region, whether the West agrees or not. Russia,

WKHFRQČľXHQFHRIRYHUODSSLQJLQWHUHVWVIURPDOO

China, and India are all looking at their landlocked

global powers. A heated debate has involved sev-

neighbors as partners for economic and political

eral think tanks in Washington on the future of the

opportunities, not just as an arena for military

86LQYROYHPHQWLQWKHUHJLRQDIWHUWKHSXOORXW

showdowns.

from Afghanistan. European states and supranational organizations seek bilateral and multilateral

BACKGROUND

ties with these faraway countries, while sending

(YHUVLQFHWKHWKFHQWXU\&HQWUDO$VLDKDVEHHQ

warning messages about their democratic develop-

the apple of contention for both Imperial Russia

ment.

DQGWKH8QLWHG.LQJGRP7KHEDWWOHIRULWVFRQTXHVW

Here is where most of the media coverage on the

was called â&#x20AC;&#x153;the Great Gameâ&#x20AC;? and stretched through

matter stops. But beyond our western perspective

the ancient paths of the Silk Road, encompassing

we can see that there are more geopolitical and

what is nowadays considered Greater Central Asia

geoeconomic actors that can play a role in the

ZKLFKLQFOXGHV$IJKDQLVWDQ 7KHČ´YHFRXQWULHV

infrastructure development have increased friendly

LQZHUHORQJGRPLQDWHGEXWQHYHUIXOO\

relations, albeit not to the level desired by Brussels.

FRQTXHUHG.D]DNKVWDQ.\UJ\]VWDQ7DMLNLVWDQ

The supercilious behavior displayed by the European

Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan were subjugated by

supranational bodies is not shared by European

Russian-speaking centers of power, the Empire and

multinational companies, who turn a blind eye to

the Soviet Union, but maintained a strong identity

TXHVWLRQVEH\RQGPDUNHWLQWHUHVWV

and cultivated the seeds for a renaissance. Î&#x2013;QWKHVWKH:HVWHQWHUHGHFRQRPLFUHODWLRQV

The Russian Federation is enjoying a period of good relations with Central Asian countries,

with the newly-independent Central Asian countries.

especially with its most direct southern neighbor,

The initial success in setting foot in the heart of

Kazakhstan. However, Moscowâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attempts at oth-

Russiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s former imperial backyard was a political

erwise clinching military agreements have usually

victory for the Western powers. The focus of

failed. Energy relations have been satisfactory and

their fears, militarily and economically, had always

PXWXDOO\EHQHČ´FLDOIRUDOPRVWWZHQW\\HDUVEHIRUH

been Moscow, due to its proximity and its aggres-

&KLQDEUXVTXHO\HQWHUHGLQWKHRLODQGJDVVHFWRU

sive foreign policy towards post-Soviet states. In-

RI.D]DNKVWDQDQG7XUNPHQLVWDQDQGČ´QDQFHGWKH

WHUHVWLQJO\&HQWUDO$VLDQVWDWHVFKLHČľ\.D]DNKVWDQ

construction of new eastward pipelines.

Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan, have chosen to avoid

By breaking the Russian status of monopsnonist,

a revival of the Cold War, or of the Great Game for that matter. Instead, they have been striving for a multi-vector foreign policy, including China and India among their economic and military allies. All-powerful players see the area as a land for conTXHVW VRPHHYHQČ&#x160;IRUVDOHČ&#x2039; ZKHUHDVWKHOHDGHUV of the region are trying to establish themselves as the main actors in the region, for the sake of the region. The conventional view is that the Russian Federation and the United States are competing superpowers that are engaged in a tug-of-war over a territory rich in natural resources and strategically close to many geopolitical hotspots: Afghanistan, Î&#x2013;UDQ3DNLVWDQDQGWKH&DXFDVXVÎ&#x2013;IZHWDNHRÎ? the Cold War blinders, though, we might look at a

ALL-POWERFUL PLAYERS SEE THE AREA AS A LAND FOR CONQUEST, WHEREAS THE LEADERS OF THE REGION ARE TRYING TO ESTABLISH THEMSELVES AS THE MAIN ACTORS IN THE REGION, FOR THE SAKE OF THE REGION.

broader map that includes other major powers: China and India, alongside with Europe. Once our vision is wider and we gather the point of view of

sole buyer of Central Asian hydrocarbons thanks

the regional powers as well, the task of analyzing

to the Soviet-era pipeline network, China has

Central Asia becomes easier and more interesting.

decided to up the ante in the new power scheme. %HLMLQJČ&#x2021;VČ´UVWVWHSZDVWRFRQFRFWWKHVHFXULW\JURXS

GLOBAL POWERS AND CENTRAL ASIA

RI6KDQJKDL ERUQLQUHQDPHG6KDQJKDL

The old dichotomy between Russia and the West

Cooperation Organization and revitalized in 2001),

FDQQRWČ´WZLWKWKHFRPSOH[LW\RIWKLVSDUWRIWKH

which aimed to establish collaboration on issues of

world. First of all, the script of the United States

extremism and separatism between Russia, Central

is changing with the decision to withdraw from

Asia, and China. The second step has evidently been

Afghanistan. The lines that this actor will recite after

taken in the direction of economic penetration,

ZLOOEHDVXUSULVHWRWKHDXGLHQFHRIREVHUYHUV

rather than military confrontation.

On the other side of the Atlantic, European institu-

India is a latecomer to the Central Asian stage.

tions are proving weak on two levels: militarily, they

The fact that India was the stronghold of the British

VHUYHDVWKHFRPSOHPHQWRIWKH1$72PLVVLRQQRW

Empire during the Great Game, often conceals the

as its backbone; projects in education, trade, and

great importance represented by the reciprocal

THE HIDDEN TRANSCRIPT issue 04 spring 2013

that gained independence from the Soviet Union

15

LQČľXHQFHEHWZHHQ&HQWUDO$VLDDQGWKHÎ&#x2013;QGLDQ

sides looking at the whole power map surrounding

VXEFRQWLQHQWGXULQJWKH0XJKDOHPSLUH WKWK

the Eurasian steppe, it might be useful to explore its

century). Today, India has become a leading eco-

inner relevance, the role of local governments and

nomic power in the region and around the globe.

peoples.

The waning of the war in Afghanistan has given rise

Central Asian leaders reinvented an identity for

to the prospective construction of the TAPI pipeline,

their countries after the collapse of the Soviet

which would allow the transfer of natural gas from

8QLRQ1DWLRQDODQWKHPVČľDJVDQGGHPRJUDSKLF

Turkmenistan, through Afghanistan and Pakistan,

UHFRQČ´JXUDWLRQVWRRNSODFHDIWHUZKHQ5XV-

WRÎ&#x2013;QGLD6XFKDGHDOFRXOGRÎ?VHW(XURSHČ&#x2021;VGUHDPV

siaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s timid foreign policy made room for business

IRUWKHYLDELOLW\RID6RXWKHUQ&RUULGRU 1DEXFFR 

penetration from the West into the region. The

which would then lack suppliers. In addition, TAPI

growth in economic exchange with Europe and the

could strengthen the ties between countries whose

US, together with a more aggressive approach from

history of stability is short or non-existent. Between

Moscow, presented Central Asia with the opportuni-

DQGÎ&#x2013;QGLDČ&#x2021;VWUDGHUHODWLRQVZLWK.D]DNK-

ty to balance their diplomatic and economic activity

stan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan have soared,

between former rivals. Running with the hare and

displaying the renewed interest of India, once the

KXQWLQJZLWKWKHKRXQGV1XUVXOWDQ1D]DUED\HYDQG

mother of the southern civilizations of Central Asia.

Islam Karimov, presidents of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan respectively, gained the most from a situation

A VIEW FROM THE REGION

RIYDU\LQJHTXLOLEULD2QFH&KLQDDQGÎ&#x2013;QGLDHQWHUHG

All exogenous actors considered are important be-

the picture, the multi-vector foreign policy advertised

FDXVHRIWKHLULQČľXHQFHLQWKHUHJLRQ+RZHYHUEH-

LQRÉ?FLDOGRFXPHQWVLQ$VWDQDDQG7DVKNHQWFRXOG

In the past few years, however, trouble in Tajiki-

retreat of Western military presence from Central $VLDDUHJRLQJWRGLPLQLVK1$72Č&#x2021;VUROHLQWKHUHJLRQ

stan, contention between Kazakhstan and Uzbeki-

now the weakest player in the area. The resulting

stan in the area of the ever-shrinking Aral Sea, and

YRLGZLOOEHČ´OOHGE\PRUHUHJLRQVSHFLČ´FRUJDQL-

internal instability in Kyrgyzstan could not be swiftly

zations, most probably the SCO, given the involve-

resolved, notwithstanding the diplomatic activity by

ment of China.

the SCO. Its most notable actions were the ones

With economic factors winning the lionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s share

rebuking the Westâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s involvement in the region: at

RILQČľXHQFHRYHUUHODWLRQVEHWZHHQWKHUHJLRQ

the Astana summit in 2005 a joint statement called

DQGWKHSRZHUV&KLQDDQGÎ&#x2013;QGLDČ´QGWKHPVHOYHV

IRUWKHČ´UVWWLPHWKHRFFXS\LQJDOOLDQFHLQ$IJKDQL-

in pole-position to gain the most from their Cen-

stan to â&#x20AC;&#x153;set a timetable for their troops to withdraw

tral Asian neighbors. The absence of concern for

from Central Asia military basesâ&#x20AC;?. The main focus of

human rights or the rule-of-law enables Beijing and

the declaration was the American airbase in Manas,

1HZ'HOKLWRLQWHUDFWZLWK&HQWUDO$VLDQFDSLWDOVRQ

Kyrgyzstan. The SCO statement did not receive

a pure business basis. The lengthy process of trying

a strong follow-up from the Kyrgyz government,

to build the Southern Corridor to link Central Asian

which was undergoing tumultuous months.

and Caucasian hydrocarbons with the EU consum-

Direct confrontations vis-Ă -vis Operation Enduring

HUVKDVFDXVHG1DEXFFRWRIDOOWRWKHERWWRPRI

)UHHGRP 2() HPHUJHGLQZKHQ.XUPDQEHN

the priority list for Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, and

Bakiyev forced the renegotiation of the terms for

Uzbekistan. While European and American lobbyists

the base. The last troubled years have seen various

IRUWKH1DEXFFRSURMHFWDUJXHGLQWKHKDOODERXW

Kyrgyz leaders making political use of the threat to

how to address countries that did not fully meet

shut down military operations in Manas once the

their democratic standards, Chinese and Indian

OHDVHLVRYHULQ7XUNPHQLVWDQLVFRQVWDQWO\RXW

businessmen were shaking hands behind closed

of the diplomatic talks and isolated from interna-

doors with Central Asian leaders.

tional dialogue due to its dreadful dictatorship. Even

0LOLWDULO\1$72Č&#x2021;VGLVHQWDQJOHPHQWDQG1$72Č&#x2021;V

the controversy on the status of the Caspian basin

disappearance from Central Asia are not conse-

cannot be resolved due to Ashgabatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s resistance.

TXHQWLDOÎ&#x2013;WEHFDPHFOHDUDWWKH&KLFDJR6XPPLWRI

A comprehensive, yet unorthodox analysis of the

May 2012 that after combat operations are over in

main actors in the region suggests that, the legit-

LWVSUHVHQFHLQWKHUHJLRQZLOOEHPDLQWDLQHG

imacy of the leaders rests on thin ice, as peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

albeit to a lesser degree. Analysts argue that only

demands diverge from government plans. Be it to

the EUâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economic and diplomatic â&#x20AC;&#x153;soft powerâ&#x20AC;? can

please investors or to placate western human rights

VXEVWLWXWHWKHKHDY\SUHVHQFHRI1$72Č&#x2021;VIRUFHVLQ

organizations, the oligarchies of each Central Asian

WKHUHJLRQ7KLVZRXOGFRQVHTXHQWO\DOOHYLDWHWKH

country have favored an uneven development and

feeling of a foreign occupation in the minds of Cen-

a climate of corruption that worked against the

tral Asian peoples.

emancipation of the people from oppressive rule.

This â&#x20AC;&#x153;Gameâ&#x20AC;? is clearly of a new kind. The former

The distance between rulers and ruled might be

imperial contenders are gone and the new players

narrowed with the substitution of ageing leaders

have just learned rules and limitations. As long as

OLNH.DULPRYRU1D]DUED\HYZKRKDYHHPERGLHG

the region remains at the center of the power com-

the icons of power in the region.

pass, Central Asian countries will be able to control their fate by choosing a favorable balance between

THE NEW, COMPLEX BALANCE

their powerful neighbors and the West. The issue of

Recently, the balance sheet of the relations be-

DSRVW.DULPRYDQGSRVW1D]DUED\HYWUDQVLWLRQDQG

tween countries in the region and powers outside

WKHTXHVWLRQRIVWDELOLW\LQ.\UJ\]VWDQDQG7DMLNLVWDQ

the region has followed a waning military-intensive

might bring about a renewed thrust by Central

pattern with partners from the north-west (USA, EU,

$VLDQOHDGHUVLQVHDUFKIRUGLYHUVLČ´HGVRXUFHVRI

Russia) and a ramping economic relationship with

cooperation.

China and India to the south-east. The end of the war in Afghanistan and the likelihood of a massive

THE HIDDEN TRANSCRIPT issue 04 spring 2013

materialize in all directions of the compass.

17

THE WHITE MAN’S UNBURDEN AN ANALYSIS OF IMPERIALISM THROUGH LITERATURE AHTZIRI GONZALEZ Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education Monterrey, Mexico

based on an unfair economic relationship of natural

system in which a single supreme ethnic group

resources and labor exploitation. There is no racial

rules among an extensive territory comprising a

mixing, local languages are preserved, and there is

number of nations. This means that in all cases,

a higher level of cultural alienation.

LWLQYROYHVFRQWUROGRPLQDWLRQFRQTXHVWDQG

In contrast, we have the work by Jose Rizal, a

authoritarian power from one party to the other,

wealthy Filipino nationalist and reformist. While

causing a complex dynamic of socially constructed

VWXG\LQJLQ6SDLQKHZURWHWKHQRYHOČ&#x160;1ROL0H

UDFLVP7KLVKDVEHHQMXVWLČ´HGE\WKHFRQTXHURU

Tangereâ&#x20AC;? (Touch me not), in which he denounces

DQGDFFHSWHGE\WKHFRQTXHUHGEHFDXVHRIUHOLJLRQ

the authoritarian rule of the Spanish in the Philip-

alleged racial supremacy, and even the burden of

pines, focusing mainly in the abuse of power by the

bringing progress to the new territories; causing

Catholic Church, and the strongly hierarchical colo-

WKHSHUSHWXDWLRQRIWKHVWDWXVTXRXQWLOWKHVHLGHDV

nial society. This piece describes a higher imperial

EHFRPHZLGHO\TXHVWLRQHGDQHPSLUHIDOOVDQG

involvement level, in which the colonial powers mix

another one rises.

with the local people and create a new race and cul-

Throughout history, these social and political

ture, a common trait of the Spanish empire in Latin

HYHQWVKDYHEHHQWKHLQVSLUDWLRQIRUGLÎ?HUHQWNLQGV

America or the Philippines. In these cases, language

of cultural expressions, of which with no doubt the

and religion were forced and adopted by the State,

most representative is literature. Written works

and social status was determined by the â&#x20AC;&#x153;purenessâ&#x20AC;?

have helped to foster revolution or perpetuate

of blood, but still some mixed races could have

supremacy, create awareness about exploitation

access to education and power to some extent. It

or promote racial discrimination, and nowadays

was these outliers that eventually led the social and

they help us to understand the social context lived

political revolutions that followed, wanting a higher

GXULQJWKHVHHSRFKV'HVSLWHRIWHQEHLQJČ´FWLRQ

involvement in politics and decision-making pro-

several books written during the times of empire,

cesses. Rizal himself later became an independence

by people living in this era, have served as political

leader and remains a national hero.

tools and also as important historic documents, and

Finally, no study about colonial literature can miss

therefore, literature should be taken into consider-

Rudyard Kipling, an Englishman born in India, and a

ation for any analysis of imperialism.

controversial interpreter of how the British Empire

Actually, few historical events have produced as

was experienced. His works describe the social sys-

many literary works as colonial domination, partic-

tem with no moral judgments. He travelled through

ularly the 20th century European imperialism. With

the British territories and wrote about the atrocities

most of the world controlled by a few nations, poli-

that he saw, but with a certain degree of approval

tics, society, and economy were naturally shaped by

as he viewed them helping to preserve the colonial

this phenomenon.

order. His works were widely read in the United

For example, Joseph Conrad, a Polish writer who

.LQJGRPPDNLQJKLPKLJKO\LQČľXHQWLDORQKRZWKH

worked a short time for a foreign company in cen-

regular citizens perceived the role of the British in

tral Africa, in his famous novel â&#x20AC;&#x153;Heart of Darknessâ&#x20AC;?

Asia and Africa.

denounced the atrocities being committed in Congo

&RQFOXGLQJWKHUHLVDSUROLČ´FRÎ?HULQJRIFRORQLDO

by the Belgians. In this piece, biased by his views as

literature than can help exemplify the context and

a foreigner, he notes the exploitation and constant

social systems created by empires. Supporting or

violation of the most basic human rights of natives

denouncing it, authors have reached wide audienc-

at river stations, where steamboats traded. At the

es becoming advocates for change or perpetuators

same time, he also shows the social acceptance of

of the imperial zeitgeist. Literature has been the

these activities: how the foreign contractors did not

channel to express generalized views about this

realize they were doing something wrong, and were

political order, sometimes even to describe the

used to seeing Africans as objects or a machin-

morality of a society. If colonialism was the white

ery-like labour force. This book shows a kind of

manâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s burden, literature was then their outlet to

imperialism built as a commercial venture, in which

unburden themselves.

WKHUHODWLRQVKLSRIWKHFRQTXHURUDQGFRQTXHUHGLV

THE HIDDEN TRANSCRIPT issue 04 spring 2013

Î&#x2013;QLWVPRVWEDVLFGHČ´QLWLRQDQHPSLUHLVDSROLWLFDO

19

FRANĂ&#x2021;AFRIQUE ALIVE AND WELL HOW FRANCE STILL HASNâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;T LET GO OF ITS AFRICAN EMPIRE GUSTAVO DESTRO Simon Fraser University Vancouver, Canada

Franceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s colonial empire was never a source of

a population of some 10 million. France divided this

pride for its population as the British Empire was

vast territory into eight colonies, loosely drawing up

for Brits. There are no bombastic patriotic songs

borders on the map but never truly caring to mark

VXFKDVČ&#x2020;5XOH%ULWDQQLDČ&#x2021;QRČ´OPVRUERRNVJORULI\LQJ

LWRQWKHJURXQGVLQFHDOORILWZDVRÉ?FLDOO\SDUWRID

the exploits of the men who pushed deep into the

VLQJOHHQWLW\Č&#x201A;OČ&#x2021;$IULTXHRFFLGHQWDOHIUDQŠDLVHRU$2)

depths of a continent that both frightened and

VHHPDS Č&#x201A;UXQIURPRÉ?FHVLQ'DNDU6HQHJDO:KDW

IDVFLQDWHG(XURSHDQV5DWKHU)UDQFHFRQTXHUHGLWV

is most ridiculous is that France never expected

RYHUVHDVFRORQLHVGXULQJWKHODWHWKFHQWXU\LQ

its colonies to become independent, so they never

the period known as the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;scramble for Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; simply

took the borders seriously.

because it was the prestigious thing to do. France wished to explore the mineral and agricul-

Although for the average French citizen the empire overseas was not a source of pride or

tural wealth of the region and since Britain was not

concern, for the national leaders it was everything.

interested in the Sahara or the Sahel, it gave the

7KHSHULRGRIWKHODWHWKFHQWXU\ZDVRQHZKHUH

)UHQFKIUHHUHLJQ%\LWFRQWUROOHGPLOOLRQ

the rivalry between world powers was measured by

VTXDUHPLOHVRIUDLQIRUHVWVDYDQQDDQGGHVHUWZLWK

who had the greatest control of land overseas, with

nominally lost all of its African territories, and like it

dominating the mindset of educated men. Within

had always done, France refused to let go.

this mindset, the best way to prove superiority lay

However, France remained with a foot in the door.

in how much â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;untamedâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; territory a state could bring

By subversion and economic manipulation, it held

under its control.

PDQ\RILWVIRUPHUFRORQLHVČ´UPO\ZLWKLQLWVVSKHUH

This mentality of complete control was one which

RILQČľXHQFH7KRXJKRQHFRXOGPDNHWKHFDVHWKDW

was long-lasting and tough to die. When the pro-

Britain has the same system still at work, in the form

cess of decolonization began, France was reluctant

of the commonwealth, the reality is that Britain

to let go. Devastated by both World Wars â&#x20AC;&#x201C; psycho-

had long ago given up on trying to tell its former

logically even more so than physically â&#x20AC;&#x201C; some saw

colonies what to do, let alone making them do it.

the loss of colonies as further proof of the lack of

France, on the other hand, spent the second half of

power and prestige of the French nation and so

the twentieth century with its hands in Africa.

FKRVHWRČ´JKWRQ Immediately after the end of the Second World War, the Fourth French Republic was instituted and with the introduction of its constitution came a change in the colonial system. Overseas colonies were now part of the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;French Unionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, and though the name changed, little else did. At the same time, tensions escalated in French Indochina (now Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam) and leadersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; stubbornness in keeping the empire together led to a protracted DQGXQSRSXODUZDUIRXJKWXQWLO$GHFLVLYH defeat at Dien Bien Phu signalled the end of any chance of maintaining a French presence in the region. Immediately after the defeat in Southeast Asia, the struggle to keep the empire together shifted much closer to homeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;to Algeria. Algeria was of paramount importance because it ZDVRÉ?FLDOO\QRWDFRORQ\EXWDUHJLRQRI)UDQFH like Brittany, Lorraine, or Ă&#x17D;le-de-France itself. The

NEW PRESIDENT FRANĂ&#x2021;OIS HOLLANDE DEEMED, LAST OCTOBER THAT: â&#x20AC;&#x153;THERE IS FRANCE, AND THEN THERE IS AFRICA.â&#x20AC;? BOTH WOULD BE PLACED ON EQUAL FOOTING AND TREATED AS EQUALS. FRANĂ&#x2021;AFRIQUE WAS TO BE OVER AND DONE. ONLY IT WASNâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;T.

French population of Algeria was itself one million strong and the vast majority of those had familial roots in Algeria going back decades, they did not

The clearest evidence of this is the African ElysĂŠe

consider themselves mere colonists, and neither

cell, the sector of the French foreign ministry that

did the French government.

VROHO\KDQGOHG$IULFDQDÎ?DLUV7KLVQHRFRORQLDOLVP

The indigenous population, however, disagreed

has been present in French foreign policy ever since

and rose in protest of what it saw as broken prom-

WKHHQGRIWKHHPSLUH-DFTXHV)RFFDUWGH*DXOOHČ&#x2021;V

ises by the Fourth Republic, calling for the removal

trusted advisor, was the architect of this plan, which

of the French presence in Algeria and full sovereign-

constituted installing pro-France rulers in the for-

W\)UDQFHFRPLQJRÎ?WKHKXPLOLDWLRQLQÎ&#x2013;QGRFKLQD

mer African colonies, backed by French soldiers and

EHOLHYHGLWFRXOGQRWDÎ?RUGDQRWKHUKXPEOLQJDQG

the long arm of the French Secret Service.

DQRWKHUORQJZDUVWDUWHGLQ As the Algerian War worsened, so did the status of

France fought tooth and nail to stem the tide of communism to enter its former colonies. At times it

)UHQFKFRQWURORYHULWV$IULFDQWHUULWRULHV%\

succeeded, but not always. The Republic of the Con-

nearly all states chose to move for independence

go became the Marxist-Leninist Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Republic of

instead of remaining under French control. The

WKH&RQJRLQDQGWZR\HDUVODWHUWKH5HSXEOLF

transition was peaceful but with this exodus and

of Dahomey fell to Socialist forces, becoming the

WKHHQGRIWKH$OJHULDQ:DULQ)UDQFHKDG

Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Republic of Benin. France maintained a

THE HIDDEN TRANSCRIPT issue 04 spring 2013

ideas of national superiority and social Darwinism

21

WHITE KING BLACK QUEEN WHITE BISHOP BLACK KNIGHT WHITE ROOK BLACK ROOK WHITE PAWN BLACK PAWN

FRANCE GREAT BRITAIN BELGIUM SPAIN ITALY GERMANY PORTUGAL INDEPENDENT

COLONIAL AFRICA CIRCA 1914

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close ties to the new Congolese government, but

DVHTXDOV)UDQŠDIULTXHZDVWREHRYHUDQGGRQH

not with the one in Benin, leading to one of the

Only it wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t.

most bizarre events in post-colonial African history.

When Touareg rebels, allied with components of al

Î&#x2013;WVPRVWKLJKSURČ´OHFDVHRIPHGGOLQJLQWKHDÎ?DLUV

Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), began driving

of former colonies can be seen during the attempt-

south through northern Mali, driving the national

ed coup against the Marxist-Leninist government of

army south and proclaiming a Free State of Aza-

%HQLQLQ

wad, a coup dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ĂŠtat took place in the Malian capital

In a way this system of control was not unusual,

of Bamako.After a round of diplomacy, a new unity

not during a Cold War scenario and not from a

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recently vacant empire. What makes the French

by the military junta. Throughout the uncertainty in

PRGHOXQLTXHLVWKDWLWUHPDLQVWRGD\7KLVSROLF\

the capital, the rebels and Islamists pushed further

FDOOHG)UDQŠDIULTXHKDVEHHQGRZQSOD\HGRYHUWKH

VRXWKLQDQHZRÎ?HQVLYHWKDWFDSWXUHGVHYHUDO

past couple of decades by French politicians, but

towns.

the reality is that it has become central to French foreign policy, whether leaders like it or not. 1LFRODV6DUNR]\Č&#x2021;VČ´UVWRÉ?FLDORYHUVHDVWULSLQ

The new government promptly asked for assisWDQFHČ´UVWIURPWKH$IULFDQ8QLRQWKHQWKH(&2:AS (Economic Community of West African States),

was to visit some of Franceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s former colonies in Afri-

and when even that proved futile, they turned to

ca. Sarkozy spoke of the close relationship between

France. From the communication that has been

France and the African continent, and of moving on

made public between the Malian interim president,

WRJHWKHUTXLHWO\LJQRULQJWKHDFWLRQVRIWKHSDVW

Dioncounda TraorĂŠ and President Hollande, one

Only France was not willing to let go.

FDQVHHWKHLQHYLWDELOLW\RIIUDQŠDIULTXHUHDULQJLWV

In the 2010 presidential elections in Cote dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Ivo-

head again. First TraorĂŠ asks for French military

ire, opposition candidate Alassane Ouattara was

assistance, to which the ElysĂŠe cell replied asking

declared the winner of presidential elections over

TraorĂŠ to specify what kind of military help he need-

incumbent Laurent Gbagbo, a decision upheld

ed, hinting heavily towards simply air strikes. Only

by all independent international observers. The

once TraorĂŠ did send the â&#x20AC;&#x153;correctâ&#x20AC;? plea, the ElysĂŠe

decision, however, was reversed by the President

cell realized that air strikes would not be enough

of the Constitutional Council, an ally of Gabagboâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s.

to stop the rebel advance. As a result, President

7HQVLRQVHVFDODWHGDQGWKHFRXQWU\HÎ?HFWLYHO\VSOLW

+ROODQGHVLJQHGRÎ?RQ)UHQFKWURRSVWREH

in two, with the north supporting Ouattara, and

deployed and aid the Malian government.

WKHVRXWK*EDJER6SRUDGLFČ´JKWLQJHYROYHGLQWR

Though the French intervention has been a suc-

a full-blown civil war when Ouattara declared, â&#x20AC;&#x153;all

FHVVLWKDVEURXJKWXSPDQ\TXHVWLRQV7KH0DOLDQ

peaceful routes for Gbagbo to admit defeat have

action marks the second time in less than three

been exhausted.â&#x20AC;?

years that France has intervened in force in one of

7KHYLROHQFHSURPSWHG81LQWHUYHQWLRQDQGDW

its former colonies, seemingly ramping up the man-

WKHKHOPRIWKHČ´JKWLQJIRUFHZHUH)UHQFKVROGLHUV

GDWHRIIUDQŠDIULTXH0RUHWURXEOLQJVWLOOLVWKHIDFW

7KHČ´JKWIRUWKHELJJHVWFLW\LQ&RWHGČ&#x2021;Î&#x2013;YRLUH$ELGMDQ

that France has brought the Touareg rebels to their

was aided by the presence of a French military

side â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the very same rebels who were allied with

EDVHDW3RUW%RX­WQH[WWRWKHDLUSRUW7KH81

AQIM not six months prior, but who fell out with

lists the number of troops deployed during the

the Islamists once those became too heavy handed

FRQČľLFWDWPDQ\RIZKLFKZHUH)UHQFK

even for the desert rebels. The rebels, in turn, do

The French military presence was paramount to

not communicate and do not undertake operations

the victory that led to Gbagboâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surrender, and it

with the Malian government, instead using the

marked a return to the interventionist policies of

French government as a mediator. The fact that

France in its former colonies.

there is no communication between what were the

1HZSUHVLGHQW)UDQŠRLV+ROODQGHKRSHGIRUDUHversal in that trend. He deemed, last October that: â&#x20AC;&#x153;There is France, and then there is Africa,â&#x20AC;? he said.

initial combatants bodes ill for the nation once the French forces leave â&#x20AC;&#x201C; if they ever do.

THE HIDDEN TRANSCRIPT issue 04 spring 2013

close eye on both nations, being able to create

23

THE LEGACY OF THE DUAL MONARCHY WHY THE HABSBURG EMPIRE STILL MATTERS TODAY LANI SEELINGER The University of Glasgow Glasgow, Scotland

7KHTXLFNGLVROXWLRQRI$XVWULD+XQJDU\DIWHU:RUOG

monarchy, Croatia, which fell under the Hungarian

War I certainly testifies to the dissatisfaction of a

PRQDUFK\DQGIURPXQWLOWKH(PSLUHZDV

large percentage of its population, and no one today

GLVEDQGHGLQ%RVQLDDQG+HU]HJRYLQDZDV

is advocating for a return to a comparable state,

an autonomous province jointly controlled under the

but some of the tensions still remaining in the area

two monarchies. Even with these arrangements, of

once ruled by the Dual Monarchy, the Austro-Hungarian

course, many nations remained without their own

(PSLUHEHJWKHTXHVWLRQČ&#x201A;ZDVWKLVHPSLUHJRRG

sovereignty â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the Czechs, Poles, Romanians, and

for the region over which it held sway?

Slovaks, just to name a few.

Î&#x2013;QLWVČ´QDOLWHUDWLRQ$XVWULD+XQJDU\LQFOXGHG

It was largely the demands of groups like these

at least parts of 13 present-day countries, and

that, in addition to the other turmoil at the end of

its population was comprised of countless ethnic

World War I, necessitated the breakup of the Empire.

groups. The Empire consisted of two monar-

The goal at the time was to shape the region into

chies, Austria and Hungary, and within those two

nation-states according to the right of national

monarchies there were three autonomous regions

self-determination thereby eliminating minorities

â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Polish Galicia, which was a part of the Austrian

within nations, which in the end only happened to a

territory, of course; the Czechs and Slovaks com-

to oust the ethnic Hungarians from the ruling elite. In the post-Communist period, some ethnic Hun-

bined themselves into one nation, as did the Serbs,

garians began demanding autonomy, but the two

Croats, and Slovenes; and Poland was granted its

FRXQWULHVVLJQHGDWUHDW\LQDJUHHLQJWRZRUN

own state. The multi-ethnic state had not worked. It

together to protect the rights of both Hungarians in

was time for a new experiment.

Romania and Romanians in Hungary. This treaty still

Close to a century later, of course, after another

holds today, and while of course there are various

ZDUDQG\HDUVRI&RPPXQLVPWKHPDSRIZKDW

parties with nationalist demands, in this case they

ZDV$XVWULD+XQJDU\ORRNVVOLJKWO\GLÎ?HUHQW7KH

remain on the fringe.

relationships between the people who live there,

The case of Slovakia is more salient at the mo-

and, to some extent, the states that now make up

ment. When the borders of Czechoslovakia were

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GUDZQLQDQGZKHQWKHFRXQWU\ZDVUHFUH-

Empire that was. This legacy is most visible in regions heavily populated by minority groups. A good example of minority policy functioning well is South Tyrol, a northern province of Italy that is populated almost entirely by German speakers. It once belonged to Austria-Hungary, until Italy annexed it after World War I. After that, the region changed hands and V\VWHPVRIJRYHUQDQFHVHYHUDOWLPHVXQWLO when Austria and Italy agreed that the region would remain part of Italy, but would be granted extensive autonomy. German and Italian are now ERWKRÉ?FLDOODQJXDJHVRIWKHUHJLRQDQGWKHFDVH now acts as a model for other areas hoping to solve interethnic disputes. Moving eastwards, one does not have to go far to encounter some of these interethnic disputes. Hungary, which lost much of its land following the breakup of the Empire, is at the center of many of

THE MINORITY POLICIES USED BY AUSTRIA-HUNGARY WERE BY NO MEANS PERFECT. IF THEY HAD BEEN, NONE OF THE COUNTRIES THAT WERE A PART OF THE EMPIRE WOULD HAVE DEMANDED INDEPENDENCE. BUT IN SOME WAYS, THE MULTIETHNIC STATE SEEMS TO HAVE SUITED THE AREA BETTER.

these. While the Kingdom of Hungary was in power, they often enacted policies of Magyarization that attempted to make native populations more Hun-

DWHGLQDIWHU:RUOG:DUÎ&#x2013;Î&#x2013;DODUJHQXPEHURI

garian â&#x20AC;&#x201C; essentially, policies of forced assimilation.

Hungarians ended up living in what is now southern

When the regions once subjected to Magyarization

Slovakia. Again, during the Kingdom of Hungary, the

had new rulers, there was often backlash against

Hungarians had attempted, with much success, to

this. This is especially notable in two cases: Transyl-

Magyarize the whole area. This, of course, resulted in

vania and Slovakia.

DVLJQLČ´FDQWEDFNODVKIURPWKH6ORYDNVLGHDOWKRXJK

Although Transylvania is currently a part of Romania, Hungarians have lived there for over a millennium. They did not comprise a majority during

LWZDVGHOD\HGWKH+XQJDULDQVVWLOOKDGHTXDOULJKWV as a minority nation in the interwar period. However, after World War II, the newly reinstated

the last period of Austro-Hungarian rule, but as the

&]HFKRVORYDNJRYHUQPHQWČ´UVWDWWHPSWHGWRVWULS

UXOLQJJURXSWKH\GLGQRWJUDQWHTXDOULJKWVWRWKH

Hungarians of their Czechoslovak citizenship and

Romanians who outnumbered them. At the end of

then deport them. Predictably, the remaining Hun-

World War I, the Romanians declared independence

garians then became the objects of much pressure

from the Empire, and began enforcing a policy of

to Slovakize, which even went so far as changing

Romanianization, which included banning the use of

Hungarian names to be more Slovak. While this

Hungarian language in government and attempted

pressure subsided eventually under Communism,

THE HIDDEN TRANSCRIPT issue 04 spring 2013

OLPLWHGH[WHQW$XVWULDDQG+XQJDU\ORVWVLJQLČ´FDQW

25

dress the issue. The area that once was the Sudeten-

not been especially friendly to the Hungarian mi-

land is now entirely Czech, with only German writing

nority. One of the main points of contention is the

on buildings to remind its inhabitants of its past.

language law of Slovakia, which forbids the use of

The minority policies used by Austria-Hungary

DQ\ODQJXDJHEHVLGHV6ORYDNLQDQRÉ?FLDOVHWWLQJ

were by no means perfect. If they had been, none

7KHZKROHTXHVWLRQEHFRPHVHYHQPRUHKHDWHG

of the countries that were a part of the empire

when you take the current Hungarian political situa-

would have demanded independence. But in some

tion into account. Jobbik, a far-right nationalist party

ways, the multiethnic state seems to have suited

also called the Movement for a Better Hungary, is

WKHDUHDEHWWHU1RPDWWHUZKLFKZD\WKHODQGLV

currently the third largest party in the country, and

divided, there will always be ethnic minorities, and

it is in coalition with Fidesz, the governing party.

when history factors into things, dissatisfaction can

Together, they have a supermajority in the Hungar-

TXLFNO\EHFRPHGDQJHURXV7KHRQO\HÎ?HFWLYHO\

ian parliament, and the new constitution that went

monoethnic state is the Czech Republic, but they

LQWRIRUFHLQLQFOXGHVVHFWLRQVWKDWTXLHWO\DLP

became that way through a brutal move against

to keep the governing party in power. In addition

their German population.

to their facist, racist, anti-Roma, and anti-Semitic

1RRQHLQWKHPRGHUQZRUOGZRXOGDFWLYHO\DGYR-

ideology, part of their platform includes distinctly

cate a return to the huge empires of the past, and

irredentist sentiments â&#x20AC;&#x201C; or, more simply put, the de-

with good reason. But perhaps in a state with more

sire to reincorporate land that was once Hungaryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s,

minorities, where more of the population belongs

that is, Greater Hungary. Southern Slovakia, where

to a minority, the minorities together could have a

Hungarians generally make up at least 50% of the

greater voice. Or, perhaps ideally, no majority would

SRSXODWLRQZRXOGGHČ´QLWHO\IDOOXQGHUWKDWXPEUHOOD

HYHQH[LVW1RPDMRULW\H[LVWHGLQ$XVWULD+XQJDU\

So, what happens next? The situation as it stands

The tensions we see in the region now â&#x20AC;&#x201C; fairly minor

includes Hungarians in Slovakia who are unhappy

though they are, on the global scale â&#x20AC;&#x201C; are the direct

with the rights that they receive from their country

legacy of the breakup of the Austro-Hungarian

of residence, and a Hungarian nationalist party in

Empire and the transfer of power from old majority

a ruling position that wants to exacerbate those

nations to new ones.

feelings. This same thing happened not so long ago, not so far away â&#x20AC;&#x201C; in the Sudetenland, on the other side of Czechoslovakia. The Sudetenland was the home to many Germans, who had, upon the creation of Czechoslovakia, suddenly become a minority nation in an area where they used to be the ruling elite. Unhappy with their situation under the Czechoslovak government, they turned to nationalist parties and eventually DSSHDOHGWRWKH1DWLRQDO6RFLDOLVW3DUW\LQQHLJKboring Germany. Hitler demanded and received the Sudetenland, which was one of the earlier moments in the chain of events that began World War II. After the war, the Czechoslovak government wanted nothing to do with the Sudeten Germans, whom they saw as traitors. In the same set of decrees that deported part of the Hungarian population from Slovakia, they expelled all of the Sudeten Germans and repopulated the area with Czechs and Slovaks. Vaclav Havel apologized for the actions of his counWU\ZKHQKHEHFDPHSUHVLGHQWLQWKHHDUO\V but no current Czech politician is really willing to ad-

THE HIDDEN TRANSCRIPT issue 04 spring 2013

the post-Communist governments of Slovakia have

27

NOSTALGIA & NOTIONS OF FALSE EMPIRE THE (UN)HISTORICAL RISE OF THE RIGHT IN HUNGRY ALEXIS ZIMBERG Georgetown University Washington DC, USA

1RVWDOJLDIRUE\JRQHJUHDWQHVVČ&#x192;IRUDSRZHUIXO

ed in a state of longing. Consider the half-mile

and reigning empireâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;drives and reinvigorates an

of murals that runs near the Filatorigat stop of

obsession with the long-since buried reality. The

Budapestâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Suburban Rail system. These are where

Jobbik Political Party capitalizes on this national

artists come to paint large pieces that incorporate

yearning for stolen empire by incorporating it into

DFDUHIXODUUD\RIFRORUVDQGWHFKQLTXHVČ&#x160;*HW/RVW

their political platform as a central issue. Jobbik is

Trianon,â&#x20AC;? reads one scrawled, freehand marking

known to be a far-right political party that props

MX[WDSRVHGZLWKČľDQNLQJDHVWKHWLFV7KHFROORTXL-

itself up on anti-Semitism, anti-Roma positions, and

al reference toâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;and rejection ofâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the Treaty of

general xenophobia. Shockingly (or, if you are a his-

7ULDQRQZKLFKLQUHGHČ´QHG+XQJDU\Č&#x2021;VERUGHUV

torian, perhaps not shockingly), as Hungary wades

as a part of a greater post-war peace agreement, is

through a tough economy, political movements

common parlance in Hungary. After all, the Treaty

OLNH-REELNJDUQHUVLJQLČ´FDQWSRSXODUVXSSRUW7KH

of Trianon resulted in a devastating loss for the

group won 12.18 per cent of Parliamentary seats

Hungarian state.

in the 2010 election. Jobbikâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s projected success in

Î&#x2013;QWKH7UHDW\RI7ULDQRQ FROORTXLDOO\UHIHUUHGWR as Trianon), Hungary lost approximately seventy SHUFHQWRILWVWHUULWRU\ LQFOXGLQJČ´YHPDMRUFLWLHV and its sea port) and about sixty percent of its population to neighboring Austria, Croatia, Czechoslovakia, Ukraine, and Romania. During World War II, the Arrow Cross party shook backroom hands ZLWK1D]L*HUPDQ\RÎ?HULQJZDUWLPHVXSSRUWWR Adolf Hitler and his team of Gestapos in exchange IRUDUHVWRUHGSUHYHUVLRQRI+XQJDU\Č&#x2021;VPDS 1D]L*HUPDQ\ORVWWKHZDUDQG+XQJDU\UHWDLQHGLWV PRGLČ´HGERXQGDULHV JDLQLQJLQVWHDGDVRUGLGSROLWLFDOKLVWRU\WKDWQRZLQYROYHV1D]LFROODERUDWLRQ  6L[W\Č´YH\HDUVODWHUWKH7ULDQRQUKHWRULFUHPDLQV a forefront rally-point for Hungarian national politics and shared identity. Wheatpasted posters in Budapestâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s District VI prop up the outline of pre-Trianon Hungary as map-as-logo political ideology. Benedict Anderson, in his book â&#x20AC;&#x153;Imagined Communities,â&#x20AC;? GHČ´QHVWKHPDSDVORJRDVWKHUROHRIWKHLPDJHRI DQRXWOLQHGFRXQWU\LQGHČ´QLQJWKDWQDWLRQČ&#x2021;VVKDUHG

IS IT NECESSARY TO THREATEN HUNGARYâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S DOMESTIC STABILITY AND STATUS WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION BY LATCHING ONTO SELF-AGGRANDIZING NOSTALGIA, A JUSTICE-THREATENING NATIONALISM, AND ULTIMATELY, A FALSE CONCEPTION OF EMPIRE THAT EXTENDS ITS BORDERS BEYOND THIS CENTURY?

identity. By reducing the Trianon political ideology to a logoâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the outlined map of former Hungaryâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; and using this term and logo in everyday interac-

+XQJDU\Č&#x2021;VVSULQJ3DUOLDPHQWDU\HOHFWLRQLI

tions, the movement is legitimized and propelled

DFWXDOL]HGZLOOTXDQWLWDWLYHO\LOOXVWUDWHWKHSDUW\Č&#x2021;V

into acceptance. As the title of his work suggests,

present popularity.

$QGHUVRQDOVRJRHVWRVLJQLČ´FDQWOHQJWKVWRH[SODLQ

A member of the European Union, Hungary is con-

why national identity is a socially and politically

sidered to be a generally free and democratic state.

constructed myth. If citizens can see themselves as

The people vote for their leadership through west-

Kazakhs not Soviets or Texans not Mexicans despite

ern-style campaigning and popular elections. Since

historical land control, why does Hungary have

his 2010 landslide victory, Viktor Orban and the

VXFKGLÉ?FXOW\VHSDUDWLQJLWVFXUUHQWUHDOLW\IURPLWV

right-wing Fidesz party have guided the country into

ghostly reign? After all, the generation that actually

OHJDOLVWLFDXWKRULWDULDQLVPYLDDQRÉ?FLDOFHQVRUVKLS

experienced the travesty of the Treaty of Trianon is

strategy, a single-party constitutional rewrite, and

no longer alive.

vehemently anti-minority policy-making. The current

THE HIDDEN TRANSCRIPT issue 04 spring 2013

Contemporary Hungary is perpetually suspend-

29

ground anyone that threatens to stand in their way.

makes certain that its actions are always sanc-

The utopian memory of an idealized nation-state so

tioned, even if they explicitly threaten human rights

commonly referenced in Hungarian politicsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;both

or social justice. It did not take much, however, for

in the Parliament and on the streetsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; threatens

this nationalistic right-wing party to gain power after

Hungaryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to move forward and upward as a

the previous administration left the capitol on a low

nation and as an international team player.

note. The previous Prime Minister, Ferenc Gyurcsany of the Hungarian Socialist Party, lost all respect and authority after a recording released his confesVLRQWKDWKHFDPRXČľDJHGDVHULHVRISRRUGHFLVLRQV WKDWFDWDVWURSKLFDOO\DÎ?HFWHG+XQJDU\Č&#x2021;VDOUHDG\ ČľDLOLQJHFRQRP\Î&#x2013;QVZRRSHG)LGHV]DQGLWV\RXQJHU sibling Jobbik to re-inspire the people by reviving +XQJDULDQJORU\$QGWRVRPHH[WHQWWKHLUHÎ?RUWV have been successful. Fidesz and Jobbik have built beneath them a strong and faithful right wing. Yet, their rise to power and sharp focus on building a Hungarian Empire for Hungarians poses a few concerns: (1) Fideszâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s human rights violations and Jobbikâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Trianon rhetoric portray the country as headed in a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;backwardsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; direction in comparison to western norms; (2) their nationalist policies and rhetoric pit Hungarians against an increasingly angry European Union; (3) Hungarians abroad have certain citizen rights within Hungary, posing concern for Hungaryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s neighbor relations (with Slovakia, Austria, and Romania in particular); and  VLQFHWKHULVHRIQDWLRQDO+XQJDULDQLGHQWLW\WKH European state has become an increasingly hostile environment for Jewish and Roma citizens. There is actually a politically correct term for all of this: magyarization. 7KHTXHVWLRQPXVWEHDVNHGLVLWQHFHVVDU\WR threaten Hungaryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s domestic stability and status within the European Union (arguably unstable itself to some degree) by latching onto self-aggrandizing nostalgia, a justice-threatening nationalism, and ultimately, a false conception of empire that extends its borders beyond this century? 2IFRXUVHQRW$IWHUDOOZHČ´QGLWWREHGDQJHURXV when an individual stands victim to these conceptions of self; why would we, the international community, allow a countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s political authority to behave this way? By reaching into the deep past for a legacy of Hungarian greatness, the current leaders of the small, European country are able to convince supporters of their divine ability to return to their throne at WKHKHDGRIDČ´FWLRQDO(PSLUHSXPPHOLQJWRWKH

THE HIDDEN TRANSCRIPT issue 04 spring 2013

administration is composed of many-a-lawyer and

31

AN ORWELLIAN OVAL OFFICE A LOOK INSIDE THE EXPANSION OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH ALEXANDER DIRKSEN The University of Toronto Toronto, Canada

:KLOH5HSXEOLFDQ5DQG3DXOČ&#x2021;VČ´OLEXVWHULQHDUO\

most to be dreaded, because it comprises and develops

March over the use of drones may have captured

the germ of every other. War is the parent of armies;

headlines, the criticism was directed at a program

from these proceed debts and taxes; and armies,

WKDWKDVEHHQRSHUDWLQJVLQFH-XQHZKHQWKH

and debts, and taxes are the known instruments for

Č´UVWČ&#x160;WDUJHWHGNLOOLQJČ&#x2039;WRRNSODFHIROORZLQJDVHFUHW

bringing the many under the domination of the few.

deal between the U.S. and Pakistani administra-

In war, too, the discretionary power of the Executive is

tions. Since then these covert counterterrorism

H[WHQGHGLWVLQČľXHQFHLQGHDOLQJRXWRÉ?FHVKRQRUV

RSHUDWLRQVKDYHEHHQXVHGLQ$IJKDQLVWDQÎ&#x2013;UDT3D-

and emoluments is multiplied; and all the means of

kistan, Yemen, Libya and Somalia, a list that is set to

seducing the minds, are added to those of subduing

expand in the very near future. According to Craig

the force, of the people ... No nation could preserve its

Whitlock of the Washington Post, new drone hubs

freedom in the midst of continual warfare.â&#x20AC;?

KDYHVSUXQJXSLQ'MLERXWL(WKLRSLD1LJHUDQGWKH island of Seychelles, joining the drone launch sites

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; JAMES MADISON

on allied bases in Turkey, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and the Philippines. These silent stealths continue the aims of the â&#x20AC;&#x153;War on

On September 20, 2001, the world as we knew it

Terrorâ&#x20AC;? much more covertly than traditional boots

was forever altered. George W. Bush, Commander

on the ground could achieve, while the lack of a loss

in Chief of a people in mourning, set forth his vision

of American lives allowed the practice to continue

for a global â&#x20AC;&#x153;War on Terrorâ&#x20AC;? with which to avenge

without dramatic protest until only recently.

the attacks that had torn apart the nation. By OcWREHUWKHČ´UVWZDULQLWVQDPHKDGEHJXQ and in March 2003 the howl of cruise missiles raining down upon Baghdad would signal the beginning of the second. It is an operation that has cost over WULOOLRQDQGVWROHQWKHOLYHVRIRYHU$PHULFDQVROGLHUVDQGDQHVWLPDWHGFLYLOLDQVLQ Î&#x2013;UDTDQG$IJKDQLVWDQÎ&#x2013;WSURYLGHGWKHMXVWLČ´FDWLRQ for an expansion of government capabilities and executive powers unlike any other in itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s history, and DOORZHGIRUWKHXVHRILQWHUURJDWLRQWHFKQLTXHVWKDW GHČ´HGLQWHUQDWLRQDOKXPDQULJKWV:KDWLVHTXDOO\ terrifying, though, is that it is not over. Perpetual war is a state of being in Oceania, the G\VWRSLDQZRUOGFUDIWHGE\*HRUJH2UZHOOLQ

THE CONTROVERSIAL PATRIOT ACT, PASSED ON OCTOBER 26, 2001, GAVE UNPRECEDENTED SURVEILLANCE POWERS TO GOVERNMENT AGENCIES IN ORDER TO PURSUE INVESTIGATIONS PERTAINING TO TERRORISM.

7KHFDXVHIRUFRQČľLFWLVXQFOHDUDQGWKHHQHP\ largely misunderstood in Orwellâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s classic and it is a SKHQRPHQRQQRORQJHUTXHVWLRQHGE\WKHSRSulation at large. This lack of public engagement

Yet, while it may appear as though such strikes are

allows the state to pursue its agenda without fear

DPRUHWDUJHWHGHÎ?HFWLYHPHDQVWKURXJKZKLFKWR

of recourse, while the disconnect produced by their

Č´JKWWHUURULVPWKHFRVWVUHPDLQKLJKDFFRUGLQJ

ambivalence makes it possible for the state to craft

to the most recent estimates by a research group

WKHQDUUDWLYHDVLWVHHVČ´WÎ&#x2013;IWKHVHVRFLHWDOSDWWHUQV

at Stanford University, they have resulted in the

sound familiar, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s because they are. While the â&#x20AC;&#x153;War

deaths of between 2,500 and 3,300 civilians in

on Terrorâ&#x20AC;? ended in the minds of many Americans

Pakistan alone.

ZLWKWKHGUDZGRZQRIWKHFRQČľLFWVLQÎ&#x2013;UDTDQG

Actions being undertaken in the Middle East may

Afghanistan, it has instead endured, in part behind

appear to be worlds away for the average American,

closed doors, and largely without the knowledge,

but the perpetual war has had an impact on the

consent or awareness of the American people.

domestic citizenry as well, most notably through

THE HIDDEN TRANSCRIPT issue 04 spring 2013

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Of all the enemies to public liberty war is, perhaps, the

33

2004

1

2005

3

2006

3

2007

5

2008

38

2009

55

2010

128

2011

75

2012 2013

48 12

CIA TOTAL DRONE STRIKES IN PAKISTAN 2004-2013

to an article penned by journalist James Bamford

RQ2FWREHUJDYHXQSUHFHGHQWHGVXUYHLO-

in :LUHG0DJD]LQH, work has begun on a new data

lance powers to government agencies in order to

FHQWHUEHLQJFRQVWUXFWHGLQ%OXÎ?GDOH8WDKIRUWKH

pursue investigations pertaining to terrorism. The

1DWLRQDO6HFXULW\$JHQF\DWDFRVWRIELOOLRQDQG

government has been forced to rescind or revise

is set to process yottabytes of data (for reference,

elements of the act since 2001 due to judicial rul-

a yottabyte is bigger than a terabyte, petabyte, exa-

ings deeming them unconstitutional, most recently

E\WHRU]HWWDE\WH &KLOOLQJO\WKH16$GHVFULEHVWKLV capability as one which â&#x20AC;&#x153;will enable us to easily turn the huge volume of incoming data into an asset to EHH[SORLWHGIRUWKHJRRGRIWKH1DWLRQČ&#x2039;

THE BIG BROTHER STYLE INTELLIGENCE COMPLEX IS A COSTLY ONE - THE TOTAL COST WAS EXPECTED TO ECLIPSE $75 BILLION LAST YEAR. AND ITâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S SET TO GET WORSE.

The United States remains in a period of perpetual war. Instead of the antagonistic states Eurasia and Eastasia of Orwellian folklore, there is instead â&#x20AC;&#x153;terrorism,â&#x20AC;? a constantly shifting and evolving phenomHQRQWKDWUHTXLUHVFRQVWDQWGLOLJHQFHDQGDWWHQWLRQ and may be used to justify increasing encroachments by government agencies in the name of national security. There is no doubt that threats to American national security exist. What remains up for debate is whether the urgency of these threats constitutes the necessity for a state of war, a political climate that inhibits transparency, legal practices and civil liberties. Unless Washington steps out

those in regards to national security letters, which

from its shadow of secrecy and brings this period of

had allowed the FBI to harness records on suspects

perpetual warfare to a close, the nation will truly be

without their knowledge. Estimates by the American

LQSRVVHVVLRQRIDQ2UZHOOLDQ2YDO2É?FH

&LYLO/LEHUWLHV8QLRQVXJJHVWWKDWDSSHDOV KDYHEHHQČ´OHGLQFDVHVSHUWDLQLQJWRQDWLRQDO VHFXULW\EHWZHHQDQGDORQHDQGGHVSLWH these setbacks the act has endured. With some of the Patriot Actâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most controversial provisions VHWWRH[SLUHLQ 6HFWLRQVDQG pertaining to collection of materials relevant to an investigation, wiretapping and the monitoring of non-U.S. citizens respectively), President Obama instead extended them until 2015. Data collection and surveillance on this scale UHTXLUHVFRQVLGHUDEOHKXPDQDQGSK\VLFDOUHVRXUFHVZKLFKKDYHVWHDGLO\LQFUHDVHGLQWKHSRVW era. According to an investigation conducted by The :DVKLQJWRQ3RVWLQČ&#x160;VRPHJRYHUQPHQW RUJDQL]DWLRQVDQGSULYDWHFRPSDQLHVZRUNRQ programs related to counterterrorism, homeland security and intelligence in about 10,000 locations across the United States,â&#x20AC;? with over 850,000 individuals in possession of top-secret security clearances. The Big Brother style intelligence complex is a costly RQHWKHWRWDOFRVWZDVH[SHFWHGWRHFOLSVH billion last year. And itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s set to get worse. According

THE HIDDEN TRANSCRIPT issue 04 spring 2013

the Patriot Act. The controversial legislation, passed

35

IMPERIAL REACH ON THE CHEAP? HOW CHINA BENEFITS FROM AMERICAN SUPREMECY TIM CHOI The University of Calgary Calgary, Canada

be restricted only to ports that directly ship to US

have been attributed to mainly domestic enablers,

shores. Thus, US maritime forces conduct training

such as the economic reforms initiated by Deng

missions with countries and navies around the

Xiaoping, or the massive population base from

world, even if those countries have very little direct

which entrepreneurs and state-sponsored enter-

trade with the United States. For example, every

prises could gather their workers. But too often, the

\HDU EXGJHWSHUPLWWLQJRIFRXUVH WKH861DY\

role of external factors is overlooked - even less is

sends one of their minimally armed, Oliver Hazard

the role of the hegemonic, and now perceived to be

Perry class frigates, along African shores to train

rival, power: the United States. After all, the hege-

local forces in search-and-rescue, search-and-sei-

mon dominates and acts to remain dominant in the

zure, counter-narcotics, and other maritime security

international system, but how can such an entity

operations.

actually assist a weaker power in rising to a position that would challenge the hegemon itself? The United States of America, as the sole â&#x20AC;&#x153;superpowerâ&#x20AC;? on the planet for the majority of Chinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s post-Deng period, is no doubt the closest entity the world has seen to a global hegemon. With the ability WRDWWDFNRYHUDKXQGUHGWDUJHWVVRPHQDXWLFDO miles inland without ever being seen with the touch of a button, the US and its navy wield a power that is unmatched by any other country in the world. However, it is this very force that allows the US to assert its dominance while at the same time allowing weaker powers to strengthen themselves. Consider for a moment Chinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s great dependence

THE FORWARD PRESENCE OF THE REST OF THE EXPENSIVE AND HIGH-TECH US FLEET IS STILL ESSENTIAL FOR SECURING THE LIFEBLOOD OF THE CHINESE ECONOMY.

on imported oil. How does that oil get to Chinese factories? By massive oil tankers plying the oceansâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; busy sea lanes. What ensures these (and other)

Such capacity-building missions employ low-end

tankers can travel in peace, free from harassment

warships (or even non-warships, such as the HSV

by ill-meaning actors? American sea power.

2 Swift) in order to increase training relevancy with

While it is true that a global presence of armed

countries that have only minor naval vessels. These

warships is hardly needed in an age where the

missions not only increase security for the United

biggest threat to the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sea lanes are the weak-

States, they also increase the competency of local

ening Somali pirates, there is much more than just

LQVWLWXWLRQVÎ&#x2013;QFUHDVHGFRQČ´GHQFHLQWKHDELOLW\RI

pirate hunting and coercive diplomacy to the myr-

such institutions to provide local security has the

iad global activities overseen by the United Statesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

extended impact of lowering insurance rates for

VHDVHUYLFHVZKLFKLQFOXGHVQRWMXVWWKH1DY\EXW

shippers and allowing greater trade to more ports

also the Coast Guard. An integral part of American

around the globe.

maritime strategy in the 21st century is the concept

7KLVKDVFOHDUEHQHČ´WVIRUDFRXQWU\OLNH&KLQD

of homeland defense in depth: the idea that threats

ZKRVHČ´QLVKHGPDWHULDOVDUHH[SRUWHGZLGHO\

to the American homeland, such as illicit substances

around the world and primarily by sea. If it were not

and terrorist materials, are best addressed at their

IRUWKHSURČ´FLHQF\EXLOGLQJDQGFRRSHUDWLRQLQLWLD-

points of departure in foreign ports long before

WLYHVRIWKH86VHDVHUYLFHV&KLQDČ&#x2021;VSURČ´WVZRXOG

WKH\UHDFK$PHULFDQVKRUHV7KLVUHTXLUHVWUDLQLQJ

certainly be reduced as higher insurance rates

VHFXULW\RÉ?FLDOVLQIRUHLJQSRUWVDQGQDYLHVRIWHQ

PDGHWKHLUHÎ?HFWVIHOW

under the supervision and guidance of the US Coast Guard. Because of the extensively integrated nature of todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s global economy, homeland defense cannot

However, American seapower contributes to Chinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rise and prosperity in more than just the above PHQWLRQHGZD\VZKLFKGRQRWUHTXLUHKLJKHQG warships - even China could invest in similar training

THE HIDDEN TRANSCRIPT issue 04 spring 2013

&KLQDČ&#x2021;VHFRQRPLFULVHRYHUWKHSDVWWKLUW\Č´YH\HDUV

37

BARRELS PER DAY 10 000 8 000 6 000 4 000 2 000 0

CONSUMPTION PRODUCTION

10

20

05

20

00

20

95

19

90

19

CHINA’S OIL PRODUCTION & CONSUMPTION 1990-2010

pan out in the coming years. With the United States

site experience. The forward presence of the rest of

now realizing the vast amounts of domestic oil that

WKHH[SHQVLYHDQGKLJKWHFK86ČľHHWLVVWLOOHVVHQWLDO

it can produce via fracking, the US is expected to

for securing the lifeblood of the Chinese economy.

EHFRPHVHOIVXÉ?FLHQWLQRLOSURGXFWLRQZLWKLQWKH

We return now to the oil tankers mentioned in the

next twenty years â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and free from Middle Eastern

beginning of this article.

imports long before that. With no energy interests

Î&#x2013;QWKHVWKHÎ&#x2013;UDQÎ&#x2013;UDT:DUKDGDVLJQLČ´FDQW

LQWKH*XOI$PHULFDPD\QRORQJHUČ´QGLWQHFHVVDU\

maritime and naval component called the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Tanker

to patrol that region and its oil lanes. Of course,

:DUČ&#x2039;Č&#x201A;HVVHQWLDOO\Î&#x2013;UDTDWWDFNLQJÎ&#x2013;UDQLDQWDQNHUVLQ

American allies such as Korea and Japan will still

order to cripple the latterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s export economy, and

OLNHO\UHTXLUH0LGGOH(DVWRLOVRWKH86PD\ZHOOČ´QG

Iran attacking tankers that went to neutral Gulf

it in its interests to protect shipping destined for

VWDWHVVXSSRUWLQJÎ&#x2013;UDTÎ&#x2013;QUHVSRQVHWRÎ&#x2013;UDQČ&#x2021;VWDUJHW-

WKRVHFRXQWULHV1RQHWKHOHVVLI86GHIHQFHVSHQG-

ing of neutral tankers, American warships began

ing continues to be cut year after year, deployments

escorting convoys through the Strait of Hormuz in

to the Middle East will likely be reduced in favour of

order to deter Iran from further attacks. This was

sustaining the â&#x20AC;&#x153;pivotâ&#x20AC;? to Asia.

successful, but not without cost; two American frigates were heavily damaged â&#x20AC;&#x201C; one from an IraQLDQPLQHDQGRQHIURPÎ&#x2013;UDTLDLUODXQFKHG([RFHW missiles.

So where does this leave China, the rising superpower? )RUVWDUWHUVWKHOLQNWRDTXDUWHURILWVOLIHEORRG becomes a lot more tenuous in this future scenarLR1RORQJHUZLOOLWEHDEOHWRUHO\RQWKHJUDFHRI American warships. If China wishes to ensure the stability of its oil imports, it has no choice but to

IF CHINA WISHES TO ENSURE THE STABILITY OF ITS OIL IMPORTS, IT HAS NO CHOICE BUT TO DEVELOP A BLUE-WATER FLEET CAPABLE OF SECURING ITS SEA LINES OF COMMUNICATION.

GHYHORSDEOXHZDWHUČľHHWFDSDEOHRIVHFXULQJLWV sea lines of communication. The Chinese leadership appears to be aware of this, as can be seen by the rapid construction of advanced surface combatants over the last decade. The deployments to Somalia for counter-piracy patrols and escort for Chinese shipping are clear examples of China learning to invest in and becoming more responsible for its own economic and resource security. Should the sea lanes between the Middle East and Africa and Chinese shores ever become contested, China will be in a position to defend its lifelines. Unlike the United States of the early 1800s,

This period highlights the very real possibility of

China has had the leisure of building up its mari-

kinetic military action being taken against crucial

time forces without facing constant threats to its

elements of the global economy. It seems obvious

seaborne economy. In essence, Chinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s global trade

that should the Persian Gulf again heat up, it would

â&#x20AC;&#x153;empireâ&#x20AC;?, to use the term loosely, was gained on the

EHWKH861DY\WDNLQJWKHOHDGZKLOHWKH&KLQHVH

cheap. However, as America faces the possibility of

sit back and enjoy the assured delivery of its Middle

decreasing overlaps with China in mutual interests

Eastern oil. Although China does produce a large

LH0LGGOH(DVWRLO WKHODWWHUZLOOČ´QGLWLQFUHDVLQJO\

amount of its own oil, the drastic rise in the mid-

expensive to maintain energy security. Time will tell

dle class since the Cold War has turned it from a

ZKHWKHUKHULQYHVWPHQWVZLOOEHVXÉ?FLHQWLQWKH

net exporter to net importer â&#x20AC;&#x201C; half of its oil is now

coming decades.

imported, and around half of those are from the Middle East. Yet, while we can expect the Americans to play policeman in the Persian Gulf, this may not actually

THE HIDDEN TRANSCRIPT issue 04 spring 2013

DFWLYLWLHVSURYLGHGKHURZQIRUFHVKDYHWKHUHTXL-

39


4. Empire