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A digital facsimile of selections fromWalters Ms. 36.10, Gondarine sensul Title: Ethiopian "chain" manuscript

Published by: The Walters Art Museum 600 N. Charles Street Baltimore, MD 21201 http://www.thewalters.org/

Released under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/legalcode Published 2013

This document is a digital facsimile of selections from a manuscript belonging to the Walters Art Museum, in Baltimore, Maryland, in the United States. It is one of a number of manuscripts that have been digitized as part of a project generously funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, and by an anonymous donor to the Walters Art Museum. More details about the manuscripts at the Walters can be found by visiting The Walters Art Museum's website www.thewalters.org. For further information about this book, and online resources for Walters manuscripts, please contact us through the Walters Website by email, and ask for your message to be directed to the Department of Manuscripts.

Shelf mark

Walters Art Museum Ms. 36.10

Descriptive Title

Gondarine sensul

Text title

Ethiopian "chain" manuscript

Abstract

This Ethopian sensul, or "chain" manuscript, was made in the seventeenth century in the Gondarine region. It was created out of a single folded strip of parchment attached to heavy hide "boards" at each end, creating a small book when folded. Comprised solely of inscribed images, this pocket-sized manuscript would have served a devotional function for its owner, who while unidentified, inscribed the first image with a note reminding people under the threat of excommunication not to steal or erase the manuscript. Narrative illuminations, which tell the story of the Virgin Mary, allow for private meditation. The book can also function as something of an icon, for when it is opened to the middle and stood on end, the facing figures of St. George and the Virgin and Child form a small diptych, resembling other icons of this era.

Date

Late 17th century CE

Origin

Gondar, Ethiopia

Form

Album

Genre

Devotional

Language

No linguistic content; Not applicable

Support material

Parchment Medium weight parchment, reinforced with a heavier parchment backing

Extent

Foliation: No foliation or pagination present; book consists of a long strip of parchment folded as an accordion book into ten panels

Collation

Formula: N/a Comments: One strip of parchment folded to create ten pages

Dimensions

8.0 cm wide by 8.0 cm high

Generated: 2013-09-23 13:30 -04:00

Contents

fols. 1v - 6r: Title: Ethiopian "chain" manuscript Contents: No text except for inscriptions on images Decoration note: Ten full-page miniatures; inscriptions in red, black, and brown ink

Decoration

Upper board inside: Title: Joachim and Anna presenting Mary to the temple Form: Full-page miniature Comment: The inscription at the top reads: "ኢያቄም፡ ሐና፡," or "Joachim; Anna." To the left there is insufficiently legible note by the owner, reminding people under the threat of excommunication not to steal it or erase it. The owner's name too is illegible. fol. 1r: Title: How Mary was presented to the Temple Form: Full-page miniature Comment: The inscription at the top reads: "ዘከመ፡ ቦአት፡ ውስተ፡ ቤተ፡ መቅደስ፤," or "How she came into the Temple." The inscription on the top right reads: "ዘካር[ያስ፡]," or "(Archpriest) Zechariah" who received the child. The inscription on the left reads: "ኢያቄም፡," or "(Her father) Joachim" who brought the child Mary to the Temple." fol. 1v: Title: Annunciation Form: Full-page miniature Comment: The inscription at the top reads: "[ዘከመ፡ አ]ብስራ፡ ገብርኤል፡ ለእግዝእትነ፡ ማርያም፡," or "How (the Archangel) Gabriel announced to Our Lady Mary." fol. 2r: Title: Adoration of the Magi Form: Full-page miniature Comment: The inscription at the top reads: "ዘከመ፡ አቅረቡ፡ አምሐ፡ ለመድኅ[ን፡]," or "How they offered presents to the Savior." The inscription on the right reads: "ማሌቅ፡ ዕጣን፡ -------[?]ስባኒልስ፡ ከርቤ፡," or

Generated: 2013-09-23 13:30 -04:00

"Maleq (presented) incense ----- [?]basnils (presented) myrrh." The inscription on the bottom reads: "አድግ፡ ወላህም፡," or "A donkey and a cow." fol. 2v: Title: St. George slaying the dragon Form: Full-page miniature Comment: The inscription on the bottom reads: "ዘከመ፡ ቀተሎ፡ ለደራጎን፡ ጊዮርጊስ፡," or "How George killed the dragon." fol. 3r: Title: Madonna and Child flanked by the Archangels Michael and Gabriel Form: Full-page miniature Comment: The inscription on the top reads: "ምስለ፡ ፍቁር፡ ወልዳ፡ [. . . ]," or "With her beloved Son [. . .]." fol. 3v: Title: Flight into Egypt Form: Full-page miniature Comment: The inscription on the top reads: "[ዘከ]መ፡ [ተሰ]ደት፡ እግዝእትነ፡ ምስለ፡ ዮሴፍ፡ ወሰሎሜ።," or "How Our Lady fled with Joseph and Salome." fol. 4r: Title: The Covenant that earned Mary the name Kidanä Mǝḥrät, or "Pact/Covenant of Mercy" Form: Full-page miniature Comment: The inscription on the top reads: "ዘከመ፡ ወሀባ፡ ኪዳነ፡ ወልዳ፡ ክርስቶስ፡ [. . . ]," or "How her Son, Christ, gave her a Covenant," a promise that he will forgive the sins of anyone for whom she intercedes. fol. 4v: Title: The Dormition and Assumption of Mary Form: Full-page miniature Comment: The inscription on the bottom reads: "ዘከመ፡ አእረፈት፡ እግዝእትነ፡ ማርያም፡ አመ፡ ፳ወ[፩፡ ለ]ጥር።," or "How Our Lady Mary rested eternally on the 21st of (the month of) Ṭǝrr." The inscription on the left reads: "ሚካኤል፡ ----------

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ዮሐንስ፡ ወንጌላዊ፡," or "(Archangel) Michael" ------- "John the Evangelist." The inscription on the right reads: "ገብርኤል፡ -------- ዘከመ፡ ፈለሰት፡ ቅድስት፡," or "(Archangel) Gabriel" ------- "How Saint (Mary) moved," from this world. Lower board inside: Title: Mary enthroned Form: Full-page miniature Binding

The binding date is undetermined. Upper and lower boards made of heavy undecorated hide, stitched to ends of parchment strip; uncertain if original to manuscript

Provenance

Produced in the Gondar region of Ethiopia, probably late seventeenth century Robert and Nancy Nooter collection, Washington, D.C., before 1996

Acquisition

Museum purchase with funds provided by the W. Alton Jones Foundation Acquisition Fund, 1996

Bibliography

Holbert, Kelly, ed. Ethiopian Art: The Walters Art Museum. Baltimore: Trustees of the Walters Art Gallery, 2001, pp. 116-117, cat. no. 18.

Contributors

Principal cataloger: Getatchew Haile, . Catalogers: Herbert, Lynley; Walters Art Museum curatorial staff and researchers since 1934 Editor: Herbert, Lynley Conservators: Evers, Jennifer; Quandt, Abigail Contributors: Bockrath, Diane; Emery, Doug; Noel, William; Tabritha, Ariel; Toth, Michael B.

Generated: 2013-09-23 13:30 -04:00

This document is a digital facsimile of selections from a manuscript belonging to the Walters Art Museum, in Baltimore, Maryland, in the United States. It is one of a number of manuscripts that have been digitized as part of a project generously funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, and by an anonymous donor to the Walters Art Museum. More details about the manuscripts at the Walters can be found by visiting The Walters Art Museum's website www.thewalters.org. For further information about this book, and online resources for Walters manuscripts, please contact us through the Walters Website by email, and ask for your message to be directed to the Department of Manuscripts.

The Walters Art Museum 600 N. Charles Street Baltimore, Maryland 21201 http://www.thewalters.org/

Released under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/legalcode Published 2013


Gondarine sensul, Walters Art Museum MS. 36.10