St Pauls Young People in 2011
St Pauls Unlimited and Places for People recently partnered with Jamafrique, Full Circle, Docklands Youth Centre and the St Pauls Adventure Playground to carry out a bit of research focussing on Young People in St Pauls. We wanted to find out what challenges are facing our Young People and how they feel about the opportunities that exist for them in St Pauls. If you are a local organisation working with YP and you'd like to try and find some more specific information about particular groups we surveyed please get in touch. While this research offers an overview of the information we collected, we would consider pulling out additional details if it will help you with your work or a grant application.
St Pauls Young People in 2011 Research identifying challenges and opportunities for St Pauls Young People Developed in partnership between St Pauls Unlimited and Places for People Wednesday, 01 June 2011 1 Table of Contents St Pauls Young People in 2011.................................................................................................................................3 Purpose_________________________________________________________3 Objectives_______________________________________________________3 Overall Research Summary_________________________________________4 Challenges, Aspirations and opportunities for Young People in St. Pauls..............................................................5 Previous Research ________________________________________________5 Summary _______________________________________________________5 2.1 Poverty and Deprivation: .............................................................................................................................5 2.3 Racism: ........................................................................................................................................................6 2.4 Unemployment: ...........................................................................................................................................6 2.5 Jobs: .............................................................................................................................................................7 2.6 Education: ....................................................................................................................................................7 2.7 Personal Aspirations:....................................................................................................................................8 2.8 Community Aspirations: ..............................................................................................................................9 Local Service Providers and Services Offered___________________________9 My Place, My Space Survey â€“ Cumulative Results.................................................................................................11 Appendix 1: Tables_______________________________________________20 Appendix 2: Search Strategy _______________________________________24 Appendix 3: Aspirations of Young People - UK Youth Parliament___________26 2 St Pauls Young People in 2011 Purpose In 2001 St Pauls Unlimited asked local residents what their top priorities for improvement in the local area were and the resounding majority expressed that opportunities for Young People was the biggest concern for the community today. Since “opportunities for Young People” is a broad concern, St Pauls Unlimited and Places for People, a local Registered Social Landlord, teamed up to conduct a detailed research project to answer the following questions: • What opportunities currently exist in St Pauls? • Do we have more or less opportunities in this area than in other areas? • If we have less then why is that the case? • What opportunities are missing? • Do services need to be linked up and take a more coordinated / strategic approach? • Why does youth opportunities continue popping up as a top priority for development? • What is the problem(s) leading to this? This research project consisted of two major components: • The Challenges, Aspirations and Opportunities for Young People in St. Pauls, background research conducted by an independent researcher, Karen Bell. • The My Space, My Place survey conducted with Young People in St Pauls through the assistance of four prominent local organisations working with Young People. Objectives In addition to answering the above questions, there were a few overarching objectives to conducting this research. They included: • Provide local youth based organisations with a pool of information and facts they were able to draw upon for future funding applications. • Identify gaps in services and utilise the research as a basis for promoting a “joined up approach” among local organizations working with Young People. • Provide a better understanding of the challenges and concerns facing Young People in St Pauls. St Pauls Unlimited, Places for People and other local organizations who have an interest in building on, or developing new solutions to challenges facing Young People today, will use this information. 3 Overall Research Summary The two bodies of research that comprise this report are provided below in full. Both are full of interesting and useful information so this summary will just provide a snapshot of the details collected. The Challenges, Aspirations and Opportunities for Young People in St. Pauls highlighted: • 81% of children in St Pauls are living in families that are income deprived. • The level of child deprivation in St Pauls is the worst in Bristol and 40th worst in the UK. • St Pauls is home to a much higher proportion of BME Young People than in Bristol as a whole. (Approx. 43% in St Pauls compared to 8% in Bristol) • BME Young People have been hardest hit by the recession with approx 49% unemployed, compared to 20% of White YP. • Young People in St Pauls perform similarly in education to the rest of Bristol until Key stages 3 and 4 where they perform significantly worse. Only 39% of Young People in St Pauls achieve 5 or more GCSE grades A-C, compared to 62% in Bristol and 69% nationally. The My Space, My Place survey highlighted: • 130 Young People responded to this survey. 75% of the respondents are residents of St Pauls and almost 98% of the respondents are from BME groups. • Almost 81% of the respondents claimed there are days during the week when there are bored and would like something to do. 51.4% claimed Monday as a day they are most often bored on, and 61% claimed Sunday was when they were in need of an activity. • 78% of respondents claimed they heard about activities in St Pauls through their friends, and almost 33% hear about activities when they join in other activities. • 39.3% of respondents list “cost” as the main factor keeping them from getting involved in activities in St Pauls. 34% said they didn’t get involved because they did not hear about activities until they were finished. • Of those respondents who are “working age”, 65.9% are unemployed. The information in the My Space, My Place survey can be broadened or narrowed to provide partners with details specific for different ethnicities, age ranges, etc. We haven’t included all of those details here because that would make the report significantly larger than it already is. Additional information can be provided on request from St Pauls Unlimited. 4 Challenges, Aspirations and opportunities for Young People in St. Pauls Author: Karen Bell Previous Research There appear to be no recent studies that specifically look at the challenges, opportunities and aspirations of young people (YP), aged 8-25, in St. Pauls (see Appendix 2). Therefore, this report amalgamates related material from surveys, studies and reports on: • The hopes and challenges facing YP in the UK (e.g. Bradley and Devadason, 2008; Clement, 2010); • Concerns and aspirations of Bristol’s BME population (e.g. iCoCo, 2009; White, 2010) • Life in St. Pauls (e.g. Slater, 2010) and Bristol’s inner city (e.g. Clement, 2007) • Local community-led consultations (e.g. BCC, 2003; 2006; SPU, 2005; 2009) • Demographic and socio-economic data (e.g. Census, 2001; DCLG, 2007; 2010) The findings are summarised here in order to provide the foundations for more specific research in the future. Summary The challenges, opportunities and aspirations of young people (YP) in St. Pauls will be discussed here according to themes, drawing comparisons with Bristol and nationally. 2.1 Poverty and Deprivation: The most outstanding challenge for young people in St. Pauls is the extent of poverty. For example, 41% of people in St. Pauls are ‘income deprived’1 81% of children in St. Pauls are living in families that are income deprived The level of child deprivation in St. Pauls is the worst in Bristol and 40th worst in the UK. These levels are much higher than the Bristol average (15% income deprived). However, it is encouraging that there has been an improvement from 2005, when St. Pauls was 20 th worst in the UK in terms of child deprivation (see Appendix 1, Tables 9 and 10). 2.2 Transitions: 1 ‘Income deprived’ means the percentage of all people that live in families that are income deprived, households receiving income support, income based job-seekers allowance, pension credits, working tax or child tax credit with an income below 60% of national median before housing costs. 5 Young people are undergoing a journey from childhood to adulthood, developing the knowledge and skills required for adult life (Miles et al. 2002; Spence, 2005). These transitions often create stress and anxiety (Coleman, 2007) and, if not managed well, can lead to long term social, economic, psychological and health problems (DfES, 2006; Young Foundation 2009). Young people are now facing more difficult transitions to adulthood than ever before as a result of insecure employment and high costs of living (Jeffrey and McDowell, 2004). A recent UK poll (Princes Trust, 2009) found that: 20% of YP felt like crying ‘often’ or ‘always’ and 47% felt regularly stressed 37% of those not in education, employment or training (NEETs) felt depressed 40% of YP did not have anyone they could talk to about their problems 28% said they didn’t have enough support in life in general Economically disadvantaged young people, as can be found in St. Pauls, are more likely to have difficult transitions and ‘fast track’ into adulthood, leaving education earlier or becoming parents early (Spence, 2005). There is a need to raise youth incomes, provide adequate housing and give emotional support for the most vulnerable YP (France, 2008). Activities for YP were the top priority in a recent local survey (SPU, 2009). 2.3 Racism: There is a much higher proportion of black and minority ethnic (BME) young people living in St.Pauls than Bristol, as a whole (approx. 43%, compared to 8%) (see Appendix 1, Table 1). Therefore, it is likely that many local YP will face racism (direct and institutionalised), which can undermine their self-esteem and limit their opportunities in terms of education, employment, income etc. (NLT, 2006). Racism also manifests in hate crime which has increased in Bristol in recent years (iCoCo, 2009). 2.4 Unemployment: There continues to be high levels of unemployment in the St. Pauls area (see Appendix 1, Tables 2, 8 and 10). According to the latest figures: 21% of St. Pauls residents are not working, twice the local average of 10% More than three times the proportion of YP in St. Pauls are claiming out of work benefits than the Bristol average However, the picture may now be even worse as unemployment has increased substantially over the last few years, as a result of the recession and austerity measures. All young people are now facing difficulties in finding work, with the national average 6 unemployment rate for YP now at 18%. However, BME young people have been hardest hit by the recession so that nearly half are now unemployed (48%), compared to 20% of White YP (IPPR, 2010). Racism and postcode discrimination are considered to be an obstacle to finding work in St. Pauls (BCC, 2006). A recent report confirms that postcode discrimination does occur, especially where there are numerous applicants for jobs and the job-seekers are competing with candidates from less deprived areas (DWP, 2010). Thus, St. Pauls may well be hit very hard by the recession. 2.5 Jobs: In 2001, St. Pauls had a smaller proportion of higher level professionals than the Bristol or national average (17%, compared to 22% locally and nationally) and more unskilled workers (21% compared to 18% locally and 17% nationally) (see Appendix 1, Table 3). A more recent study of YP in Bristol, including young people in St. Pauls, found that many were in jobs which were temporary, low-paid and low-status (Bradley and Devadason, 2008). The St. Pauls Neighbourhood Action (BCC, 2006) found that there was a particular need for employment support for new immigrants facing language barriers and without recognised qualifications. 2.6 Education: Educational qualifications are a strong determinant of later life income and opportunities, so under-achievement creates a major obstacle to social mobility. In 2001, young people, aged 16-24, in St. Pauls were, on average, better qualified, at virtually every level, than young people in Bristol as a whole. In particular, they were much more likely to have a degree or equivalent (29%) than in Bristol (24%) or in England (19%) (see Appendix 1, Table 4). However, more recent data (2009) shows that, though children in St. Pauls perform quite similarly to the average locally and nationally at Key Stage 1, they gradually drop behind, until by Key stages 3 and 4, they are performing significantly worse. Therefore, only 39% of young people in St. Pauls achieve 5 or more GCSE grades A-C, compared to 62% in Bristol and 69% nationally (see Appendix 1, Table 9). This lack of achievement may well be due to the very high levels of income deprivation in St. Pauls. Government reports (DCSF, 2009a; 2009b) show that, nationally, less than a quarter of children from the poorest families obtain five or more good GCSEs (A-C), compared to just over a half of their better-off peers. Reasons are multi-faceted and remain unclear. Some analysts explain the lack of educational achievement in poor communities in terms of parental and child attitudes and behaviours (Goodman and Gregg, 2010), as does the current Government (DFE, 2011). However, poverty itself 7 undermines achievement as poor families often cannot afford books, computers, equipment, extracurricular activities, good nutrition, and adequate housing etc (Action for Children, 2010). YP from low income homes may also need to contribute to household costs, preventing them from continuing education. Under-achievement in St. Pauls may also be connected with the higher number of new immigrants to the area whose first language is not English. For example, the City Academy and Fairfield School, both secondary schools which serve St. Pauls, have a high proportion of Somali children (16% and 11%, respectively). As with income deprived children, in general, BME pupils consistently under achieve in comparison with their White contemporaries and the gap tends to increase through the Key Stages (BCYPS, 2009). A recent report explained this as follows: ‘Many of those working in schools, the education service and the Council more widely, appear to lack the confidence, knowledge and skill to relate effectively with many BME communities’ (iCoCo, 2009: 27). 2.7 Personal Aspirations: Aspirations are considered to play an important role in educational and professional achievement for all young people and can have lifelong significance (Cabinet Office, 2008). Therefore, recent UK government statements and policies have emphasised the need to instil a ‘culture of aspiration’ among YP in deprived communities. However, the relationship between aspirations and attainment is complex, as high aspirations are both a cause and effect of prior achievement (Gutman and Akerman, 2008). Many consider that the way young people think about their futures differs according to the extent of their resources and opportunities (Brannen and Nilsen, 2002). Young people from wealthy backgrounds tend to have higher aspirations than those from deprived ones (Cabinet Office, 2008). In one recent study, which included interviewing young people from St. Pauls, YP from deprived areas saw their future life chances profoundly undermined by the present lack of educational, psychological and vocational opportunities (Clement, 2010). However, in some very deprived communities – often ethnically diverse, mobile, urban neighbourhoods – young people do tend to have high aspirations, are ambitious regarding their careers and optimistic about their employment prospects (Sinclair, 2010). In particular, research hints that BME groups have, on average, higher aspirations than other groups, especially with regard to starting up in business (BIS, 2009). However, despite a growing BME middle class (Cohen, 2003), BME youth do find it difficult to turn their aspirations into reality. Literature suggests that this may be a result of early experiences at home or school; stereotypes about gender and culture; inadequate career guidance; lack of information about how to realise ambitions; too few role models; and a lack of contacts (i.e. ‘social capital’) to link to valuable sources of inspiration, information 8 and opportunity (Dunkwu, 2002; Lightbody et al., 1997). Lack of achievement is not always the result of poor attitude or making bad decisions, but is often due to the reality of the available opportunities and constraints which prevent or enable fulfilment (Brannen and Nilsen, 2002). 2.8 Community Aspirations: Young people’s aspirations include, not only their hopes for themselves, but also the wider world. The manifesto of the UK Youth Parliament, widely respected for its work in engaging young people in local communities across the country, gives us an indication of these hopes. They cover a broad range of issues from: reducing the negative stereotyping of young people in the media; to taking care of the environment; to educating young people about the dangers of knife and gun crime (UKYP, 2008) (see Appendix 3 for a more extensive summary). Similarly, a recent UK report found that the issues most important to young people were reducing crime (29%); employment opportunities (25%), local community (22%) and the environment (12%) (JPF, 2010). These evidently moral and altruistic aspirations of young people are echoed in a recent report revealing that, contrary to popular stereotyping, YP are engaged in politics; have a strong sense of social responsibility; and are motivated by care for others. Almost half (42%) said a stable, loving family is their number one priority and 75% said they regularly volunteer or help other people (JPF, 2010). Locally, the election platforms of the Bristol UKYP representatives indicate a similar range of aspirations and concerns, including: protection of the environment; equality and rights; and safer communities and schools (BCC, 2011) (see Appendix 3 for a full list). The aspirations of Bristol’s young people are also evident in the new draft ‘Children and Young People's Plan 2011-2014’, developed with the input of local YP. Priority areas are to address bullying, youth homelessness, domestic violence and poverty; as well as to encourage youth participation (BCYPT, 2011). These values are also evident in St. Pauls, where most YP in a local survey thought the area had got better in the last two years, citing less anti-social behaviour, drug-dealing and crime and improved appearance of the area as the main improvements (SPU, 2009). Local Service Providers and Services Offered The findings summarised in this report highlight the need for the following provision and services: emotional support for young people; well-paid employment opportunities; appropriate support to find work; good careers guidance; networking/mentoring services to build social capital; financial support for YP whilst in training/learning; free language support for speakers of other languages; services which challenge and combat the effects 9 of racism; low cost and free access to services and activities; support to build feelings of self worth in YP; help for new arrivals to access services; equalities and inter-cultural training for providers. There is a need for in-depth research with service providers and local YP to establish how well these needs are currently being met. There are clearly a number of excellent services, which appear to meet many of the needs outlined (see Appendix 4). In particular, the School Home Support and Legacy Commission schemes, recently set up to tackle educational issues, though it is still too early to judge their impact (iCoCo, 2009). Local housing associations, offering affordable and supportive housing for YP, and information and advice centres, such as St. Pauls Advice Centre, are also of vital importance. However, it is regrettable that a change in BCC funding priorities seems to have contributed to the recent collapse of many longstanding black-led organisations in Bristol, including in St. Pauls (e.g. CEED, Kuumba) (White, 2010). Government cuts have also meant the loss of some free and subsidised services, such as ESOL classes. In addition, the withdrawal of the educational maintenance allowance (EMA) may have a large impact in St. Pauls, reducing the number of YP in education with knock on affects for youth unemployment and homelessness (BCYPT, 2011). Moreover, the end of the Future Jobs Fund, the Governmentâ€™s job creation scheme for young people living in unemployment hotspots, will also have a negative impact (DWP, 2011). Furthermore, Government plans to move all benefit claimants onto the Universal Credit is predicted to increase child poverty (IFS, 2010). At the same time, the Work Programme will mean increased pressure for YP to take up whatever jobs are offered, regardless of aspirations. However, the Bristol Children and Young Peopleâ€™s Trust (BCYPT) plans to do more to support local young people into employment, education and training and to develop a programme for young people in deprived areas beyond the Future Jobs Fund (BCYPT, 2011). Regeneration initiatives may also provide jobs and new housing to meet local needs (BCC, 2010). Furthermore, local voluntary groups and businesses may be able to take advantage of the new National Apprenticeships Service, which offers financial support to create jobs for YP, including in the field of community work and campaigning (NAS, 2011). Further investigation is needed to establish the remaining gaps in the employment, educational, training and cultural services for YP in St. Pauls. 10 My Place, My Space Survey â€“ Cumulative Results 1. Survey number 130 (100.0%) My Place, My Space - Survey Purpose: Everyone knows there's less money for Youth activities these days. Groups like Full Circle, Jamafrique and others have a hard job on their hands to find and apply for funding for their different activities and St Pauls Unlimited wants to help. We are putting some research together for these community groups that will help them with their future funding applications. This survey is part of the information we are gathering and we will combine the survey results with a lot of other research to make a final report. That report will then be given to all organisations in St Pauls that work with Young People. Our goal is to make it easier for the different groups to successfully apply for funding over the next few years. Who should complete the surveys? Young People (aged 8 - 25) who live in or use services in St Pauls. We are aiming to get at least 50% of the responses from Young People who live in St Pauls, so please keep that in mind. Young People should only complete a survey once. 2. What organisation are you working with to complete this survey ? 17 (13.0%) St Pauls Adventure Playground 29 (22.1%) Full Circle 57 (43.5%) Jamafrique 28 (21.4%) Docklands Youth Service Survey Questions 3. Have you completed this survey before (at Docklands, Full Circle, St Pauls Adventure Playground, or elsewhere?) 114 (98.3%) No 2 (1.7%) 4. How old are you? 44 (33.6%) 27 (20.6%) 25 (19.1%) Yes (if yes, please do not complete the survey again!) 8 - 12 years old 13 - 15 years old 16 - 18 years old 11 24 (18.3%) 6 (4.6%) 5 (3.8%) 5. Where do you live? 85 (75.2%) 6 (5.3%) 6 (5.3%) 16 (14.2%) 3 (2.7%) 19 - 21 years old 22 - 25 years old Other St Pauls St Werburghs Montpellier Easton Lawrence Hill Other (please list) 5 – Horfield, 1 - St Judes, 1 – Whitehall, 4 – Fishponds, 1 – Eastville, 1 – Lockleaze, 1 – Speedwell, 2 - Kingsdown 6. Do you consider yourself to be an Asylum seeker or refugee? 1 (0.9%) Yes 116 (99.1%) No 7. How would you describe your ethnicity? 0 (0.0%) Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi 2 (1.6%) Asian or Asian British: Pakistani 1 (0.8%) Asian or Asian British: Indian 0 (0.0%) Asian or Asian British: an other Asian background 18 (14.2%) Black or Black British: African 67 (52.8%) Black or Black British: Caribbean 20 (15.7%) Black or Black British: any other Black background 0 (0.0%) Chinese 0 (0.0%) European 0 (0.0%) Mixed: White & Asian 0 (0.0%) Mixed:White & Black African 16 (12.6%) Mixed: White & Black Caribbean 0 (0.0%) Mixed any other mixed background 0 (0.0%) Traveller 3 (2.4%) White British 0 (0.0%) White Irish 0 (0.0%) White: any other White background Other (please list) 5 (100.0%) 1 - Just brown, 3 – Somalian, 1 - Black and Indian 12 8. What types of activities do you like to do in your free time? 82 (68.3%) Sports 22 (18.3%) Art 55 (45.8%) Music 35 (29.2%) Dance Other (please list) 21 (100.0%) Other (please list) • 2 - WWE • Watch TV • 3 - Swimming • Singing, going to the Adventure Playground • Table tennis • 4 - Football • Computer games • 3 - Cooking • Reading and talking • Rapping • Video recording • Basketball • Computers • Pool • Rock climbing 13 9. If you could start an activity for you and your friends, what would it be? • 86 (100.0%) • 2 - Dance classes • 2 - Some sort of sports match • A dance group • 2 - WWE • Dance Club • Camp • Drama Group • Drama/types of dance • Group of musicians • 3- Dance • Rugby • Swimming • Rounders • Street dance class • Quad biking • Design what you want to be and • Making music videos turn it into a game. e.g. be a • 4 - Basketball singer/musician/pop star • Music recording • Set up a disco • Paint balling • Cricket club • Drama • General play • Photography • 2 - Art Class • Pool group • 12 – Football Club • 3 - Sports club • Football tournament • Drama • Football game • To go out on trips more often. • 2 – Dance Group (every holiday) • Dance drama school • Running, bike riding • Coaching football • Morning coffee...something • DJing • Keep fit activity • Drama music group • Swimming club • Dance & music studio • Sports • Youth club • Music or • Music studio • Singing • 4 - Sports Club • A music class • Music and dance classes • A party for kids 13-20 • 2 - Cooking class • Off site trips • Reading club, social club nights, • Dancing dub sessions, music jam/mash • 3 - Netball up, roller-arena • New music space • Yoga 14 10. What kind of help would you need to start your activity? 54 (44.3%) Help organising it 15 (12.3%) Supervision 91 (74.6%) Money 50 (41.0%) Space 55 (45.1%) Equipment Other (please list) 2 (100.0%) 11. Are there particular days of the week when you get really bored and would like something to do? 105 (80.8%) Yes 25 (19.2%) No 12. If you answered yes to the previous question, which days do you most often get bored on? 54 (51.4%) Monday 36 (34.3%) Tuesday 39 (37.1%) Wednesday 17 (16.2%) Thursday 22 (21.0%) Friday 24 (22.9%) Saturday 64 (61.0%) Sunday 13. How do you hear about activities in St Pauls? 98 (78.4%) Friends 20 (16.0%) School 19 (15.2%) Community notice boards 6 (4.8%) Newspapers 41 (32.8%) I find out when I come along to other activities Other: (please list) 6 (100.0%) 14. What stops you from getting involved in activities in St Pauls? 44 (39.3%) Cost 35 (31.3%) Times of activities 16 (14.3%) Family commitments 38 (33.9%) Lack of information (you don't hear about activities until 15 they are over) Other (please list) 10 (100.0%) 15. Are you in school, college or university? 97 (75.8%) yes 31 (24.2%) no 16. If you answered yes to the previous question, what school, college or university do you attend? 86 (100.0%) 17. Do you want or need help with your studies? 42 (34.7%) Yes 79 (65.3%) No 18. What subject(s) would you like help with? 36 (100.0%) Please only ask the following questions to Young People who are aged 13 - 25 19. Do you have a job? 28 (34.1%) Yes 54 (65.9%) No 20. Are you looking for a job? 30 (38.0%) Yes 49 (62.0%) No 21. What type of work would you like to do? 36 (100.0%) 22. Do you want or need help finding a job? 33 (43.4%) Yes 43 (56.6%) No 23. If you want or need help, what sort of help do you think you need? 8 (17.0%) Further education 16 (34.0%) Job specific training 21 (44.7%) An apprenticeship 16 17 (36.2%) Job opportunities that are close by and easy to get to. Other: (Please list) 2 (100.0%) 24. Do you already get some help looking for jobs or training from any local organisations? 10 (16.4%) Yes 51 (83.6%) No 25. If you do get help, who is currently helping you? 12 (100.0%) 26. What do you think stops you from finding a job? 13 (24.1%) Lack of training 27 (50.0%) Lack of jobs 21 (38.9%) Lack of jobs that interest you 12 (22.2%) Post code discrimination 17 (31.5%) Racial or ethnic discrimination Others: (Please list) 3 (100.0%) 17 Challenges, Aspirations and Opportunities for Young People in St Pauls – Research References Action for Children (2010) “Growing Up: Supporting Young People to a Successful Adulthood”. Action for Children, London. BCC (2003) St. Pauls Neighbourhood Plan (2003) Bristol City Council. Regeneration Division BCC (2006) St. Pauls Neighbourhood Plan (Phase 2) (2006) Bristol City Council. Regeneration Division BCYPS (2009) “Raising Achievement: Narrowing the Gap Action Plan to Reduce Inequalities in Education Achievement for Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) Children and Young People” Bristol Children and Young Peoples Services. Bristol City Council. Available from: www.bristol-cyps.org.uk/policies/pdf/icoco-report.pdf Bradley, H. and R. Devadason (2008). "Fractured Transitions: Young Adults' Pathways into Contemporary Labour Markets." Sociology-the Journal of the British Sociological Association 42(1): 119-136. BCC (2010) “The Inner East Regeneration Area Policy” Bristol City Council. Available from: http://www.bristol.gov.uk/committee/2010/ne/ne002/0224_12.pdf BCC (2011) “Bristol Big Youth Vote Elections 2011”. 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(eds), (2010) “Poorer Children’s Educational Attainment: How Important are Attitudes and Behaviour?” Report by Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Available from: http://www.educationandemployers.org/media/11955/poorer_childrens_educational_at tainment_-_jrf_full_report.pdf Gutman, L. and Akerman, R. (2008), “Aspirations and Attainment: A Review for the Social Exclusion Taskforce” Centre for Research on the Wider Benefits of Learning. Cabinet Office, London iCoCo (2009) “Pupil Population Change and Community Cohesion: Impact and Policy Implications for the Education Service in Bristol” Institute of Community Cohesion. Available from: http://www.bristol-cyps.org.uk/policies/pdf/icoco-report.pdf IFS (2010) “Child and Workingage Poverty Set to Rise in Next Three Years”. Institute for Fiscal Studies Available from: http://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/5372 IPPR (2010) “Youth Unemployment and the Recession”. Institute for Public Policy Research. Available from: http://www.ippr.org/uploadedFiles/events/Youth %20unemployment%20and%20recession%20technical%20briefing.pdf JPF (2010) “Listen Up!” Jack Petchey Foundation. Available from: http://www.jackpetcheyfoundation.org.uk/public/file/Listen%20Up%202010%20JPF %20Report_1_7MB.pdf 19 Jeffrey, C. and McDowell, L. (2004) “Youth in a Comparative Perspective”, Youth and Society 36(2): 131–142. Lightbody, P., Nicholson, S., Sian, G. and Walsh, D. (1997). “A Respectable Job: Factors Which Influence Young Asians’ Choice of Career”. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 25 (1), 67-79. Miles, S., Pohl, A., Stauber, B., Walther, A., Bargiela Banha, R., Carmo Gomes, M. (2002) “Communities of Youth Cultural Practice and Informal Learning”, Ashgate, Aldershot. NAS (2011) “Apprenticehips: Opening Doors to a Brighter Future” National Apprenticeship Service. Available from: http://www.apprenticeships.org.uk/Partners.aspx NLT (2006) “Literacy and Education Levels by Ethnic Group and Populations”. National Literacy Trust. Available from: http://www.literacytrust.org.uk/Database/STATS/EALstats.html Princes Trust (20O9) “YouGov Youth Index”. Available from: http://www.playfieldinstitute.co.uk/news/news_docs/YouGovYouthIndex.pdf Sinclair, S. (2010) “Failing young people? Education and aspirations in a deprived Community” Education, Citizenship and Social Justice. March 15, 2010 vol. 5 no. 1 5-20. Available from: http://esj.sagepub.com/content/5/1/5.abstract Slater, T. (2010). "Urban Outcasts: A Comparative Sociology of Advanced Marginality." Urban Geography 31(2): 162-168. Spence, J. (2005) “Concepts of Youth” in Harrison, R., and White, C. (eds) 2005 Working with Young People, Open University Press, London SPU (2009) “St Pauls/St Agnes Community Survey” St. Pauls Unlimited Community Partnership SPU (2005) “Street Ambassadors Survey” St Pauls Unlimited Community Partnership UKYP (2008) “UK Youth Parliament Manifesto: Making Our Mark” Available from: http://www.ukyouthparliament.org.uk/downloads/UKYP_Manifesto.pdf White, H. (2010) “The Importance of Culturally Specific Services”. Presentation Paper. School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol. Available from: http://www.socialpolicy.org.uk/lincoln/White.pdf The Young Foundation (2009) “Sinking and Swimming: Understanding Britain’s Unmet Needs” The Young Foundation. Available from: http://www.youngfoundation.org/files/images/new_needs_pdf.pdf Appendix 1: Tables Table 1: Ethnic groups in St. Pauls and Bristol (2001) (Percentage of population) St. Pauls City of Bristol Total White Total Black and Minority Ethnic 91.8 8.2 56.8 43.2 20 Total mixed ethnicity 8.6 2.1 Total Asian 7.8 2.9 Indian 1.0 1.2 Pakistani 4.9 1.1 Bangladeshi 0.8 0.3 Other Asian 1.1 0.3 Total Black 24.9 2.3 Black Caribbean 15.2 1.5 Black African 7.5 0.6 Other Black 2.2 0.2 Total Chinese/other 1.9 0.9 Source: Author based on data from Office for National Statistics, UK Census of Population, 2001. Output area distinguishing St. Pauls from Ashley Ward. Table 2: Economic activity in St. Pauls and Bristol (2001) (Percentage of population) St. Pauls City of Bristol Employed 48.9 60.1 Unemployed 9.2 3.1 Retired 5.1 11.0 Economically active students 4.7 3.8 Economically inactive students 8.1 8.0 Looking after home/family 8.1 5.9 Permanently sick/disabled 8.2 5.0 Other economically inactive 7.7 3.1 Source: Author based on data from Office for National Statistics, UK Census of Population, 2001. Output area distinguishing St. Pauls from Ashley Ward. Table 3: Occupations in St. Pauls, Bristol and England (2001) (Percentage of population) St. Pauls City of Bristol England AB: Higher managerial / professional 17 22 22 C1: Junior managerial /professional 30 31 30 C2: Skilled manual workers 11 14 15 D: Semi-skilled and unskilled manual 21 18 17 E: Unemployed/ lowest grade workers 21 15 16 Source: Author based on data from Office for National Statistics, UK Census of Population, 2001. Output area distinguishing St. Pauls from Ashley Ward. Table 4: Qualifications (of people aged 16-74) in St. Pauls, Bristol and England (2001) (Percentage of population)2 2 Level 1 qualifications cover: 1+'O' level passes; 1+ CSE/GCSE any grades; NVQ level 1; or Foundation level GNVQ. Level 2 qualifications cover: 5+'O' level passes; 5+ CSE (grade 1's); 5+GCSEs (grades A-C); School Certificate; 1+'A' levels/'AS' levels; NVQ level 2; or Intermediate GNVQ. Level 3 qualifications cover: 2+ 'A' levels; 4+ 'AS' levels; Higher School Certificate; NVQ level 3; or Advanced GNVQ. Level 4/5 qualifications cover: First Degree, Higher Degree, NVQ levels 4 and 5; HNC; HND; Qualified Teacher Status; Qualified Medical Doctor; Qualified Dentist; Qualified Nurse; Midwife; or Health Visitor. 21 St. Pauls City of Bristol England No qualifications 24 26 29 Highest qualification attained level 1 12 14 17 Highest qualification attained level 2 18 17 19 Highest qualification attained level 3 12 11 8 Highest qualification attained level 4 / 5 29 24 19 Other qualifications / level unknown 5 5 7 Source: Author based on data from Office for National Statistics, UK Census of Population, 2001. Output area distinguishing St. Pauls from Ashley Ward. Table 5: Housing tenure in St. Pauls and Bristol (2001) (Percentage of population) St. Pauls City of Bristol Owner-occupied 26.4 63 Rented council 20.8 17 Rented HA/social landlord 26.5 4.1 Rented private landlord/agency 21.4 14.9 Other 4.9 1.0 Source: Author based on data from Office for National Statistics, UK Census of Population, 2001. Output area distinguishing St. Pauls from Ashley Ward. Table 6: General Health in St. Pauls, Bristol and England (2001) (Percentage of population) St. Pauls City of Bristol England Good Health 65 69 69 Fairly Good Health 23 22 22 Not Good Health 12 9 9 Source: Author based on data from Office for National Statistics, UK Census of Population, 2001. Output area distinguishing St. Pauls from Ashley Ward. Table 7: Claiming Benefits in St. Pauls, Bristol and England (2009) (Percentage of Population) St. Pauls Bristol England Working Age Claiming a Key Benefit 29 15 15 Incapacity Benefits Claimants 12 7 7 Male 17 8 8 Female 12 7 7 Lone Parents 6 2 2 Source: Author based on data from Office for National Statistics, 2010 Output area distinguishing St. Pauls from Ashley Ward. Table 8: Claiming Out of Work Benefits in St. Pauls, Bristol and England (2009) (Percentage of Population) 22 St. Pauls Bristol England All 9.2 2.1 2.3 Aged 16-24 9.5 2.6 4.5 Aged 25-49 8.9 2 2.1 Aged 50 and over 10.2 1.5 1.5 Source: Author based on data from Office for National Statistics, 2010 Output area distinguishing St. Pauls from Ashley Ward. Table 9: Education in St. Pauls, Bristol and England (2009) (Percentage of Population) St. Pauls Bristol England Pupils at the End of KS4 Achieving 5+ A - C 39 62 69 Pupils at the End of KS4 With No Passes 0 2.6 1 Assessments Key Stage 3 Pupils Achieving Level 5+; in English 29 64 74 Pupils Achieving Level 5+; in Mathematics 36 66 76 Pupils Achieving Level 5+; in Science 39 61 73 Assessments Key Stage 2 Pupils Achieving Level 4+; in English 62 76 80 Pupils Achieving Level 4+; in Mathematics 56 75 79 Pupils Achieving Level 4+; in Science 67 85 88 Assessments Key Stage 1 Pupils Achieving Level 2+; in Reading 79 83 84 Pupils Achieving Level 2+; in Writing 75 80 81 Pupils Achieving Level 2+; in Mathematics 81 88 89 Source: Author based on data from Office for National Statistics, 2010. Output area distinguishing St. Pauls from Ashley Ward. Table 10: Deprivation in St. Pauls and Bristol (2005 and 2008) (Percentage of Population and Ranking) 2005 St. Bristol Bristol England Pauls Rank Rank 2008 St. Pauls Bristol Bristol Rank England Rank Income Deprived3 50.2% 16.7% 2nd 532nd 41% 15% 8th 1,000th Employment Deprived Children (0-15) Income Deprived4 23.9% 10.2% 12th 1,474th 21% 10% 17th 2,300th 93.3% 28.7% 1st 20th 81% 25% 1st 40th 3 ‘Income deprived’ shows percentage of all people that live in families that are income deprived, households receiving income support, income based job-seekers allowance, pension credits, working tax or child tax credit with an income below 60% of national median before housing costs. 4 ‘Children income deprived’ shows percentage of children (0-15 years old) that live in families that are income deprived, households receiving income support, income based job-seekers allowance, pension credits, working tax or child tax credit with an income below 60% of national median before housing costs. 23 Note: Rank 1 = most deprived. The Bristol rank is a rank out of the 252 in the city. The England rank is a rank out of all the 32,482 areas nationally Source: Author, based on data from DCLG (Department of Communities and Local Governments), Indices of Deprivation, 2007 and 2010. Output area distinguishing St. Pauls from Ashley Ward. Table 10: Deprivation in St. Pauls and Bristol (2005 and 2008) (Scores and Ranking) 2005 St. Pauls Bristol England Rank Rank 2008 St. Pauls Bristol Bristol Rank England Rank Health Deprivation and Disability Barriers to Housing/Services Education, Skills and Training Living Environment Deprivation Crime and Disorder 1.35 18th 2,257th 0.85 0.15 40th 5, 446th 31.56 45th 6,089th 20.31 16.70 46th 16,148th 47.24 - 3,696th 45.72 28.50 62nd 3,986th 46.99 13th 3, 284th 48.44 25.49 13th 2, 868th - - - 1.44 0.85 40th 1, 184th Multiple Deprivation 60.98 13th 815th 53.58 24.73 14th 1,611th Note: Rank 1 = most deprived. The Bristol rank is a rank out of the 252 in the city. The England rank is a rank out of all the 32,482 areas nationally Source: Author, based on data from DCLG (Department of Communities and Local Governments), Indices of Deprivation, 2007 and 2010. Output area distinguishing St. Pauls from Ashley Ward. Appendix 2: Search Strategy A preliminary literature review identified current issues and the scope of previous research. Sources included databases (citation indexes, general searches, and subject specific searches), reference lists, â€˜greyâ€™ literature and internet search engines (Google, Google Scholar, SIGLE). An initial search was carried out using the main social science databases: ISI Web of Knowledge, ZETOC, COPAC, INTUTE and Jstor. After each search, the search method was revised and then replicated using other sources. A written record was kept of these searches (see over). I then searched specific journals i.e. Journal of Youth Work Studies; Social Policy and Society; Journal of Youth and Adolescence. In addition, I looked at relevant web pages, such as Bristol Youth Links, and statistical sites, such as the Office for National Statistics: as well as local government sites, such as that of Bristol City Council. This search generated significant general data, but very little material specifically focussing on St. Pauls or Bristol. It was generally not possible, from looking at the 24 published material, to separate out the data relevant to St. Pauls. Similarly, most of the statistical data on St. Pauls is aggregated with Ashley. Therefore, I emailed a number of local youth organisations, asking if they were aware of any research on the topic. I also spoke to people from several of these organisations. Those contacted were: St. Pauls Youth Work Team; Bristol City Council Youth and Play Services; Aashyaana Housing Association; Amana Education Trust; Awaz Utaoh; Barnados (Bristol Central and East); Bristol Youth Community Action; Full Circle; Malcolm X Community Centre: St. Pauls Advice Centre; and Young Bristol. I also contacted relevant researchers from Bristol University who have previously researched youth i.e. Harriet Bradley (School of Sociology, Politics and International Studies), Eldin Fahmy (School for Policy Studies). These conversations and communications led to some more material, though still limited. However, together there was sufficient evidence to achieve a basic understanding of the aspirations, challenges and opportunities for YP in St. Pauls. However, specific research into the topic is necessary to build on, and corroborate this foundation. Date Initial Database Literature Search Database Search Terms 11.04.11 11.04.11 11.04.11 11.04.11 11.04.11 11.04.11 11.04.11 11.04.11 11.04.11 11.04.11 12.04.11 12.04.11 12.04.11 12.04.11 12.04.11 12.04.11 12.04.11 12.04.11 12.04.11 12.04.11 ISI Web of Knowl. ISI Web of Knowl. ISI Web of Knowl. ISI Web of Knowl. ISI Web of Knowl. ISI Web of Knowl ISI Web of Knowl. ISI Web of Knowl ISI Web of Knowl. ISI Web of Knowl. Copac Copac Copac Zetoc Zetoc Zetoc Zetoc Zetoc Zetoc INTUTE St. Pauls + young people Bristol + young people Bristol + St Pauls Young people + aspirations + UK Young people + UK + opportunities Young people + UK + challenges Youth + Bristol Social exclusion + Bristol Youth + UK + social exclusion Youth + Bristol Young people + Bristol Youth + Bristol St. Pauls + Bristol St. Pauls + Bristol Bristol + youth Youth + UK + social exclusion Young people + UK + challenges Young people + UK + opportunities Bristol + young people St. Pauls + Bristol + youth 12.04.11 INTUTE Bristol + youth 12.04.11 INTUTE Youth + UK 12.04.11 12.04.11 12.04.11 Jstor Jstor Jstor St. Pauls + young people Bristol + young people Bristol + St Pauls In Topic Topic Topic Topics Topics Topics Topics Topics Topics Topics Topics Topics Topics Topics Topics All fields All fields All fields All fields Social Sciences Social Sciences Social Sciences Topic Topic Topic Search Results 0 19 2 16 52 45 19 7 12 15 120 138 150 2 26 2 20 20 26 0 Poss. Useful 0 2 2 2 3 2 1 1 1 0 2 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 62 19 3 10 12 1 0 0 25 12.04.11 12.04.11 12.04.11 12.04.11 Jstor Jstor Jstor SIGLE Young people + aspirations + UK Young people + UK + opportunities Young people + UK + challenges St. Pauls + Bristol + youth Topics Topics Topics 17 20 31 19 0 0 0 0 Appendix 3: Aspirations of Young People - UK Youth Parliament The most recent manifesto for the UK youth parliament focuses on the following aspirations (UKYP, 2008): Multi-Culturalism: More multi-cultural celebrations. Multi-cultural education should be interactive and more diverse. Media: The negative stereotyping of young people in the media needs to change. Government and councils should use new media when communicating with young people so as to be more inclusive and to reach out to a wider audience. Sports: There should be a more diverse range of sports open to young people. Increase the availability and affordability of leisure and sports facilities for young people. Increase media coverage of female sports. Higher education: No university tuition fees. Replace with a form of graduate contribution. Offer a wider range of courses, academic and vocational. More support during transitions in education. Schools: Citizenship education should be radically overhauled to include the basics of democracy; the emotional impact of relationships, cultural awareness and sign-language; community volunteering; budgeting and basic life-skills. Reduce class sizes. Involve young people in school inspections. Careers: Opportunities to participate in work experience. Each school to have a professionally trained and qualified careers adviser, or use external services. Increase threshold for EMAs. Bullying: School anti-bullying policies should be written by students in consultation with teachers and relevant professionals. Zero tolerance. Environment: Use renewable resources. Cheaper public transport for young people. Rural areas: More facilities. Improve mobile and broadband connection. Mental health: Education on mental health to be compulsory in schools. Improve existing facilities and support for young people. Human rights: UK should not ignore international human rights abuses. Agreement to reduce debts to poor countries. Honour the Millennium Development Goals. 26 Gun and knife crime: Educate young people about the dangers of gun and knife crime at a younger age. Do more to address the gang culture, which exists in today’s society. Offer young offenders whose crimes are drug-related the support they need to kick the habit. Police: Mutual respect between the police and young people. UKYP condemns any form of discrimination or prejudice when being stopped and searched by the police. Equality and discrimination: An end to discrimination in the workplace. Pay young people the same as older adults. No child should be in poverty. Bristol Youth Parliament Elected members of the Youth Parliament from Bristol, successfully campaigned on the following policies (BCC, 2011): More activities for young people and more affordable or free – including after school clubs, holiday schemes and swimming Environmental issues – global warming, protect parks and green spaces Ending poverty Rights for women, ethnic minorities and immigrants Safer communities and schools – end to bullying and knife crime Cheaper public transport – free to under 16s Lower the voting age This indicates similar aspirations to the national Youth Parliament. 27