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s ty ue ri Iss Secu N ical nd t ITIO Top ela ser ED n m In IS s o Ho ial TH int ʼs ec IN ewpo India e - Sp i n c sʼ V s o ren ert ocu efe Exp al F sʼ R • ition vent d E Ad •

A v i a t i o n

D a s s a u l t

T h a l e s

What will protect India st in the 21 century?

2009

39TH YEAR OF ISSUE

2009

39TH YEAR OF ISSUE

2010

Price: Inland Rs 4,975; Foreign (Surface Mail): Stg. £ 395.00; US$ 700.00

In matter of national defence, there can be no substitute for complete trust in the source, no compromise on the reliability and the availability of the aircraft and its technologies. For over half a century, we have proudly been supporting India’s air defence mission. Today, we look forward to keeping the privilege of serving India, for the next 50 years, with the world’s most advanced latest generation aircraft, Rafale. The OMNIROLE fighter

2010

Editor-in-Chief

Jayant Baranwal

THA-MilitaryAerospace-210x267-spmy_uk

8/06/10

16:56

Page 1

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2009

39th Year of IssuE

2010

Global Security begins with ISR.

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ISR Northrop Grumman’s systems enable warfighters to respond with speed and confidence. Decades of multiple domain ISR leadership have given us the expertise and knowledge to anticipate operational needs. Which is why our ISR systems are the best choice in the quest for ground truth and the ability to read and react, quickly and accurately.

Minister of Defence INdia

Message t is a pleasure to learn that you are publishing the SP’s Military Yearbook 20092010. Our armed forces and the defence industry must strive to achieve a mutually healthy synergy. They should work in tandem and consult each other on a regular basis. Both our armed forces and the defence industry must look upon each other as competitive partners, than as rivals. Modernisation of our armed forces is a top priority, but the modernisation process has to go hand-in-hand with indeginsation and self-reliance. Our objective is to minimise over-dependence on imports to meet the requirements of our armed forces. I hope the publication will be read and liked by experts and the layman alike. I wish you all success in your endeavours.

A.K. Antony

  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2009-2010  |  39th Year of Issue  |  5

Towards a safer world

THREAT SIMULATION. MADE REAL. Widely recognised as a best-in-class reusable threat simulation system, the high performance Mirach 100/5 aerial target is in use in all major European Firing Ranges and deployed by six Armed Forces worldwide and employed to qualify over 30 guided weapons in the air, naval and land domains. Able to embark a wide range of target mission payloads, Mirach replicates the most complex air threats to present weapons and sensors with representative and stressing engagement scenarios. Make sure you know your threats before you meet them. Tomorrow’s technology is here today.

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6  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2009-2010  |  39th Year of Issue  | 

2009

39th Year of IssuE

2010

Editor-in-Chief

Jayant Baranwal

Copyright © 2009-2010 by

SP Guide Publications All rights reserved. The information published herein is for the personal use of the reader and may not be incorporated in any commercial activity. Making copies in any form, electronic or otherwise, of the information in full or any portion thereof for purposes other than own use is a violation of copyright law. For additional information relating to copyright, please contact: The Editor-in-Chief SP’s Military Yearbook A-133, Arjun Nagar New Delhi - 110 003, India. Email: editor@spsmilitaryyearbook.com The publisher shall not be liable in the event of incidental or consequential damages in connection with, or arising out of, the furnishing or use of the information, associated instructions/ claims of productivity gains.

Founded by Shri SUKHDEO PRASAD BARANWAL in 1965 Published by Jayant Baranwal SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS PVT LTD New Delhi, India

Designed by SP Guide Publications Team ISSN 0076-8782 Registered with RNI No. (P.) : F.2 (S/11) Press / 93

Postal Address: P O Box 2525, New Delhi 110 005, India

Corporate Office: A-133, Arjun Nagar, Opposite Defence Colony, New Delhi 110003, India. Tel: +91 (11) 24644693, 24644763, 24620130, 24658322 Fax: +91 (11) 24647093

Processed and Printed in India by

E-Mail:

Pragati Offset, Hyderabad

info@spsmilitaryyearbook.com, order@spsmilitaryyearbook.com, guidepub@vsnl.com

Price: Inland Rs. 4,975;

Website:

Foreign (Surface Mail): £ 395.00; US$ 700.00

www.spguidepublications.com, www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

ORI

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GROU

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MAR

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10  |  SP's Military Yearbook  |  2009-2010  |  39th Year of Issue  | 

WORKS ANYWHERE DEPLOYED EVERYWHERE

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MADE IN INDIA

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This means that India will be in the front

become a leading fighter aircraft provider.

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18 | SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue |

20 | SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue |

| SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue | 21

22 | SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue |

24 | SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue |

| SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue | 25

26 | SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue |

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Readers’ Comments.... The Guide Publications of New Delhi have brought out the Military Yearbook. It is useful to have suitably compiled information in one volume. I commend the efforts of the Publishers. Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Former Prime Minister of India It (Military Yearbook) is a valuable book. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Former President of India It was good of you to send me a complimentary copy of Military Yearbook (1970).....I have gone through.....and found its general get up good and contents useful. Field Marshal S.H.F.J. Manekshaw Former Chief of the Army Staff Indian Army

considerable assistance to all the Services personnel whose profession is the science of war. Admiral O.S. Dawson Former Chief of the Naval Staff, Indian Navy SP’s Military Yearbook 2008-09 contains information about the service rendered by SP Guide Publication to the armed forces of our motherland. It will continue to evolve to keep up the aspirations of the people. T. Ramachandru Joint Secretary (Supplies) Ministry of Defence (as on 22.05.09)

I take this opportunity to compliment you and your team for bringing out the quality Yearbook which is well documented and creates awareness about current technology and Military Yearbook is indeed a very interesting weaponry used by leading militaries of the   and useful document and would be of world. The book has an excellent compilation

of Indian Defence Budget and modernisation plan of IAF. The seminal work of the publication deserves sincere appreciations. My compliments for the good work done. Air Vice Marshal G.P. Sharma Assistant Chief of the Air Staff (Meteorology), IAF (as on 25.05.09) It is indeed commendable that the SP Guide Publications has been offering its services to the readers of the armed forces for the last 45 years. The Yearbook is rich in contents and has an impressive lay out. It is indeed very well compiled and presented. The editorial team deserves to be complimented for weaving together such an extensive, impressive and informative book. Lt General S.S. Kumar Quartermaster General, Indian Army (as on 12.06.09)

YOUR FUTURE, OUR MISSION.

A400M



28 | SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue |

A330 MRTT

The articles in SP’s Military Yearbook reflect the commitment of your publication towards the services. The 2008-2009 is a fitting tribute to the completion of 45 years of the company. I wish you the very best in all future endeavours. Lt General Avadhesh Prakash Military Secretary, Indian Army (as on 12.06.09)

SP’s Military Yearbook is quite informative and interesting. My compliments to the Editor-in-Chief and all personnel involved in the publication of the book. The book is a benchmark for Military Yearbooks. Please keep up the good work. Air Marshal P.P. Rajkumar Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, HQ Central Air Command, IAF (as on 18.06.09)

I extend my heartiest congratulations to you and your team on successful completion of 45 years of service. The current edition of the Yearbook is immensely informative and very well compiled. I wish you success in all your future endeavours. Major General Rameshwar Roy Additional Director General Military Intelligence (A), Indian Army (as on 15.06.09)

The SP’s Military Yearbook 2008-09 is comprehensive and a useful compendium for reference. Colonel Asit Mistry Director Perspective Planning (Coordination), Indian Army (as on 23.06.09) We find the SP’s Military Yearbook 2008-09 highly informative and useful to all dealing in defence. This will be used in DRDO by

many Directorates as it has a variety of data. Efforts put in by the publishers are enormous and an excellent quality handbook of world standard has emerged. Greetings and congratulations. Dr Prahlada Chief Controller R&D (SI), DRDO (as on 31.07.09) Let me congratulate you and SP Guide Publications on completion of 45 years of committed service to the armed forces. A very good effort has been made at providing all the required information about all the armed forces. The section on weapons, equipment & vehicles provides a good insight into their capabilities. Air Marshal K.K. Nohwar Senior Air Staff Officer, HQ Training Command, IAF (as on 26.08.09)

    ���                                                      

CN235/C295

NEW STANDARDS. TOGETHER

| SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue | 29

30 | SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue |

Major Indian Armed Forces’ Headquarters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Udhampur (HQ Northern Command), Army Shimla (HQ Army Training Command) Chandimandir (HQ Western Command), Army New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Army)) New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Navy)) New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Air Force)) New Delhi (HQ Western Air Command) Lucknow (HQ Central Command), Army Shillong (HQ Eastern Air Command) Allahabad (HQ Central Air Command) Gandhinagar (HQ South-Western Air Command) Kolkata (HQ Eastern Command), Army

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Nagpur (HQ Maintenance Command), IAF Mumbai (HQ Western Naval Command) Pune (HQ Southern Command), Army Vishakhapatnam (HQ Eastern Naval Command) Bengaluru (HQ Training Command), IAF Kochi (HQ Southern Naval Command) Thiruvananthapuram (HQ Southern Air Command) New Delhi (HQ Strategic Forces Command) Port Blair (HQ Andaman & Nicobar Command) New Delhi (HQ Integrated Defence Staff) Jaipur (HQ South-Western Command), Army

| SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue | 31

32 | SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue |

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

uuu u u

Contents

REGIONAL BALANCE

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

uuuuuu CONTENTS

C-130J

F-16IN

MH-60R

Aegis

DAGR

HELLFIRE II

B E T W E E N PA R T N E R S HI P S P R O MI S E D A N D PA R T N E R S HI P S A C HI E V E D, T H E R E I S O N E IM P O R TA N T W O R D : H O W.

In a world that continues to change dramatically, governments increasingly seek to accomplish their most vital goals by working with advanced technology companies from around the globe. Building and sustaining partnerships that achieve their objectives is a matter of how. And it is the how that makes all the difference.

CON T E N TS C O L O U R PA G ES Readers’ Comments

28

Map: Major Indian Armed Forces’ Headquarters

31

Editorial

53

WEAPONS, EQUIPMENT & VEHICLES

57-157

Contributors Profile

158

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| SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue | 33

34 | SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue |

CON T E N T S 1 CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

1

1

Changing World Order Lt General (Retd) V.R. Raghavan

1

2

Regrouping of International Forces Yang Jiemian

5

3

Indo-US Relationship K. Subrahmanyam

11

4

Afghanistan-Pakistan Perspective Lt General (Retd) Vijay Oberoi

17

| SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue | 35

36 | SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue |

CONTENTS 5

People’s Liberation Army of China Brig (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal

21

6

China’s Armed Forces Maj General (Retd) Sheru Thapliyal

25

7

Land Warfare Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor

29

8

Emerging Role of Indian Navy Admiral (Retd) Arun Prakash

35

9

India’s Maritime Challenges Vice Admiral (Retd) J.S. Bedi

39

10 Aerospace Power Air Marshal (Retd) Vinod Patney

43

11 Multilateral Nuclear Ties Arundhati Ghose

47

12 India’s Higher Direction of War General (Retd) V.P. Malik

51

VIEWPOINTS 1

China-Pakistan Alliance Dr. Monika Chansoria

55

2

India-China Relations Ranjit Gupta

57

3

North Korea Rising Brig (Retd) S.K. Chatterji

59

4

Combating Internal Security Threats General (Retd) V.P. Malik

61

| SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue | 37

CON T E N T S 5. We Need to Spend More Efficiently Air Chief Marshal (Retd) S. Krishnaswamy

63

2 TECHNOLOGY

65

1

Revolution in Military Affairs Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch

65

2

Network Culture Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch

69

3

Military Communications Lt General (Retd) A.K. Saini

73

4

Surface Warships Vice Admiral (Retd) B.S. Randhawa

77

5

Fighter Aircraft Engines Air Marshal (Retd) A.K. Trikha

81

6

Indian Cyberspace Security Lt General (Retd) S.R.R. Aiyengar

85

7

Directed Energy Weapons Brig Subodh Kumar

89

8

Thermal Imaging Ikbal Singh

93

3 BUSINESS 1

India’s Defence Budget Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor

97 97

38 | SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue |

CON T E N T S 2

Defence Procurement Procedure 101 Maj General (Retd) Mrinal Suman

3

‘Make (High-tech)’ Procedure Maj General (Retd) Mrinal Suman

4

5

6

7

8

Indian Army Modernisation Plans Brig (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal Indian Navy Modernisation Commodore (Retd) Rajeev Sawhney Indian Air Force Modernisation Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia Declining Defence Budget Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch

107

111

117

123

127

India’s Strategic and Business Environment Sanjay Kumar

129

Global Contracts

137

The culture of defence is the culture of our men. Since 1905, Oto Melara has been synonymous with defence throughout the world and in all its aspects, be it sea, land or air. 100 years of continuous research and technological development have allowed us to achieve results that once seemed possible only in our dreams. An example is the 76/62 cannon, sold to 53 countries around the world. Today, however, we are ready to face an even greater challenge that of remaining leaders in a world market which is constantly evolving. Because our idea of defence has no limits.

| SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue | 39

CON T E N T S 4 INDIAN DEFENCE

161

1

Integrated Defence Staff Brig (Retd) Vinod Anand

161

2

The Indian Army

169

3

The Indian Navy

191

4

The Indian Air Force

215

5

The Indian Coast Guard

239

6

Who’s Who in Indian Defence

249

7

Defence Industry

267

8

Defence R&D

289

HOMELAND SECURITY 1

India’s Homeland Security Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor

299

2

A Spate of Reforms Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor

309

3

Countering Maoist Insurgency Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch

315

4

Naxalite Rage Prakash Singh

321

5

Challenges in the Northeast Lt General (Retd) Arvind Sharma

323

6

Coastal Management Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand

327

40 | SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue |

CON T E N T S 5 ASIAN WHO’S WHO

329

Afghanistan

329

Indonesia

331

Algeria

329

Iran

331

Australia

329

Iraq

331

Bahrain

330

Israel

331

Bangladesh

330

Japan

331

Cambodia

330

Jordan

332

China

330

Kazakhstan

332

Egypt

330

Kuwait

332

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| SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue | 41

CON T E N T S Kyrgyzstan

332

Saudi Arabia

334

Laos

332

Singapore

335

Lebanon

332

South Korea

335

Libya

333

Sri Lanka

335

Malaysia

333

Syria

335

Myanmar

333

Taiwan

335

Nepal

333

Tajikistan

336

North Korea

333

Turkmenistan

336

Oman

333

United Arab Emirates

336

Pakistan

334

Uzbekistan

336

Philippines

334

Vietnam

336

Qatar

334

Yemen

336

6 REGIONAL BALANCE

337

1

GDP & Military Expenditure

337

2

Central & South Asia

341

3

Kazakhstan

344

Bangladesh

353

Kyrgyzstan

345

Bhutan

355

Tajikistan

347

India

356

Turkmenistan

349

Nepal

359

Uzbekistan

350

Pakistan

361

Afghanistan

352

Sri Lanka

363

East Asia, PaciďŹ c Rim & Australia

365

Australia

368

Indonesia

376

Cambodia

370

Japan

378

China

372

North Korea

381

42 | SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue |

CON T E N T S

4

South Korea

383

Singapore

393

Laos

385

Taiwan

395

Malaysia

387

Thailand

397

Myanmar

389

Vietnam

399

Philippines

391

West Asia and North Africa

401

Algeria

404

Iran

412

Egypt

406

Iraq

414

Libya

408

Israel

416

Bahrain

410

Jordan

418

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| SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue | 43

CON T E N T S Kuwait

420

Saudi Arabia

427

Lebanon

422

Syria

429

Oman

424

United Arab Emirates

431

Qatar

426

Republic of Yemen

433

5

Asia-Pacific: China Rising Sanjay Kumar

435

6

Equipment & Hardware Specifications

441

Army Equipment

44 | SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue |

441

CON T E N T S Naval Equipment

468

Air Equipment

498

DIAGRAMS/GRAPHS Defence Budget (Comparision)

99

Distribution of Capital Budget

100

Distribution of Revenue Budget

100

Organisation of Integrated Defence Staff

162

Diagrammatic Layout of the Army’s Chain of Command

171

Organisation of Indian Army Headquarters

173

Organisation of Indian Navy Headquarters

193

Organisation of Indian Air Force Headquarters

218

Organisation of Indian Coast Guard Headquarters

241

Indian Coast Guard SAR Organisation

246

Summary of the output of the defence industry, including ordnance factories and DPSUs, during the previous three years (up to 2008-2009)

268

Organisation Chart of the Department of Defence Production & Supplies (DDP&S)

269

Organisation Structure of OFB

270 | SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue | 45

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CON T E N T S External Functional Linkages (OFB comes under Department of Defence Production)

270

Performance Summary of DPSUs

273

Values of stores assured by DGQA (in Rs crore)

287

DRDO: Ministry of Defence

290

Organisational Structure of Defence Research & Development Organisation

291

Proposed Restructuring Plan of DRDO

294

Paramilitary Forces under Ministry of Home Affairs

300

Organisational Command & Control of Central Police Forces

308

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| SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue | 47

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CON T E N T S ABBREVIATIONS & INDEX

513

ADVERTISER INDEX AIRBUS MILITARY

www.airbusmilitary.com

28 & 29

ALLIGATOR DESIGNS

www.alligatordesigns.com

44

ASHOK LEYLAND

www.ashokleyland.com

16

BEML

www.bemlindia.com

45

BHARAT ELECTRONICS

www.bel-india.com

24

BOMBARDIER AEROSPACE

www.specialmission.bombardier.com

238*

C-COM SATELLITE SYSTEMS

www.c-comsat.com

11

DASSAULT / RAFALE INTERNATIONAL

www.dassault-aviation.com

Back Cover

DEFENSE CONSEIL INTERNATIONAL

www.groupedci.com

20

| SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue | 49

CON T E N T S DRDO

www.drdo.org

22

DRS TACTICAL SYSTEMS

www.jointforcesystems.com

Book Mark

ELBIT SYSTEMS

www.elbitsystems.com

27

ELBIT SYSTEMS - ELECTO-OPTICS ELOP

www.elbitsystems.com/elop

43

ELETTRONICA

www.elettronica-elt-roma.com

190*

EMBRAER

www.embraerdefensesystems.com

Concepts & Perspective Section Separator

EUROCOPTER

www.eurocopter.com

Weapons Equipment Vehicles Section Separator

EUROFIGHTER

www.eurofighter.com

15

EUROJET

www.eurojet.de

Regional Balance Section Separator

FFV ORDNANCE (SAAB)

www.saabgroup.com

10

FINCANTIERI

www.fincantieri.com

52

FINMECCANICA

www.finmeccanica.com

Front Cover

HARRIS

www.rfcomm.harris.com/7800w

Indian Defence Section Separator

HDW

www.thyssenkrupp-marinesystems.com

Book Mark

HINDUSTAN AERONAUTICS

www.hal-india.com

14

HONEYWELL

www.honeywellforjaguar.com

Book Mark

ISRAEL AEROSPACE INDUSTRIES

www.iai.co.il

19

ISSARTEL INDUSTRIE

www.issartel.com

Asian Who’s Who Section Separator

ITT

www.ittdefenceindia.com

168*

ISRAEL WEAPON INDUSTRIES

www.israel-weapon.com

49

JCB INDIA

www.jcb.com

26

LARSEN & TOUBRO

www.larsentoubro.com

25

LOCKHEED MARTIN

www.lockheedmartin.com

Contents Section Separator

MBDA

www.mbda-systems.com

9

MEPROLIGHT

www.meprolight.com

51

NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS

www.ni.com/aerospace-defense

36

NAVANTIA

www.navantia.es

35

NEXTER

www.nexter-group.fr

41

NORTHROP GRUMMAN (AEROSPACE SYSTEMS)

www.northropgrumman.com/isr

4

NORTHROP GRUMMAN (ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS)

www.northropgrumman.com/mmrca

Business Section Separator

ORDNANCE FACTORY BOARD (OFB)

www.ofbindia.gov.in

38

OTO MELARA

www.otomelara.it

39

PIPAVAV SHIPYARD

www.pipavavshipyard.com

30

PRATT & WHITNEY

www.pw.utc.com

214*

PUNJ LLOYD

www.punjlloydgroup.com

34

RADA

www.rada.com

47

50 | SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue |

CON T E N T S RAFAEL

www.rafael.co.il

23

RAYTHEON

www.raytheon.com

1

RUAG AVIATION

www.ruag.com

33

RUBIN/ ADMIRALTY

www.ckb-rubin.ru

12

SAAB GRIPEN

www.gripen.com

13

SAGEM

www.sagem-ds.com

17

SAMTEL

www.samteldisplays.com

18

SELEX COMMUNICATIONS

www.selex-comms.com

37

SELEX GALILEO

www.selexgalileo.com

6

ST KINETICS

www.stengg.com/kinetics

2

TATA MOTORS

www.defencesolutions-tatamotors.com

21 & 32

TERMA

www.terma.com

Technology Section Separator

THALES

www.thalesgroup.com

Facing Inside Front Cover * These pages are in the Indian Defence Section

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| SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue | 51

2009

39TH YEAR OF ISSUE

2010

Editorial

A

S SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS inches closer to its golden anniversary, it is a changed world that we see from the one which saw the birth of this organisation as Guide Publications (in 1964) and the publication of the Military Yearbook the following year. The novel initiative of Shri Sukhdeo Prasad Baranwal came in for praise from none other than the then Prime Minister of India, Lal Bahadur Shastri, which also found an echo with the armed forces. The publication was renamed SP’s Military Yearbook in 1992, and became the company’s flagship product. Information is not always difficult to come by, but facts are sacred. And when facts are collated in the form of a YearSP’s Military Yearbook 2008-2009 being presented to Defence Minister A.K. Antony book, it becomes indispensable as a reference guide. This is what SP’s Military Yearbook strived to do year on year, as it kept expanding in scope, content and physical reach. But facts change, as do numbers, the latter too frequently for comfort. More so, in a world in flux. To make sense of such a world, what is needed are not a pair of coloured glasses, but a barometer. And that is what SP’s Military Yearbook is – an annual barometer of military affairs.

| SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue | 53

The cover of Military Yearbook 1965

A new world The new world order is driven by four very visible major movements. The first is that of the much talked about economic downturn and the subsequent recovery in most parts of the world. The second movement is led by international terrorism marked by political and strategic vacuum in Afghanistan and Pakistan, denoted by the Af-Pak concept. The third is related to nuclear proliferation and disarmament, it being a matter of grave concern. The fourth element is that of equity in the global trade and climate sphere. The content of SP’s Military Yearbook this year, quite naturally, is reflective of the tone, the character, and the spirit of these movements which have considerable impact upon national and international security issues. Economically, the world has been undergoing an unprecedented upheaval for the last couple of years. India, to quite an extent, has been bucking the drift. The economic growth in India continues to show an upward and stable trend. There is political stability in India, and its balance of trade and foreign exchange reserves are also in good shape. Its ability to withstand economic and financial downturns is credible as seen in the last few years, when most developed nations have struggled to find a balance. India is, as a result, considered a safe investment destination. India has a respectable presence in the G-20, and when US President Barack Obama recently met the Indian Prime Minister on the sidelines of the G-20 summit, he praised the Prime Minister thus, “When [Manmohan] Singh speaks, people listen.” As India seeks to rise in the international power hierarchy, the nation finds itself constrained by a strategic (external) and domestic security environment which has deteriorated steadily over the years. The major factors contributing to this situation are the continuing geo-strategic rivalry among major powers for regional supremacy, the rising military and economic power of China, the enduring war on terrorism in the neighbourhood, a Sino-Pak nexus which presents the potential threat of a two-front war, the changing nature of war itself and the impact of new technologies, and the growing scourge of left-wing extremism and terrorism within the country. All these factors working in tandem have put considerable strain on India’s military and internal security forces to expand to their fighting capabilities to provide the country with a peaceful and secure external and domestic environment. The thrust of India’s military modernisation is on achieving conventional and nuclear deterrence through acquiring capability-based structures and systems, while upgrading its threat-based structures for a possible two-front, limited

54 | SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue |

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conventional conflict. Inherent in this is the capability for limited force projection for out of area operations and a focused capability for fighting sustained low intensity conflicts involving counter-insurgency and counter-terrorist operations. Weapon procurements are likely to be directed to fulfill these requirements of the armed forces.

What is new this year? SP’s Military Yearbook this year, which has been extensively updated, carries a richer content in almost every section. “View Points” on pertinent strategic security issues have been added to the section on “Concepts and Perspectives”. The section on “Homeland Security” reflects the importance that India is laying on internal stability sought to be wrecked by misguided elements within the country, some of whom are being supported by inimical neighbours. For the first time we have included a comprehensive article on “India’s Strategic and Business Environment” to give a flavour of it to our business clientele. While there are considerable additions on the content of the Yearbook, this time a lot of emphasis has been laid on the form too. Any tome that runs into 700 pages and more, stands in the danger of being unwieldy and an annoyance to browse through. Keeping this in mind, the layout of the past issues has been tweaked into a more reader-friendly format. A volume that runs into hundreds of pages of text needs to be easier on the eyes for better reading, and that is what it has been transformed into this time. A book of reference also needs to be easier to sift through. The navigational structure too, therefore, has been reworked. Now you can browse through the Yearbook with consummate ease, and not feel a strain on the eyes. If SP’s Military Yearbook has been established itself as an annual publication that needs to be kept within hand’s reach for reference purposes, one reason has been the unflinching loyalty of you readers. Our way of thanking our loyal readers this time is an interactive DVD that comes gratis with the Yearbook. Sources for facts & figures CIA Fact Book, Military Balance, Jane’s Weapon Systems, Jane’s All the World’s Aircraft, Jane’s Fighting Ships, Combat Fleets of the World, Soviet Military Power, US Military Strength Worldwide, NATO’s 16 Nations, Voennyi Vestnik, Aerospace Daily, War Pac Notes, Armies, Armour, Armed Forced Journal, Handbook of US & Soviet Weapons, Soviet Top

| SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue | 55

Acknowledgements Several distinguished columnists and industry experts on the editorial board worked in unison to make the SP's Military Yearbook 2009-2010 a quality product. It is my pleasure to name SP's team of experts: Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey Rear Admiral (Retd) S.K. Ramsay

Guns, Asian Defence Journal, Aviation Week and Space Technology, Defence & Foreign News, Asian Survey, Defence News, Airforce, Flight International, Tanks of the World, Aircraft of the World, World Fact Book, Sea Power, Soviet Military Review, International Defense Review, Jane’s Soviet Intelligence Review, US News & World Report, International Herald Tribune, Proceedings, New York Times, Financial Observer, Scala, New Yorker, Omini, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Time, Newsweek, Pravda, World Defence Almanac, Military Technology, besides several others. Clarifications: Most countries are reluctant to part with information relating to the size and strength of their armed forces and equipment specifications. Sincere efforts have been made to garner information from the most authentic sources for the SP’s Military Yearbook 2009-2010. Despite this, it is quite possible variations may crop up in some cases. Articles in this volume contain the personal opinions of the contributors and do not reflect the views of the publishers or the Indian government, including the Ministry of Defence. Suggestions for improvements will be appreciated and carried out to the extent possible and practically viable.

Jayant Baranwal Editor-in-Chief 56 | SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue |

CONTENTS CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

uuu u

ASIAN WHO’S WHO REGIONAL BALANCE

Airbus Military Alligator Designs Almaz-Antey Ashok Leyland Bharat Earth Movers Bharat Electronics Bombardier Aerospace C-COM Satellite Systems Dassault Defence Land Systems India DRS Technologies Elbit Systems Elettronica Embraer Eurocopter Eurojet FFV Ordnance Fincantieri Gripen In Hindustan Aeronautics Honeywell Israel Aerospace Industries Israel Weapons Industries Issartel Industrie ITT Defense Larsen & Toubro Lockheed Martin MBDA Meprolight National Instruments Navantia Nexter Systems Northrop Grumman Oto Melara Pipavav Shipyard Pratt & Whitney Punj Lloyd Rada Rafael Raytheon Rosboronexport Ruag Aviation Rubin and Admiralty Shipyards SagemSTSamtel Display Systems Selex Communications Selex Galileo Kinetics Tata Motors Terma Thales Zvyozdochka

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

Weapons, Equipment & Vehicles

TECHNOLOGY

special colour feature

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

uuuuuu

CONTENTS 109

Concept

Alligator Designs

61

MBDA

111

Jayant Baranwal SP Guide Publications Pvt Ltd New Delhi, India

Almaz-Antey

62

Meprolight

112

Ashok Leyland

64

National Instruments

113

Credits

BEML

65

Navantia

115

Publishers extend special thanks to the companies who have provided the contents and respective photographs for this feature. Also gladly acknowledge their extensive support and co-operation in formulating this feature with maximum possible up-to-date and lively contents.

Bharat Electronics

66

Nexter Systems

117

Bombardier Aerospace

69

Northrop Grumman

119

C-COM Satellite Systems

71

Oto Melara

122

Dassault

73

Pipavav Shipyard

123

Defence Land Systems India

75

Pratt & Whitney

125

DRS Technologies

77

Punj Lloyd

126

SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS PVT LTD

Elbit Systems

79

Rada

128

Postal Address: Post Box No. 2525 New Delhi 110005, India

Elettronica

82

Rafael

129

Embraer

84

Raytheon

131

Contact Address: Corporate Office A-133, Arjun Nagar, Opposite Defence Colony, New Delhi 110003, India. Phones : +91 11 24644693, 24644763, 24620130, 24658322 Fax : +91 11 24647093

Eurocopter

87

Rosoboronexport

133

Eurojet

90

Ruag Aviation

136

FFV Ordnance

92

Rubin and Admiralty Shipyards

139

Fincantieri

94

Sagem

142

Gripen IN

96

Samtel Display Systems

143

E-Mail : info@spsmilitaryyearbook. com, order@spsmilitaryyearbook.com, guidepub@del2.vsnl.net.in Website: www.spguidepublications.com, www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

Hindustan Aeronautics

98

Selex Communications

144

Processed and Printed in India by Pragati Offset, Hyderabad

Honeywell

100

Selex Galileo

146

Israel Aerospace Industries

101

ST Kinetics

149

Israel Weapon Industries

103

Tata Motors

151

Issartel Industrie

104

Terma

152

ITT Defense

106

Thales

154

Larsen & Toubro

108

Zvyozdochka

156

| SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue | 57

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Lockheed Martin

TECHNOLOGY

58

BUSINESS

Airbus Military

INDIAN DEFENCE

The publisher shall not be liable in the event of incidental or consequential damages in connection with, or arising out of, the furnishing or use of the information, associated instructions/claims of productivity gains.

CONTENTS

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

All rights reserved. The information published herein is for the personal use of the reader and may not be incorporated in any commercial activity. Making copies in any form, electronic or otherwise, of the information in full or any portion thereof for purposes other than own use is a violation of copyright law.

REGIONAL BALANCE

SP Guide Publications

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

W E A P O N S, E Q U I P M E N T & V E H I C L E S

Copyright © 2009-2010 by

AIRBUS MILITARY 2009: A new era emerged for Airbus Military

I

t’s been a year since Airbus Military integrated onto Airbus and despite the integration has not been easy the benefits are becoming more evident. After this first year of hard work to make people realized a new era has arrived, we find that the majority of workers, journalists and customers are happy with this union. Airbus benefit from the experience of the former EADS CASA in the military aircraft sector and, at the same time, Airbus Military take the strong brand of Airbus, known all over the world. 2009 has been a difficult year for EADS in general and for Airbus Military specially. Despite having won the contract for the renewal of the obsolete fleet of tankers of the US Air Force with the well-proven and successful platform A330 MRTT, the competition was cancelled. On September the bid was reopened again but Northrop Grumman, the Airbus Military partner in the com-

pletion withdrew from the bidding process, asserting that the new criteria were skewed in favor of Boeing’s offering. From the other hand, the A400M have had to demonstrate the European launching countries that is a solid program that will permit the air forces of the future to have an aircraft adapted to their future needs.

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A330MRTT hose and drogue pods with F18

New challenges for 2010 Airbus Military decided on April to go on its own to the US tanker bid. This will mean a tremendous effort of the people involved in the program to finally get to win the contract as they have already done with the Air Forces of Arabia Saudi, Australia, United Kingdom and the United Arab Emirates.

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CONTENTS Chassis/ Enclosure VME /cPCI/ PCI/ PC104 Rugged & Commercial Chassis

ATRs VME/ cPCI Convection & Conduction

Backplanes VPX/ VME/ cPCI and Costom

Displays 6.4" to 24" Rugged & Airborne Displays

Rugged Racks 28U to 42U Rugged Racks

Portable Terminals 3.5" to 10.4" Rugged Handheld Units

Rugged Storage 1TB to 3TB RAID Storage System

Rugged LAN Communication 8 to 24 – port GBit Rugged LAN Switch

working to deliver their products for a number of on-going major Indian defence programs such as RSPs for weapon locating radars/battery-level radars, AIS, combat management systems, IPMS, IBS, ECDIS, surveillance systems, EO based systems, new generation ESMs, battle management systems, sonar data recorders, BFSR, display processors for battle tanks, ALH/TMS and other warfare equipment. Alligator Designs has some significant consortium tie-ups with many reputed international defence manufacturers and is now endeavouring towards

partnerships abroad for exportoriented supplies. ‘Alligator Designs’ is duly certified by DGQA/Ministry of Defence, Govt. of India and is also issued industrial licenses for defence production by Ministry of Commerce/DIPP. ■ Contact for further details: Tel: +91-80-41119358/40878787 Mr. Pawan Seth, + 91 9845039775: Fax: +91-80-41172390 Mr. Nitin Gupta, + 91 9810234438 email: info@alligatordesigns.com www.alligatordesigns.com

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TECHNOLOGY

Command Consoles Single/ Dual Display consoles with varied table options

BUSINESS

with testified credentials and acknowledged customer-satisfaction ratings towards a trusted partnership in serving dedicatedly many leading defence companies, defence project-builders and major system-integrators for almost a decade by now since inception and successfully delivering them high-end deployable solutions in rugged products of many categories of weapons, sensors, fire control systems, EW systems and electronic systems for combat applications. Alligator Designs has catered to a number of Indian defence and aerospace projects & integrated programmes so far viz., electronic warfare systems, fire control systems, sonars, signal processors, radars, data acquisition and processing systems, missile-launchers, combat/tactical management & AIO systems, multi-barrel rocket-launchers, surveillance equipment, avionics, thermal & and night vision equipment, tactical simulators and communication systems. Alligator Designs is currently

INDIAN DEFENCE

lligator Designs delivers world-class rugged product-solutions and COTS based design solutions for building defence equipment & systems, conforming to the stringent environmental specifications, EMI/EMC stipulations and the strategic operating standards of military deployment necessities and defence equipment exploitation strategies. The product-spectrum comprises of rugged COTS solutions of a wide range and electronic middle ware for defence equipment viz., enclosures/housings, cabinets, integrated electronic signal processing racks, ATRs, multi-function/multi-display consoles, display units/ work-stations, portable terminals, VME/cPCI/ PCI based workstations, rugged computers, rugged storage units, wrist wearable computers, PDAs, night vision devices and also the VXS/VPX/VME 64x/cPCI backplanes for typical designs of defence electronic equipment . This company is reckoned as a dependable defence manufacturer of repute in India

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

A

REGIONAL BALANCE

A trusted technological partner in providing COTS based rugged solutions at world-class standards

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

ALLIGATOR DESIGNS

ALMAZ-ANTEY Russia’s answer for secure skies

A

lmaz-Antey Air Defense Concern was created in 2002 and has nowadays united over 50 enterprises to become one of the Russia’s leading holding defense companies – the world’s major supplier of the Russia’s air defense systems. According to the Top-100 annual rating of the US-based Defense News Weekly the Concern’s place is among 30 world’s largest defense companies. One of the latest Concern developments is S-400 Triumph long-range new generation ADS which became operational in August, 2007. Being upgraded this system will become the major weaponry for the Russia’s aerospace defense concept for a number of years. Nowadays Almaz-Antey Air Defense Concern is involved in the development of the future common system of anti-aircraft and anti-

missile weapons of the 5-th generation and in the implementation of the Concept of the aerial-space defense of the Russian Federation. Concern has a wage export potential with an existing portfolio around USD 6 bln. The AlmazAntey- made ADS have been operated by over 50 nations in SouthEast Asia, Middle East, Europe, Africa and Latin America. The list of arms and military equipment being offered for export

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Vladislav V. Mentschikov, Almaz-Antey Concern General Director

by Almaz-Antey includes the following items: ■ long-range air defense systems S-300 PMU2 Favorit, S-400 Triumph and S-300VM (Antey2500); ■ medium-range air defense systems: Buk-M1-2, Buk-M2E; Pechora-2A; ■ short-range air defense missile systems Tor-M1, Tor-M2E; ■ automated control systems Senezh-M1E, Rubezh-ME, Baikal-1ME, PPRU-M; ■ air defense radar stations 96L6E, 6C19M2, 9C15MV3, Gamma-DE, Gamma-C1E, Kasta-2E2; ■ ground reconnaissance radar stations Zoopark-1, Credo-1, Fara-1, meteorology system Ulybka; ■ ship-borne air-defense systems: Rif-M, Shtil-1, Klinok; ■ integrated missile systems

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ASHOK LEYLAND The driving force for the Armed Forces

A

shok Leyland, the flagship company of the Hinduja Group and Technology leaders in the Indian Commercial Vehicle industry are pioneers in the design, development and manufacture of special vehicles for the Armed Forces for over four decades. Ashok Leyland vehicles have served the Armed Forces in a variety of applications starting with the supply of 1200 Hippos in 1970s in the GS role, as dozer carriers, torpedo carriers and for mounting sophisticated communication equipments. The Company also pioneered indigenously developed Crash Fire Tenders and Rapid Intervention Vehicles for use at the air force/naval air fields. This apart, some 13,000 diesel engines deployed in various repowering projects play vital role in naval boats, cranes, ground starter aggregates, compressors and generators. The development of the futuristic ‘Stallion 4x4’ has greatly contributed to the modernization of the logistics of the Indian Army. Following this, Ashok Leyland’s Stallion

4x4 has grown to a 55,000strong fleet and this has become the veritable backbone of logistics operations making Ashok Leyland the largest supplier of logistics vehicles to the Indian Army. The Company took the onus of providing manufacturing know how by entering into a transfer of technology agreement with the Ordnance Factory Board under Ministry of Defence, Government of India and has continuously supported it with product improvements, value additions, warranty support, product upgrades and future interactions/ tie ups for other range of vehicles. In addition, over 1500 Light Recovery Vehicles and 600+ Truck Fire Fighting, over 250 Field Artillery Tractors and 1200 5KL Water Bowsers, chassis for aircraft refuellers, mechanical runway sweepers and UAVs have joined the services. Ashok Leyland has been providing robust after market engineering support to the field army by conducting on ground training programmes and service camps for better appreciation of the technology being used. Over

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time, the Company has invested over Rs 25 Mn by establishing 15 state-of-the-art training centres at strategic locations. The Indian sub-continent with its diversity and complexity of terrains and conditions provide the ideal proving ground and Ashok Leyland’s special application vehicles have been performing faultlessly in altitudes varying from sea level to over 5,500 meters above sea level and in temperatures ranging from -40 degrees Celsius to +55 degrees Celsius. Recently, the Company has heralded its entry into the armoured vehicles space with the unveiling of three new products – the Armoured Stallion, the Armoured Bus and the Mine Protected Vehicle. This strategic move by the Company is in response to an ever-increasing demand from the Armed Forces for well-engineered, high-mobility, high-protection, tactical vehicles that can be used in counterinsurgency and counter-terrorist operations. These new vehicles give the Company the capability to engage the Armed Forces on more fronts in terms of product

opportunities and, at the same time, look at new geographies. Going forward, the Company has on the anvil a family of modern, reliable war worthy vehicles, with high commonality of parts. ■ For more information, visit our website: www.ashokleyland.com Ashok Leyland’s office: Chennai No. 1 Sardar Patel Road, Guindy, Chennai – 600 032. Contact person: T. MuthuKumar Email: muthukumar.t@ashokleyland.com Tel: +91 44 22206005 Fax : +91 44 22304364 Gurgaon Defence & Special Vehicles Group 5th Floor, Plot No. 76, Institutional Area Sector 32, Gurgaon – 12001, Haryana. Contact person: Atul Andley Email: atul.andley@ashokleyland.com Tel: +91 124 4264969 Fax: +91 124 4264970

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CONTENTS Prithvi Missile Launcher is a transporter cum launcher vehicle. The missile is transported on launcher in horizontal mode and articulated to vertical mode using hydraulic control system. Electronic controller provides the desired safety inter locks during articulation.

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

in the Aerospace business, has been catering with various unique equipment like Aircraft Towing Tractors, Slat jigs for SU-30, Tow bar for Aircraft operations, Gear components for Cheetah/Chetak helicopters, Automatic Weapon Loaders and Crash Fire Tender. With the excellent track record and varied experience, BEML has set for itself to achieve a turnover of Rs 5,000 crore during 2013-14 to coincide with the Golden Jubilee Year of the Company. With registering a turnover of over Rs 3,500 crore during 2009-10, the Company has set a target of Rs 4,200 crore to attain in 2010-11 having Order Book position of over Rs 5,206 crore. Besides, being a premier manufacturer of Defence Equipment, BEML also has established its brand world-wide not only as the only Indian Manufacturer of Metro Cars but also has customer base in over 55 countries for its Mining & Construction equipment business. The Company provides round-the-clock services to all its valued customers through its 29 marketing net-work offices in India and four overseas offices at Brazil, China, Malaysia and Indonesia. 

TECHNOLOGY

MBT Arjun chassis to provide recovery cover to Regiments equipped with Arjun tanks. Having successfully indigenised the BMP-II transmission, track adjuster and hydro pneumatic suspension unit for MBT Arjun and creating facilities for production of MBTs which includes the state of the art test track for A vehicles, BEML is set itself prepared to take up any tasks relating to equipment in other fields such as Self Propelled/Mounted tracked Guns or the Artillery. The stage is also set for BEML for taking on the challenging task of overhaul of Tank T-72 and ICV BMP-II to maintain the Defence preparedness. With the Indian Ministry of Defence now planning to modernise/upgrade the Artillery Armoured Corps and Mechanised Infantry in a big way, BEML will become, beyond doubts, a hub for catering to the varied types of equipment needs of Indian Army. The recent inaguration of a production facility at Palakkad in Kerala which will mainly cater to the production of Defence products will provide the platform for BEML to launch its new products. BEML, with its added presence

BUSINESS

EML LIMITED, the Mini-Ratna Category-I PSU under the Ministry of Defence, is a premier manufacturer of multi-technology high-quality products for diverse sectors of the economy such as Defence, Mining and Construction and Rail and Metro. Besides, the Company has also forayed into e-Engineering, Trading and Aerospace businesses. With its world-class unique facilities for manufacture and testing, BEML has supplied over 6,000 Tatra Trucks and its variants to the Indian Army during the past three decades. In addition to this, the Company has also undertaken the challenge of indigenizing not only the PMS bridging system, but also the Sarvatra bridge system, thereby clearly exhibiting its capability of being the Nodal Production Agency of all types of Bridges required by the Indian Army. BEML Ltd has also made giant strides in manufacturing and supplying over 350 Armoured Recovery Vehicles ARV WZT-3 and 380 numbers of HRV AV-15 to Indian Armed forces. Looking forward, it is now working on the design and development of Armoured Repair and Recovery vehicles based on

INDIAN DEFENCE

B

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Makes a Giant Leap in Defence Business

REGIONAL BALANCE

BEML

BHARAT ELECTRONICS Empowering the nation’s defence forces

D

omain knowledge, capability to design and manufacture products that suit the exacting standards of the Indian defence services and long-term customer support—these form the cornerstone of Navratna Defence PSU Bharat Electronics Limited’s (BEL) success. With over 56 years of experience in the field of defence electronics, BEL is well-aware of the demands of the armed forces, including the operating conditions. Be it Himalayan blizzards, Rajasthan’s dust storms, monsoon downpours of the Northeast, or the salt-laden air on the high seas, BEL’s products have been designed to not only withstand the extreme climatic conditions, but also function dependably. BEL is a multi-product, multitechnology, multi-unit conglomerate boasting of over 350 products and systems in the areas of command, control, communication & computer intelligence (C4I) systems, mili-

Product Range

tary communication, Radars, Naval Systems, Telecom & Broadcast, Electronic Warfare & Avionics, Tank Electronics, Electro Optics, Weapon Systems, Shelters, Professional Electronic Components, Solar Photovoltaic Systems and Batteries. BEL’s customers include the Army, Navy, Air Force, Paramilitary, Coast Guard, Police, Doordarshan, All India Radio, Department of Telecommunications and consumers of professional electronic components. Starting from a single unit in Bangalore, the company now has a pan-India presence with units in Ghaziabad, Panchkula, Kotdwara, Navi Mumbai, Pune, Hyderabad, Machilipatnam and Chennai. It also has a network of offices and service centres across the country.

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Weapon Locating Radar (WLR) locates the position of hostile guns, mortars and rocket launchers.

STARS V Mk-II - Frequency Hopping VHF Transceiver is a frequency hopping, software configurable ECCM radio (5W & 25W) in the VHF band

Military Communication BEL offers state-of-the-art communication products such as receivers in VLF, HF and VHF bands, transmitters in HF and VHF bands and transreceivers in HF, VHF, V/UHF, UHF and microwave bands. BEL’s communication products are available in various configurations— hand-held, manpack, vehicular and tank-mounted. BEL also supplies radio relays, frequency hopping radios, encryption products, military switches, base stations, ruggedised automatic exchanges, multiplexes, CDMA networks and communication systems. The Digital Mobile Radio Relay of BEL provides an integrated solution on a single vehicle platform using optical fiber connectivity, 8 Mbps line of sight orthogonal frequency division multiplexing radio connectivity, Star/Mesh 2 Mbps Satellite link connectivity. An IP based net-

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CONTENTS superior C4ISR platform. As part of a team led by Raytheon Systems, Bombardier won the UK’s ASTOR competition in 1999, supplying five Global Express aircraft for the program. Bombardier was responsible for simulation and modeling of the airframe modifications as well as a 300-hour flight test program. The ASTOR platform - known as the Sentinel R.Mk 1 - is equipped with a Raytheon dual-mode SAR/MTI radar, mission management systems, MILSATCOM, and the latest in communications and data link equipment. The Sentinel R.Mk 1 is the only dedicated NATO C4ISR aircraft in operation outside the United States. The success of the ASTOR program has led to the Global Express being considered as a candidate plat-

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Airborne C4ISR Any mission requiring surveillance, monitoring, intelligence gathering, airborne coordination or simply national presence falls under the heading of C4ISR (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance). Bombardier aircraft are already well established in these roles, particularly in the increasingly sophisticated air to ground surveillance environment, including overland and maritime domains. The ASTOR (Airborne Stand-Off Radar) program for Britain’s Royal Air Force (RAF) underlines the credentials of the Global Express as a

 ASTOR (Airborne Stand-Off Radar) program for Britain’s Royal Air Force (RAF) underlines the credentials of the Global Express as a superior C4ISR platform

REGIONAL BALANCE

family are firmly established in-service with special mission operators.

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

B

ombardier has the longest track record and the widest range of experience of any special mission aircraft provider. The company’s rich heritage of developing aircraft for governments, armed forces, and specialized commercial operators stretches back more than 40 years and tens of thousands of flight hours. Bombardier has designed, built and delivered well over 300 special mission aircraft for customers worldwide since January 1965, when a Learjet 23 was quickly reconfigured from a standard corporate interior and flew a medical evacuation mission. Today, the Learjet, Challenger, and Global business jets, the Q-Series turboprop and the Regional Jet airliners provide a full spectrum of special mission capabilities that can meet most current requirements. With the largest fleet of special mission aircraft in corporate aviation, most members of Bombardier’s comprehensive business jet and commercial aircraft

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

Specialized and Amphibious Aircraft

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

BOMBARDIER AEROSPACE

CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE

Automatically deployable iNetVu® antenna systems by C-COM allow the delivery of broadband services into military vehicles while stationary virtually anywhere one can drive.

recovering from signal blockages caused by terrain/foliage, weather and other atmospheric effects. Fast, Reliable and Secure Communications through the iNetVu® technology Mobile satellite communication systems are proven to be very reliable for the military, where people on the fields cannot use wired services. For such people, it is very important to keep their missions and secrets

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Military Satellite Communications (MilSatCom) has been growing in focus in recent years, offering flexible access to various levels of command and control for military operations around the world. The well designed iNetVu® satellite antenna systems (Communication-On-The-Pause) provide continuous connectivity under adverse conditions in many parts of the world. They are capable of automatically and rapidly

REGIONAL BALANCE

Warfighters On-The-Move Providing mobile warfighters with broadband communications over satellite is an uphill battle. Under stressful conditions and across enemy lines, military forces have to set up tactical networks connecting hundreds of remote locations. Using satellite links military forces can transfer millions of networked applications and services including video and Voice over IP, global positioning systems (GPS), email, instant messenger, even news feeds from CNN. Effective collaboration and communication across thousands of miles between military and governmental agencies is not an option but a must today. With flexible operational services and compact ground terminals, Satellite Communications (SATCOM) services offer attractive solutions for military users in theater and on global links. When deployed in theater, SATCOM offers terrain independent communications, flexible networking and direct link to the final destinations – without reliance on radio relays.

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

C-COM SATELLITE SYSTEMS

CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

DASSAULT

litre drop tanks. The Scalp can be released at very low level, with the Rafale flying in terrain-following mode to avoid detection. With its fuel-efficient Microturbo engine, this ‘intelligent’, stealth weapon can navigate autonomously at high subsonic speed towards the target which will be clearly identified by

 The Scalp can be released at very low level, with the Rafale flying in terrainfollowing mode to avoid detection. With its fuel-efficient Microturbo engine, this ‘intelligent’, stealth weapon can navigate autonomously at high subsonic speed and hit the target with very high precision.

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Buddy-buddy tankers: With their 10,375 lbs of internal fuel, single-seat Rafales boast an impressive range which can be massively extended by up to five external drop tanks (three 2,000-litre and two 1,250-litre fuel tanks) under five wet hardpoints, four under the wings and one under the fuselage. Range can be further increased thanks to air-to-air refuelling and the Rafale can refuel from a wide range of tankers: A330 MRTT, Boeing 707, Il-78 Midas, KC-135, KC-130, VC-10...

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Scalp: For long-range attacks of highvalue, heavily defended targets, the French Armed Forces have selected the Scalp cruise missile of the MBDA Scalp / Apache / Storm Shadow / Black Shaheen family. The Rafale’s normal combat load is composed of two Scalps, four Mica air-to-air missiles and three 2,000-

its onboard infrared sensor: automatic target recognition algorithms compare the actual scene with the memorised scene, identify the designated target, and accurately select the impact point in order to hit with very high precision. To maximise its military effect, the Scalp is fitted with a remarkably powerful Broach tandem warhead which can defeat heavily protected bunkers.

© SIRPA AIR - A. JEULAND

ith its outstanding endurance, its in-flight refuelling capability and its very long-range stand-off weapons, the Rafale omnirole fighter is extremely well equipped to strike distant, well-defended, deeply buried hardened targets. The Rafale has been designed as a very compact, high-tech fighter capable of carrying a huge external load of fuel tanks and missiles. In fact, it can carry more than 33;110 lbs of kerosene and weapons, quite an accomplishment for an aircraft weighing less than 22;075 lbs empty.

REGIONAL BALANCE

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BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Rafale: Global Reach

CONTENTS

D

DLSI is focused on the manufacture of up-armoured light vehicles, specialist military vehicles, mine protected vehicles, artillery systems, combat vehicles and other selected land system weapons and upgrades.

information technology solutions and customer support services. In 2009 BAE Systems reported sales of £22.4 billion (US$ 36.2 billion).

GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Defence Land Systems India Defence Land Systems India (DLSI) is a 74% - 26% joint venture between Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd, India and

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REGIONAL BALANCE

BAE Systems BAE Systems is a well known global defence, security and aerospace company with approximately 107,000 employees worldwide. The Company delivers a full range of products and services for air, land and naval forces, as well as advanced electronics, security,

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

efence Land Systems India (DLSI) is a joint venture enterprise between Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd (M&M) and BAE Systems plc. Mahindra & Mahindra M&M’s long association with the Armed Forces and other Security forces stems from supply of light vehicles for past 60 years. Mahindra Defence Systems (MDS), a M&M Division, is one of the leaders in armouring of light vehicles in India. MDS has supplied more than 1000 bullet resistant light vehicles to the Army, Para Military Forces and Central and State Police Forces. These vehicles have repeatedly proved in combat during anti terrorists/anti Naxal operations saving precious loves of our gallant soldiers and policemen. MDS has been awarded the prestigious international Frost & Sullivan Customer Value Enhancement Award 2009 in Land Combat Systems market for India.

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

A Mahindra – BAE Systems Company

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Defence Land Systems India

D

MRT Military Rugged Tablet

Scorpiontm

Armor X10 Rugged Tablet

 Focused on defense technology, DRS develops, manufactures and supports |a broad range of systems for mission critical and military sustainment requirements, as well as homeland security.

DRS started out as a supplier to the U.S. Navy with its pioneering work in passive submarine detection. The new technology enabled sailors to detect and identify submarines quietly, without the noisy, telltale “pinging” of active sonar. DRS’ original, legacy system, the AN/SQR-17, is still in use today. Since those early years, DRS has grown from a small specialty electronics supplier to the highlydiversified defense technology provider it is today, with more than 10,000 employees working in multiple locations throughout the

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

quality and cost effectiveness, providing a superior value. At sea, DRS products and services support the U.S. Navy’s newest ships, including littoral combat ships, destroyers, cruisers, amphibious landing craft and aircraft carriers. On the ground, DRS can be found supporting the U.S. Army’s and U.S. Marine Corps’ mine-resistant, ambush-protected (MRAP) vehicles, Armored Knight Vehicles, Abrams Tanks, Bradley Fighting Vehicles, and High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWV), as well as the U.S. Air Force’s special operations aircraft.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Rugged Laptop

REGIONAL BALANCE

RS Technologies, headquartered in Parsippany, New Jersey, is a leading designer, manufacturer and supplier of integrated products, services and support to military forces, intelligence and homeland security agencies and prime defense contractors worldwide. Focused on defense technology, DRS develops, manufactures and supports a broad range of systems for mission critical and military sustainment requirements, as well as homeland security. Since 1968, DRS has succeeded by having the agility, technology and customer focus to respond quickly in a rapidly changing market, and has been recognized in recent years as one of the fastest growing and best managed defense technology companies in the world. DRS’ products and systems are deployed on some of the most technologically advanced platforms in the world. Customers can count on DRS to focus its resources on innovation,

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS DRS Tactical Systems Facility, Melbourne, Florida

RVS-330 Rugged Vehicle System

BUSINESS

A Finmeccanica Company

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

DRS TECHNOLOGIES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

Elbit Systems is a worldwide industry leader of helmetmounted displays (HMDs) designed for fixed and rotary wing aircraft.

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experience than any other company in the field. In fact, there are currently over 5,500 Elbit Systems HMDs deployed on four continents in over 30 countries. The Company has secured a specialized niche in Eastern and Western platform modernizations providing total solutions, based on in-house core competencies and technologies. Elbit Systems is unique in its ability to provide complete solutions that go beyond systems and products to long-term

maintenance, technical support, full integration, installation, product training, often partnering with local industries. An acknowledged leader in Training and Simulation, Elbit Systems together with recently acquired BVR Systems, builds on over three decades of programs to offer across-the-board systems engineering and integration expertise suitable for a comprehensive range of air, ground and naval training and simulation solutions. These solutions range from mission preparation and execution, to post-mission debriefing and analysis. Unique to Elbit Systems is the work force behind its solutions, a team of active military pilots, tank commanders and naval officers, whose operational experience is translated into superior training and simulation. Elbit Systems’ UASs have earned international recognition and are playing increasingly vital

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

lbit Systems Ltd. is a world leading defense electronics company with over three decades of systems expertise in air, ground and naval platforms. The company focuses on Western and Eastern platform modernization and weapon system upgrades. A broad, innovative product line, together with excellent management and system integration expertise has positioned Elbit Systems as prime contractor in numerous large-scale projects. After three generations of helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) designed for fixed and rotary wing aircraft, there is little doubt that Elbit Systems is a worldwide industry leader. The HMD business has been one of the Company’s key growth engines. Today Elbit Systems and its subsidiary Vision Systems International (VSI) jointly owned with Kaiser Electronics (a Rockwell Collins Company) have more production and operational

REGIONAL BALANCE

E

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Elbit Systems Offers a Broad Range of Solutions and Systems for a Variety of Applications and Platforms

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

ELBIT SYSTEMS

ELETTRONICA

E

LETTRONICA, founded in 1951, is Europe’s leading manufacturer of Electronic Defence equipment. It is also, for the second year, the fourth in the world, according to the top magazine of the EW community, the Journal of Electronic Defence (JED). The company designs, produces and fields a range of products that covers all aspects of Electronic Warfare: naval, land and air environments; ESM, ECM, ELINT, RWR, SOJ class of equipments; passive and active functions. The Company “mission” is concentrated on EW, with no other diversion. Each and every aspect of defense electronics state-of-the-art is addressed, from passive monitoring of enemy, neutral and even friendly electromagnetic emissions – both in asymmetric and symmetric combat conditions, in peace, tension and wartime – to self, mutual and stand-off protection of own combat

and support platforms, to the analysis of complex battlefield scenarios, in real-time and non real-time, for tactical (the former) and intelligence (the latter) purposes. The paramount assumption of Elettronica’s professional thinking is that the mastership of the modern battlefield becomes the sole asset of the first fighter who achieves control of the electronic battlefield, as soon as he manages to do so. As our president and CEO, Mr Enzo Benigni, has stated: “...due to the fact that EW must always anticipate and defeat the technological competition of its threats, newest and traditional requirements represent the driving force towards a continuous and complete innovation, which is always the “raison d’être” of EW. In our field, excellence is an absolute must, not a ‘nice to have’ to be traded off with other performances and budgets. If you are Nr.One you

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Elettronica designs, produces and fields a range of products that covers all aspects of Electronic Warfare: naval, land and air environments; ESM, ECM, ELINT, RWR, SOJ class of equipments; passive and active functions.

survive and win. Otherwise you are a loser, in battle and in business”. With this mandatory thrust to excellence fixed in its DNA, Elettronica product line covers all kinds of electronic warfare products, from single stand-alone equipment to complete integrated systems, all for naval, airborne and ground applications. These equipments are among the most advanced worldwide, capitalizing on the adoption of the most up-to-date technology in this area, i.e., solid-state transmitters and digital memory & receivers. More than simple technology supremacy, Elettronica has the complete mastership and control of techniques and tools to compile and validate the threat libraries associated with the EW equipment. These resources are deliverable by the Company to its Customers without constraints limiting their ability to acquire and manage a fundamental

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EMBRAER

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MBRAER (Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica S.A.) is one of the largest aerospace companies in the world and leader in the category of commercial jets with up to 120 seats. The Company designs, produces and sells aircraft and systems for the commercial, executive and defense market, developing successful integrated systems and aircraft platforms, introducing new technology whenever it creates value, lowering acquisition price, reducing direct operating costs, or delivering higher reliability, comfort, and safety. As a result, Embraer products provide excellent performance, while being economical to acquire and cost-effective to operate and maintain. Equally important, the Company provides after-market support and services to customers around the world. Built based upon a strong tradition of technical excellence and the highest level of engineering skills

and customer support, Embraer has produced more than five thousand aircraft, currently operating in more than 90 countries during its 40 years of existence. Headquartered in Brazil, and with offices, subsidiaries and customer service bases in Singapore, Portugal, France, China and the United States, Embraer is a customer-oriented company with a global customer base and worldwide respected partners. Embraer is one of top 5 Brazil’s largest exporters and one of its three largest overall exporters approximately 96% of its revenues came from overseas markets in 2008, representing 2.9% of Brazil’s total exports. Asia and Pacific accounted for 18% of Embraer total revenues in 2008, reinforcing the increasing investments of Embraer in the region.

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EMB 145 AEW&C is a derivative of the successful ERJ 145 regional jet platform modified with the integration of an active phased array radar, multimode radar system and sensors that qualifies the aircraft for true multi-mission capability

By the end of 2009, the Company backlog was about US$ 16.6 billion in firm orders and its workforce was around 16.800 people. Defense and Government Market Products Embraer is recognized by the superiority of its military aircraft. Approximately 30 foreign Armed Forces and Governments also rely on Embraer products to accomplish their missions. A full line of Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance products based on the ERJ 145 platform, for Airborne Early Warning and Control, Multi Intel and Maritime Patrol, has shown excellent sales and operational success in the highly competitive international defense market. The EMB 145 AEW&C (Airborne

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CONTENTS

The AS550 Fennec is the combat version of the Ecureuil family and is renowned the world over for its lethality. It can be fitted for anti-tank, air-to-air combat, ground support and training missions and it is also used in the utility transportation role.

the world corresponding to India’s requirement. The Fennec AS 550 C3 is the lightest aircraft being able to fight throughout the whole tactical spectrum. The Fennec skills go from Observation Detection and Identification (Night & Day) with its Forward Looking Infra Red (FLIR) to troops’ transportation,

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the FENNEC a reference helicopter for Extremely Hot/Desertic operations and, since 2005, it holds the world record for landing on the Top of the World, Mount Everest. It has shown that it is the only helicopter that can match these 2 extreme conditions required by Indian military. The AS550 FENNEC is also the only military certified helicopter in

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INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

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he advent of airpower in the 21st century has revolutionised warfare by adding new dimensions to the battlefield. But the most important function remains reconnaissance and surveillance. It is natural that India is on the look out for the best in class aircraft to form the mainstay of India’s defense forces. Reconnaissance and observation helicopter need to be capable of fulfilling various roles: personnel transport, escort and attack missions, casualty evacuation and observation. The three key expectations from a successful helicopter in this segment, therefore, are maneouverability, versatility and agility. This is what makes Eurocopter’s AS550 Fennec one of the most succesful helicopters in the world for this kind of requirement. Eurocopter Fennec is a light and agile machine which can be fitted with a variety of systems and weapons as required. This is what makes

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

Strengthening India’s Reconnaissance and Surveillance

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

EUROCOPTER

EUROJET Turbo GmbH

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UROJET Turbo GmbH is the leading military aerospace engine consortium in Europe responsible for the management of development, production, maintenance, support and export of the new generation EJ200 engine. The shareholding industries of EUROJET are Avio (Italy), ITP (Spain), MTU Aero Engines (Germany) and Rolls-Royce (UK). The company’s headquarters are located in Hallbergmoos, Germany (near Munich airport). EUROJET Turbo GmbH is responsible for the EJ200 engine system and is the central point of contact for all EJ200 project activities. The EJ200 engine is designed under the lead of EUROJET Turbo GmbH and manufactured by four aerospace companies from four nations. EUROJET Turbo GmbH and Eurofighter Jagdflugzeug GmbH (the latter is responsible for managing the development

and production of the complete Eurofighter Typhoon weapon system) are each contractual partners with NETMA (NATO Eurofighter and Tornado Management Agency). NETMA is a single interface for all four-nation Customers in the programme. The EJ200 programme, together with Eurofighter, represents some

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EJ200 is the power behind Eurofighter Typhoon and is designed for performance, maintainability and low life cycle costs

100,000 direct and indirect jobs across Europe, and 400 companies are involved. It is Europe’s largest industrial programme representing a direct commitment by partner nations and companies for investment in sustainable technology and the industrial potential of European aerospace industry.

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FFV ORDNANCE

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FV Ordnance is, and has been for a number of years, one of the world’s leading suppliers of manportable support weapons. To reach and maintain this position requires continuous and result-focused engineering and product development. A broad development of technology as far to the forefront as possible, both technically and in time, that can be implemented into products when the situation changes and military tactical requirements arise provides the perfect relationship. FFV Ordnance has for many years developed technology within the areas of internal ballistics, external ballistics, ignition systems, and warhead effect. This is and has been FFV Ordnance’s model for success. New times result in new requirements. Within the area of weapons and ammunition, and not the least for man-portable weapon systems, users place demands for improved or different effect, increased product

safety, as well as that the weapon shall be lighter and easier to carry. In recent years, requirements on the environmental impact of the weapon systems have been highlighted. FFV Ordnance is continuously working on fulfilling these new requirements. The war on terrorism has been partly moved into built-up areas, which requires weapon systems that are light and easy to carry and that have good effect in various types of targets, and not just in armoured vehicles. But combat is also conducted outside built-up areas and in terrain that is inaccessible for vehicles, so the requirement for weapons with a long combat range and various warheads remains or is even increased.

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 Carl-Gustaf M3 is a robust, light weapon, easy to use – in both in day and night operations.

Combat in built-up areas FFV Ordnance now has more than 20 years of experience with man-portable weapons intended for use by units engaged in urban warfare. LAW AT4 CS HEAT is a further development of the LAW AT4 HEAT, or the M136 as it is known in the United States. LAW AT4 CS HEAT has a warhead with increased behind armour effect that is sought after primarily for engagement of light-armoured vehicles. The enemy not only operates from armoured vehicles, but also takes cover and operates in buildings. It is therefore a light, man-portable weapon with good effect behind walls is needed, or simply to create a new entrance into a building without jeopardizing the safety of friendly forces. AT4CS AST, where AST stands for Anti-Structure Tandem, is a new weapon in the AT4 series. The weapon, like the rest of the AT4CS series, has a liquid countermass and can be fired from rooms smaller than 25 m3.

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FINCANTIERI Cantieri Navali Italiani

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incantieri (www.fincantieri.com) is one of the world’s most prominent and diversified shipbuilding groups, world leader in the construction of cruise ships and reference operator for the large ferry sector in addition to important activities in the naval field. To encourage the Group’s growth, Fincantieri developed a series of initiatives and promoted the in sectors close to its core business: ship repairs and conversions, marine systems and components and megayachts. Headquartered in Trieste, the company has a staff of approximately 9,000 employed at its Italian eight shipyards and two design centres, in Trieste (the largest in Europe) and Genoa. Fincantieri is present in the USA as Fincantieri Marine Group (approximately 1,600 employees). Fincantieri Activities in the Naval Field In the naval field Fincantieri is proud of its comprehensive know-how. It

designs and realises any kind of conventional military ship (aircraft carriers, frigates, corvettes, patrol ships, auxiliary ships, and submarines) according to the highest technological standards. The company proposes both well proven projects already used by the Italian Navy and new-conception projects. At national level it is the reference partner of the Italian Navy and the Coast Guard in the construction and logistic support of the combating surface fleet, the major auxiliary units, and submarines. At European level, Fincantieri par-

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 Aircraftcarrier Cavour: The aircraft carrier in the middle of a battle group, is the symbol par excellence of power projection. This is exercised through its board aircraft, capable of conducting offensive operations within several hundred miles from the naval group. Cavour embark on a total of 20-24 aircrafts.

ticipated in important cross-border programmes, together with major stakeholders. One its latest cooperation projects is that for the upcoming realisation of the new multimission frigates (FREMM). In the US is participating to some of the most important programs in the naval field, both with the US Navy and with the US Coastguard, with important partners such as Loockheed Martin, Boeing and Oceaneering. Notably, Fincantieri is member of one of the two consortiums that is participating at the tender for the construction of the Littoral Combat Ships

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GRIPEN IN The Independent Choice

New frontiers in Technology 'Passing the hundred sorties mark wasn’t a goal in itself but it proves the programme’s success.'

'My altitude was 28,000 feet and the speed I achieved was above Mach 1.2.'

Gripen IN Demo Programme Manager, Mattias Bergström, controls all schedules, development and integration challenges as well as all key program partners: GE, Selex-Galileo, Rockwell Collins, Honeywell, APPH, Terma, Martin-Baker and Meggitt.  Mattias Bergström, Programme Manager, Gripen IN Demo

Mr. Bergström, how much new ground is the Gripen IN Demo breaking ? Gripen IN Demo is creating new frontiers of technology. The programme is indeed demanding but at the same time extremely interesting.

How far has the programme progressed? We have flown over 135 sorties. Passing the hundred sorties mark wasn’t a goal itself but it proved the programme’s success. After completing phase 1 last year; focusing on engine, aerodynamics and performance, we are now working with sensor and communication packages. What kind of sensor and communication packages are we talking about? Right now the tests are focusing on the new AESA radar, Missile Approach Warners, Satellite Communication and new digital fast data links. What is the next step in the test programme? After the MMRCA programme in India, we will continue the test programme with the focus on avionics. ■

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Today’s supercruise flight is part of the ongoing high speed supersonic testing that will include supersonic flights, with different load alternatives. Saab test pilot Magnus Ljungdahl flew the Gripen Demonstrator aircraft in supercruise.  Magnus Ljungdahl, Test Pilot

“The flight was conducted over the Baltic Sea, my altitude was 28,000 feet and the speed achieved was above Mach 1.2. Without using afterburner I maintained the same speed until I ran out of test area and had to head back to the Saab Test Flight Centre in Linköping.”

Why was this achievement important? To show potential customers that Gripen can supercruise is an important milestone”, said Gripen India Director Eddy de la Motte, “and to perform this activity only nine months after the Gripen Demonstrator was first shown in public, is something that few, if any aircraft can beat. Richard Ljungberg, Test Pilot, Gripen IN Demo

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How does the Gripen IN Demo take forward the Gripen lineage? The Gripen IN Demo has inherited the superb handling qualities from the smaller Gripen. During the take-off you can feel the extra thrust given by the new engine. The feeling of increased performance stays throughout the whole mission. ■

HINDUSTAN AERONAUTICS Current indigenous aircraft

Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) – HAL’s new introduction Indigenously developed and built by HAL in a record time of forty months, the Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) is a derivative of the Advanced Light Helicopter (Dhruv). This is an attack helicopter, one of the first of its kind in Asia. History The technologies acquired and developed for HAL’s Dhruv platform have been translated into developing a dedicated Light combat helicopter appended with latest features like low visibility features, Nuclear, Biological and Chemical warfare protection, integration of the latest weapon systems and electronic warfare suite. Technical Features The advanced technical features of the Dhruv have been retained. The features that are unique to LCH are Sleek & narrow fuselage, tri-cycle crashworthy landing gear, tandem cockpits, aero foil shaped stub

wings for weapons, armour protection, NBC protection and low visibility, which make the LCH lethal, agile and survivable. Capability and Performance LCH will be fitted with a 20 mm Turret gun and can carry 70mm Rockets, Air-to Air / Air-to-Ground missiles on the weapon stations. The helicopter would have day/ night targeting systems for the crew including the Helmet pointed sight and Electro-optical pod consisting of CCD camera/FLIR/Laser Range Finder / Laser Designator. A Digital Video Recorder would

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The features that are unique to LCH are Sleek & narrow fuselage, tri-cycle crashworthy landing gear, tandem cockpits, aero foil shaped stub wings for weapons, armour protection, NBC protection and low visibility, which make the LCH lethal, agile and survivable.

enable recording of the vital mission for debriefing purposes. The turret gun skewing is controlled by the Helmet Mounted Sight (HMS). The LCH is also fitted with a Self Protection Suite consisting of Radar/ Laser Missile warning systems and Countermeasures dispensing system. IR/Laser missile jammer would also be integrated to the helicopter. The helicopter would be fitted with a Data Link for Network-centric operations facilitating transfer of the mission data to other airborne platforms and ground stations operating in the Network, thus facilitating force multiplication.

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HONEYWELL IN INDIA Creating a positive impact through solutions developed in, for and with India

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or more than 40 years, Honeywell has invested in building a dynamic and vibrant presence in India. Today, 10,000 Honeywell employees work in more than 50 cities throughout the country. Our work spans multiple industries with focus on developing technologies, products and services that make people safer and more secure, more comfortable and energy efficient, and more innovative and productive, both in India and across the world. Each year, India exports more than Rs.1400 Crore of our diverse products and services. These products range from collision avoidance systems for aircraft to security systems for homes, buildings and critical infrastructure. We also manufacture products including safety equipment for commercial enterprises and automotive turbochargers for both the local and global marketplace. Our engineering, manufacturing, research and technology capabilities in India continue to expand as we

support the growing demands of the global aviation, aerospace and defence industries. Most commercial and business aircraft in service around the world use our aviation products, many of which were developed through partnership with Indian industry and institutes. In the defence sector, we actively support India’s internal security and military readiness. From the Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) Dhruv and Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Tejas to the Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT), our technologies are found in a majority of Indian indigenous military platforms. Honeywell has also developed key safety and mechanical systems for military plat-

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 Honeywell will make the Jaguar roar

forms like the maritime reconnaissance P8i, the troop transport C-130J program and the Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft (MMRCA). We are committed to providing solutions for the evolving needs and requirements of militaries and operators. These include the F125IN engine for the IAF Jaguar, our TALIN® inertial navigation product line, T-Hawk™ aerial intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance system, and avionics solutions for the Mi-17 helicopter upgrade. We are proud of our rich history as a member of India’s industrial base, and are excited about the future as a continued partner operating in and for India. ■

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS Core Areas of Activity Space: From its own launchers and satellites to ground services, IAI offers customers affordable solutions and partnerships with industry leaders in space exploration. IAI develops and produces satellites for various purposes such as Low Earth Orbit (LEO) observation satellites (Ofeq, Eros), Synthetic Aperture Radar (TECSAR) and communication satellites such as the

Amos series (GEO). Theater Defense: IAI’s Arrow Weapon System Against Tactical Ballistic Missiles (ATBMs) leads the market. This multi-layer system, representing outstanding visionary and technological achievements such as the Green Pine missile detection and fire and control radar, as well as other interoperable solutions, is the cornerstone of Israel’s defense system. Commercial Aircraft: IAI’s design, engineering and manufacturing capabilities are demonstrated in a highly cost-effective, intercontinental range, super-midsize business jet. IAI also develops and produces, for major international OEM’s, pri-

 Naval Systems for Superior Defense & Strike Capabilities

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Financial Figures  IAI’s 2009 sales totaled $2.9 billion, $2.2 billion (77%) of these sales are for export.  IAI’s backlog as of December 2009 reached $7.9 billion.  IAI’s 2009 net profit totaled $61 million.

mary aerostructure assemblies, as well as landing gear, servo-control and actuator systems. MRO & Civil Aircraft Conversion: IAI is an expert one-stop-shop for commercial aircraft conversion, maintenance, repair and overhaul with the engineering, equipment and facilities to deliver rapid turn-around at competitive prices. Naval Systems: IAI develops and produces naval/maritime radars and EO payloads for various platforms such as helicopters, UAS and other aircraft. The company’s range of naval missiles includes: the proven Barak naval point-defense missile for both sea-to-sea and sea-to-air targets; and naval platforms include advanced patrol boats. IAI also modernizes and upgrades vessels, weapon systems, defense systems, and conducts system integration for customers worldwide. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS): IAI is a world leader in totally inte-

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

srael Aerospace Industries Ltd. (IAI), is a globally recognized leader in the defense and commercial markets.

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ISRAEL AEROSPACE INDUSTRIES

CONTENTS

Beyond Innovation

ing its weapons’ features using modern technology in response to ever changing needs of the modern battlespace. 

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 (top) X95 Carabine 5.56mm/Submachine Gun 9mm; (above) ACE Assault Rifle (5.56 x 45mm, 7.62 x 51mm & 7.62 x 39mm)

REGIONAL BALANCE

and serves as a platform for optical devices and accessories. The Negev LMG 5.56mm is a lightweight configuration weapon comprising semi automatic or automatic mode capabilities, and enabling maximum firepower for infantry combat platoon. IWI’s products are developed in close collaboration with Israel Defense Forces (IDF) and the IDF uses intensively IWI’s products. The continued use of IWI’s weapons enables the company to design its products accordingly optimizing, innovating, modifying and improv-

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

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srael Weapon Industries (IWI) is a worldwide leading small arms company. Its acclaimed products are globally operated by armies, special units, police and law enforcement entities. IWI’s products include the family of Tavor Assault Rifles, X95 (Assault, Carbine & SMG) and Negev LMG. These weapons are in service in the Israel Defense Forces and the world over. The Tavor is one of the most technologically advanced assault rifles in its category. Its many advantages include the fact that it is a compact rifle with a long barrel, attributable to a bullpup configuration. The weapon has an integral reflex sight to enhance its precision. Night or day, a telescope can be easily fitted with no need of zeroing. The X95 is a lighter, shorter, innovative, and highly technologically advanced weapon. A variant of the Tavor, it offers a complete platform, comprising optics and other accessories. The ACE Assault Rifle (5.56 x 45mm, 7.62 x 51mm & 7.62 x 39mm) is based on the reliable mechanism of the Galil Assault Rifle. It is highly suitable for the modern battlefield

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

ISRAEL WEAPON INDUSTRIES

ISSARTEL INDUSTRIE A subsidiary of the MINERVA GROUP, one of France’s leading players in mechanical equipment for very high technology sectors, is now making a foray into India

About ISSARTEL INDUSTRIE For more than half a century, ISSARTEL INDUSTRIE’s core business of applied mechanics to high technology, has provided various high level safety equipments to numerous French companies in shipbuilding and defence systems. Since the early 60s, ISSARTEL INDUSTRIE has been closely involved in the construction of French submarines, whether nuclear or conventionally powered, and the manufacture of “Charles De Gaulle” aircraft carriers and French type Frigates FREMM. Today Given ISSARTEL INDUSTRIE’s tremendous growth in the last decade, it is now poised for its international expansion. Today ISSARTEL INDUSTRIE also has the backing and technical support of the MINERVA group which it joined in 2006. In addition to its own first class machining techniques, other technologies are now available such as vacuum brazing of copper and aluminum alloys,

mastery of cold technology: “Cooling systems’’ applied to cooling of embedded electronic power components. Their Design and R&D departments, whose expertise in product architecture, design and electromechanical integration, strengthen

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 Since the early 60s, Issartel Industrie has been closely involved in the construction of French submarines, whether nuclear or conventionally powered

their capabilities and enable a better coordination of all the activities of the various industrial sites of the group in Mechanical Engineering, Electronic and Thermal. Owing to the Group’s synergies, Issartel is able to enter into a project right from the concept phase.

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ITT DEFENSE Integrated Solutions for the Complex, Networked Battlefield

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s the character of warfare continues to transform and global threats are becoming more sophisticated, the needs of governments are rapidly changing. Forces must hone their strategies to a style of warfare that is reliant on sophisticated networks to be competitive. Over the last couple of years ITT Defense and Information Solutions, one of the ten largest defense contractors in the United States, has responded to the dynamic needs of armed forces by extending beyond its sophisticated defense technologies like tactical radios, night vision goggles, and counter-IED jammers and focusing more on integrated, networked solutions that address a broad range of challenges. ITT’s Night Vision solutions are proven and battlefield tested, and as the company continues to make progress on the technology, ITT will evolve to become a Total Night Vision Systems Solutions

Provider. This means the company will provide night vision goggles and tubes; image intensification and infrared weapon sights; a Performance Based Logistics program for spares; and all associated operator and maintenance training. When combined with ITT’s dynamic networking technology, ITT’s night vision goggles will allow tomorrow’s

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 ITT Defense and Information Solutions offers sophisticated defense technologies like tactical radios, night vision goggles, and counter-IED jammers and focuses more on integrated, networked solutions that address a broad range of challenges.

war fighter to send and receive imagery which will greatly enhance situational awareness and create a digital battlefield for those on and off the front lines. Recently, ITT expanded its manufacturing capacity to meet the needs of the international community and reduce delivery times to get night vision goggles into the hands of soldiers swiftly.

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LARSEN & TOUBRO Capabilities in warship and submarine construction

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ngineering powerhouse – Larsen & Toubro – has capabilities in naval defence equipment and systems that are being increasingly recognized by industry. This USD 9.8 billion company has proven its expertise in design, engineering, manufacture and supply of custom-built vessels, equipment and systems for marine applications. Also widely acknowledged are the sophistication of the state-of-the-art facilities it has set up for critical fabrication, precision machining, system integration and testing. L&T has worked closely with India’s defence research agencies to apply highend technologies for India’s self-reliance in naval systems. Many developmental projects have been executed involving equipment, systems and platforms, including some on ‘no-cost-no-commitment’ basis. L&T has a large team specialized in naval design, technology development, engineering and construction of naval vessels and equipment. The design centers and construction facilities are equipped with top-end software related to ERP, product life management, digital 3D modeling, design and analysis, virtual reality and project management. The Company shares a technology-intensive, professional relationship with the Indian Navy culminating in several successful ventures. It contributed to India’s first indigenous nuclear-powered submarine, INS Arihant. With the basic design being provided by DRDO/ Indian Navy, L&T’s role included engineering, hull construction, equipment installation,

 Firing from BrahMos Missile Launcher developed and supplied by L&T

outfitting, system integration and trials. L&T is at the forefront of indigenizing key equipment and systems for India’s defence forces. L&T chose the ‘know-why’ rather than ‘know-how’ route to develop weapons systems and marine equipment, through inhouse design and in partnership with DRDO. Critical naval equipment and systems include Steering Gear and Fin Stabilizer Systems for P15A Destroyers, Steering Gear System for First Indigenous Aircraft Carrier, Fin Stabilizer Systems for Naval Offshore Patrol Vessels & Anti-Submarine Warfare Corvettes, Systems for Shafting, Bridge Control, Power Generation & Distribution for Frontline Warships of the Indian Navy. Other naval systems developed by L&T include Sonar Domes, specialised Self-propelled Trolleys, Heat Exchangers, Landing Grids and Traversing Systems for Helicopters, Blast-proof Hanger Shutters, Shiplift (23000T capacity for L&T’s mega shipyard at Kattupalli). The weapons and sensors segment of the Indian Navy has seen key contribution from L&T. The Company indigenously developed launcher systems for Dhanush, triple-tube and twin-tube torpedoes, WM-18 rockets, BrahMos missile, and launch canisters for BrahMos. L&T’s RADAR and SONAR

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systems include winch and handling systems for SONARS (NAGAN and MAREECH), Revathi ship-mounted radar system. Shipbuilding orders include eight RoRoLoLo (specialised semi-submersible) ships for Rolldock, Netherlands and two heavy lift ships for Big Lift. An order for 36 Interceptor Boats has been received from the Indian Coast Guard. L&T has submitted bids for several platforms for IN and Coast Guard, including cadet training ships, offshore patrol vessels, fast patrol vessels and midget submarines. L&T can build ships with up to 4-meter draft at Hazira Shipyard. Besides these, submarines can be built, launched and tried out at this Shipyard. For construction of bigger warships, L&T is shortly operationalising a mega shipyard at Kattupalli near Chennai to serve domestic and global requirements. The product range would include all types of Warships, LPDs and Aircraft Carriers, for Defence; Vessels for Coast Guard; Technology-intensive specialized commercial vessels such as LPG / LNG Carriers, PCTCs, Chemical Tankers, Survey Vessels, high-capacity specialized handling vessels, etc. Repair & refits of vessels for defence & commercial applications would be undertaken. With its expertise and experience, L&T provides total solutions for the Indian Navy and the Coast Guard - from digital design, modular construction, procurement to L&Tbuilt equipment, system integration, trials, commissioning and maintenance support. ■

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

F-16 with Sniper pod. With a robust upgrade capacity and the continuous insertion of technology, the F-16IN can be readily equipped with emerging capabilities throughout its lifecycle.

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Lockheed Martin is led by Robert J. Stevens, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. The Corporation reported 2009 sales of $45.2 billion. Governments worldwide are involved in meeting vital strategic goals to defend the peace, make their borders and homeland secure or manage large Information Technology infrastructure projects. Lockheed Martin has more than 300 alliances, joint ventures and other partnerships in 75 countries. Lockheed Martin’s operating units are organized into four broad business areas with diverse lines of business.

 Electronic Systems: missiles and fire control, maritime systems/sensors, platform integration, simulation/training, and energy programs  Aeronautics: combat aircraft, air mobility, special mission and reconnaissance aircraft, advanced development programs, and sustainment operations/services  Space Systems: launch services, satellites, and strategic/ defensive missile systems.  Information Systems & Global Solutions: information and systems integration solutions for civil, defense and intelligence applications; international and next-generation products supporting transportation, census and aviation customers; readiness and stability operations. As a systems integrator in Defense, Aerospace and Information Technology, Lockheed Martin is

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

ockheed Martin is a global security company and premier systems integrator principally engaged in the research, design, development, manufacture, integration and sustainment of advanced technology systems, products and services. With growth markets in Defense, Homeland Security, and Systems/Government Information Technology, Lockheed Martin delivers innovative technologies that help customers address complex challenges of strategic and national importance. Headquartered in Bethesda, Maryland, Lockheed Martin employs 136,000 people worldwide. Distinguished by whole-system thinking and action, a passion for invention and disciplined performance, Lockheed Martin strives to earn a reputation as the partner of choice, supplier of choice and employer of choice in the global marketplace.

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LOCKHEED MARTIN

CONTENTS MBDA is also active in providing winning solutions for the modern battlefield. The company’s PARS 3 LR anti-armour system is capable of significantly enhancing the battle effectiveness of an army’s helicopters. Dual Mode Brimstone, with its selectable SAL/RF seeker modes, provides modern fast combat jets with a lethal and unique anti-battlefield capability already proven in combat. Of course Milan is the infantry’s eponymous combat support weapon. Milan 2T, recently ordered by the Indian Army, is being produced by BDL in India, continuing an industrial partnership with MBDA that goes back over 30 years. It is in the area of deep industrial partnership that MBDA is planning for the future in India. Ten years after its formation, the company’s leading edge systems are in service around the world. A number of next-generation programmes are also currently in development which will firmly establish MBDA as a leading technology innovator and defence partner. 

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BUSINESS

 meteor which will arm Eurofighter, Gripen and Rafale

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MBDA’s air defence expertise is also being called upon as a major partner in the transatlantic MEADS programme. Major developments are being planned to make the IAF one of the world’s leading air forces. In this respect MBDA is able to offer options ranging from short range combat though to unbeatable beyond visual range and stand-off precision ground strike with a range of weapon systems including ASRAAM, MICA, Meteor, Taurus KEPD 350 and Storm Shadow/SCALP. India has ordered the submarine-launched Exocet SM39 for its soon to be delivered Scorpene. The Exocet family is growing and its latest addition, the 180km range Exocet MM40 Block 3, further adds to the anti-ship capability within MBDA’s product range. Similarly, the Marte family comprising, as does Exocet, air, ship and land options has seen the recent addition of Marte ER offering an important stand-off capability.

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n the highly competitive guided missiles sector, MBDA is unique. Not only is the company associated with unmatched technologies, it is the only company capable of providing missile systems to each of the armed forces – to the army, air force and navy. Defence planning has to take note of the wide range of potential airborne threats that the 21st century might present. These threats include not only the latest generation of supersonic combat jets but also the proliferation of low cost cruise missiles and precision guided bombs, developing UAV and UCAV technology not to mention the steady increase in the number of countries fielding short- and medium range ballistic missiles. To meet these threats, MBDA has developed and has subsequently become associated with the world’s leading ground and naval based air defence solutions. These solutions feature systems based on missiles such as Mistral, VL Mica and Aster.

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TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Arming the three Armed Forces

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

MBDA

MEPROLIGHT One Stop Shop for Sophisticated Weapon Sights

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eprolight (www.meprolight.com) designs and manufactures a wide array of electro-optical and optical sights and devices, night vision devices, uncooled thermal sights and a wide variety of night sights and other tritium- and LEDilluminated products and accessories for safety and security applications for the military, law enforcement, and civilian communities. NOA uncooled thermal sights Meprolight’s NOA uncooled thermal weapon sights (4X, 7X and dual field magnification) contain an advanced electronic level indicator, a critical component in balancing the sight for effective long-range shooting. The sight enables bidirectional communications with devices such as range finders and wireless recording systems. The innovative dual field magnification includes wide and narrow fields of view (FOV) in the same sight. The thermal sight is designed for snipers who operate under harsh environmental conditions

and who need to engage targets at long ranges in very limited light availability or total darkness. MEPRO MOR reflex sight with laser pointers MEPRO MOR is the only sight that actually includes three possibilities in one sight: passive sight (operated without batteries), an active reflex sight for low light conditions, and two laser pointers (visible and/ or infrared). The user can adjust the passive sight’s illumination intensity, according to the external illumination level, using a special switch. The user can set only one aiming point, and the other sights are zeroed accordingly. Mepro 21 dual illuminated, red dot reflex sight Mepro 21 maintenance free, dual illuminated, red dot reflex sight, is specially designed for quick and instinctive accurate shooting. It allows the user to select various optional reticles – dot, triangle, an

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 (above) Mepro Mor – All-in-One sight: Multi-Purpose reflex sight with two laser pointers (right) Mepro Noa – High-performance observation under harsh environmental conditions

open x shape, and bullseye. The sight allows targeting quicker and shooting faster, with both eyes open. It has a large 30mm diameter lens, assuring an unlimited field of view, rapid target acquisition, and effective use of the weapon in extreme conditions or under pressure. Mepro GLS optical sight for 40mm grenade launcher Mepro GLS is a self-illuminated optical sight for 40mm grenade launcher, installed on assault rifles. Its enhanced version enables effective fire against light armor and infantry targets up to a range of 400 meters. Mepro GLS dual illuminated optical sight operates under all lighting and weather conditions for 5-8 years without the use of batteries or any other external source of power. The sight provides a 24 hour a day solution for the fighter. 

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CONTENTS The modern day battle space is a demanding environment characterized by high-speed networks of sensor, data, video, signal processing, displays and graphical interfaces. Today’s battlefield systems must be designed to help battlefield commanders to continuously maintain real-time situational awareness. National Instruments is at the very forefront of embedded technology for military applications. We supply sophisticated COTS boards and systems, technical support, life-cycle

 Software Defined Radio communication platform.

RF Transmitter Identification System RF Transmitter Identification System is a portable RF search system with state-of-the-art PXI technology. It is basically an RF transmitter detection system to easily locate RF emissions which can be used for multiple purposes: general purpose spectrum monitoring, securing of classified meeting areas (detection of threat transmitters), TEMPEST eavesdropping, mobile TEMPEST testing, etc. With its portable antenna set supplied together, this system delivers the speed and sensitivity for security personnel for detection of covert radio surveillance threats

GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Electronic Warfare Simulators Our Electronic Warfare Simulators generates real-time dynamic radio

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and program management capabilities to the world’s leading defense agencies and contractors.

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or more than 30 years, National Instruments has helped military, aerospace and defence companies around the world build more effective automated test, measurement and control systems. User-defined systems based on NI technology have been deployed to a wide variety of high-performance, flexible applications, including characterising the noise footprint of commercial airliners, production testing of avionics and structural testing of airframes. While continuing to provide long-term, stable instrumentation platforms such as PXI and VXI, NI drives innovation in test system design by harnessing the power of virtual instrumentation, also known as synthetic instrumentation. This approach combines the advantages of open systems such as PXI, modular instrumentation and instrument control with one of the industry’s most popular and comprehensive test software platforms.

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TECHNOLOGY

Embedded COTS Solutions for Military, Aerospace & Defense

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS

CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

NAVANTIA

INDIAN DEFENCE

Navantia represents advancement, naval activity and modernity, but also inherits more than 250 years’ experience in construction, maintenance and conversion of the Spanish Navy’s ships.

STAR PRODUCTS F-100 FRIGATES Equipped with the AEGIS system, they are state-of-the-art ships and one of the most technologically advanced in service. Unique capability, able to detect and handle up to 90 targets simultaneously up to a distance of 600 km.

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of a series of 5) for the Norwegian Navy, 1 LHD for the Spanish Navy and 2 for the Australian Navy, and 4 submarines for the Spanish Navy and 6 for the Indian Navy. As this orderbook proves, Navantia has a wide range of suitable products for the Indian Navy, and is very well positioned for participating in their programs.

REGIONAL BALANCE

avantia, the Spanish naval shipbuilder is a very consolidated company in the naval world and one of the few companies in the world with a complete capacity in the fields of design, development, production and integration of naval ships. An integral service that covers from design to the life cycle, offering to the Indian Navy the best solutions for the best products, in an all levels collaboration frame. Navantia represents advancement, naval activity and modernity, but also inherits more than 250 years’ experience in construction, maintenance and conversion of the Spanish Navy’s ships. Navantia has enough experience in building the most technologically advanced ships. Currently is building 8 OPV’s for the Venezuelan Navy and 4 for the Spanish Navy, 3 frigates for the Australian Navy, 1 (last of a series of 5) for the Spanish Navy and 1 (last

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS Nexter Systems, a major player in the field of land armament Nexter Group (previously known as “GIAT industries”) is one of the

Providing state-of the art weapon systems to the French army artillery since 1764 Nexter is heir to over 2 centuries of expertise in artillery design and has provided all the artillery guns in service in the French army, whether towed, tracked selfpropelled or truck-mounted. Currently, the French army uses TR-F1 155mm towed howitzer, AU-F1 self-propelled tracked howitzer and CAESAR® truck-moiunted system. Based on operational evaluation and user feedback, the versatility of CAESAR® system convinced the French army to eventually phase out all its fleet of towed and tracked howitzer, to be replaced by CAESAR® systems only.

GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE Modernization of the Indian artillery: a major challenge India has initiated a huge modernization program that will eventually field close to 3000 new artillery

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 CAESAR® in action: CAESAR® can fire six rounds in one minute, and will have left its position 1 min. 40 sec. after having fired the 1st round, which makes it immune to counter-battery strikes

INDIAN DEFENCE

world’s leading land defence systems companies with a variety of products and services ranging from system design to operational maintenance. Main products are MBT (LECLERC tanks), IFV (VBCI, Aravis), medium-caliber weapon systems for ground and airborne platforms, and artillery systems. Artillery systems designed by Nexter are NATO-compliant and cover the whole operational range of indirect fire requirements: CAESAR® 155mm and LG1 105mm artillery systems are the lightest guns of their kind on the market and are known for their exceptional firepower and mobility. As system supplier, Nexter also manufactures munitions that are designed and qualified together with the systems firing them. The LU211 155mm family and BONUS smart ammunition are a perfect match for CAESAR® artillery system, and can also provide the most effective solution for other NATO-standard 155 mm artillery.

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uring EuroSatory 2010, Nexter Systems and Larsen & Toubro signed a consortium agreement in the field of artillery systems, ensuring that both companies will join forces to support the major effort of artillery modernization initiated by the Indian MoD. This agreement targets in particular the MGS (Mounted Gun System) RFP that should be issued in the second half of 2010, for which the two partners plan to organize extensive technology transfer in India early in the program. This cooperation capitalizes on the reknown know-how of Larsen &Toubro in the field of engineering, manufacturing and system integration, and the exceptional operational capabilities and cost-effectiveness of CAESAR® system from Nexter.

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TECHNOLOGY

Setting the trend on 21st century artillery systems

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

NEXTER SYSTEMS

CONTENTS TECHNOLOGY

Ready and Well-Positioned to Support India’s Present and Evolving Defence Requirements with Industry-Leading Capabilities

With its network-centric capability, the E-2D Hawkeye will help nations with maritime, surveillance, homeland security and associated crises as well as combat operations.

These include the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye airborne early warning surveillance aircraft, the MQ-8B Fire Scout vertical takeoff unmanned vehicle, the APG80 Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar for the F-16IN, Scalable C4ISR provisions for fast interceptor craft & offshore patrol vessels, Harbor and Coastal Security system (HCS), Airborne Laser Mine Detection System and the Multi-role Electronically Scanned Array (MESA)

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radars. The company also provides unmanned ground vehicles for the Indian Army and marine navigation systems for the Navy. Northrop Grumman brings significant, relevant capabilities for homeland defence modernization and command & control, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C2ISR) for the Integrated Defence Staff by designing and developing advanced defence electronic systems, and military and civilian air traffic control.

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INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

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ith proven, industryleading capabilities in intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR), Northrop Grumman is wellpositioned to meet the Indian Armed Forces current and future defence and civil requirements. The company offers a portfolio of innovative capabilities across each of its five business sectors – including airborne early warning and control systems for maritime reconnaissance, fire control radars, coastal surveillance and marine navigation, unmanned aircraft systems, airborne mine countermeasures and ships. For more than 25 years, Northrop Grumman has been providing the Indian Armed Forces with support for a variety of defense and civil programs across all three armed services. The company first provided target drones (KD2R5) for the Indian Army, Air Force and Navy and has installed numerous air traffic control communications systems and

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

NORTHROP GRUMMAN

OTO MELARA

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he execution of the Italian FREMM frigates contract has been the green light for the production of the OTO Melara 127/64 LW. Fitted with the kit for the new Vulcano family of ammunition, with range beyond 100 km, the 127/64 LW is the most powerful multi role system available on the naval market. Its outstanding performances recently played a key role in the selection, by German Federal Office of Defence Technology and Procurement (BWB), of this system for German Navy’s new F125 frigate project. With its 5-inch lightweight gun mount, the system is intended for installation on large and medium size ships, whilst the rapid-fire, 35 rounds per minute with both standard and extended range ammunition (Vulcano Ammunition), grants effectiveness in surface firing, naval gun fire support (main roles) as well as anti-aircraft firing (secondary role).

The compact feeding system configuration makes feasible the installation on arrowsection craft and the modularity of the magazines, with the reversibility of the loading system, able to automatically unload the ammunition from the gun, allows the selection of at least four different types of ammunition “on the fly”. The Gun Control Consol (GCC) offers a complete large variety of embedded functionalities (e.g.: ballistic computation, mission planning, patterns execution, CBT, Black Box, etc.) and the modern digital interface allow the system to be easily integrated with any type of CMS/FCS. Thanks to a new digital modular interface which is available for this

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 Fitted with the kit for the new Vulcano family of ammunition, with range beyond 100 km, the 127/64 LW is the most powerful multi role system available on the naval market.

system, customers can benefit from integration risk reduction and simplification of guns’ retrofit, maintenance, installation and upgrading during in service life. Beside the standard ammunition, 127/64 LW system includes the capability to fire Vulcano ammunition, a family of subcalibred Extended Range (ER) and Long Range (LR) guided ammunition. The unguided version, developed in collaboration with Italian and Dutch Navy, has proved to successfully reach 70km range. Vulcano is a technology based on a fin stabilized airframe with canard control for terminal guidance and can therefore take advantage from OTO Melara equivalent experience matured on the 76mm DART guided ammunition. ■

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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 (top) N. Gandhi – Group Chairman; (above) bhavesh gandhi – Executive Vice-Chairman

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Security environment in Asia particularly in India and its neighbourhood has also increased the work load of Indian Navy and Coast Guard. To meet the requirements of the expanding Indian Navy and replacements for aging fleet, Indian Navy needs to acquire ships and submarines at a faster rate. The PSU shipyards will be unable to meet this challenge due to limited available production capacities and their existing order books. This gap has to be filled by private sector shipyards like PSL which have state of the art world class shipbuilding facilities with large production capacities. Pipavav Shipyard Ltd. promoted by SKIL Infrastructure Group, is

developed as a modern shipyard of international standards at Pipavav in Gujarat, India. PSL has an excellent infrastructure to meet the global shipbuilding standards for Naval ships/submarines, commercial ships and Offshore works. The Yard spread over an area of 782 acres consisting of 210 acres of fully developed waterfront area, 250 acres of Block Making Site and 322 acres of land earmarked for future expansion. Total covered area for fabrication activities is 169,090 Sqm. PSL is the largest Private Shipyard in India and is having steel fabrication capacity of approx. 1,44,000 tons per annum. To achieve such high volumes of production, the yard has been equipped with state of the art CNC machines for cutting, welding, bending and other shipbuilding related activities. The shipyard has the largest dry dock (662m long and 65m wide) in India. Dry dock is serviced by two large Goliath cranes,

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uring ancient time the traditional boat building in India was undertaken using locally available raw materials at various locations along the vast Indian Coast line. Ships constructed at Bombay in its heyday were said to be ‘vastly superior to anything built anywhere else in the world’. Despite good shipbuilding expertise in India, ship building in India declined due to rapid changes in technology and advancement in mechanized systems as Indian shipbuilders could not update with time. Though after independence in 1947, Govt. of India had set up/strengthened various shipyards India, but Indian participation in the world shipbuilding remained minimal due to lack of modern shipbuilding facilities and very low production capacity in Indian shipyards. India has to get ships from foreign countries to meet its requirement of naval and commercial ship.

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India’s first World Class Modular ship Construction and Engg. Company

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

PIPAVAV SHIPYARD

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS  (top) Four powerful F117 engines enable the C-17 Globemaster III to fly 2,400 nautical miles without refueling; (above) Pratt & Whitney engines power the world’s most technologically sophisticated weapon systems such as the F135 powering the F-35 Lightning II.

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fifth generation fighter engine: the F119 that continues to successfully power the F-22. The F135 delivers more than forty thousand pounds of thrust; and incorporates stealth technology, supersonic speeds and vertical lift capabilities. The F135 brings cutting-edge technology to address the complex and diverse needs of today’s military forces, and its roots in the rock-solid F119 give customers even greater confidence in its ability to deliver results and reduce risk. Pratt & Whitney’s F117 provides exclusive power for the C-17 Globemaster III – the world’s premier heavy airlifter. Four F117 engines, each rated at 40,440 pounds of thrust, enable the C-17 transport to

carry a payload of 160,600 pounds, take off from a 7,600-foot airfield, and fly 2,400 nautical miles without refueling, which enables the C-17 to ‘answer the call’ for humanitarian aid around the globe. With more than seven million hours of proven military service and more than 40 million hours in commercial use, the F117/PW2037 reinforces Pratt & Whitney’s promise to deliver Dependable Engines. Pratt & Whitney’s F100-series engines are the workhorse for the U.S. Air Force’s (USAF) F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon and air forces in 22 nations. More than 6,700 engines have been built since entering into service in 1972. The latest evolution, the F100-PW-229 Enhanced Engine Package (EEP), is now in production. Our military products and customers worldwide benefit from a proven and comprehensive range of services to meet all maintenance, readiness and product support requirements. ■

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his marks the 85th year since the founding of Pratt & Whitney, and we are proud to continue delivering an ever-expanding collection of propulsion systems to customers around the world. Since our formation, unmatched safety, dependable reliability and maturity with proven performance have been a hallmark of the Pratt & Whitney name. Accelerates to supersonic speeds in seconds. Operation at metal-searing temperatures, with uncompromising reliability. These are some of the performance demands placed on Pratt & Whitney engines that power the world’s most technologically sophisticated weapon systems—the F119 powers the F-22 Raptor and the F135 powers the F-35 Lightning II—today and into the future. The F135 is the world’s most powerful fighter engine and has successfully powered more than 216 test flights and 272 flight hours to date. It promises unparalleled single engine safety derived from a proven

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Proven Performance - Yesterday, Today, and Into the Future

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

PRATT & WHITNEY

PUNJ LLOYD Establishing Dedicated Infrastructure for Indian Defence

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unj Lloyd Group, with revenues of over USD 2.4 billion (2009-10), is one of the largest EPC groups in India providing integrated design, engineering, procurement, construction and project management services for clients in sectors such as oil and gas, petrochemicals, civil infrastructure, high rise buildings, transportation, utilities and renewable energy in the over 17 international offices. The Group has strategically diversified into the Defence Industry, under the Government of India’s public-private partnership initiative. Punj Lloyd is establishing itself as a credible original equipment manufacturer with focus on state of the art technology. The objective is to indigenously develop genuine force multipliers that will contribute to providing a decisive edge to the Indian Armed Forces and to develop capability and infrastructure which can be effectively leveraged for defence programs.

The Group has a multi pronged defence strategy with an objective to: ■ Become a supplier of choice to the Indian armed forces ■ Be a preferred partner for transfer of technology from Global primes by setting up manufacturing facilities in India ■ Be a part of the global defence equipment supply chain ■ Undertake maintenance, repair and overhaul of defence equipment ■ Work in partnership with Global Primes to meet offset require-

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Integrator for Missile Systems

ments as per the Indian Defence Procurement Procedure Land Systems Punj Lloyd Group is amongst the select few private companies that were granted licenses for: ■ Manufacture of guns, rockets, artillery and missile systems ■ Manufacture of Electro optical systems, Fire control systems, C3I systems & Power packs associated with armoured fighting vehicles (Tanks & ICVs) ■ Assembly & manufacture of small arms

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RADA Introduces State of the Art Avionics

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srael’s defense electronics specialist RADA Electronic Industries Ltd. is offering a broad range of avionic systems, designed for new and upgraded aircraft, helicopters and unmanned vehicles (UAV). Based on its expertise and reputation, RADA has recently expanded its portfolio to Inertial Navigation Systems (INS). The R100F is a high precision, tacticalgrade, Embedded GPS-INS (EGI) solution, applicable for new and upgraded aircraft and helicopters. The EGI replaces obsolete mechanical, gyro-based units with modern, highly efficient and reliable FiberOptical Gyro (FOG) sensors. In recent years the company has expanded its offering in the field of unmanned systems, introducing a wide range of UAV avionic systems. A unique system in this field is the MAVINS - a compact, all-inone Modular Avionics module comprising INS, air data sensors and processors, uniquely designed for small UAVs. Systems designed and produced by RADA are currently integrated in leading UAVs including the latest Heron-TP Medium Altitude, Long Endurance system from IAI. RADA’s brand is associated

with state-of-the-art Digital Video and Data Recorders. For many years RADA has provided recording equipment for various fighters and trainers. This equipment is augmented by the company’s Ground Debriefings Systems (GDS), processing the information recorded in-flight into a 3-dimentional flight reconstruction display, used for mission debriefing and training. RADA established its position among the world’s market leaders in airborne data recording and management systems, providing digital video & data recording systems

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 (top) MAVINS – The Ultimate All-In-One Core Avionics System for UAV; (above) F100R – High-End Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) for Manned & Unmanned Platforms

(Solid-State Digital Video Recording Systems – SSDVRS), associated Ground Debriefing Systems (GDS) and Cockpit Head-Up Display Video Cameras (CHVC), integrated in a wide range of western and eastern made aircraft. The company’s avionics systems are currently operational on a wide range of manned and unmanned aircraft, including the F-16, F-15, T-45, A-4, Jaguar, MiG27, Su-30, MiG-29 A/C the Indian Dhruv Helicopter, Heron, Heron-TP and Searcher UAVs and the Litening and RecceLite airborne pods. 

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

The Perfect Partner for India’s Defense Needs

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 Iron Dome – Defense Against Short Range Artillery Rockets

the field. Rafael has also formed partnerships with civilian counterparts to develop commercial applications based on its proprietary technology.

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Forces (IDF) systems in operation today. The company has a special relationship with the IDF, developing products according to the soldiers’ specific requirements in

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INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

Expertise in a Wide Range of Defense Solutions Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd, designs, develops, manufactures and supplies a wide range of high-tech defense systems for air, land, sea and space applications. Tailored to its customer’s specific needs, Rafael provides stateof-the-art, yet cost-effective systems and weapons in the fields of Missiles, air defense, naval systems, target acquisition, EW, C4ISR, communication networks, data links, electro-optic payloads, add-on armor, combat vehicle upgrading, mine field breaching, border and coastal protection systems, breaching munitions and much more. Rafael – The Company Rafael was established as part of Israel’s Ministry of Defense more than 50 years ago and was incorporated in 2002. Currently, 7% of its sales are invested in R&D. Rafael’s know-how is embedded in almost all Israel Defense

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

RAFAEL

CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

A trusted innovator. A proven partner.

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Integrated Air and Missile Defense Solutions Raytheon solutions maintain constant vigilance against the most pressing, diverse and dangerous threats facing nations around the world. Raytheon Integrated Air and Missile Defense Solutions combine four essential elements to consis-

Raytheon is the world leader in the design, development and production of missile systems. Raytheon innovation continuously sets the standard for accuracy, lethality, reliability and cost-effectiveness of precision weapon systems and solutions.

tently deliver affordable, reliable and flexible missile defense:  Detailed understanding of the technical requirements for effective missile defense systems  Proven, innovative technologies across the entire missile defense spectrum  Full system lifecycle support and sustainment capabilities  Enduring commitment to partnerships with our global customers

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to deliver precision effects that yield superior results – mission after mission.

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INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

t Raytheon, proven processes and a constant focus on customer success helps turn innovative thinking into robust, reliable and costeffective solutions. Raytheon delivers integrated solutions across air, land, sea, space and cyberspace that are united by a common resolve: to defend against diverse and evolving threats, to safeguard lives, nations and infrastructures, and to help customers succeed in their varied missions across the globe. Missile Systems Raytheon is the world leader in the design, development and production of missile systems for multiple nations around the world. Raytheon innovation continuously sets the standard for accuracy, lethality, reliability and cost-effectiveness of precision weapon systems and solutions. For proven performance when it matters most, trust Raytheon

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

RAYTHEON

CONTENTS MiG-35 fighter: The Russian aircraft is one of the leaders in the competition, outperforming other contenders as regards operational capabilities and especially costeffectiveness

for India and Russia to jointly develop and produce first series samples of the 5th generation fighter. At present 5th generation combat aircraft are in service only with the US Air Force. This Russian-Indian joint project is going to break up the United States’ monopoly on the development of cutting edge technology aircraft. The PAK FA fighter is equipped with a totally new avionic suite performing integrated “electronic pilot” functions, and an advanced electronically scanned phased array

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The aircraft that will dominate the sky After successful completion of the first test flights of the Russian 5th generation T-50 PAK FA fighter (PAK FA stands for “Prospective Air Complex of Front Aviation”) international analysts renewed discussions about the Russian-Indian version of this aircraft. It will take 8-10 years at most

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still Russia’s major strategic partner making headways into new areas of military technical cooperation.

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

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ndia is Russia’s long-standing and dependable strategic partner. Our coun-tries started military technical cooperation in November 1964 when the first agreement was signed on the delivery to India of a batch of the MiG-21 aircraft, later followed by light tanks and helicopters. For a long period of time India has been receiving nearly one third of the total amount of arms and military equipment exported from Russia. Owing to this the Indian armed forces were equipped by 70 percent with Soviet/Russian-made weapons - while the Russia’s cumulative arms exports value for the entire period of the cooperation amounted to 50 billion US dollars. Since then our countries have been constantly strengthening their strategic partnership, developing new forms and directions of mutually advantageous cooperation. Even now when India is actively diversifying its arms acquisitions, it is

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

Russia and India: setting new goals of military technical cooperation

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

ROSOBORONEXPORT

RUAG AVIATION Innovative solutions for military aviation – Swiss Made

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UAG Aviation offers unique lifecycle management services for military aviation. These include an innovative self-protection solution for helicopters: a POD (plugon device) version of the ISSYS integrated self-protection system. Deployable on many helicopter platforms, the new solution is the latest addition to the company’s comprehensive portfolio of value propositions. RUAG Aviation offers an end-toend lifecycle management service for operators of military helicopters. It starts with requirements analysis for both new helicopters and aircraft already in service, and extends through system simulations, performance testing, user training, maintenance / repair / overhaul (MRO), upgrades and their integration, and finally the phase-out of self-protection systems. Each customer benefits from their own tailor-made solution.

ISSYS (Integrated Self-Protection System) In order to complete their missions successfully, aircraft crews need to be able to concentrate fully on their tasks. In conflict zones, this calls for a reliable self-protection system. ISSYS (Integrated Self Protection System), RUAG’s high-performance solution, is a development designed to protect the crew, the aircraft, the passengers and the payload. The standard ISSYS solution is permanently integrated in the helicopter.

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Operators can use one and the same ISSYS POD on different helicopter platforms, removing and installing it as required to provide protection for the duration of specific missions.

ISSYS POD (plug-on device) Now this self-protection system is also available as a plug-on device (POD), allowing deployment of the system on a per mission basis. Operators can use one and the same ISSYS POD on different helicopter platforms, removing and installing it as required to provide protection for the duration of specific missions. This solution thus offers considerable benefits to customers in terms of cost-effectiveness. Because it only takes approximately 15 minutes to remove the POD

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CONTENTS

Pr. 636 Submarine remains one of the most successful examples of cooperation between Rubin and Admiralty Shipyards

early as 1959 the fifteen units of the Project were built in the country. It was CDB ME Rubin’s first experience in foreign economic activity. The second stage of military and technical cooperation coincided with the construction of new Project 641 submarines for the USSR Navy. These submarines manifested

INDIAN DEFENCE

pride of submariners. And for good reason Project 613 (Whiskey class) submarines were considered to be the best ones of their time. By the decision of the Soviet Government the technical documentation for Project 613 (Foxtrot class) submarine was transferred to the People’s Republic of China and as

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evelopment of Project 613 diesel-electric submarine in the early 1950s may be considered the first step of entering the world export market of submarines. These submarines were built at shipyards of Nikolayev, Gorky and Leningrad. They were reliable and easy in design and control, a legitimate

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Export of Russian Diesel-Electric Submarines

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

RUBIN AND ADMIRALTY SHIPYARDS

SAGEM Key solutions to efficiency of armed forces

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urveillance, warning, sighting, navigation, information... All of these military actions depend on one critic characteristic, namely precision. For combat platforms, the challenge lies in the integration of high-performance navigation systems with information and optronic solutions. Sagem, a high-tech company of the Safran Group, is a pivotal player in this fundamental trend. Air-to-ground operations Very early, Sagem understood the importance of integrating navigation, optronic and information technologies to develop new weapon systems, in particular integrated land combat systems, UAV, navigation and pointing systems (laser gyro INS Sigma family) and precision air-to-ground modular weapons (AASM). Sagem also offers a critical advantage in the design of new systems, since it masters high-precision mechanics as well, a key to these systems high performance and reliability. This expertise is reinforced by the lessons of combat situations where Sagem

systems are daily involved, notably its Sigma 30 navigation and pointing system on artillery systems or the AASM from Rafale combat aircraft. Soldier modernisation solutions Sagem considers that, on the ground, troops become high value sources of intelligence. One striking example is the FELIN soldier modernization system, for which Sagem is prime contractor on behalf of the French army. Its intuitive Battle Management System provides greater efficiency: navigation, Blue Force tracking, transmission of orders on digital maps, aid in weapons deployment and image transmission. The JIM LR multifunction thermal imager bring together in a single equipment infrared vision, range-finding, laser pointer, direction-finding, GPS and data transmission. This gives combat units precise short-loop target designation, and intelligence for theater command and front-line units. JIM LR is integrated in radio network, in the warfighter’s integrated equipment and can be remotely operated.

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 A Sagem JIM LR Multifunction Thermal imager

Sagem: partnership with India Partnership with government organisations and armed services is an important dimension of military programs. Sagem Sigma 95 INS are integrated in the most modern Indian combat aircraft. Moreover, the Sigma 30 INS artillery is deployed currently by first two Pinaka multiple launch rocket system regiments. Sagem has also set up a maintenance shop near New Delhi to help the Indian army keep the Sigma in fighting trim and Indian mechanics received specialized training for this system in both France and India. Sagem is a world or European leader in solutions and services in optronics, avionics, electronics and critical software for the civilian and military markets. Sagem is the European No. 1 and worldwide No.3 in INSs for aeronautic, naval and land applications. It is also the worldwide No.1 in helicopter flight controls and the European No.1 in optronic and tactical UAV systems. Sagem employ 6700 people in Europe, South East Asia and North America. 

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 (top) Samtel’s MIL certified facilities at Delhi-NCR; (above) Multifunction Display (MFD) by Samtel

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS components for displays, machinery and engineering services. The group has an annual turnover of Rs 12 billion (USD 300M). SDS’s JV with Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HAL) aims to address the avionics requirements of HAL, especially cockpit displays of all kinds. Samtel HAL Display Systems is the FIRST public-private partnership in the defence avionics domain in India. Through the JV, Samtel and HAL are targeting to replace all the imported cockpit displays across all platforms of HAL. Through another JV with Thales, the company plans to work towards

the local development, production, sale and maintenance of Helmets Mounted Sight & Display and other Avionics Systems destined for the Indian market. SDS already has a long-term contract with Thales to supply Full Colour Displays for Airbus (A320, A330/340), and is the sole source to supply Honeywell with EFIS 40—an electronic flight instrument system for Honeywell’s Bendix/King range. An MoU has also been signed between SDS and Saab Avitronics for RIGS HUD. Samtel’s professional grade products are compatible with the latest relevant MIL standards. Samtel is operating with SAE/AS 9100 Rev-B quality system standard at its production facilities in Delhi/NCR. SDS has been awarded with Frost & Sullivan Hot Investment Opportunity Award 2009, and Gold trophy of the EMPI- Indian Express Indian Innovation Awards 2010. Samtel is truly poised to become the offset partner for all avionics display system integrators around the world. 

BUSINESS

amtel Display Systems (SDS) is a key Indian player in hightechnology products for avionics and military applications in both domestic and international markets. SDS straddles the entire value chain from design, development, manufacture, testing, qualification, repair & maintenance and obsolescence management of avionics products and equipment for military as well as commercial aircraft. Its products include Colour Avionic Tubes (CAT), Multi-function Displays (MFD), Head Up Displays (HUD), Helmet Mounted Displays (HMD), Automated Test Equipments (ATE) and IADS, as well as Control Displays for Armoured Military Vehicles. Samtel’s Ruggedised LCDs are specially suitable for land and naval defence systems and are known for their ruggedness, high contrast, and compact design. SDS is a part of the Samtel Group —India’s largest integrated manufacturer of a wide range of displays for television, avionics, industrial, and professional applications, TV glass,

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Your Offset Partner for Cockpit, Naval and Military Displays, Avionics Equipment and Systems

REGIONAL BALANCE

SAMTEL DISPLAY SYSTEMS

SELEX COMMUNICATIONS Excellence in secure communications

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Finmeccanica company, SELEX Communications is a global supplier of secure land, naval and avionic communication systems, conceived to protect communities, the environment and critical infrastructure for civil, military and government customers. It has over 100 years of experience in the telecommunications sector, and employs nearly 4.300 people. Headquartered in Italy, it has offices and facilities in UK, Russia, United States, Germany, Turkey, Romania and Brazil. SELEX Communications’ mission, as well as the special features that allow the company to differentiate its supply, hinge upon an increased capability to offer systems and equipments which are able to provide Defense and Security operators with secure and reliable telecommunications solutions and applications.

Technology and Innovation Nearly 850 people work in SELEX Communications’ Research & Development with the aim of setting up state-of-the-art technologies in the field of secure professional, civil and military communications. The abilities developed in the course of 100 years, also thanks to collaboration agreements with universities and key ICT market players, made it possible to produce a wide range of turn-key products, systems and solutions, which can

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At the beginning of the ‘90, SELEX Communications creates a technological OWSObstacle Warning System demonstrator. This leads to the product today known as LOAM, Laser Obstacle Avoidance & Monitoring, a laser system against obstacles and wires to be used on helicopters.

be integrated and interoperable, and designed for land, satellite, naval, avionics, professional and civil applications. Some of the main Research & Development lines incorporate software radio, wideband wireless networks as well as All-IP and ad hoc networks advanced solutions.

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The partnerships SELEX Communications plays a crucial role when it comes to successfully accomplishing the challenge

SELEX GALILEO

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ELEX Galileo forms part of the Finmeccanica Group of companies that specialise in aerospace, defence and security applications. A leader in surveillance, protection and situational awareness, SELEX Galileo combines a range of technologies to deliver integrated capabilities for defence operations. CORE CAPABILITIES SELEX Galileo is at the forefront of technologies considered by many customers as being critical to mission success and survivability. The Company applies these technologies into products in an integrated way to match the required capabilities of Customers. SELEX Galileo is a partner of choice for providing capabilities in Battlespace, Surveillance, Simulation & Training and Service & Support Solutions. ■ In the battlespace, SELEX Galileo provides a range of products and systems than keep troops safe while

■ Across the whole business, inno-

enhancing battlefield effectiveness. ■ The Company also delivers fully integrated surveillance systems such as the Airborne Tactical Observation and Surveillance (ATOS) mission management system are able to directly support decision makers in their response. ■ SELEX Galileo’s simulation facilities give crews the constant training they need to reach the highest level of efficiency.

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EW Systems covers a wide range of fixedwing (fast-jet and transport) rotary-wing, UAV and marine applications

vative support and service arrangements improve the overall outcomes for the Customer while reducing their through-life costs. Key items in our extensive product portfolio are: Airborne Radars – Supplying both mechanicallyscanned and electronically-scanned (AESA) technologies for Fire-Control and Surveillance applications; Landborne and Naval Radars – Precision Approach as well as Low Probability of Intercept radars; EO/TI Systems – Turreted Airborne Systems as well as Driver Vision Systems, Sighting Systems and Fighting Systems for armoured vehicles; Laser Systems – Spot-Trackers, Designators and Burst-Illumination (Active Imaging) systems; Artillery Systems – Sound ranging systems and Artillery Pointing Systems; Airborne Systems – Both Mini- and Tactical-Unmanned Air Systems (UAS) as well as transonic target drones and reconnaissance

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

ST KINETICS

Enhanced Protection for Troops: Bronco All Terrain Tracked Vehicle The Bronco All Terrain Tracked Vehicle is a proven vehicle with an excellent payload of up to 5 tons, a range of about 400 km, an internal capacity of over 7,200 cc, and a high level of protection. Fielded since 2001, the vehicle has proven itself to be highly reliable and superbly maneuverable in extreme climatic conditions across difficult terrains, including tropical jungles, snow, swamps and deserts. The Bronco comes in a multitude of variants, including Troop Carrier, Fire Support, Field Ambulance, Repair and Recovery, Load Carrier, Fuel Re-supply Vehicle, and Mortar Tracked Carrier, to name a few. In

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 The Bronco All Terrain Tracked Vehicle has proven itself to be highly reliable and superbly maneuverable in extreme climatic conditions across difficult terrains, including tropical jungles, snow, swamps and deserts.

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weapons and ammunition systems, meeting a wide spectrum of operational requirements from conventional conflicts to urban warfare through to homeland security. With sales to more than 30 countries worldwide, ST Kinetics has won international acclaim through its stellar line of products, including the Bronco, the best protected and highest payload All Terrain Tracked Vehicle, the Ultimax 100, the world’s lowest recoil machine gun, the SAR21, the first assault rifle equipped with builtin laser and protection plate, the FH2000, the first 52 calibre artillery to be fielded, and the SRAMS, the world’s lowest recoil 120mm mortar. ST Kinetics is also the global leader in Total 40mm solutions.

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ingapore Technologies Kinetics Ltd (ST Kinetics) is the land systems arm of Singapore Technologies Engineering Ltd (ST Engineering), an integrated engineering group providing solutions and services in the aerospace, electronics, land systems and marine sectors worldwide. One of the largest companies listed on the Singapore Exchange, the Group recorded a turnover of US$4b in 2009. With defence sales at US$1.5b, ST Engineering is ranked among the top 55 defence player in the world according to Jane’s International Defence Review. Leveraging a heritage of over 40 years and a culture that embraces innovations and engineering, ST Kinetics is constantly developing solutions that meet the evolving needs of the battlefield and operations other than war. Today, ST Kinetics is a key player in equipping warfighters with a comprehensive range of mobility,

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CONTENTS

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| SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue | 151

BUSINESS

 Tata 8x8 HighMobility vehicle. Tata Motors has a range of armoured vehicles for catering to varied needs of armed forces.

INDIAN DEFENCE

equipment will allow it to leverage the entire defence mobility spectrum. Tata Motors offer products and services that not only meet the needs of the domestic market, but are also positioned to meet most of the stringent requirements of armies across the world. Tata Motors exports its range of specialized defence vehicles to countries in the SAARC region, ASEAN and Africa. Tata Motors has a range of armoured vehicles for catering to varied needs of Armed Forces. It includes Armoured Sumo for CIOps, Armoured Safari for VVIPs travel, Light Armoured Troop Carrier (LATC), 8x8 weapon platforms, Armoured Bus, Light Specialist Vehicles (LSV) and Mine Protected Vehicles (MPV). Tata Motors is now focusing on modernization and system upgrades of mobility platforms. Project management and system integration expertise has positioned Tata Motors as prime contractor in various upgrades and life extension

programme based on in-house core competencies and technologies. Such upgrade programme includes Missiles Carriers, Mine Protected Vehicles, Main Battle Tanks (MBT) and Infantry Combat Vehicles. In addition to products, Tata Motors defence solutions include Consultancy & Advisory Service, Prime Contracting Services, R&D and Test Services, Information Technology (software + hardware services), Manufacturing Services, Maintenance and Repair Services, Packing Storage and Transport Service. Mr P.M. Telang, Managing Director (India Operations) of Tata Motors, said, “Our aim is to participate in the Entire defence value chain. Besides consolidating our traditional supplies, going forward we will also participate in creating vehicles and equipment specific to the defence sector and also offer our expertise in upgrades and life extention programmes. In addition to our own initiatives, we will form appropriate partnerships and harness the capabilities of our own subsidiaries and other Tata Group companies.” 

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ata Motors Limited is India’s largest automobile company, with revenues of Rs 92,519 crore ($20 billion) in 2008-09. Through subsidiaries and associate companies, Tata Motors has operations in the UK, South Korea, Thailand and Spain. Among them is Jaguar Land Rover. It also has an industrial joint venture with Fiat in India. With over 4 million Tata vehicles plying in India, Tata Motors is the country’s market leader in commercial vehicles and among the top three in Passenger vehicles. The company is the world’s fourth largest truck manufacturer, and the world’s second largest bus manufacturer. Tata cars, buses and trucks are being marketed in several countries in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, South East Asia and South America. Tata Motors has been associated with the country’s defence forces since 1958. Over 1,00,000 vehicles have been supplied to Indian military and paramilitary forces so far. Tata Motors defence solutions cover the complete range of logistics, and armoured vehicles. The recent launch of combat and tactical vehicles and

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TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

TATA MOTORS

TERMA Provider of mission-critical solutions for the global defence and aerospace markets

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erma is a leading supplier of advanced self-protection systems for fixed and rotary wing aircraft as well as decoy systems for naval vessels and a world leading supplier of radars for coastal surveillance. The company is headquartered in Denmark with subsidiaries in the United States of America, The Netherlands, Singapore, and facilities in Germany. More than 80 percent of its turnover is based on exports, and Terma continuously seeks to expand its global presence including South and South East Asia. In India, Terma is looking into a number of exciting programs, which include coastal surveillance programs, and self-protection solutions for India’s coming fighter in the Medium Multi Role Combat Aircraft (MMRCA) program as subcontractor to Lockheed Martin – one of the contenders in the ongoing competition. Terma’s command & control solutions are based on a common

software platform called T-Core, thus enabling seamless integration for joint operations by for instance army and navy forces or army and police units. Other examples include integration of disparate missiles, radars, and platforms in air defence systems and integration of digital radios and army battle management systems. The latest addition to Terma’s family of command & control systems is the joint development with

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25 year's excellence in Electronic Warfare

Lockheed of an integrated and joint Ballistic Missile Defense C2 system for both land and maritime deployment. Most often, Terma’s business model involves the use of indigenous partners, who will carry out the physical installation and integration of the solution that Terma provides.

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Superior self-protection Terma is also one of the world’s leading integrators of self-protec-

THALES World Leader in Mission Critical Systems

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hales has been operating in India since 1953, participating in the creation of Bharat Electronics Ltd. (BEL), and has been a constant partner of the Indian Armed Forces ever since. After opening its first permanent representative office in Delhi in 1970, Thales created a service company in 2003: Thales India Pvt Ltd, with the aim to develop in India customer support and services. Today Thales India runs offices in Delhi, Gwalior, Mumbai, Visakhapatnam, Bangalore, Chennai and kochi to better serve its, Army, Navy and Air Force customers. In 2008, a JV was formed with Samtel: Samtel Thales Avionics Ltd to work towards the development, production and sale of Helmet Mounted Sight Displays and avionics for the Indian and export markets. The systems will be developed, produced and maintained in India with the aim of producing

Avionics and INGPS for military aircraft such as the Mirage 2000, Mig 21 and 27 , Su 30. ■ Optronics: 500 HHTI Sophie and 1000 Catherine Thermal Imagers on T90. ■ EW systems for Army and Navy. ■ Sonars on the Sea King helicopters and Scorpene submarines. ■ Mine Hunting sonar and CMS for the Karwar class refit. ■ DA 04 and LW08 long-range surveillance radar for Navy. Thales India Ltd.’s long term objective in line with the group’s international policy and the Government of India vision of self reliance, is to address the Indian market as an Indian player through the development of its local entity and the creation of JVs with the major PSU and Private Industrial Partners, in order to answer tenders with locally-developed products or systems and the maximum local content. ■ ■

a true Indian product destined for the local market. Major contracts with the MoD have included: ■ Air defence radars and systems such as THD 1955, Master M, Flycatcher Mark 1 and Reporter. ■ Vicon 91 Reconnaissance pods for the Air Force. ■ FLYCATCHER Mk1 Radar and Fire Control System.

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ZVYOZDOCHKA shipyard is open for military – technical cooperation

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thrifty owner prefers to have existing items and products repaired rather than to buy new ones. It also refers to such complicated products as submarines. If a ship comes in for repair she is expected not just to look like a new one after “treatment”, but to obtain advanced combat capabilities. This is the way that Zvyozdochka, placed in Severodvinsk, is capable to perform repair. 55 years ago Zvyozdochka was established as a ship – repair industry. That was justified by many factors: geographical location, proximity to sea test-sites to test ships as well as any kind of armament installed at repaired ships. To reach the present highest level the shipyard applied a complex approach to creation of advanced technological facilities, specialized workshops and services, unique testbenches to check and to test repaired and recovered equipment. However no equipment can work without

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 Facilities of JSC Shiprepairing Center Zvyozdochka (left) Vladimir S.Nikitin, General Director of Zvyozdochka

man. Zvyozdochka has built its own personnel education school. Another pro is availability of inhouse scientific centre. Independent scientific – research design – technological bureau Onega was founded in 1975 on the basis of the shipyard’s technical services. Onega is the leading national organization in the field of submarine repair technology development, which contributes a lot to solution of technical problems, reduction of repair timing, improvement of quality and reliability. Zvyozdochka is a key Russian dockyard, leader in repair and refit of

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contributors profile

Contributors profile Air Marshal (Retd) A.K. Trikha

Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey

The author’s illustrious career in the IAF comprised extensive tenure in the Jaguar strike aircraft bases as Chief Operations Officer, in-charge flying and overall base commander. He superannuated from the IAF in the post of AOC-in-C, Southern Air Command.  n

Air Marshal B.K. Pandey retired from the IAF after serving the organisation for nearly 40 years. During his career, he held a number of important command and staff appointments, the last being that of AOC-in-C of Training Command of the IAF. Currently he is an Editor with the SP Guide Publications and is a resident of Bangalore.  n

contributions on page 81

contributions on page 267 & 289

Admiral (Retd) Arun Prakash

Vice Admiral (Retd) B.S. Randhawa

Admiral Arun Prakash retired as India’s 20th Naval Chief and Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee in 2006. In flag rank, he commanded the Indian Navy’s Eastern Fleet, the National Defence Academy, the Andaman & Nicobar Joint Command and the Western Naval Command. He is currently a member of India’s National Security Advisory Board and Chairman of the National Maritime Foundation.  n contributions on page 35

Vice Admiral B.S. Randhawa, retired from the Indian Navy on December 31, 2008, as Chief of Material, Naval Headquarters. He is settled in New Delhi and is pursuing consultancy in maritime technology.  n contributions on page 77

Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal

Ambassador (Retd) Arundhati Ghose Ambassador Arundhati Ghose (Retd) joined the Indian Foreign Service in 1963. She has been posted as Ambassador to the Republic of Korea, Egypt, and as Permanent Representative to UNESCO and the UN Offices in Geneva. After retirement in 1997, she has held many important posts. Currently, she is a Distinguished Fellow at the Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies and Global India Foundation, Kolkata.  n

Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal is a well-known military and strategic analyst who commanded an infantry brigade on the L0C with Pakistan. He has been a Military Observer in the United Nations Mission UNTAG in Namibia. He has authored a large number of books and is currently the Director, Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS), New Delhi.  n contributions on page 21 & 111

Ikbal Singh

contributions on page 47

Lt General (Retd) Arvind Sharma has served with distinction in all operational theatres and has the distinction of commanding a mountain division in the east and a corps in Jammu & Kashmir. He retired as the GoC-in-C Eastern Command.  n

Ikbal Singh joined the Instrument Research Development Establishment of the DRDO in 1978 as an optical designer and since then has a number of designs to his credit. He has been awarded ‘DRDO Scientist of the year 2003’ award for his contribution for the development of CPS for MBT Arjun. He has published more than 20 research papers in national and international journals.  n

contributions on page 323

contributions on page 93

Lt General (Retd) Arvind Sharma

Lt General (Retd) Ashok Kumar Saini

Vice Admiral (Retd) J.S. Bedi

Lt General Ashok Kumar Saini was commissioned in Corps of Signals in June 1970 with two years seniority. He is an allumni of DSSC, Wellington, and National Defence College, New Delhi. The officer retired as Director General, Rashtriya Rifles in August 2007.  n

Vice Admiral J.S. Bedi retired from the Indian Navy on April 30, 2009, as Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Western Naval Command.He is currently settled in Pune and is engaged in writing for professional journals.  n

contributions on page 73

contributions on page 39

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contributors profile DIG K.R. Suresh

Cmde (Retd) Rajeev Sawhney

Deputy Inspector General K.R. Suresh joined the Coast Guard in January 1987 as Assistant Commandant. He has specialisation in Communications. He holds a post graduate degree in Telecommunications from Madras University. He is currently Principal Director, Operations, Coast Guard Headquarters, New Delhi.  n contributions on page 239

Major General (Retd) Mrinal Suman

Cmde Rajeev Sawhney retired from the Indian Navy on March 31, 2009. He is at present the Deputy Director, Research and Head of the Centre for Strategic Studies & Simulation at the USI since June 2009. n contributions on page 117

Ambassador (Retd) Ranjit Gupta

General Suman heads the Defence Technical Assessment and Advisory Service (DTAAS) of the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). As the first Technical Manager (Land Systems), he was closely associated with the evolution and promulgation of the new defence procurement mechanism in whichhis expertiseis well known. n

Ambassador Ranjit Gupta is a retired Indian Foreign Service officer. He has been India’s Ambassador to Yemen (North), Venezuela, Oman, Thailand and Spain and finally Head of the non-official office in Taiwan. He is currently a member of the National Security Advisory Board and is leading a Joint Research Project with the Gulf Research Centre, Dubai and on India GCC Relations on behalf of the Ministry of External Affairs.  n

contributions on page 101 & 107

contributions on page 57

Dr Monika Chansoria

Air Chief Marshal (Retd) S. Krishnaswamy

Dr Monika Chansoria is currently a Senior Fellow in France and is a Visiting Professor and Associate Director of Studies (Directeur d’études associé) at the Fondation Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, Paris. In addition, she is a Research Fellow at the Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS), New Delhi.  n

Air Chief Marshal S. Krishnaswamy was commissioned in the IAF in 1961. He has more than 4,000 hours of flying experience and has captained over 30 varieties of aircraft and helicopters. He has served as Chief of the Air Staff and has also been AOC-in-C of three operational air commands.  n

contributions on page 55

contributions on page 63

Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand

Lt General (Retd) S.R.R. Aiyengar

Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand is the former Director General of Army Air Defence. A prolific writer, he his currently the Senior Technical Group Editor with SP Guide Publications since September 2005.  n

Lt General (Retd) S.R.R. Aiyengar was commissioned in the Corps of Signals, Indian Army on June 11, 1961. He has been the Chief Signal Officer of a Strike Corps in the Western Sector and has commanded an EW Group in operations in Sri Lanka. He is a well-known military and strategic analyst.  n

contributions on page 327

contributions on page 85

Lt General (Retd) P.C Katoch

Sanjay Kumar

Lt General P.C Katoch superannuated as Director General Information Systems of the Indian Army. A third generation army officer, he commanded Strike Corps in the South Western Theatre. He has served as Defence Attache in Japan with accreditation to Republic of Korea. He is currently settled in Gurgaon.  n contributions on page 65, 69, 127 & 315

A security analyst and prolific writer, Sanjay Kumar has to his credit a number of articles on security, published in leading Indian journals and websites. He is presently associated with the Vivekananda International Foundation, New Delhi, where he is entrusted with the responsibility of setting up a Research Resource Centre.  n contributions on page 129 & 435

Prakash Singh

Brigadier (Retd) Sapan Kumar Chatterji

Prakash Singh is a recipient of Padmashri. He was the Director General (DG), Border Security Force, DG, Police UP, and DGP Assam. He was also a member of the Expert Group of Planning Commission which studied the Development Challenges in Extremist Affected Areas. He is known for the Public Interest Litigation filed in the Supreme Court along with N.K. Singh regarding non-implementation of the recommendations of National Police Commission.  n

Brigadier Sapan Kumar Chatterji has commanded one of the largest brigades of the Indian Army in an intense counter-insurgency environment. His last assignment, prior to superannuation was Deputy Director General, Public Information, where he was Media Adviser to the Army Chief. He has written over 80 articles in national newspapers and magazines on a wide variety of subjects.  n

contributions on page 321

contributions on page 59

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contributors profile Major General (Retd) Sheru Thapliyal

General (Retd) V.P. Malik

Major General Sheru Thapliyal has been an Instructor at the School of Artillery, Devlali. He has commanded an Infantry Division in Ladakh. He is currently Vice President, Business Development, Memory Electronics Pvt Ltd, a Tandon Group Company. He is also Director of Syrma Technologies, another Tandon Group Company.  n contributions on page 25

K. Subrahmanyam

General V.P. Malik was Chief of the Army Staff of the Indian Army from October 1, 1997 to September 30, 2000 and the Chairman, COSC of India from January 1, 1999 to September 30, 2000. He planned, coordinated and oversaw execution of the Operation Vijay to successfully defeat Pakistan’s attempted intrusion in the Kargil Sector in 1999. After retirement, he was a member of the NSAB for two years. He writes frequently for newspapers and magazines. n contributions on page 51 & 61

K. Subrahmanyam joined the Indian Administrative Service in 1951 in the Tamil Nadu cadre. Among his more prestigious appointments, he has been the Home Secretary of Tamil Nadu, Chairman, Joint Intelligence Committee, Cabinet Secretariat, and Secretary, Defence Production, Ministry of Defence. He has had two stints as the Director of the IDSA. He has served as the Convenor of NSAB, and has chaired the UN Study Group on Nuclear Deterrence in 198586, the Kargil Review Committee 1999-2000 and the Committee on National Defence University 2001-02. He is the author and editor of 16 books. He continues to indulge in his passion for strategic analysis.  n contributions on page 11

Lt General (Retd) V.R. Raghavan The General is a graduate from the Royal Military College of Science and Army Staff College, UK. After a distinguished career in the Indian Army, General Raghavan retired in 1994 as Director General of Military Operations of the Indian Army. Currently, he is the Director, Delhi Policy Group and President, Centre for Security Analysis. The General has authored many books and a monograph.n contributions on page 1

Lt General (Retd) Vijay Oberoi

Rear Admiral (Retd) Sushil Ramsay Rear Admiral Sushil Ramsay retired after serving for 38 years in the Indian Navy. He provided extensive strategic directions and operational expertise towards capacity building in logistics, defence expenditure, administrative reforms and restructuring of Services Headquarters. During his last assignment as Project Director-Personnel & Administration, he was instrumental in establishing a state-of-the-art and sophisticated headquarters for ATV project. He is currently is Senior Editorial Adviser of SP's Naval Forces and technical editor of SP's Military Yearbook n

Commissioned in 1961, he is an International Fellow at the Army War College, US. He has been GOC-in-C of Army Training Command and Western Command. Despite losing one leg in 1965 War, he retired as the VCOAS in 2001. He was Founder Director of the Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS) and a prolific writer.  n contributions on page 17

Brigadier (Retd) Vinod Anand Brigadier Vinod Anand was Brigadier General Staff, Joint Operations at Army Training Command in his last assignment. He is a postgraduate in defence and strategic studies. He is currently a Senior Fellow at the USI of India. He writes on regional and international security issues besides military subjects.  n

contributions on page 191

Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia The author has the distinction of having accumulated more than 5,000 hours on all types of aircraft, but mostly on single-engine fighters in the IAF. He was conferred gallantry awards (Vir Chakra) in both 1965 and 1971 wars against Pakistan flying the Mystere and Su-7, respectively. He also has the rare distinction of being the AOC-in-C of three major operational commands of the IAF.  n

contributions on page 161

Air Marshal (Retd) Vinod Patney He was commissioned into the IAF in May 1961. He has held the appointments of AOC-in-C Central Air Command, Western Air Command (during the Kargil conflict) and VCAS. He has also been a member of the NSAB after superannuation. He regularly contributes articles for magazines and journals on strategic and military issues.  n

contributions on page 123

Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor

contributions on page 43

Lt General V.K. Kapoor was commissioned on February 9, 1964. He is a specialist in armoured and mechanised warfare and in the art of war-gaming. Prior to superannuating, he was the Commandant of the Army War College at Mhow. He has written more than 90 articles for magazines and journals on strategic and military issues. He is currently the editor of SP's Land Forces and technical editor of SP's Military Yearbook.  n contributions on page 29, 97, 299 & 309

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Yang Jiemian Jiemian YANG is currently a Senior Fellow and President at the SIIS, Member of Shanghai Committee of People’s Political Consultative Conference, and President of Shanghai Association of International Relations.  n contributions on page 5

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section one

uViewpoints Expert Opinion One China-Pakistan Alliance 55 Two India-China Relations 57 Three North Korea Rising 59 Four Combating Internal Security Threats 61 Five We Need to Spend More Efficiently 63

BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Changing World Order 1 Regrouping of International Forces 5 Indo-US Relationship 11 Afghanistan-Pakistan Perspective 17 People's Liberation Army of China 21 China's Armed Forces 25 Land Warfare 29 Emerging Role of Indian Navy 35 India's Maritime Challenges 39 Aerospace Power 43 Multilateral Nuclear Ties 47 India's Higher Direction of War 51

REGIONAL BALANCE

Contents

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

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Concepts & Perspectives One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twelve

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

LT GENERAL (RETD) V.R. RAGHAVAN

The second movement is led by international terrorism marked by political and strategic vacuum in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The umbilical link between the two countries is highlighted by the Af-Pak policy designed by the US. The Taliban, Al-Qaeda and other multiple terrorist organisations are operating with impunity in and from Pakistan. All liberal and democratic countries are under continuous threat of major terrorist attacks from such organisations. President Barack Obama has declared a new strategy for Afghanistan based on enhanced military activity through a force level surge and a timetable for troop withdrawal. His Presidency will be severely impacted upon by the success or lack of it in the next two years. The US has and will continue to pour billions of dollars to prevent an economic collapse in Pakistan. A substantial percentage of such aid in the past has been diverted for use by the military for its benefit. There has thus been no meaningful impact on anti-terrorism operations within Pakistan or in Afghanistan. Pakistan’s political stability and economic future will hinge on the new US strategy, just as the success of the strategy will hinge on Pakistan’s capacity to play a major and constructive role in it. Neither is success of the strategy certain nor is the outcome, which will define the contours of the Obama world. The third movement is related to nuclear proliferation and disarmament. President Obama’s stirring call for a world free of nuclear weapons was a remarkable departure from the Cold War mindsets on the subject. This has excited global hope and anticipation on a new beginning to rid the world of nuclear threats. The dangers of nuclear weapons coming in the possession of terrorist groups and the possibility of weapons being acquired by more states have added to this antici-

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he US, according to President Barack Obama, needs to be engaged with the rest of the world instead of driving it. That is the essential change in the White House thinking after eight disastrous years with George W. Bush as President. India has been charmed and impressed by the new President’s oratory and promise of change. The world has changed in the first decade of 21st century and both the US and India have been impacted by that change. The nature and content of India-US relations in the Obama presidency thus holds both a promise of constructive engagement and the risks of not meeting the mutual expectations.

The Global Strategic Context The new world order is driven by four major movements. The first is of economic collapse and recovery. The global collapse of the long established financial systems coincided with the assumption of office by President Obama. It was a fascinated world which witnessed his heroic efforts to pump start the US economy even as the operators of the banking world attempted to make personal profits out of the financial bail-out packages. The recovery has begun but will remain slow and of long duration. Economies of all major and minor powers have been affected and will not improve drastically for the better in a long while. The success of Obama presidency will be marked by the degree of economic growth in the US.

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INDIAN DEFENCE

The world has changed in the first decade of 21st century and both the US and India have been impacted by that change. The nature and content of Indo-US relations in the Obama presidency thus hold both a promise of constructive engagement and the risks of not meeting the mutual expectations.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

www.wikipedia.org; www.whitehouse.gov

India in the Obama Regime

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1 World Order Changing

CONTENTS

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status is helplessly waning. In the words of Henry A. Kissinger, the former US Secretary of State, “The centre of gravity of world affairs is shifting from the Atlantic to the Pacific.” Helmut Schmidt, the former German chancellor, said, “The US, Russia, China, Islamic countries, Africa, India and European Union (EU) are the gravity of the current world and are affecting the direction of the international state of affairs.” Lee Kuan Yew, Minister Mentor of Singapore, states that the next two decades will remain to be an asymmetry multi-polar world with the US as the sole superpower. Editor of Newsweek International Fareed Zakaria said that the ascent of newly emerging powers and NGOs is the “rise of the rest” in the post-American world which constitutes the third shift of power in the past 500 years. Multipolarisation in the international configuration, a viewpoint recognised by this author, though can be reexamined in terms of the epochal characteristics of the regrouping of international forces. The 9/11 event and financial crisis are catalysing the formation of Four Groups, namely, the gaining, defending, losing and weakening forces. The term “gaining forces” refer to the newly emerging powers and aggressive international and regional organisations, which have rallied considerable economic and political strengths with greater right of discourse in the world affairs and secured relatively equal participation in the reform of international system and international order. The term “defending forces” refer to international actors like the United States and NGOs such as International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. In the wake of the end of the Cold War, the once almighty US has lost the sole superpower status in the world affairs. IMF and World Bank have greatly declined both in terms of general magnitude and in terms of practical influence. The term “losing forces” refers to EU, Japan, Russia and international organisations like the Commonwealth of Independent

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

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he present world is in a stage of great development, great change and great adjustment while the co-relation of international forces is evolving in favour of developing countries with emerging powers as their representatives. This has resulted in the formation of Four Groups, namely the gaining, defending, losing and weakening forces. This article examines the regrouping of international forces and its impacts in respect of Four Groups and explores the extended, contemporary connotation of peace and development in response to global problems. Moreover, to this author, regional cooperation helps push for a peaceful and orderly transformation of the international system and the emerging powers should serve as the new strategic backup for China on its road towards global power.

Four Groups: New Perspective in Analysing the Regrouping of International Forces The grasp of shifting situation and correlation of forces are most important and effective to begin with in studying international relations (IR). Since the onset of the 21st century, the major actors of international society and IR strategists paid great attention to gauging the change of international forces through various measures. For example, emerging powers like China, Russia and Brazil champion multi-polarisation, European countries either maintain or oppose multi-polarisation on the basis of given timings and opportunities and the United States attempts to sustain its leadership over the world though the “sole superpower”

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

YANG JIEMIAN

TECHNOLOGY

Regional cooperation helps push for a peaceful and orderly transformation of the international system and the emerging powers should serve as the new strategic backup for China on its road towards global power

BUSINESS

Four Groups, Multi-polarisation, Emerging Powers

INDIAN DEFENCE

International Forces

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

2

Regrouping of

REGIONAL BALANCE

www.wikipedia.org

www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

K. SUBRAHMANYAM

hostage. The US, though a secular country, had no compunction in using religious fundamentalism and extremism as instrumentalities to fight a “Holy War” to defeat the Soviet Union in Afghanistan. That “Holy War” gave rise to the Jihadi terrorism which led to the 9/11 attack on the US. Today, US President Barack Obama pledges himself to fight a “just war’ against those holy warriors spawned by the tragic blunder of the US, straying from its basic values in the late seventies and early eighties. India’s isolationist non-alignment was the result of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru’s strategic calculation. India could not afford to alienate the Soviet Union with a Zdhanov’s thesis in the Cominform calling on Asian communists to carry out the uprisings. The Chinese Communist Party was even more antagonistic to the Jawaharlal Nehru government in India than the Soviet Communist Party. Nehru’s non-alignment aimed at not alienating the USSR. He succeeded in this effort and the Soviet attitude towards India became increasingly benevolent as the Soviets sensed potential hostility from China. By the late fifties, India and the Soviet Union developed a mutuality of security interest vis-a-vis China. This mutuality of security interest lasted through the Cold War. From 1971 onwards, China switched sides and became a tacit ally of the US against USSR. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union called for review of policies by both India and the US. The P.V. Narasimha Rao government carried out economic liberalisation, established ambassadorial relations with Israel, opened to the “east” and took steps to improve relations with the US. Washington on its part carried out a number of think-tank studies on improving relations with India. The NDA government assuming office in 1998 marked a watershed

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oth India and the US are new to the concept of partnership. The US inherited the leadership of the western world with its entry into the Second World War and its victory in it and its subsequent efforts in rehabilitating and providing security to the Western European countries and Japan. Since the US was the liberator, rehabilitator and security provider for the western world and subsequently the engine of growth to China and East Asian and Southeast Asian countries, it was accepted as an undisputed leader of most of the market economies and democratic countries. The US exercises leadership over NATO and Anzus alliances and provides bilateral security to Japan and South Korea and tacit security to ASEAN. Therefore, it was not used to having partners but only allies who accepted its lead. India practised isolationism in the name of non-alignment. It maintained cordial relationship with the Soviet Union and a non-antagonistic relationship with the US during the Cold War. Though during the Cold War, there was a greater commonality of values between democratic and pluralistic India and democratic and pluralistic US than between India and communist USSR, the US chose to align itself with non-democratic dictatorships and distance itself from India as part of its Cold War strategy and tactics. The US made a deal with China at the time when the country was passing through the worst phase of Cultural Revolution. China is today the main challenger of the US and holds it as an economic

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INDIAN DEFENCE

The proposed joint Indo-US clean energy and climate change initiative can do to India what the US investments and joint ventures did to China in the eighties and nineties. To deal effectively with climate change and green house gas emission, India should concentrate on getting the clean energy and climate change initiative started at the earliest. This is going to be an industrial revolution.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

www.wikipedia.org; www.pib.nic.in

Laying Foundation for a Partnership

REGIONAL BALANCE

3 Relationship Indo-US

CONTENTS

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“I am not prepared to say we are winning. I am prepared to say we are very much engaged, and I am confident we’re going to see serious progress this year.” —General Stanely McChrystal

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

LT GENERAL (RETD) VIJAY OBEROI

ber of Taliban and Al-Qaeda cadres escaped and took shelter in the border belts of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Hamid Karzai, a Pashtun was installed as the interim head of state in 2002, and in 2004, a new constitution was adopted. After the US shifted focus to Iraq, the Taliban staged a comeback, both within Afghanistan and in the border areas of Pakistan. Currently, an international force under the control of the US is operating against the Taliban. Simultaneously, the country is being rebuilt by international support. The tribal and ethnic composition of Afghanistan (map) makes centralised control difficult and is the reason for the fierce independence of the people. The ethnic groups of Afghanistan comprise 36.4 per cent to 42 per cent Pashtun, 27 per cent to 38 per cent Tajik, 8 per cent to 10 per cent Hazara, 6 per cent to 9.2 per cent Uzbek, 1.7 to 3 per cent Turkmen, 0.5 per cent to 4 per cent Baloch, 0.1 per cent to 4 per cent Aimak, 1.9 per cent to 9.2 per cent other (Pashai, Hindki, Nuristani, Brahui, Hindkowans, etc).

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he Af-Pak area has been the most alarming concern of the world for nearly one year now. Although both Afghanistan and Pakistan have been the focus of security experts for many years, there is a sense of urgency now on account of rapid changes taking place. Recent Afghan history has been marked by almost a constant war. Conflict began with the overthrow of King Zahir Shah in 1973 and has continued thereafter. Its intensity increased after the Soviet occupation in 1979, as Mujahideens recruited, trained and equipped by the United States, and with the help of Saudi Arabia and Pakistan commenced operations and ousted them in 1989. The Taliban emerged on the scene in 1994 and established control over 95 per cent of Afghanistan by 1996. In 2001, the US and its allies, in their quest for Al-Qaeda terrorists after 9/11, invaded Afghanistan and with the help of the Northern Alliance defeated the Taliban. Despite the military victory, a large num-

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

“Afghanistan is the graveyard of Empires.” —The Great Game

INDIAN DEFENCE

Pakistan has played its cards well. If the move to negotiate and bribe the Taliban gathers steam, the region is in for a great deal of instability. The civil society of Pakistan is likely to be the biggest sufferer and India may well be the next.

Current Scenario

The low standard of living of much of the population has been exacerbated by 30 years of civil war. The economy continues to depend on the cultivation and sale of narcotics. Widespread corruption has under-

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REGIONAL BALANCE

www.wikipedia.org; www.pib.nic.in; www.iava.org

Cause for Alarm

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

4 Perspective

Afghanistan-Pakistan

CONTENTS

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 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

BRIG (RETD) GURMEET KANWAL

under high-tech conditions” (gaojishu tiaojian xia de jubu zhanzheng). The “active defence” doctrine calls for integrated, deep strikes—a concentration of superior firepower that is to be utilised to destroy the opponent’s retaliatory capabilities—through pre-emptive strikes employing long-range artillery, short-range ballistic missiles (SRBMs) and precision-guided munitions. David Shambaugh writes, “Rather than conducting a ‘people’s war’ (a strategy to ‘lure the enemy in deep’ into one’s own territory), the PLA doctrine of ‘active defence’ calls for forward positioning, frontier defence, engagement of the enemy at or over the border and potential engagement in conflict beyond China’s immediate periphery. Compared with China’s historically reactive stance of luring the adversary deep inside and destroying him through strategic defence, this doctrine is essentially pro-active and seeks to take the battle into enemy territory.” The doctrine emphasises the effective use of advanced equipment wielded by elite units, with a focus on joint operations. The overall aim in this “limited war under high-tech conditions” doctrine is to disrupt the enemy’s combat forces and logistics but not annihilate him so as to bring about a negotiated end to the conflict or dictate terms if possible. Beijing has identified the following five limited war scenarios as being likely:  Military conflict with neighbouring countries in a limited region  Military conflict on territorial waters  Undeclared air attack by enemy countries  Territorial defence in a limited military operation  Punitive offensive with a minor incursion into a neighbouring country The new doctrine and the strategy and tactics associated with

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hina has spelt out its aim for developing the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) into a modern force stating, “A major strategic task of the Communist Party of China (CPC) in exercising state power is to secure a coordinated development of national defence and the economy, and to build modernised, regularised and revolutionary armed forces to keep the country safe.” The PLA is gradually becoming a more modern and professional force capable of dealing with diverse threats. This transformation is being fuelled by significant changes in the doctrine and tactics, the introduction of sophisticated command and control systems, the gradual acquisition of state-of-the-art hardware, an enhanced training regime and steady downsizing of paramilitary personnel to improve the teeth-to-tail ratio. Since China’s ignominious incursion into Vietnam in 1979, the PLA doctrine has evolved from Mao’s “people’s war”, characterised by protracted, large-scale land warfare, through a “limited/local war” phase, to “people’s war under modern conditions,” introduced in 1993.

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New Doctrines: Active Defence and High-tech Limited War Underpinning the new professionalism of the PLA is the new doctrine of “active defence” (jiji fangyu) that seeks to conduct “people’s war under modern conditions,” but is better understood as “local wars

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INDIAN DEFENCE

Since China’s ignominious incursion into Vietnam in 1979, PLA doctrine has evolved from Mao’s “people’s war”, characterised by protracted, large-scale land warfare, through a “limited/local war” phase, to “people’s war under modern conditions”, introduced in 1993.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

www.wikipedia.org;

Doctrinal Reforms

REGIONAL BALANCE

5 Army of China

People’s Liberation

CONTENTS

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 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

MAJ GENERAL (RETD) SHERU THAPLIYAL

China’s armed forces have been unique in several aspects as compared to their counterparts in other parts of the globe. The development of the PLA was conditioned by the political vagaries of the socialist system, with its guiding principles of modernisation, revolutionisation and regularisation, which differed in importance in the last five decades. Modernisation efforts of the PLA involved streamlining and reorganising its force structures, raising elite troops, restructuring of command and control mechanisms, restoration of the rank system and grades, emphasis on professional military education, revamping curriculum and upgrading the defence technological capabilities of the personnel. These are meant to enhance military capabilities of the country so as to overcome the perceived challenges to the state. Several factors influenced such modernisation efforts. They include, changes in the nature of warfare, technology, ability to divert precious budgetary and human resources, political leadership’s choices and outlook, and so on.

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he People’s Republic of China (PRC) launched a comprehensive modernisation programme for its armed forces, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) in the mid-1980s. While the PLA has made efforts in this regard from the 1950s onwards, the recent phase of modernisation has been wide-ranging and has the effect of gradually changing the traditional image and composition of the PLA in the coming decades. After the 1979 Vietnam War, China has experienced a relatively peaceful external environment. Most of this goes to the launch of the modernisation programme in its armed forces. Military modernisation was the last of Deng Tsio Ping’s Four Modernisations. In the early 1990s, the Central Military Commission (CMC) reportedly projected a three-state modernisation programme for the armed forces—an initial modernisation of the three branches from 1992 to 1996; the second phase of “fundamental modernisation” by 1998; and the third phase of ‘basic advanced modernisation’ to be completed by 2001. Further blueprints were drawn by the new “fourth generation” Chinese leaders after the 16th Party Congress for modernising the PLA in the coming years.

Modernisation Strategy

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The mid-1980s witnessed some soul-searching in the PLA after the losses suffered in the Vietnam War of 1979. To overcome the problems in the PLA, a strategic transformation was initiated at the May-June 1985 CMC enlarged conference, aimed at not only demobilising soldiers, but also improving the command system, and upgrading technological level of its weaponry. The Gulf War of 1991 also came as an eye-opener for the PLA

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“We should draw on the experiences in new military changes of the world and seize the opportunities to achieve development in national defence and army modernisation.” —President Hu Jintao

INDIAN DEFENCE

Although military modernisation figured last among Deng Xiao Ping’s Four Modernisations, there are increasing signs that China has embarked on its military modernisation to turn its army into a modern force capable of defeating a moderate size adversary

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

www.wikipedia.org;

Modernisation & Innovations

REGIONAL BALANCE

6 Armed Forces China’s

CONTENTS

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CONTENTS

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7 Warfare

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

LT GENERAL (RETD) V. K. KAPOOR

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ndia faces three types of threats in the future. The long-term threat from Pakistan and China respectively, may take the form of limited mid/high intensity conventional wars while the internal threat and the contemporary challenges are likely to take the form of terrorism and insurgencies emanating from traditional adversaries, international terrorist networks, non-state actors, and/or from dissident groups of homegrown variety. The transnational nature of these threats and the increasing involvement of state actors in using sub-conventional conflicts, as war by other means, have exacerbated their complexity. The conventional conflicts are likely to be of short duration, and may vary from a few days to a few weeks, due to the inevitable international pressures. The reaction time, during crises situations, and especially in the case of terror attacks, will be very limited. Thus there is a constant need for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance to preempt attacks and to react in a timely manner in case pre-emption is not feasible.

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

The low intensity conflicts (LIC) fall under the category of ‘politico-military confrontation’ between contending states or groups and are at a much lower scale than conventional wars but are above the routine and peaceful competition among states. LIC ranges from high-grade internal security situations to the extensive employment of army in counter insurgency operations. LIC may be waged by a combination of means, employing political, economic, informational and military instruments. It includes terrorism but excludes purely criminal acts. Such conflicts as opposed to conventional wars may prolong indefinitely because conflict resolution has to be achieved within many conflicting influences. India is likely to face hybrid conflicts involving conventional as well as low intensity conflicts simultaneously. The types of threats are, by themselves, indicative of a threat cum capability based force structure in which the potential adversary’s capabilities and threats can both be countered by acquiring a full spectrum capability, but without overstretching the country’s resources. This can be achieved by employing a new joint war fighting doctrine which combines the strengths of each service through technology with innovative ‘operational art’ evolved contextually.

BUSINESS

“Would you tell me please, which way I ought to go from here?” said Alice. “That depends a good deal on where you want to get to,” said the Cheshire cat. —Lewis Carrol, Alice in Wonderland

INDIAN DEFENCE

It is disappointing to note that in the 21st century, the Indian Army and indeed the Indian Navy and the Indian Air Force are still planning for conflicts essentially service wise, the way it was done in the early years of Second World War. Doctrinal differences, lack of suitably integrated/joint organisations, poor knowledge and experience of joint staff work and bereft of networked communications, the Indian armed forces lack the organisational culture and response to effectively fight future conflicts.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

The Changing Needs

REGIONAL BALANCE

www.wikipedia.org; Indian Army

Land

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

ered in Mohenjo-Daro came either from the shores of the Red Sea or the extreme south of India and could only have been transported by sea. Panikkar recounts the continuum of colonisation as well as cultural and religious osmosis from India’s east coast, by sea to Southeast Asia. This resulted in establishment of large Hindu kingdoms and empires in Siam, Cambodia, Java and Sumatra for eight hundred years from the fifth century BC. From this apogee, India’s maritime prowess went into rapid decline, mainly because the Central Asian dynasties, which came to rule in Delhi, in the 13th century, had never seen the seas and knew nothing about maritime power. Lamenting this inherited tendency to overlook maritime aspects while examining security issues, Panikkar warned in a 1945 book, “While to other countries, the Indian Ocean is only one of the oceanic areas, to India it is the vital sea. Her future is dependent on the freedom of its waters.” His prescience appears even more remarkable when he declared in the midst of the Chinese Civil War “That China does intend to embark on a policy of large-scale naval expansion is clear from the attitude of both the communists as well as the nationalists.” Conscious of its increasingly crucial role in the region, the Indian Navy (IN), as it looks ahead will need to examine the emerging power play in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) as well as the main participants while evolving its medium-and long-term strategy.

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he recent past has seen a succession of study teams of Western (mainly American) analysts focusing on the geostrategic state-of-play in the Indian Ocean, and attempting to predict the long-term intent and purpose behind India’s accretion of maritime capability. Similarly, the Indian Navy’s Doctrine and Strategy documents seem to have received more attention and analysis abroad than at home. Highlighting the steadily increasing centrality of the Indian Ocean in world affairs, Robert D. Kaplan, says in the February 2009 issue of the Foreign Affairs magazine, “Already the world’s pre-eminent energy and trade interstate seaway, the Indian Ocean will matter even more in the future...it is where global struggles will play out in the twenty-first century.” To bolster his argument, Kaplan quotes two ancient aphorisms, of esoteric provenance. One says, “If the world were an egg, Hormuz would be its yolk” and the other, “Whoever is lord of Malacca has his hand on the throat of Venice.” If we are discussing ancient maritime wisdom, it is time for Indians to re-read the forgotten writings of Sardar K.M. Panikkar, the historian and distinguished son of India. Sixty-five years ago, he pointed out that much of the materials found in the remains of the Indus Valley civilisation (3000-2500 BC), and many products discov-

GET YOUR COPY TO Power Shift READ IN COMPLETE Even as many Western nations teeter on the brink of economic uncertainty, there are now significant signs that after a deep and vicious

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ADMIRAL (RETD) ARUN PRAKASH

INDIAN DEFENCE

The next few decades are going to witness the ‘graceful decline’ of America’s economy, and with it her maritime power and global influence. This will be accompanied by the phenomenal ascendance of China in the economic, industrial and military fields; with concomitant gains in terms of international clout. India, for all its promise in terms of a steadily growing economy, native talent and youth bulge may remain a laggard because of the absence of a grand strategy or coherent long-term vision.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

www.wikipedia.org; Indian Navy

Challenges in the Maritime Domain

REGIONAL BALANCE

8 Indian Navy

Emerging Role of

CONTENTS

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 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

VICE ADMIRAL (RETD) J.S. BEDI

On the other hand, India has certainly come a long way from the doomsday prediction of balkanisation and “Third World War” scenario. India today is a well established and largest practising democracy, though relatively young. While we have all the linked problems of a developing economy, our lack of strategic planning and thought process, poor infrastructure and deep-rooted corruption are probably the biggest stumbling blocks in our effort to develop faster and assert ourselves internationally. From a nascent democracy with a colonial hangover, India is slowly but surely moving to become a key regional player. Our interests would be the key factor which will shape our actions within the region and internationally. These interests would be the drivers for our foreign and defence policies. Also, these interests would automatically throw up challenges for our nation. These challenges would need to be met head on and resolved. It would thus be safe to assume that the interests generate challenges. If 40-50 years ago anyone had posed the question about India’s maritime interests, the answer presumably would have been simple. India’s interests were limited and in all probability confined to protecting its territorial integrity against all forms of maritime threat and safeguarding of its sea lanes of communication (SLOCs). Over the years and in keeping with the stature of India, the maritime interests have grown manifold. Let us first look at India’s area of maritime interest. During independence, the country’s area of interest was confined to its immediate neighbourhood and coastal seas. This was probably shaped by the continental mindset of India’s political leadership and sea blindness that

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rystal ball gazing at the best of times is fraught with uncertainties. Nobody could have predicted the collapse of the Soviet Union or for that matter the demolition of the Berlin Wall a decade in advance. In more recent times, all the brilliant graduates from the best management and financial institutions of the world failed to see the current economic recession (except for the US realty market to some extent). Therefore, prediction of maritime challenges in India’s context is a rather complex issue linked to a host of factors. Geo-strategically, the centrality of the Asia-Pacific region to the current and foreseeable world order has been accepted by most strategists. Key players in the region will be China, Japan, Korea, Australia and India. While most economies of the western world are either in recession or stagnating, China and India are the current economic drivers averaging nine per cent and six per cent growth respectively. One would like to believe that China and India are the current flavour for all strategic crystal ball gazers. There are many who are worried about the Chinese financial condition, especially due to very large loans doled out by the banks. There is a fear of economic meltdown. Notwithstanding this, in the international scene, China would like to be seen as a responsible and mature nation. However, China’s assertiveness both as an economic and military power cannot be wished away. Indian strategists must factor China in their long-term threat perceptions.

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INDIAN DEFENCE

For India to seek her rightful place in the comity of nations, it is incumbent upon India to have a strong maritime force and actively engage in maritime diplomacy so that maritime challenges of today can be effectively neutralised before they translate into long-term threats for the nation

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

www.wikipedia.org; Indian Navy

In the Coming Decade

REGIONAL BALANCE

9 Challenges

India’s Maritime

CONTENTS

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10 Power AIR MARSHAL (RETD) VINOD PATNEY

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

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he word ‘warfare’ lends itself to many interpretations. For instance, warfare could also mean conflict with little or even no use of military power. Attempts at industrial and scientific espionage are a form of warfare; the extent of modernity of such warfare is dependent on the techniques and procedures used. Similarly, cyber warfare is a form of warfare that is fast gaining importance even though its prosecution does not have to use explosives. No casualties occur through direct action although attendant damage could result in casualties. For instance, there could be loss of life or property as a result of breakdown of power or railway networks caused by cyber attacks. In any case, cyber attacks are becoming more frequent and warrant priority attention. In October 2009, UN Secretary General of the International Telecommunications Union (UTU) warned that “the next world war could happen in cyberspace”. Strong words indeed, but they demand that nations pay heed to the threat posed. Defence against cyber attacks could involve the use or the threat of use of even more punishing cyber attacks. Even the threat itself of such attacks could be a valid deterrent. Defence against cyber attacks would also involve hitting enemy facilities used to conduct cyber warfare. These enemy centres could be ground based or airborne or even in space. The centres could be attacked to bring about permanent damage or destructions (hard kills) or temporary incapacitation caused by electronic means (soft kills). In both cases, aerospace power has an important role to play. In the very near future, cyber warfare could become a

Spectrum of Conflicts In recent years, we witness the increasing use of the phrase ‘spectrum of conflict’. Implicit in the phrase is the recognition that the levels and nature of conflict are becoming more diverse. In other words, armed forces have to contend with a host of possible eventualities and should be prepared to fight and win in every case. Within the last two decades or so, a number of disparate combat situations have occurred. At a supposedly lower level of conflict is the seemingly never ending terrorism and militancy as exemplified by the Al-Qaeda, Taliban, Hezbollah and a number of other terrorist organisations that are active in many parts of the world including India, China, Europe and the Middle East. The activities of these terrorist organisations can extend from relatively minor skirmishes to major attacks like the September 11, 2001 attack on the US, and attacks in UK, Madrid, and Mumbai, etc. At a supposedly higher level are the conflicts such as in Kosovo, Kargil and Lebanon. Such conflicts were limited or remained limited in terms of area, duration, forces used and objectives. Possibly, there was also an unstated desire on both sides to avoid escalation.

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43 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

major task for aerospace power. Similarly, it is but a question of time that more meaningful transformations in the manner of waging wars occur. It is certain that such transformations would involve higher technology, including space facilities, and their use in war would demand both quick reaction and the ability to hit targets at some distance. Aerospace power, by its very nature, will be required to lead such activities. In fact, the changes in war fighting that will inevitably occur in and beyond cyber warfare will place even greater demands on aerospace power. Air force must recognise the inevitability of such an outcome and prepare for it.

BUSINESS

INDIAN DEFENCE

The impact of modern aerospace can be so emphatic that aerospace domination has become the primary task of the armed forces

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Defence Against Cyber Attacks

REGIONAL BALANCE

www.wikipedia.org; SP Guide Publications

Aerospace

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m

ARUNDHATI GHOSE

is today perceived, even by commentators at home, to be against most multilateral arms controls, particularly in the nuclear field.

T

To understand India’s changing approaches, it is necessary to revisit some of the early declarations by Jawaharlal Nehru, who at that time was not only the Prime Minister but also, possibly, the only authoritative voice of India that was heard abroad. Speaking at the Conference of Scientists on Development of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes in 1954, Nehru recognised that “a dominating factor in the modern world is the prospect of these terrible weapons suddenly coming into use before which our normal weapons are completely useless.” Clearly the implication of this was to either try or push for the elimination of these “terrible weapons” or to develop them to meet any future security challenges. It should also be remembered that while India faced many challenges in those early years, not the least the integrity and economic survival, the country was also in the process of building its capacity in the field of nuclear energy, which was then seen as a possible panacea to India’s economic woes. These circumstances and the in-built moral repugnance to a weapon of mass destruction appears to have tilted the balance towards the first course of action-to demand actions which would lead to the elimination of weapons that India felt might pose a challenge, in the future, to her security. Somewhere along the way, the moral argument overwhelmed the original security imperative, at least in articulation, except in rare cases as will be seen later, and nuclear disarmament became the touchstone of India’s positions on issues of control of the spread of nuclear weapons and related technologies.

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47 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES INDIAN DEFENCE

India’s Changing Approaches

he year 2010 will see a resurgence of the debates on non-proliferation and the elimination of nuclear weapons at the international level. In view of the review conference on the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) being held in New York from May 3 to May 28. At the domestic level, India will be faced with a complex variety of questions, some pertaining to the impact of these activities on her own security interests, and others of a more political nature. It is essential that these issues are examined as objectively as possible and a serious non-ideological debate takes place nationally, particularly on the multilateral nuclear treaties that India has so far tended to view with wariness and suspicion. Contrary to what is commonly believed, India has not always been against multilateral treaties controlling the spread of weapons technology and materials. In fact, it was India, after the first Chinese nuclear weapon test in October 1964, who took the issue of non-proliferation (and ‘nuclear blackmail’) to the United Nations General Assembly in early 1965, with the help of the Soviet Union. A year earlier, soon after the Partial Test Ban Treaty was signed and opened for participation to countries other than the depositories, the US, UK and the Soviet Union, India was amongst the first to sign on to this treaty that banned nuclear explosions in the atmosphere in 1963. In 1972, India signed the Biological and Toxic Weapons Treaty and as late as 1995, signed the Chemical Weapons Convention. Despite these early moves, India

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

TECHNOLOGY

India has travelled far from the time when she entered the NPT negotiations. The economic and military strengths are vastly different now. India’s approach to and positions on multilateral nuclear treaties should reflect the changed circumstances.

REGIONAL BALANCE

www.wikipedia.org; www.pib.nic.in; SP Guide Publications

India’s Changing Approaches to Nuclear Ties

BUSINESS

11 Nuclear Ties Multilateral

CONTENTS

www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m

There is an urgent requirement to review our higher defence control system. We need changes in the structures, processes, and procedures that would make it more efficient, resilient and speedily responsive. It is only then that we can be secure internally and externally, fully prepared to take on the role that we see for ourselves as a regional power. “The military’s isolation from India’s political leadership is perhaps its only negative contribution to the Indian democracy.” —Anonymous

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

www.wikipedia.org; www.pib.nic.in

The Prevailing Weaknesses & Challenges

BUSINESS

12 Direction of War India’s Higher

CONTENTS

www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m

GENERAL (RETD) V.P. MALIK

failed to convert hard-won operational achievements into long-term politico-strategic successes.

A

Strategic culture may be defined as “the ability of the people and society to generate: to have social will and ability for a full and effective employment of that power”. Barring periods under the Mauryan, Gupta and Mughal kings, and under the British, our strategic culture has remained internalised, fixated upon curbing within rather than combating the external. During centuries of slavery and colonialism, the Indian leadership forgot all about Chanakya’s Arthashastra. Our vast diversity has made us culturally a strong soft power with a global philosophy of “Vasudhai Kutumbkam”—the world is one large family. As a result, most of our political leaders grew up conjuring the idea of a morally superior India; professing peace and harmony in a world where nations indulge in cut-throat competition. The ability to generate hard power, and the will and the ability to make use of that, is not our strong point.

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51 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

India’s Weak Strategic Culture

national security apparatus of any country depends upon its strategic culture, awareness of its elite, its strategic environment and the emerging trends in the nature of conflict and warfare. The test bed of such an apparatus is the achievement of national security interests without going to war, and if necessary, by going through a war. India’s defence and security report card for the past six decades has been more positive than negative. Despite reactive strategic policies, ad hoc defence planning, intelligence failures and strategic and tactical surprises, the armed forces have maintained India’s security and territorial integrity better than any other democratic, developing nation in the world. But the credit for these successes goes less to the higher direction of war and more to those responsible for operational planning and execution on the ground. Most of the time, we have also

REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

INDIAN DEFENCE

“In no other major democracy are the armed forces given so insignificant a role in policy making as in India. In no other country do they accept it with the docility they do in India.” —Shekhar Gupta, Editor-in-Chief, The Indian Express

OPINION

1 Alliance

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

DR. MONIKA CHANSORIA

A

s China envisions a superior role for itself in the international theatre, it has circumspectly chosen to nurture its ties with certain countries in the region which would be of significance as far as tying down its potential challengers goes. Of these, China’s ties with Pakistan remain a core and crucial component of the strategy. With a larger aim to keep New Delhi tied down within the subcontinent and attempting to restrict its growth beyond the region, Beijing has adeptly crafted its relationship with Islamabad. Given these equations, India justifiably nurses an apprehension that the Sino-Pak nexus could well project the potential threat of a two-front war should there be a shift in the existing status quo. While the world debates and ponders over the safety of Pakistan’s nuclear weapons, given the worrisome security situation in Pakistan, China’s silence on the issue remains conspicuously evident. Beijing has carefully chosen not to comment on the issue of being “hand in glove” with Pakistan on nuclear weapon arsenal safety. This primarily is aimed at deflecting the attention away from the “proliferating role” played by China vis-à-vis Islamabad laying its hands on such weapons and their means of delivery in the first place.

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Nuclear and Missile Nexus Beijing’s position as Islamabad’s nuclear and missile benefactor is a

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widely accepted and authenticated veracity. Following its striking military defeat at India’s hands in 1971, Pakistan’s Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto had said that “Pakistanis would eat grass if need be, but would spare no effort to produce an Islamic (nuclear) bomb.” It has been well known that Pakistan acquired this capability with munificent assistance from the Chinese, who found in Pakistan a strategic ally willing to countervail India—a common adversary for both. According to a statement given to The Washington Post by none other than Abdul Qadeer Khan facing house arrest in Pakistan, the year 1982 witnessed Pakistan’s military C-130 leaving the western Chinese city of Urumqi with a highly unusual cargo—enough weapons-grade uranium for two atomic bombs. The uranium transfer in five stainless-steel boxes was part of a broad-ranging, secret nuclear deal approved years earlier by Mao Zedong and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto that culminated in an exceptional and deliberate act of proliferation by a nuclear power. As a matter of fact, China provided direct assistance to Pakistan’s nuclear weapons programme since the 1980s, which proved instrumental for Islamabad. According to a study conducted by the Monterey Institute of International Studies, China reportedly transferred the nuclear weapon design of a 25-kiloton nuclear bomb—possibly a Chic4 design—to Pakistan in 1983. Besides, Pakistani nuclear scientists claimed to have been permitted by the Chinese to test a nuclear device in the Lop Nor test range in China back in 1983. Providing an insight to this issue, nuclear proliferation analyst, Leonard S. Spector confirmed that Beijing assisted Islamabad in the construction of an unsafeguarded plutonium production reactor at Khushab

BUSINESS

INDIAN DEFENCE

China is using Pakistan as a strategic tool to deny India a peaceful setup so as to achieve overall development including the economic sphere. Beijing and Islamabad are making earnest attempts at keeping India tied down to subcontinental matters and not allowing it to grow to its full stature as it seeks a global image for itself beyond Asia.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Targeting India

REGIONAL BALANCE

www.wikipedia.org; www.pib.nic.in; & kr.blog.yahoo.com

China-Pakistan

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

EXPERT

CONTENTS

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RANJIT GUPTA

Ladakh and Sikkim sectors, and to frequent references in Chinese state controlled media and think-tank articles to 1962 and possible invasion of “South Tibet” as Arunachal is now increasingly referred to in China. “On an issue of concern for China, namely the Tibet issue, our government has shown tough action that we do not allow Indian soil to be used for anti-China political activities. On the Taiwan issue, similarly, our position has been consistently supportive of the principle of one China.” All Sino-Indian joint statements have contained unilateral assurances by the Indian side to respect China’s sensitivities. China is the only country in the world which questioned Sikkim’s merger with India even though it had no claims in relation to Sikkim and thus made it a pressure point in bilateral relations. But till date it has not agreed to a similar declaration in a joint statement relating to Sikkim or Kashmir. Chinese assistance converted incipient unrest in the Northeast into an insurgency in the 1950s and China seems to have resumed its support for the insurgents in recent years. Furthermore, Indian sensitivities in regard to China making Pakistan into a nuclear weapons power with lethal missile capabilities and growing conventional high-tech military manufacturing expertise have always been ignored. “We in India also appreciate China’s assistance by way of provision of hydrological data on our common rivers, which has helped flood prevention and mitigation downstream in India; its import has been much more than a technical discussion involving experts.” When the issue of the construction of dams came out in the open in early November 2009, the Foreign Secretary had said that whenever we have taken up the matter with China, they have consistently denied that

G

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

reater awareness of each other’s concerns and aspirations is an essential building block for mutual trust,” said Nirupama Rao in an article ‘India China Relations: The Way Forward’, published in the Beijing Review (Number 4, January 22, 2009). Rao was then India’s Ambassador to China. Since August 2009, Rao has been Foreign Secretary and has thus become India’s top official dealing with China. But thereafter whatever she has said is more in the realm of wishful thinking if not almost completely illusory. I will give just a few examples. “The special representatives appointed by the leadership of our two governments to discuss the settlement of the boundary question have achieved distinct progress in terms of having reached agreement on the political parameters and guiding principles for a boundary settlement.” This was destroyed by the Chinese Ambassador’s offensive and undiplomatic public statement claiming the whole of Arunachal Pradesh, not merely Tawang, as part of China on the eve of President Hu Jintao’s visit to India in November 2006. The Chinese Ambassador’s comments violated the tacit agreement that neither side will publicly air their respective claims officially. Since then, China’s Foreign Minister has also questioned the populated areas principle and China is now frequently publicly asserting its claim in increasingly vituperative language and even protesting the Prime Minister’s visits to Arunachal. All this has coincided with increasing intrusions into Indian territory, particularly in the

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China now holds all the cards in shaping the course of Sino-India relations in the future irrespective of whatever India might say or do. There is a huge gap today in comprehensive national power which encompasses military prowess, economic strength and political influence.

BUSINESS

www.wikipedia.org; www.pib.nic.in

The Way Ahead

INDIAN DEFENCE

2 Relations India-China

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

OPINION

REGIONAL BALANCE

EXPERT

CONTENTS

www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m

OPINION

3 Rising

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

triad that was termed as the Axis of Evil by US President George W. Bush in the aftermath of 9/11.The history of Pyongyang’s flirting with nuclear capability is old and well orchestrated. It requires delving into it in order to establish the reasons that compel North’s dictatorial regime to pursue its nuclear agenda despite the sanctions that they invite. North Korea initiating a nuclear programme can be traced back to the rising tide of South’s conventional capability with the US providing the latter with the wherewithal. When the fact of being left behind was perceived by the North in the 1980s, it went in for a nuclear option; an asymmetric approach to circumvent the growing chasm in its conventional capabilities vis-a-vis South Korea. They established the first experimental 5 MWe reactor in Yongbyon. By 1986, North was assessed to have plutonium. Yongbyon also has another reactor that is possibly dysfunctional now. The US started a dialogue to wean North Korea away from its nuclear ambitions. However, when the North’s leadership responded by deciding to walk out of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, that they had been a signatory to, matters came to a head. The US focussed on the option of attacking the North’s nuclear sites. The threat of the US intervention by force paid its dividends. The North consented to Clinton’s Agreed Framework in 1994 that witnessed the North putting its plutonium enrichment on hold for the next eight years. The Agreed Framework signed by the US and North Korea on October 21, 1994 in Geneva, in addition to freezing the existing nuclear programme and access to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for enhanced safeguards, also made room for normalisation of political and economic relations.

T

he ground beneath the feet trembled in the Chinese border town of Yanji, on May 25, 2008. About 130 miles away, on the same day and at the same hour, at 9.54 am local time to be precise, Kizu County in Northeast Korea experienced an earthquake measuring a magnitude of 4.5 on the scales. North Korea had conducted its second nuclear test. The country’s official news agency removed whatever doubts the international community had with a terse announcement and said, “We have successfully conducted another nuclear test on May 25 as part of the republic’s measures to strengthen its nuclear deterrent.” There are two basic elements required to create the equations that are of relevance in nuclear deterrence assessments: nuclear weapons capability, and delivery means availability. The North Koreans had testlaunched a ballistic missile on April 5. Pyongyang, at that stage, had argued that it was a peaceful communication satellite. However, the technology was considered as too evidently identical to that used for a long-range Taepodong-2 missile. On May 25, when they tested a weapon that was comparable to that used in Hiroshima, the fact that the world would be alarmed, was inevitable. The North Koreans, like the Iranians, have kept the western world on tenterhooks for long. Though not echoed too often today, along with Iran and Afghanistan, North Korea formed the third constituent of the

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TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

BRIG (RETD) S.K. CHATTERJI

BUSINESS

INDIAN DEFENCE

North Korea’s leadership would certainly like to retain their independence, and not be amalgamated with the South as some wishful thinkers would like it to be. Meanwhile, perhaps what spurs the North most is its desire to be seen as an equal member in the comity of nations that holds direct talks with other nations, especially the United States.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Nuclear Gambling

REGIONAL BALANCE

www.wikipedia.org

North Korea

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

EXPERT

CONTENTS

www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m

GENERAL (RETD) V. P. MALIK

ther the resources nor inclination to upgrade the quality of the state police or to raise extra forces without substantial financial help from the Centre. They let the situation deteriorate till it blows out of their control. At operational level too, as noticed in many states recently, synergy is lacking, particularly when the Centre and the state governments are run by different political alliances. There is far too much of political interference in the professional functioning of police organisations in the states. As a result, law enforcement agencies across the country, without exception, are in a state of utter disrepair. Unless these are re-invigorated and energised, we cannot achieve the desired results from internal security operations. The responsibility without resources at the state level, and the lack of accountability at state level and at the Centre, must be resolved. The government must implement the recommendations of the National Police Reforms Commission of 1979 and advice from the Supreme Court on the PIL filed by the former DGP Prakash Singh in letter and spirit. We need synergised Centre-state strategy and doctrines to deal with different aspects of internal security including insurgencies and terrorism. This should cover the above mentioned law and order related reforms, better coordination, as well as broad-based domains of national and states’ policies like accelerated economic development and social justice, security and media policies in affected areas. Most importantly, it should address dedicated and effective governance through good administration, prompt and fair judiciary and law and order machinery that inspires public confidence.

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

A

t the annual internal security conference of Governors and Chief Ministers last year, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh acknowledged that internal security threat to India is a major cause of concern. Currently, 45 per cent of India’s geographical area, covering 220 districts, is in the grip of insurgency. Internal security problems in Jammu & Kashmir and Northeastern states are well known. In addition, Naxalites have spread their activities to 180 districts in 17 states. Sixty districts in Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Maharashtra are seriously affected; eight of them being critical. India’s open and pluralistic society remains vulnerable to several internal contradictions even after 62 years of independence. Given our poverty, illiteracy, communal and caste vote bank politics, these contradictions are unlikely to disappear soon. In a strategic environment wherein internal and external security is enmeshed more than ever before, a ‘Balkanised’ India is not in our strategic and national interest. Combating security problems—internal, external or their combination—requires a high level of synergy at strategic, operational and tactical levels.

Centre-State Synergy

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Law and order is a state subject. Policing authority, therefore, is vested with state governments. This has made the Central government incapable of directly affecting the quality of policing; a source of much of the problems in managing internal security. Unfortunately, the state governments devote little attention to this important issue and very often refuse to recognise basic linkage between normal policing and internal security. They have nei-

Greater liaison, coordination and interoperability for operations among agencies responsible for internal security is essential. It is time to think

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Fundamental changes in the manner in which the country will be secured and protected are in the offing

BUSINESS

www.wikipedia.org; futurrouge.files.wordpress.com

In the Grip of Insurgency

INDIAN DEFENCE

4 Security Threats Combating Internal

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

OPINION

REGIONAL BALANCE

EXPERT

CONTENTS

www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m

AIR CHIEF MARSHAL (RETD) S. KRISHNASWAMY

of planning, supply chain management, maintenance and training. Money alone will not solve problems. It is relatively simple to resolve budget-related issues. Revised estimates are prepared around October and the expenditure over the next four-five months leads on to the next year’s budget calculations. The last four months of the financial year witness a feverish spending spree and many PSUs churn out their entire annual production during the period. Every service races to spend the budget allocation by March 31. Unspent resources are promptly surrendered after that date, and understandably there is a lot of dissatisfaction all around. Defence services have been continually underutilising budget allocations. Year on year, underutilisation had been increasing. This multiplied over four-and-a-half times to Rs 7,000 crore for 2009-10 since 2004-05, with 15 per cent of the allocation being earmarked for modernisation. Last year, Rs 1,561 crore revenue expenditure was adjusted from unspent capital expenditure, highlighting a new trend in the bargain. Besides being an unorthodox way of adjusting expenditure, it indicates an unforeseen increase in support to the military. This is a disturbing trend. From the figures, it appears that the defence services get as much as they can spend. Hence, it is argued, inadequate allocation cannot be a complaint. The difficulties in managing defence expenditure are known to the government, but it lacks the means to enforce accountability. The Standing Committee on Defence in its report on Demand for Grants (2009-10) placed in the Lok Sabha in December 2009 recommended that there is an urgent need to curb wasteful expenditure. The 13th Finance Commission observed that there exists immense scope to improve the quality and efficiency of defence expenditure through increased private sector engagement, import substitution and indigeni-

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

T

he defence budget, as a subject, does not anymore trigger interest other than to those who are directly concerned. Public opinion, by and large, is simple and noble. They believe that the defence services must have quality systems, and be able to effectively fend off threats to the nation. They also believe that modernisation is essential but is not keeping pace with requirements; they also feel that the military is not getting adequate funds. The malady is attributed to bureaucratic, inefficient processes. The government, for its part, articulates its strong support to military modernisation and this will has translated into new procedures that promise desired efficiency and greater transparency. But can these new procedures solve the problems at hand? Will defence allocations ever be adequate? Will the government get better value for every rupee being spent on defence? Will our military have quality equipment and good operational standards? In the author’s opinion, we are unlikely to see dramatic improvement in the near future for very many reasons. Primarily, the problem is not an adequacy of budget but the efficiency with which we spend. It is not the efficiency of spending alone that matters, but how and on what the defence forces are spending. Practically, every military operation that India has undertaken since Independence has exposed a number of inadequacies both in terms of inventory as well as capabilities. The solution is to comprehensively address issues that call for a thorough overhaul; not just the acquisition procedure but the entire gamut

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The problem is not with adequacy of budget, but the efficiency with which we spend. And it is not the efficiency of spending alone that matters, but also how and on what the defence forces are spending on.

BUSINESS

www.pib.nic.in; www.wikipedia.org

Upgrade Defence Accounting

INDIAN DEFENCE

5 More Efficiently We Need to Spend

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

OPINION

REGIONAL BALANCE

EXPERT

CONTENTS

www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m

uuuuuu

section two uuu u u

Revolution in Military Affairs 65 Network Culture 69 Military Communications 73 Surface Warships 77 Fighter Aircraft Engines 81 Indian Cyberspace Security 85 Directed Energy Weapons 89 Thermal Imaging 93

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight

REGIONAL BALANCE

Contents

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

Technology

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

2

idworks.dk · 4847 · 05.10

We Provide Mission Customized Solutions High-tech combat-proven solutions, systems, and products for military and non-military applications in the air, at sea, and on the ground Terma’s Business Areas: Aerostructures: High quality and complex structures for high performance commercial and military fighter aircraft and helicopters. Integrated Defense Systems: Network and tactical systems, airborne self-protection systems, and electronics manufacturing services for mission-critical defense applications. Radar Systems: Advanced ground-based, naval, and airborne radar systems for the surveillance of coasts, ports, airports, and territorial waters. Space: Software, hardware, and related engineering services for European and U.S. commercial and scientific space missions.

www.terma.com

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

LT GENERAL (RETD) P.C. KATOCH

Definition Throughout history, advances in technology and strategy have revolutionised the way wars are fought. Many definitions have been coined to describe the nuances of RMA. The Wikipedia says, “The military concept of RMA is a theory about the future of warfare, often connected to technological and organisational recommendations for change”. RMA results when a nation seizes an opportunity to transform its military doctrine, training, organisation, equipment, tactics, operations and strategy in a coherent pattern in order to wage war in a novel and more effective manner. RMA can be defined as “a major change in the nature of warfare brought about by the innovative application of technologies, which combined with dramatic changes in military doctrine and operational concepts, fundamentally alters the character and conduct of operations.” Transformation is essential to cope with these changes and most countries have put in place organisations dedicated to conceptualising and implementing transformation.

R

evolution in Military Affairs (RMA) can be considered a phenomenon that is about three decades old. Soviet military thinkers during the period 1960-70 first dabbled with RMA (though the RMA term was not coined by them). The Soviet experiment was primarily with respect to the impact of nuclear weapons and Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs). Their focus was to dovetail the employment of nuclear weapons into their war-fighting doctrine, giving them the cutting edge in future wars. More than a decade later, in the mid-eighties, Chief of Soviet General Staff Marshall Nikolai Ogarkov revived the debate about RMA with reference to precision guided conventional weapons. The concept caught the fancy of the US much later, who actually coined the term RMA. Militaries worldwide have been experimenting and adopting RMA. Chinese interest in RMA and the structure of the future US armed forces is strong and is being incorporated into the Chinese strategic military doctrine. Their interest in the RMA theory and practice was accelerated due to the dramatic and speedy victory of the US over Iraq in the 1991 Gulf War, wherein the US dominance was achieved through precision weaponry, satellites and superior information and communications technology. The power of technological advances coupled with matching strategy and concepts, organisations and training was fully apparent. This was a catalyst for the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA) to get going on the path to ‘Informisation’.

Perspectives The global debate on RMA is centred on the following perspectives:  This perspective highlights the political, social and economic factors worldwide, which might require a completely different type of military and organisational structure to apply force. It focusses primarily upon changes in the nation state and the role of an organised military in using force.  This most common ‘System of Systems’ perspective on RMA highlights the evolution of weapon technology, information technology, military organisations and military doctrine including three overlap-

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INDIAN DEFENCE

RMA in the Indian military is ongoing, but needs to be drastically focussed and accelerated. We must be able to protect our information systems, attack/influence the information system of the adversaries and leverage our strengths to gain decisive advantage in a battle space where our national security is threatened.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

www.wikipedia.org; SP Guide Publications

Transformation through RMA

REGIONAL BALANCE

1 Military Affairs Revolution in

CONTENTS

www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m

CONTENTS

www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m

2 Culture LT GENERAL (RETD) P.C. KATOCH

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

N

CW (Network Centric Warfare) relates to behaviour, both human and organisational. Most important is to develop a ‘Network Culture’ for application in military operations to ensure success. NCW focusses on the combat power that can be generated from the effective linking of maximum war-fighting entities. It is the ability of geographically dispersed forces to create a high level of shared awareness that can be exploited for effective and efficient execution of operations to successfully achieve the intent of the commander. Transparent to geography, mission and size of the force, it has the potential to merge tactical, operational and strategic levels of military hierarchy leading to cohesive employment of disparate resources. NCW is not technology alone, but encompasses the gamut of emerging military response to the information age. An NCW capable force is robustly networked with improved information sharing, situational awareness, collaboration, self-synchronisation, sustainability, speed of command and mission effectiveness.

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Focus The future focus of the Indian armed forces will be on leveraging emerging technologies to integrate dispersed sensors, networks and modern weapon systems. This transformation requires alterations in concepts of operations, doctrine, organisations and force structure and above all in the psyche of the fighting man and the leaders. Associated changes in logistics, education, and training will also be required. These changes will have to be concurrent and on existing structures so as to bring about a graduated increment in NCW capability within the constraints of development and implementation time.

Domains and Grids

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The network fighter must simultaneously focus on the physical, information and cognitive domains. Physical domain is where physical weapons and units and communication networks reside. Traditionally combat power is measured through this domain. Information domain is where information lies, facilitating sharing of information and communication of command and control of commanders. It must be protected against infor-

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES mation attacks. The force must have capability to collect, share, access and share information, improve its information position by fusion and analysis and achieve information advantage over the enemy. Cognitive domain is the domain of the mind of the fighter; intangibles of leadership, morale, unit cohesion, training, experience, situational awareness etc. Here the commander’s intent, doctrine, tactics, techniques and procedures reside. NCW operations exploit state-of-the-art science and technology to integrate widely dispersed human decision-makers, situational and targeting sensors, weapon platforms and field forces into a highly adaptive, comprehensive system of systems to achieve unprecedented mission effectiveness. For exploiting science and technology and to apply a technology-oriented framework, NCW needs a surveillance grid that rapidly generates battle-space awareness and self-synchronisation, an information grid that provides the back plane for computing and communication, a command grid that includes knowledge-based artificial intelligence and software applications, and an engagement grid that exploits the awareness and translates it into increased combat potential.

BUSINESS

INDIAN DEFENCE

Our inherent strength lies in the field of software. We need to capitalise on this, strengthen this in-house capability to augment our technologies and to enhance the effectiveness of our operations

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Application in Military Operations

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www.defense.gov; www.wikipedia.org

Network

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

LT GENERAL (RETD) A.K. SAINI

Technological Dimensions of Warfare Digital Battlefield The armed forces have witnessed induction of discreet digital communication equipment, sensors and high-tech weapons in the last decade. What is peculiar in a network-centric force is the extensive interlinking of all these technologies into a common platform and the capability for real-time processing and distribution of data. Full realisation of network-centric concept demands amalgamation of this ‘critical mass of technologies’ into a digitally networked battlefield. In future war, communications and info structure will be the enemy’s prime targets due to over-dependence of forces on these for conduct of operations. In fact, the exploitation and dominance of electromagnetic (EM) spectrum — denying, degrading, disrupting or destroying the communications — will become increasingly important in the future conflicts. There is a need for the armed forces to develop defensive and offensive capabilities to protect and dominate the EM spectrum alongside the development of Network Enabled Capability (NEC) as the networks are expected to grow faster than we can defend them.

T

he current security environment in the Indian subcontinent poses serious threats to India, from both the state as well as the non-state actors. The deteriorating situation in Pakistan and the recent aggressive posturing by China on border and geo-political issues are matters of concern for the Indian state. Besides the conventional security threats, the heavy dependence of national critical infrastructure and defence forces on the communication networks has added yet another threat— the war in the cyber domain. To counter these emerging threats, the defence forces need to urgently develop war fighting capabilities and concepts to cover the entire spectrum of warfare—conventional, asymmetric, nuclear, biological and chemical, cyber. The complexities of future threats will demand a swift and precision response from the armed forces. Technology, should therefore, be the main driver of the armed forces’ ongoing process of transformation. In the last decade, the communication and information technologies for military applications have advanced at a very fast pace and have been the basic building blocks for the network centric capabilities. The manipulation of information to own advantage and ability to act fast in time and space will be the key battle-winning factors. The future battlefield environment will need a ‘network centric’ approach for force optimisation to meet the emerging challenges of multidimensional warfare.

Network-Enabled Capability (NEC)/Network-Centric Warfare (NCW) The combat potential of fighting forces multiplies significantly with the networking between the sensors, command and control (C2) elements and weapon systems. A network is at the centre of force integration. NCW focusses on the application of technology to increase situational awareness and to speed up communications through networks for improving the effectiveness of military operations.

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The power of communication networks and the exploitation of electromagnetic spectrum will be the key elements of technology-driven future warfare. The armed forces must be prepared to meet the multi-dimensional threats in the entire spectrum of warfare.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

SP Guide Publications; www.defense.gov; www.wikipedia.org

Future Trends

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3 Communications Military

CONTENTS

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VICE ADMIRAL (RETD) B.S. RANDHAWA

the large flight deck, capable of launching at least four types of missiles, an advanced gun system, firing 155mm long range land attack projectiles with GPS guidance at ranges of up to 100 miles (160 km), an integrated power system for providing propulsion and ship service energy, and an integrated composite deckhouse for enhanced stealth. The wave piercing hull form is intended to enhance platform stability. In mid-2009, a decision was taken to construct only three DDG1000 ships, and instead, to build additional DDG-51 Arleigh Burke class destroyers. This decision is reported to be the outcome of a fresh assessment of the future threat environment which had revealed the need for ships capable of ballistic missile defence and blue water antisubmarine warfare (ASW). The decision was rather surprising in view of the fact that only a little while earlier, the US Navy, had argued strongly in favour of the DDG-1000 project. A total of about $13 billion (Rs 59,100 crore) in development and procurement costs has been provided for the DDG-1000 programme since its inception. After removing R&D costs, a cost figure of $2 billion (Rs 9,000 crore) per ship has been indicated, but there is a concern that this could rise further.

T

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

he turn of this decade is an appropriate point in time to review new concepts and technologies that had appeared over the horizon at the turn of the millennium and take stock of their status. However, covering the entire spectrum of naval technologies would be a monumental exercise. Hence the current focus is confined to ‘concepts’, major sensors and principal platform technologies.

Concepts DDG-1000 One of the most revolutionary concepts, conceived in the mid-1990s, was the so-called ‘Arsenal’ ship of the US Navy, later known as DD-21, and now as DDG-1000. These ‘Zumwalt’ class destroyers are intended to be capable of operating in littoral waters and providing gunfire support far inshore, in addition to being armed with a full suite of missiles. From an originally conceived number of 50 ships, building of a class of seven ships was planned. The ship, with its path-breaking tumblehome hull design, was intended to form the basis for the design of the new CG(X) cruiser. Among the new technologies embodied in the design are the dual band multifunction radar, a high/medium frequency bow mounted sonar and a multifunction towed array, optimised for operation in littoral waters, a vertical launch system located along the peripheral edges of

Littoral Combat Ship

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The US Navy’s littoral combat ship (LCS) represents a dramatic change in operational concepts and in platform design and performance. It represents a totally new approach to the way in which warships are being built and operated. Intended to operate in littoral waters, its specification required a platform with displacement less than 3,000 tonnes, a speed of at last 40 knots at sea state 3 (desired 50 knots), a payload of

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The pace of innovation in surface warship design and related technologies would increase in future and the ‘concept to proven product’ loop would be shortened. For technology buffs, it promises and upholds exciting times ahead.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

www.wikipedia.org

New Concepts & Technologies

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4 Warships Surface

CONTENTS

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 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

The Jet Era

& Whitney could put an axial flow twin spool engine (J57) on test stand which developed 10,000 Ibs with twice the fuel efficiency of the most successful WWII jet engine. J57 heralded the age of the first supersonic fighter. In May 1953, North American YF-100 fighter became the first combat aircraft in the world to achieve sustained-level supersonic flight. High pressure ratio engines were confronted with another problem. Since airflow pattern at low speeds and particularly during acceleration tended to be very different from the design for optimal cruise conditions, even small disturbances tended to stall the compressor. The problem was solved by developing variable geometry stators which changed their orientation according to the airflow conditions thus ensuring appropriate angle of attack on aerofoils of the spinning compressor blades. The dual spool configuration made possible another innovation which converted the J57 into a low bypass turbofan. With a large front end compressor or fan rotating at a slower speed than the following HP compressor, the design made for ducting part of the compressed air around the core of the engine, remixing it with the hot combusted gases before expulsion through the jet pipe. By increasing the mass flow, the turbofan engines produced higher thrust with better SFC and lower noise.

In the immediate post-war era, jet engines still suffered from major shortcomings like a relatively low thrust, poor specific fuel consumption (SFC) and sluggish acceleration. The way forward to solve the low thrust, poor SFC problem was to increase the compressor pressure ratios dramatically. Twin spool engines provided the technological leap to make it possible. Consequently, while the best engines in the early post-War years produced not more than 4,000-5,000 Ibs of thrust, in 1950 Pratt

The dual spool, low-bypass turbofan with variable geometry stators and many more evolutionary refinements is the standard fit on all modern fighters—including all 4.5 and the only fifth generation aircraft currently in service. The table below illustrates that all of them have very high thrust

T

he fundamental principle underlying all propulsion systems employed to propel heavier than air machines in the air has been encapsulated in the Newton’s third law of motion. Engines of all varieties consume energy to accelerate a mass of air and or gases. Reaction propels the air vehicle forward. The means employed to generate an energetic enough air or gas stream differ, but the principle remains essentially the same. Aviation began with internal combustion engines rotating propellers which imparted relatively small acceleration to a large mass of air. More and more powerful piston engine/propeller combinations were built over the next four decades or so when they conceded ground to jet engines as a more efficient (even the only viable) means of high speed propulsion. By the end of Second World War, Germany had fielded Me 262, the first successful jet fighter powered with 2 X 2000 lb thrust Jumo 004 jet engines.

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AIR MARSHAL (RETD) A.K. TRIKHA

INDIAN DEFENCE

Future engine designs will yield continuing improvements in performance with additional emphasis being placed on simplicity, durability and life-cycle costs. As stronger, lighter-weight materials are available and turbine cooling technology improves, engines should be able to deliver higher performance.

Modern Fighter Engines

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Existing and Upcoming

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5 Aircraft Engines Fighter

CONTENTS

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6 Security

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

LT GENERAL (RETD) S.R.R. AIYENGAR

T

he way business is transacted, the government operates and national defence is conducted, have changed, as they now rely on an interdependent network of information technology infrastructures called cyberspace. Cyberspace touches practically everything and everyone. It is composed of hundreds of thousands of interconnected computers, servers, routers, switches, fiber optic cables that allow the critical infrastructures to work. It provides a platform for innovation and prosperity. However, with the broad reach of a loose and lightly regulated digital infrastructure, great risks threaten nations, private enterprises, and individual rights at the same time. Thus, addressing cyber security becomes an increasingly important priority for both the government and the private sector. In the past few years, threats in cyberspace have risen dramatically. Securing cyberspace is an extraordinarily difficult strategic challenge that requires a coordinated and focussed effort from the entire society—the Central, state and local governments, the private sector and the ordinary citizens (netizens) who use the ‘internet’. Any cyber attack can have serious and expensive results, whether it is targeted towards individuals, small businesses or corporations. Intellectual property can

Threat Scenario and Assessment of the Vulnerabilities A more recent Symantec India 2009 Security and Storage survey reveals that in 2008, India registered a sizeable increase in nefarious web activities with 12 per cent of ‘spam’ detected in the Asia-Pacific/Japan region originating from here, as against four per cent in 2007. These figures, compiled from the survey report secured the country the third position in the region with a staggering 250 per cent increase in ‘bot’ infected computers. Globally, the report observed a 31 per cent increase in the same category. ‘Cyber crime’ is now a global issue. It has evolved significantly and is no longer just a threat to industry and individu-

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be compromised, personal and business information can be stolen, normal business operations can be disrupted and major financial losses can occur. More seriously, attacks on the government machinery have the increased threat of theft of government and military secrets. There is also the possibility that a cyber attack could disable defence command systems, bring down power grids open dam floodgates, paralyse communication and transportation, and create mass confusion and hysteria. Any or all of which could be a precursor to land, sea and air conventional and nuclear military attacks. Addressing these attacks and securing cyberspace is going to require a comprehensive and coordinated national strategy.

BUSINESS

“In security matters, there is nothing like absolute security. We are only trying to build comfort levels because security costs money and lack of it costs much more. Comfort level is a manifestation of efforts as well as realisation of their effectiveness and limitation.” –Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (Government of India)

INDIAN DEFENCE

Threats in cyberspace have risen dramatically. Securing cyberspace is an extraordinarily difficult strategic challenge that requires a coordinated and focussed effort from the entire society—the Central, state and local governments, the private sector and the ordinary citizens.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

The Challenges Involved

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www.defense.gov; www.wikipedia.org

Indian Cyberspace

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CONTENTS

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 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

BRIG SUBODH KUMAR

Development and Characteristics The idea of projecting energy in pursuit of warfare is not new. Indian epics like the Mahabharata and the Ramayana have references to celestial beam weapons like the Suryastra and Vajra. In Greek mythology, Zeus uses a lightning bolt as a weapon. Apart from mythology, in the third century BC, Archimedes is said to have used reflected sunlight to set afire the invading Roman fleet. However, in the modern era, it was HG Well’s 1898 War of the Worlds which popularised the idea of ‘death rays’ in public imagination. Since then science fiction has been replete with references to laser guns, ray guns, death rays, etc. Very often, ideas popularised in fiction lead to serious research along similar lines. In case of directed energy, it was the pioneering work of Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) which marked the first forays in this field. It was however the invention of lasers and masers in the 1950-60s, and subsequent developments which made the idea of designing weapons utilising beam energy seem a possibility. The potential of utilising electromagnetic energy to degrade the enemy’s war-fighting capabilities has been in vogue since Second World War when jammers were first used. Post-war research on the effects of nuclear weapons fully revealed the vulnerability of electronic systems to high powered electromagnetic radiation. The invention of lasers and subsequent technological advances expanded the thinking on viability of weapons based on electromagnetic energy as a possible replacement of conventional propellant/projectile based weapons. In addition to beam weapons, electromagnetic bombs (also called e-bombs) and ‘Railgun’ systems were conceptualised. Since those early days, a large number of experiments and technology demonstrations have conclusively

S

ince the dawn of history, there have been many instances where induction of disruptive new technology has fundamentally altered the prevalent methods of warfare. In the 14th century, introduction of the six-foot longbow changed medieval warfare forever. Similar revolutions occurred with the introduction of gunpowder, muskets, artillery, aircraft, radios, radars, atomic weapons, missiles, etc. Often termed as Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA), such events have altered not only the character and conduct of military operations, but also the society at large. Invariably, and perhaps inevitably, RMAs are accompanied by the obsolescence or replacement of technology hithertofore considered as irreplaceable. Recent developments in directed energy weapons (DEW), especially in the US promise to shift the paradigm once again, potentially ushering in the next RMA. In the US, millions of dollars have been invested in DEW-related research and more than a dozen active programmes are nearing fructification. In all probability, DEWs will become the centrepiece of the US military arsenal in the coming decades. As not to be left behind, many other countries like China, Russia, France, UK, Germany, Japan and Israel are actively pursuing DEW-oriented research and development (R&D). While DEW research in India is still in its infancy, it is imperative that Indian strategic planners take due cognisance of developments in this field so that India is not found lacking in the emerging form of 21st century warfare.

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Besides the US, many other countries like China, Russia, France, UK, Germany, Japan and Israel are actively pursuing DEW-oriented R&D. A rising power, India should take steps to initiate its own DEW with help from the academia and industry.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

www.wikipedia.org

An Overview

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7 Energy Weapons Directed

CONTENTS

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CONTENTS

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8 Imaging IKBAL SINGH

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

T

hermal Imager (TI) works on the principal that all objects emit a certain amount of black body radiation as a function of their temperature/emissivity. Generally speaking, the higher an object’s temperature, the more infrared radiation (as blackbody radiation) it emits. A special camera known as TI camera can detect this radiation in a way similar to the way an ordinary camera does in visible light. It works even in total darkness because ambient light level does not matter. With the recent advancement and rapid development of Infra-Red (IR) detectors, it has become possible to carry out surveillance and target acquisition at night. The development of high resolution charge-couple device/complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CCD/CMOS) camera has also improved the surveillance and target acquisition during day time apart from its see-through capability in dust & smoke. Thus thermal imagers have become the primary choice of defence forces for their weapon sights and surveillance equipment.

TI camera A TI camera mainly consists of four components, optical system, IR detector, amplifier & signal processing electronics, display unit, etc. These parts work together to convert infrared radiation, coming from warm objects or flames, into a visible light in real time. The camera display shows infrared output differentials. As a result the two objects with the same temperature will appear in the same “colour”. Many TI cameras use grayscale to represent different temperature objects.

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The most commonly used form of TI camera isc. Normally, HHTIs are based on cooled detectors, has two ocular eyepieces, weighs around less than 3 kg and can see a group of persons at around 2.5 km. Cooled TIs are also used as thermal sight for medium-range weapons, night viewing sensors for Fire Control System (FCS) and night viewing sensors for surveillance system. TIs based on uncooled detectors, which are generally cheaper, are used for short range applications. Tank driver’s sight where range requirement is limited to around 100 metres with wide field of view of around 45 degree, uncooled TIs are the most suitable. Attempts are on to make these uncooled TIs cheaper to the extent that they can replace image intensifier tube based sights to be used for small arms applications. Uncooled TIs with pseudo-colour image display have found their application in the civil and medical sector. Gimbaled payloads with thermal imagers and other sensors in different sizes varying from micro to big sizes have become very popular for various applications. Mainly these gimbaled payloads are used for micro UAV, mini UAV, UAV, helicopter, aircrafts, AFVs, naval ships, ground-based anti aircraft guns and border and coastal surveillance. Selection of thermal imager is a critical and tricky issue which mainly depends upon its range performance, which in turn depends upon many parameters such as weight, size, platform, cost, environment, target type and size, detector type, display and the experience of the operator. In fact transmission of IR spectrum through atmosphere reduces because of either the absorption by various molecules present in the atmosphere or by various scattering due to the presence of tiny particles. For example, in dusty and cloudy environment Rayleigh scattering dominates, which is much less for higher wavelengths. Therefore TIs in 8-12 µm are preferred, while for

BUSINESS

INDIAN DEFENCE

Thermal imagers have become the primary choice of defence forces for their weapon sights and surveillance equipment. It can detect infrared radiation in a way similar to the way an ordinary camera does in visible light.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

For Night Vision, Surveillance & Target Acquisition

REGIONAL BALANCE

Thales Group; Selex Communications

Thermal

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India's Defence Budget 97 Defence Procurement Procedure 101 'Make (high-tech)' Procedure 107 Indian Army Modernisation Plans 111 Indian Navy Modernisation 117 Indian Air Force Modernisation 123 Declining Defence Budget 127 India's Strategic and Business Environment 129 Global Contracts 137

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One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight

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Contents

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

Business

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

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CONTENTS

3

A powerful partnership.

www.northropgrumman.com/mmrca

MMRCA The elephant is revered as a remover of obstacles and a harbinger of success. An F-16 © 2010 northrop Grumman corporation

with Northrop Grumman’s operationally proven APG-80 AESA fire control radar system could become the modern day symbol of protection for one of the world’s largest air forces. The team of the Indian Air Force, Lockheed Martin, and Northrop Grumman have the unmatched capabilities and cohesive partnership to accomplish any Air Force mission.

LT GENERAL (RETD) V.K. KAPOOR

2010, seems too modest to ensure either modernisation or indulge in the long-term capability building exercise. The defence budget over the last three decades has varied between 2-3 per cent of the GDP, which corresponds to 13-17 per cent of the Central government expenditure. The annual increase has varied from as low as 3 per cent to a high of 34 per cent as witnessed last year. This time, it has been pegged at 2.12 per cent of the GDP. Historically, the resource allocation strategy of the government has appeared to be incrementally driven by the need to replace the obsolescent equipment and hardware of each service. Last time, an additional factor was introduced namely the substantial increase in the revenue expenditure due to the enhanced pay and allowances for all Central government employees in accordance with the Sixth Pay Commission report. As far as building a military capability is concerned, despite all the rhetoric of the need for capability based defence budgeting to ensure a secure future, in practice we are still employing the same old methods with an element of superficial sophistication brought in by the integrated defence staff.

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

T

he security threats and challenges facing India have increased enormously. While the old adversarial threats due to unresolved borders remain, new threats and challenges have also added to the old inventory. Terrorism in all its varieties and forms is a palpable threat and India also faces insurgencies generated both externally and internally. Likewise, proxy war in Jammu & Kashmir, fostered and supported in all respects by Pakistan, continues unabated. It is a well-known fact that building military capability is a longterm exercise which depends not only on the level of expenditure, but on a holistic plan which presents stage-wise milestones of capability development. Thus, defence expenditure is linked to long-term planned expenditure, based on the emerging challenges and threats, trends in warfare, induction of new technologies and new methods of warfighting, depending on the nature of future conflicts. Hence, military expenditure for capability building is associated with a wide range of issues. The other factors which impinge on building a military capability include the voids in the inventory of equipment and munitions of each service, the revenue to capital ratios, indigenous research and development and manufacturing capabilities, import content, the technology and performance of acquired weapon systems, their lifetime support, interoperability with other systems in use within the three services, and the efficiency of the equipment in local geographical environment, etc. Considering the challenges confronting India, the defence budget announced by the Finance Minister in the Parliament on February 26,

Budget Details and its Impact Last year, the defence budget stood at 2.35 per cent of the GDP, an increase by 34.19 per cent over the previous year’s budget estimate (BE) of Rs 1,05,600 crore. However, at the revised estimate (RE) stage of 2008-09, the budget stood at Rs 1,14,600 crore, scaled upward by Rs 9,000 crore (8.52 per cent). Compared to the RE figure, the increase in the budget was 23.65 per cent. For the year 2010-11, defence has been allocated Rs 1, 47,344 crore, a marginal increase of 3.98 per cent over the BE of 2009-10 and 8.13 per cent from the RE. The outlay for defence comprises of Rs 87,344 for revenue expenditure and Rs 60,000 crore for capital expenditure as declared by the

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Considering the challenges confronting India, the defence budget seems too modest to ensure either modernisation or indulge in the long-term capability building exercise

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A Critical Analysis

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1 Defence Budget India’s

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CONTENTS

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 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

MAJ GENERAL (RETD) MRINAL SUMAN

I

ndia’s defence procurement procedure has undergone a number of revisions since its promulgation in 2002. Even the current version, Defence Procurement Procedure 2008 (DPP-2008) has undergone significant amendments in November 2009. Although the underlying philosophy, basic structure and original contours have remained unaltered, important changes have been made as regards categorisation of acquisition proposals, formulation of services qualitative requirements (SQR), transparency of field trials and probity provisions. Procurement process consists of two distinct stages—planning and acquisition. For clearer understanding, both have been discussed in a sequential manner in this article.

Annual acquisition plan (AAP) of each service is prepared by the respective SHQ. It is a two-year roll-on plan and normally consists of the schemes which stand approved in SCAP. In other words, AAP is a subset of SCAP. However, a proposal not listed in SCAP may be processed after due approval of the DAC. Based on the schemes included in AAP, the HQ IDS projects requirement of funds for each service, taking into account committed liabilities and anticipated cash outflow.

Categorisation of Acquisition Proposals All procurement proposals are examined in-depth by the Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee (SCAPCC) and reviewed by the Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Higher Committee (SCAPCHC) as regards the route to be adopted: ‘Buy’, ‘Buy and Make’ and ‘Make’. While ‘Buy’ means outright purchase of the complete requirement, ‘Buy and Make’ implies purchase of part requirement from a foreign vendor and production of the balance quantity under licence in India, and ‘Make’ denotes indigenous development of the equipment to meet the complete requirement. Recommendations of SCAPHC are debated at length in DAC and the approval accorded. With a view to spell out the precise route to be followed, MoD has specified seven different procedures that can be followed to acquire new equipment, albeit within the purview of the above mentioned primary categories. These have been shown in Illustration 1. As can be seen, ‘Buy’ category has been split to promote Indian industry through ‘Buy (Indian)’ route, wherein only Indian vendors can

Planning Process Planning for the acquisition of modern systems and equipment commences with the issuance of Defence Planning Guidelines by the Ministry of Defence (MoD). Thereafter, it goes through the following stages:  Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff (HQ IDS) evolves a 15-year defence capability plan as per the guidelines issued by MoD and is approved by the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC).  For medium-term perspective, HQ IDS in consultation with Service Headquarters (SHQ) formulates a five-year Services Capital Acquisition Plan (SCAP) as part of five-year defence plan. DAC accords approval to SCAP.

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No major deal is getting concluded in an open competitive environment under the provisions of the procurement procedure. Invariably, MoD has to resort to single vendor deals to procure urgently required equipment. As the current regime has failed to deliver, it is time MoD carries out a holistic review of the complete gamut of procurement structures and processes. Sundry amendments are proving counter-productive.

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Planning & Acquisition

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2 Procedure

Defence Procurement

CONTENTS

www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m

MAJ GENERAL (RETD) MRINAL SUMAN

ceded that it could not develop it within the timeframe stipulated by the services. As is with all government agencies, DRDO made confident assertions, expanded its own domain and expended scarce defence funds, but produced little. In a handful of cases DRDO did achieve some success, but it was always a case of too little too late. On the whole, the DRDO record is a saga of false claims, tall promises, unexplained delays and sub-optimal products. It was natural that the services resented the veto power enjoyed by DRDO as they had to carry critical voids for prolonged periods. Due to the poor track record of DRDO, the government felt compelled to curtail its role. The services were no longer ready to be fed with excuses while waiting ad infinitum for crucial equipment to materialise. Despite having some of the best talent available in the country, huge facilities with 51 laboratories, sizeable funds and total autonomy in functioning, DRDO has surprisingly failed to deliver. It is generally felt that its lackadaisical track record is due to three major reasons:  Lack of accountability: Director General of DRDO is also Secretary Defence R&D. In addition, he performs the functions of Scientific Advisor to the Defence Minister. Thus, he wears three hats and is yet answerable to none.  Lack of focus: Rather than concentrating on a few selected fields, DRDO has expanded its domain to irrelevant activities. Its failure in high-tech areas has resulted in a crisis of identity. It has lost sight of its primary responsibility and resorted to delving in infructuous work to justify its existence.  Failure to develop scientific disposition: Unfortunately, construction of facilities and infrastructure has been given primacy over the development of a scientific temper. Every DRDO establishment boasts of world class auditoriums, convention centres, conference

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

E

uphoria created by the recently introduced ‘Buy and Make (Indian)’ categorisation of procurement proposals appears premature. The Ministry of Defence (MoD) has claimed that it “would enable pro-active participation of Indian industry in manufacturing defence products through co-production arrangements with foreign manufacturers and through transfer of technology.” Some reporters have gone to the extent of hailing the new categorisation as “a move that has the potential to revolutionise the Indian defence industry.” One is reminded of similar excitement generated by ‘Make (Hightech)’ procedure in 2006, although more than three years have passed, there is little progress on ground. After prolonged quibbling, three cases have recently been categorised as ‘Make (High-tech)’. This neither reflects positively on the efficacy of the policy nor augurs well for the indigenous development of equipment. Many enthusiasts have already turned sceptic. This article endeavours to examine if the procedure can be implemented in its present form or needs to be modified.

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Genesis of Sub-Categorisation of the ‘Make’ Procedure Earlier, all proposals initiated by the services for procuring new equipment for modernisation were referred to the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) for considering feasibility of indigenous development. Invariably, decisions were taken on the basis of the recommendations made by DRDO. No equipment could be imported unless DRDO con-

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MoD has mastered the art of introducing policy provisions that compound the existing confusion and result in total inactivity. It is time MoD accepts total failure of the ‘Make’ policy of 2006 and affects changes.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

www.wikipedia.org

A Flawed Initiative

REGIONAL BALANCE

3 Procedure

‘Make (High-tech)’

CONTENTS

www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

BRIG (RETD) GURMEET KANWAL

of Control (LoC) with Pakistan or the unresolved territorial and boundary dispute with China. It will predominantly be a land conflict. The Indian Army lacks a potent firepower punch, especially in the mountain sector. Precision-guided munitions (PGMs) have still to enter service in numbers large enough to make a real difference. The reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition (RSTA) assets necessary for the optimum exploitation of even the existing firepower assets are grossly inadequate. Automated command and control and decision support systems have been on the drawing boards for several decades but are yet to mature. According to Lt Gen Noble Thamburaj (Retd), former VCOAS, the modernisation focus intelligence in the 11th Defence Plan is on “precision fire power, air defence, aviation, Future Infantry Soldier as a system, infrastructure development, network centricity and achieving battlefield transparency through improved surveillance, night vision and target acquisition... Considering the receding span of technological cycle, right balance has to be maintained between state-of-art, current and obsolescent technologies”.

I

n the prevailing era of strategic uncertainty, while terrorism is gradually becoming the primary threat, the external and internal threats and challenges faced by India are such that a large army is still required to be maintained. Also, a high degree of preparation and operational readiness are still necessary as conventional war, though improbable, cannot be categorically ruled out due to unresolved territorial and boundary disputes with China and Pakistan. At the same time, heavy capital investments in modern defence equipment are undoubtedly a drain on a developing economy that is ill-equipped to handle the burgeoning defence expenditure. Several eminent analysts have recommended that qualitative upgradation should be accompanied by quantitative downsizing of personnel strength of the army to generate funds for modernisation. However, given its responsibilities for border management and the manpowerintensive sub-conventional operations that the Army is involved in, this is easier said than done. Future conventional conflict on the Indian sub-continent will in all probability result from the ongoing low-intensity limited war on the Line

GET YOUR COPY TO Main Battle Tanks: T-90S Replaces Arjun READ IN COMPLETE On Army Day 2010, the COAS admitted that a large number of India’s battle tanks are night blind. The indigenously designed Arjun main

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New procurements have commenced... but we are still lagging by 15 years. —Defence Minister A.K. Antony

INDIAN DEFENCE

It is time to institute a rolling, non-lapsable defence modernisation fund of Rs 25,000 crore as a viable method of ensuring that defence procurement is not subjected to the vagaries of the annual budget. The present situation is disturbing and if allowed to go on indefinitely, will seriously compromise the army’s preparedness to fight the next border war that inimical neighbours like Pakistan can be expected to thrust on India.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

www.wikipedia.org

Mired in Red Tape

REGIONAL BALANCE

4 Modernisation Plans Indian Army

CONTENTS

www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

Departing from traditional wisdom that predicates a strategy on definite specified threats, the Indian Navy’s maritime strategy has preferred to adopt a generic capacity building approach. This is justified by the well-known dictum that there are no permanent friends or enemies, only permanent maritime interests. Such an approach provides dual advantage, firstly controversy is avoided through naming likely adversaries and secondly a framework provided to outlive any major shifts in threat perception. One basic philosophy adopted in the strategy is to acquire capabilities that would enable it to influence events ashore and to undertake ‘military manoeuvre from the sea’. “In order to ensure that the Indian Navy continues to retain its relevance as a prime instrument of state policy in the midst of future imponderables, we will need to develop a flexible approach and ensure continuous upgradation of our warfighting capabilities and skills.” —Vision Document, Indian Navy

COMMODORE (RETD) RAJEEV SAWHNEY

December 2009. She also stated that “the multidimensional responsibilities of the Navy in the Indian Ocean region are important for the prosperity of the nation and the country has implicit faith in the capability and capacity of the maritime forces to secure the sea frontiers to provide a peaceful environment for maritime trade and other activities”. The President also noted the Navy’s contribution in making its presence felt in the international arena in keeping with the country’s increased responsibilities. This included the Navy’s participation in the international efforts against piracy in the Indian Ocean, its contribution to assisting other countries in the region for increased assistance in surveillance of their exclusive economic zones and wide recognition of the

I

n 2008, the then Navy Chief Admiral Sureesh Mehta announced that by 2022 we plan to have a 160-plus ship navy, including three aircraft carriers, 60 major combatants, including submarines and close to 400 aircraft of different types, constituting a formidable three dimensional force with satellite surveillance and networking. That this vision has been accepted by the government was clear from the President’s statement above while on board the Viraat in

GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE

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The government is committed to modernise the Indian Navy to keep in tune with the changing requirements of the 21st century. —President Pratibha Patil, Onboard INS Viraat, December 23, 2009

INDIAN DEFENCE

The stated goal is to develop the Indian Navy into a force possessing adequate capability to deter any challenge posed by a potential adversary. The large area of maritime responsibility that India has articulated dictates that the navy develops the capability to undertake missions related to India’s ambitions and leading role in the region. The events of 26/11 have further increased the challenges that the navy faces as it confronts the future.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Indian Navy; www.wikipedia.org

Goals Ahead

REGIONAL BALANCE

5 Modernisation Indian Navy

CONTENTS

www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

AIR MARSHAL (RETD) V.K. BHATIA

In the 1960s, following the two quick conflicts with China and Pakistan, various studies were conducted to strengthen the armed forces. And as far as the IAF was concerned, a force level of up to 64 squadrons (with 45 combat squadrons) was recommended to effectively fight against its belligerent neighbours. The closest that the IAF has been able to come to this was the officially declared figure of 39.5 combat squadrons achieved during the golden era of the 1970s and 1980s. The late 1970s saw the dawn of the golden decade of the IAF with the induction of the Anglo-French Sepecat Jaguar deep penetration strike aircraft (DPSA) into operational service. This was quickly followed by the induction of the Soviet MiG-23 both strike and air defence versions into the IAF in substantial numbers. MiG-27, a fixed-intake improvement of the MiG-23BN did not only follow in quick succession but this variant was also licence-produced by the HAL. At about the same time, the IAF also received from the Soviet Union the Mach-3 strategic reconnaissance version of the formidable MiG-25 and the MiG-29 air superiority fighters. But the icing on the cake was the prize acquisition of the multi-role Mirage 2000 from France which formed two frontline state-of-the-art IAF combat squadrons in the early 1980s. These also provided much greater teeth in terms of enhanced operational capability and were to show their prowess later during the 1999 Kargil War against Pakistan. These were truly happier times for the IAF, but unfortunately the golden period did not last long. The beginning of the 1990s witnessed the then unimaginable and sudden disintegration of the Soviet Union as also the dire financial state that India found itself in. While the former had a crippling effect on the spares supply line of the Soviet-supplied equipment which still formed the backbone of the IAF’s operational

S

ustained and fast-paced economic growth since the dawn of the new millennium has put India in the forefront of the leading nations of the world. Emergence of India as the new economic powerhouse has also put additional responsibilities on the shoulders of its armed forces, especially the Indian Air Force, which has aspired for more than a decade now to transform itself from a mere subcontinental tactical force to an intercontinental, strategic aerospace power in conformity with other leading air forces in the world. India’s economic rise on the world stage coupled with changing geo-political-cum-security scenarios has transformed the IAF’s perceptions of its vastly enhanced roles and responsibilities. But has the IAF been able to equip itself adequately to live up to its aspirations or to match its increasing roles and responsibilities?

Background Information To redux, throughout its long and mostly turbulent history, the IAF has at times super-cruised, and, at other times, literally stalled in its quest to create operational capabilities to meet the multifarious challenges. This has ‘by and large’ been due to the knee-jerk policies of the Indian government which is known to respond only in a reactive mode as far as the country’s defence needs are concerned. In the past, after each war it was forced to fight with its neighbouring countries, India embarked on a soul-searching mission to rationalise its defence needs.

GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE

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INDIAN DEFENCE

There is little doubt that the IAF is keen and doing all that it can do to modernise and improve its overall operational capabilities whether in the air, space or on the ground. The big question however is whether it is being done adequately and in the required timeframe.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

www.wikipedia.org; SP Guide Publications

Meeting Multifarious Challenges

REGIONAL BALANCE

6 Modernisation Indian Air Force

CONTENTS

www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m

LT GENERAL (RETD) P.C. KATOCH

This is the lowest increase in the last nine years at a time when we need to urgently modernise our military, be prepared for a two front/two and a half front war and the growing internal instability and weaknesses which are being exploited by both China and Pakistan. The defence budget includes revenue expenditure of Rs 87,344 crore (a nine time increase from Rs 10,194 crore in 1989-90) leaving only Rs 60,000 crore (40 per cent funds) for capital expenditure, the latter being the vital component for modernising the military. The army, navy and air force got Rs 17,060.63 crore, Rs 11,339.24 crore and Rs 24,954.68 crore respectively of the capital funds. While the defence ordnance factories have been given Rs 769.34 crore, and the DRDO has been allocated Rs 4,578.3 crore. Over the years, the revenue expenditure (operating expenditure of the military) has been growing at a much faster pace in comparison to capital expenditure required for modernisation. There have been periodic suggestions to reduce the size of the military in order to reduce revenue expenditure. How do you downsize manpower amidst expanding asymmetric threats and when persistent intransigence both by the concerned states and the Centre, has permitted festering sores like Naxalism to bloom into full blown AIDS. The military has little option but to remain manpower intensive notwithstanding the hundreds of police and paramilitary battalions being raised. The talk of military not being employed in anti-Naxalite operations is bunkum as eventually and as always the military will be used as the ‘last resort.’ If we are really serious in reducing revenue expenditure of the defence budget, then what is stopping the funding of the Rashtriya Rifles (RR) from the Home Ministry Budget (like the Assam Rifles), as was originally planned? What should be of critical concern is the practice of yearly surrender of funds earmarked for capital expenditure and meant for moderni-

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

W

ith monotonous periodicity over the last few years, both the print and electronic media have been highlighting the increasingly antiquated state of our military, voids in our ground, air, sea, surface, sub-surface and cyber defences, poor functioning, non-accountability and the lagging behind indigenous programmes under the DRDO, extremely limited civil industry participation in defence modernisation despite tall promises to the contrary, exponential increase in military prowess and aggressiveness of China, the US arming of Pakistan under plea of fighting terrorism and above all the mounting threats to our national security. However, our national exercise in working out the yearly defence budget remains limited to mere juggling of figures in relation to the GDP, highlighting increases while not talking of inflation since that would reveal the hollowness of “significant increase”, disregarding steady decline in capital expenditure meant for modernisation and to cap it all, the criminality of surrender of critical modernisation funds every year. We have been following this ostrich approach year after year. Defence budget 2010-11 has been no exception.

GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE

Defence Budget 2010-11 Announcing the Rs 147,344 crore (Rs 1.47 trillion/$32 billion) defence budget for 2010-11, the Finance Minister declared it as a seven per cent increase over the previous year’s allocation. However, taking into account the figures of inflation, the actual increase comes to only 3.98 per cent.

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INDIAN DEFENCE

Today, the Indian military is in dire need of urgent operational capacity building while the vultures are watching. We need to develop a strategic vision and get on with the task of boosting our national defence post haste.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

www.wikipedia.org

The Proverbial Ostrich Approach

REGIONAL BALANCE

7 Defence Budget Declining

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

SANJAY KUMAR

traditional security threats, which further necessitates Indian military to evolve for new roles and missions, including anti-piracy missions, international peacekeeping operations and countering new challenges in space and cyberspace. While modernisation is a continuous process and all evolving militaries induct new technologies and weapon platforms to support their roles and missions, the Asia-Pacific region, in particular, is witness to an unprecedented upsurge in military capabilities by all major players. Within the region, China and India are engaged in an arms race of sorts, shoring up their military capabilities with long-range power projection weapon platforms, as also inducting the state-of-the-art weapon technologies. However, both China and India have different objectives as well as approaches with regard to their military modernisation. China is widely perceived to have almost perfected reverse engineering as an art to indigenise its defence industry, producing now the state-of-the-art weaponry. By contrast, India continues to rely heavily on imports to sustain its military’s thirst for new technologies. Also, contrary to the notion

A

s India seeks to rise in the international power hierarchy, it finds itself beset with a strategic environment which has worsened steadily over the years, due to factors such as the continuing geo-strategic rivalry among major powers for regional supremacy, the rising military and economic power of China, the enduring war on terrorism in the neighbourhood, and the growing scourge of left-wing extremism and Islamic terrorism within the country. All of these factors working in tandem have put significant strain on India’s military to expand its fighting capabilities to provide the country with a peaceful and secure strategic environment, which is conducive for sustained economic growth and overall well-being of its people. The present strategic environment is also dominated by an increasing interplay between traditional and non-

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“We do not have any aggressive designs nor do we seek to threaten anyone. We seek an external environment in our region and beyond that is conducive to our peaceful development and protection of our value system. Nevertheless, it is incumbent upon us to take all measures necessary to safeguard our country and to keep pace with technological advancement worldwide. It has rightly been said that eternal vigilance is the price of liberty.” – Excerpts from Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh’s speech, delivered on the occasion of the launch of India’s first indigenously developed nuclear-powered submarine for sea trials at Visakhapatnam on July 26, 2009.

INDIAN DEFENCE

India will continue to attract the global arms industry for many more years. While offset may be a good starting point to revive the manufacturing industry, it will not result in India getting access to key technologies. India needs to rely more on indigenous capabilities and pursue a policy of increased indigenisation in defence and research. Raising the FDI limit to a level that satisfies foreign investors should not be seen as mortgaging India’s security.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

www.wikipedia.org

Building Indigenous Technology

REGIONAL BALANCE

8 Business Environment India’s Strategic and

CONTENTS

www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m

SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

Lockheed Martin will perform task orders consisting of mission critical applications, contract transition activities, and programme management.

Northrop Grumman under this contract will provide increased network functionality, visibility and security control. It will provide an ultra-precise, speed-of-light capability and unlimited magazine depth to defend ships against new, challenging threats, such as hyper-velocity cruise missiles.

March 2009

April 2009

April 2009

April 2009

IT support to the Federal Acquisition Service (FAS) IT management services

Radio-frequency identification (RFID)

Free electron laser (FEL) weapon

$400 million

$50 billion

$429 million

$163 million

Lockheed Martin

General Dynamics

Northrop Grumman

Boeing

US General Services Administration

US General Services Administration

US DoD

US Navy

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

60

TECHNOLOGY

It will support infantry troops by removing obstacles and opening routes, providing useful assistance on operations including peacekeeping and humanitarian missions. March 2009

Armoured earth movers

$410 million

BAE Systems

UK MoD

REGIONAL BALANCE

137

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

General Dynamics will provide infrastructure, application and information technology management services to support federal government agencies.

ITT will deliver simulation, training and instrumentation expertise and systems to the US Army warfighter.

March 2009

Simulation, training and instrumentation (PEO STRI)

$3.1 billion

ITT Corporation

US Army

4,501

10 years

This will help the DoD to meet urgent system requirements and increased production demands to prevent the detonation of radio controlled IEDs.

March 2009

CREW 2.1 vehicle receiver jammers

$317 million

ITT Corporation

US Navy

This will ensure the availability of the Typhoon fleet to meet its standing and future operational commitments.

March 2009

Maintenance of Typhoon fleet

$615.7 million

BAE Systems

UK MoD

Under this contract, it will repair and maintain the fleet of special operations aircraft, ground vehicles, weapons and electronics equipment, to include managing a global supply chain of parts, warehouses and depots.

10 years

March 2009

Full-scope logistics support

$5 billion

Lockheed Martin

US Special Operations Command

Remarks

Quantity

Date of Delivery

Product/Job/Task

Contract Value

Country/Supplier/ Company

Country/ Recipient

Date of Contract

Global Contracts

CONTENTS

www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m

Northrop Grumman

Northrop Grumman

Northrop Grumman

US Navy

US Navy

General Dynamics

US Joint Forces Command

US Air Force

Raytheon

US Army

ITT Corporation

BAE Systems

US Army

US Army

Boeing and AgustaWestland

Italian Army

Honeywell Technology Solutions Inc. (HTSI)

BAE Systems

UK MoD

US Marine Corps.

Country/Supplier/ Company

Country/ Recipient

www.spguidepublications.com

138

SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue $213.8 million

LPD 17 class amphibious ship

Low-rate initial production E-2D advanced Hawkeye

A-10 Thunderbolt II total life-cycle programme support

Single channel ground and airborne radio system (SINCGARS) and logistics support

Logistic support services

“Project Support” services to the USJFCOM Enterprise and the Joint Concept Development and Experimentation Directorate (J9)

Battle command development

Repair & upgrade Bradley vehicles

ICH-47F Chinook helicopters

Maintenance of Harriers

Product/Job/Task

58,000

606

16

Quantity

June 2009

June 2009

June 2009

June 2009

10 years

June 2011

10 years

5 years

June 2009

June 2009

5 years

March 2010

2013

Date of Delivery

May 2009

May 2009

May 2009

April 2009

Date of Contract

They will provide long lead materials for LPD 26.

This contract will include two LRIP Lot 1 aircraft and an advanced acquisition contract for two LRIP Lot II aircraft, as well as associated engineering and testing.

The company will support both A-10As and Cs under the 10-year Thunderbolt Lifecycle Programme Support (TLPS) indefinite delivery/ indefinite quantity contract.

ITT will provide 58,000 RT-1523 SINCGARS radios [PDF], 34,800 vehicle adapter assemblies/ Internet routers and 34,800 radio frequency amplifiers to the Army’s CommunicationsElectronics Command.

This ensures that Marine Corps ships are stocked and available for deployment to combat zones.

General Dynamics will provide analysis, research and development, concept development and experimentation support that will lead to new concepts and capabilities to meet emerging and future warfighter challenges.

This will enhance and maintain the capabilities of the Army Battle Command System.

Bradley vehicles under this contract will be equipped with improvised explosive device armour. It will reset 346 Bradley A3 vehicles, 141 A2 ODS vehicles and 119 A2 ODS SA vehicles.

Boeing will build the ICH-47F & AgustaWestland will be responsible for design and systems integration, aircraft final assembly and delivery to the Italian Army.

BAE Systems will be responsible for the maintenance of the RAF’s and RN’s Harriers, along with providing spare parts and technical advice to the operational squadrons.

Remarks

BUSINESS

$432 million

$1.6 billion

$363.1 million

$700 million

$328 million

$777.4 million

$601 million

$1.23 billion

$785 million

Contract Value

www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m

GLOBAL CONTRACTS

$203 million

$1.5 billion

Lockheed Martin

Lockheed Martin

US Army

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Northrop Grumman

Oshkosh Corporation

US Air Force

US Army

INDIAN DEFENCE

$1.06 billion

$276 million

$1.05 billion

1,700

2,244

BUSINESS

MRAP all-Terrain vehicles (M-ATV)

Fielding and operational deployment of the battlefield airborne communications node (BACN)

MRAP all-terrain vehicles (M-ATV)

17

2,500

113

Quantity

TECHNOLOGY

July 2009

July 2009

June 2009

June 2009

June 2009

June 2009

June 2009

June 2009

June 2009

June 2009

Date of Contract

February 2010

2010

5 years

5 years

Remarks

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Under this contract, it will deliver 1,700 additional MRAP all-terrain vehicles (M-ATV) to the US Armed Forces.

It is an airborne communications system that provides warfighters with critical real-time battlefield information.

M-ATVs protect the crew from any IEDs, enhancing troop mobility and vehicle durability in rough terrains like Afghanistan.

This programme is designed to provide early warning of missile launches, and simultaneously support other missions including missile defence, technical intelligence and battlespace awareness.

It will provide Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) units and the Army Materiel Command (AMC) with maintenance, material, and logistics services for troops serving both in the United States and overseas.

NGCI will deliver 500 VIS-X systems a month for the first year, with scheduled delivery of 2,000 systems in following years.

L-3 will provide the USAFE with a variety of advisory and assistance services (A&AS), including engineering and technical services with management and professional support.

The company will provide AMV 8x8s as part of the AWV 2014 project.

NASAMS II system made by Kongsberg will be Finland’s new medium-range air defence missile system.

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Between 2010 and 2014

2014

Date of Delivery

CONTENTS

BUSINESS

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Oshkosh Corporation

US DoD

Production of F-35 lightning II stealth fighters in the third lot of low-rate initial production (LRIP)

SBIRS Follow-On Spacecraft

Operate the Fort Bragg Field Logistics Readiness Centre

Vehicular intercom systems (VIS-X)

Advisory and assistance services

Armoured modular vehicles

NASAMS II air defence missile system

Product/Job/Task

GLOBAL CONTRACTS

REGIONAL BALANCE

Lockheed Martin

GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE

US DoD

$2.1 billion

$2.4 billion

Northrop Grumman and Cobham joint venture (NGCI)

US Army

US Air Force

$375 million

L-3 Communications

US Air force

$328 million

$460 million

Kongsberg

Finnish Army

Swedish Patria Defence Materiel Administration

Contract Value

Country/Supplier/ Company

Country/ Recipient

www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m

uuuuuu

section four

uHomeland Security Special Focus One India's Homeland Security 299 Two A Spate of Reforms 309 Three Countering Maoist Insurgency 315 Four Naxalite Rage 321 Five Challenges in the Northeast 323 Six Coastal Management 327

BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Integrated Defence Staff 161 The Indian Army 169 The Indian Navy 191 The Indian Air Force 215 The Indian Coast Guard 239 Who's Who in Indian Defence 249 Defence Industry 267 Defence R&D 289

REGIONAL BALANCE

Contents

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

uuu u u

Indian Defence One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

4

Voice Over IP

❘ Video Surveillance ❘ Teleconferencing ❘ C4I ❘ Biometrics and Intelligence

RF-7800W Broadband Ethernet Radio

Go The Distance The RF-7800W is a high-capacity, line-of-sight radio that offers high-speed, wireless IP networking for bandwidth-intensive applications – with data rates up to 108 Mbps and latency lower than 4ms. It operates in the 4.4 – 5.0 GHz frequency band while supporting links in excess of 50 km.

• Currently deployed worldwide

The RF-7800W employs a new security feature TFS (Traffic Flow Security), which authenticates every message transmission, protects all management content and conceals all datatraffic flows. Network security for user and data authentication is ensured via FIPS 140-2 Level 2 encryption.

• Point-to-point

• Designed for military, homeland security and public safety applications

• Point-to-multipoint

For more information, visit www.rfcomm.harris.com/7800W

www.harris.com

RF Communications • Gover nment Communications Systems • Broadcast Communications

BRIG (RETD) VINOD ANAND

The task force on the Management of Defence, headed by Arun Singh, recommended among other things, the appointment of a Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) and the setting up of Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff.

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he Defence Planning Staff (DPS) was established in 1986 under the Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC), when it became clear that future wars would be fought jointly by the three services and that the time had come for ‘jointmanship’. Working under the COSC Chairman and headed by the Director General Defence Planning Staff (DGDPS), the DPS had under it, directorates covering policy and plans, international and regional security affairs, weapons and equipment and financial planning. It also operated as a think tank for the COSC. The DPS was the forerunner to the Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) or what is called in some countries as Joint Staff. The IDS came into being in October 2001 with the merging of the Military Wing, which was established at the time of Independence and had functioned under the Cabinet Secretariat for a number of years till it came under the COSC with the DPS. After the Kargil War in 1999, the report of the Kargil Review Committee, headed by K. Subrahmanyam, was examined by a Group of Ministers (GoM). They recommended the formation of the four task forces to review the national security system:  Management of Defence  Internal Security  Border Management  Intelligence Systems & Apparatus

After considering the report of the task force on the management of defence, the GoM made the following key recommendations:  Integration of the armed forces headquarters with the Ministry of Defence (MoD).  Creation of the posts of CDS and Vice Chief of Defence Staff (VCDS).  Setting up of IDS to support the CDS.  Establishing a Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA).  Organising an Andaman & Nicobar Command (ANC).  Creation of a Strategic Forces Command (SFC).  Establishing a Defence Procurement Board (DPB).  Setting up of a National Defence University (NDU).  A number of other long-term recommendations on aspects concerning air space and maritime management, budgetary reforms including performance budgeting, private sector participation in defence production, improvement in service conditions, media handling and cost effectiveness. All the recommendations, except the one on the appointment of the CDS, were accepted by the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) on May 11, 2001. The decision on appointing a CDS was kept in abeyance pending consultations with other political parties.

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Key GoM Recommendations

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

TECHNOLOGY

India cannot lay claim to becoming a major power unless all the services work towards a common goal. So far some degree of integration and jointness have been achieved, but achieving optimum levels in these two areas appears to be a distant dream.

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Jointmanship in Defence Planning

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1 Defence Staff Integrated

CONTENTS

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CONTENTS

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2 Army

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

   

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

India’s national security objectives have evolved against a backdrop of India’s core values namely, democracy, secularism, peaceful coexistence and the national goal of social and economic development. It includes defending the country’s borders as defined by law and enshrined in the Constitution. Protecting the lives and property of its citizens against war, terrorism, nuclear threats and militant activities. Protecting the country from instability, religious and other forms of radicalism and extremism emanating from neighbouring states. Securing the country against the use or the threat of use of weapons of mass destruction. Development of material, equipment and technologies that have a bearing on India’s security, particularly its defence preparedness through indigenous research, development and production, inter-alia to overcome restrictions on the transfer of such items. Promoting further cooperation and understanding with neighbouring countries and implementing mutually agreed confidence-building measures. Pursuing security and strategic dialogues with major powers and key partners.

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES 

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India’s National Security Objectives

lobal and regional security concerns together with the growing internal security problems define India’s security environment. The conventional threats from traditional adversaries, continuing presence of terrorist and fundamentalist forces in its western and eastern neighbourhood has prompted India to maintain a high level of defence vigilance and preparedness to face any challenge to its security. The developments across India’s western borders are alarming and dangerous as the drift in both Pakistan and Afghanistan shows the lack of state control and breakdown of economy, governance and law and order. Both states are staying afloat because of the aid from the international community. Moreover, there is also the ever present possibility of hostile radical fundamentalist elements gaining access to the weapons of mass destruction in Pakistan. The proxy war conducted by Pakistan and the various radical jehadi outfits promoted by them, through the instrumentality of terrorism, are continuing unabated. In the east, China’s challenge to India’s security is looming large on the horizon. Its strategy of encircling India through her neighbours and confining her within the subcontinent is apparent and palpable apart from its outlandish claims on the Indian territory of Arunachal Pradesh. Internally, the country faces a series of low-intensity conflicts (LIC) characterised by tribal, ethnic and leftwing movements and ideologies and these conflicts have the capacity of deflecting the Indian Government from their long-term social and economic development plans. India is also affected by the trafficking in drugs and proliferation of small arms. Thus the security challenges facing India are varied and complex. India’s response to these threats and challenges has always been restrained, measured and moderate in keeping with its peaceful outlook and reputation as a responsible and peace-loving country.

INDIAN DEFENCE

The security challenges facing India are varied and complex. India’s response to these threats and challenges has always been restrained, measured and moderate, in keeping with its peaceful outlook and reputation as a responsible and peace-loving country

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Guaranteeing Internal & External Security

Role and Responsibility of the Army

The world’s second largest standing army, the Indian Army, with the fourth largest budget globally, apolitical in a subcontinent that has witnessed armies often imposing their will on their people by eliminating legitimate democratic dispensations, remains the repository of the Indian citizens’

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Indian Army; www.wikipedia.org

The Indian

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

SP Guide Publications (SP’s): Having taken over as one of the largest and most combat experienced armies of the world, what are your feelings as the Chief of Army Staff? Chief of Army Staff (COAS): It is indeed a matter of honour and privilege for me to take over the reins of the Indian Army, one of the world’s finest fighting forces comprising absolutely dedicated and professional officers and men. It is indeed an onerous responsibility. I feel humbled by the trust reposed in me. I am conscious of the emerging security challenges both homeland and in the subcontinent. Indian Army will undertake all challenges to the nation’s security with utmost commitment and professionalism. The responsibilities and challenges bring a feeling of great concern for the valiant men who make up our Army.

ranging from conventional land centric threats to fourth and fifth generation warfare and internal security challenges. However, the fast changing nature of conflict and emerging technologies requires constant reappraisal and improvement. I have laid down an all-encompassing vision for the Indian Army, which is to hone the Army into a well-motivated, operationally prepared, well-equipped force capable of meeting the security challenges faced by the nation. Also initiate the transformation process to function in a networked joint services environment to leverage technology and the human resource capital in consonance with the rich values and traditions of the Indian Army. Having said that I would essentially focus on the following issues:  Enhance operational preparedness  Consolidate and address the deficiencies  Enhance meaningful training to prepare for existing and emerging challenges  Uphold the image of the Army, and ensure inculcation of core values of selflessness and professionalism  Provide dignity to the art of soldiering and restoring pride in all ranks  Speed up the modernisation process and ensure refinement of procedures and work culture  Improve quality of life, habitability and living conditions in forward deployment areas  Enhance synergy with other services  Commence the transformation process for a more agile, lethal, versatile and networked force

SP’s: In your tenure, what are the major challenges that you perceive you will have to confront and how do you propose to tackle them? What are the key result areas that you propose to adopt during your tenure? COAS: At the outset, let me assure you that the Indian Army is fully prepared to meet the variety of security challenges confronting our country. There has been a paradigm shift in the nature of conflict (and emerging technologies) with its centre of gravity now focussing towards Asia. Terrorism, proxy war, militancy, insurgency, fourth and fifth generation war are likely to be employed by the non-state actors against the stable and economically progressive nations. Conventional conflicts in the future, will be reinforced by the inclusion of large force multipliers and PGMs. Our country therefore faces a large number of challenges

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General V.K. Singh took over as the Chief of Army Staff on April 1, 2010. In a candid interview with SP Guide Publications, General Singh shares his thoughts and perceptions on a wide range of issues such as the security challenges facing the nation, modernisation and transformation of the Army for future challenges.

INDIAN DEFENCE

‘Indian Army is fully prepared to meet the variety of security challenges confronting our country’

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SP Guide Publications

Chief of Army Staff

REGIONAL BALANCE

Interview:

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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Main gun amn Engine Speed Range Armour Protection

: : : : :

Trench crossing Shallow fording Armament

: 2.6 to 2.8 m : 1.2 m : Main: 1 x 125mm SBG Coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm MG AD: 1 x 12.7mm MG : 16° to -6° : 360° : 3 km : 8 rounds/min : Auto : 44 projectiles/charges

T-72S Characteristics Crew Cbt Weight Height Armament

: : : :

3 46,500 kg 2.228 m Main: 1 x 125mm SBG AA : 1 x 12.7mm NSVT (300 rounds) Co-axial: 1 x 7.62mm

PKT MG (2,000 rounds) 45 x APDSFS/HEAT/HESH (incl 6 ATGW) V-12 multifuel (V-84) 840 hp at 2,000 rpm 60 km/h (max) 550 km 280mm (max)

Cbt Improved T-72M-1 (Ajeya) Characteristics Crew Cbt Weight Height (turret roof) Engine

Power to Weight ratio Max speed (on road) Max speed (Cross country) Gradient Ability Vertical obstacle

3 43.5 tonne 2,190mm Up rated V46-6 engine; a 12 cylinder 4 stroke, V 60 turbocharged, water-cooled, multi-fuel, direct injection engine developing 1,000 hp at 2,000 rpm. : 22.98 hp/t : 60 km/h

: : : :

Elevation/depression Traverse Max range Main gun rate of fire Amn loading Amn stowage

: 35 to 45 km/h : 60° : 850mm

Note: Other improvements incl Explosive Reactive Armour, Integrated Fire Detection and Suppression System and GPS.

T-55 (Up Gunned) Characteristics Crew Cbt Weight Height Armament

: : : :

Main gun amn Engine Speed Range Armour

3 43,000 kg 2.26 m Main: 1 x 105mm rifled bore gun Coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (2,000 rounds)

: : : : :

AA: 1 x 12.7mm NSV M (2,800 rounds) 43 rounds x APDSFS/HEAT/HESH V-2-55/V-12 Diesel rated at 600 bhp 50 km/h (max) 500 km 140mm

Arjun (Country of Origin: India) Characteristics Crew Cbt Weight Overall length (with gun forward) Overall height

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(with AD gun mount) Overall width Ground pressure Armament

: 4 : 58.5 tonne : 10.638 m : 3.03 m

: 3.864 m : 0.85 kg/cm2 : Main : 1 x 120mm Rifled gun AA : 1 x 12.7mm MG Coaxial : 1 x 7.62mm MG

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: 2.23m : V-84MS four-stroke 12-cylinder multifuel diesel engine, developing 840 hp

TECHNOLOGY

Main gun rate of fire

: 550 km : Main: 1 x 125mm SBG which fires an ATGM as well as conventional amn. Has a laser range finder & thermal imaging night sight [43 (22 - in autoloader) rounds] Coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm MG (2,000 rounds) AA: 1 x 12.7mm MG (300 rounds) : 8 rounds/min

Road range Armament and Amn

: 3 : 46.5 tonne : 3.37m

BUSINESS

Characteristics Crew Cbt Weight Width, over tracks Height, over turret roof Engine

INDIAN DEFENCE

MBTs T-90S

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Equipment Catalogue Indian Army

REGIONAL BALANCE

INDIAN DEFENCE

CONTENTS

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YOUR NEW DIRECTIONAL INFRARED COUNTERMEASURES SYSTEM The new ELT/572 DIRCM System is a product of Elettronica SpA and Elbit Systems Inc. It protects rotary and fixed wing aircraft against IR homing missile threats. Based on the state-of-the-art Infrared Laser and Sensor Technology, ELT/572 represents a step ahead with respect to other DIRCM Systems. Its inherent Installation Flexibility as well as Integrability with any Electro-Optic Suite is a unique feature no other IR countermeasure can target. ELT/572 features an outstanding Reliability and Maintainability as well as a very low Life Cycle cost: money is not just spent, it is safely invested.

DESIGN AND PRODUCTION OF ELECTRONIC DEFENCE SYSTEMS.

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

Background

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The maritime traditions of the country can be traced as far back as the Mohenjodaro civilisation with many archeologists claiming that a basin dating back to 4000 BC, discovered in Lothal was the world’s first drydock. Indian trade and culture were carried across the seas during the Chola, Satavahana, Chalukya, Pandyan and Kalinga periods. The story of the Ramayana and Mahabharata spread by Indian seafarers can, even

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Thus, India is truly a maritime nation and the sea is critical to her survival and prosperity. It is the role of the Indian Navy to ensure that these interests are adequately safeguarded in peace and in war. The Navy will, hopefully, in the very near future, provide the third leg of the nuclear triad, which India seeks to develop, in order to safeguard its interests as a de facto nuclear weapon state. The relief operations carried out after the devastating Tsunami in December 2004 have demonstrated the ability of the Indian Navy to respond with alacrity to the humanitarian needs of the neighbouring countries in the region, while simultaneously undertaking disaster relief tasks for fellow citizens in our own coastal states and island territories. Thereafter, in 2006, we witnessed the swiftly executed refugee evacuation operation from strife-torn Lebanon, where again the Navy rendered succour, not just to Indians but also to stranded Sri Lankans and Nepalese. These two successful operations were observed by navies across the world and they highlighted the fact that the Indian Navy was capable of discharging its tasks commensurate with India’s regional status and responsibilities.

he Indian Navy’s responsibilities include safeguarding a wide spectrum of the country’s maritime interests. These include a coastline of 7,516 km and an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of over two million sq km which is expected to increase to over three million sq km after the inclusion of the extended continental shelf by 2008. In its EEZ, the country has sovereign rights to explore and exploit economic assets without encroachment or hindrance from others. The country’s overseas trade is more than 513.5 million tonnes, over 95 per cent of which by volume and 77 per cent by value moves through the medium of the sea, to and from 13 major ports, and dozens of smaller ones on either coast. India has island territories on both seaboards. To the east, more than 1,120 km from the Indian mainland are the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, stretching 720 km from north to south. The southern-most of these islands is only 145 km from the western tip of the Indonesian archipelago while in the north, Myanmar (Coco islands) lies only 35 km away. To the west, about 240 km from the mainland are the Lakshadweep group of Islands occupying a strategic location astride vital international shipping lanes. India’s merchant marine is close to nine million tonnes GRT, comprising over 700 ships. The country shares maritime boundaries with seven Indian Ocean littoral states. Another example of the importance of the sea is India’s current oil consumption which was 2.5 million barrels per day (bbl/d) in 2005 and is likely to rise to 5.3 million bbl/d by 2025. This will mean a drastic increase in oil imports, half of which will come from the Middle East. Any stoppages or even interruptions are likely to have a crippling effect on the economy.

INDIAN DEFENCE

The mission of the Indian Navy is to ensure that India’s maritime security and vital national interests at sea are fully safeguarded against multifarious threats. With the transformation that has taken place in the international political arena, from bipolarity to the uncertain and undefined international order of today, India needs to evolve coherent strategies that are relevant and will be able to cope with the evolving challenges.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

www.pib.nic.in; Indian Navy

Safeguarding Country’s Maritime Interests

REGIONAL BALANCE

3 Indian Navy The

CONTENTS

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‘India’s Economy Is Dependent on the Seas’

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

SP Guide Publications

Chief of Naval Staff

TECHNOLOGY

Interview:

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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SP’s: Recognising the need for augmenting the rapid response mechanism to deal with maritime security challenges, the government

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post-26/11 has revamped the maritime security framework. What is your perspective on the adequacy of approved infrastructure and commensurate assets and how would it equip IN to effectively deal with this new dimension of maritime challenge? CNS: The Cabinet Committee on Security has designated the IN as the authority responsible for the overall maritime security of the nation. This includes coastal and offshore security. Patrolling and surveillance have been enhanced by the Indian Navy, Indian Coast Guard (ICG) and Marine Police of coastal states. Inter-agency coordination has improved through conduct of regular exercises on coastal security. All concerned Central and state government agencies like the Marine Police, Central Industrial Security Force (CISF), Fisheries Department, port authorities, state police and customs and immigration are included in these exercises. Nine additional coast guard stations have been sanctioned at Karwar, Ratnagiri, Vadinar, Gopalpur, Minicoy, Androth, Karaikal, Hutbay and Nizampatnam and are to be integrated into the ‘hub and spoke concept’ with coastal police stations. In addition, ICG is set to induct ships, patrol boats and aircraft at an approximate cost of over Rs 6,000 crore ($1.25 billion) for coastal security functions. Setting up of a Static Coastal Radar chain and a networked chain of Automatic Identification System (AIS) stations along our coast and in the island territories is also being progressed expeditiously. The radar and AIS chain would be major coastal surveillance assets providing gapless cover all along the coast. The National Command Control Communication and Intelligence Network will integrate navy, coast guard and marine police stations as also other agencies for seamless sharing of information, concerning maritime security.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

SP Guide Publications (SP’s): Incidents of piracy off the coast of Somalia and in the Gulf of Aden have continued unabated despite well-coordinated surveillance and vigil by various navies, including the Indian Navy (IN). What in your view should be the security construct to deal with this kind of a menace? Chief of Naval Staff (CNS): Piracy off the coast of Somalia has grown steadily over the years and has now assumed serious proportions. The number of piratical incidents reported so far in 2009 has surpassed the total number reported in 2008. As per the IMB annual piracy report of 2009, the total number of attacks reported in 2009 around Somalia, Seychelles and off the Oman coast are over 200. Of these, 47 have resulted in hijacking of vessels. To protect Indian flag ships and Indian citizens employed in seafaring duties, the Indian Navy commenced anti-piracy patrols in the Gulf of Aden from October 23, 2009. A total of 17 IN ships have been deployed in the Gulf of Aden since October 2008. In addition to escorting Indian flag ships, ships of other flags have also been escorted. Merchant ships, irrespective of their flag, are currently being escorted along the entire length of 490 nm long and 20 nm wide Internationally Recommended Transit Corridor that has been promulgated for use by all merchant vessels. This arrangement has been working satisfactorily and a total of 843 ships (111 Indian flagged and 723 foreign flagged from 47 different countries) have been escorted by IN ships since October 2008. Navies at sea are only dealing with the symptoms of mis-governance in Somalia.

REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

Admiral Nirmal Verma took over as the Chief of Naval Staff on August 31, 2009. In an interview with SP Guide Publications, he spoke about the Indian Navy’s role as the authority responsible for the overall maritime security of the nation.

Equipment Catalogue Indian Navy SUBMARINES Shishumar (209) Class Type 1500

Speed, knots Range, miles Complement Torpedoes

12 km at 35 knots; warhead 250 kg. : External Strap-on type for 24 Mines : Decoys; C303 acoustic decoys; ESM Argo Phenix II AR 700 or Koll Morgen Sea Sentry, radar warning, ESM-DR 3000 Weapon Control : Singer Librascope MKI, CCS 90-1/ISUS Radars : Surface Search, Thomson-CSF Calypso; I-band, KH 1007/2007 Sonars : Atlas Elektronik CSU 83 active/passive search and attack; Thomson Sintra DUUV-5; passive ranging and intercept, CSU 90-14 Programme : HDW concluded an agreement with the Indian Navy on 11 December-1981. Out of the four submarines, first two were built in West Germany and the balance two at Mazagon Docks, Mumbai with supply of material package from HDW. (Submarines form the 10th Submarine Squadron based at Mumbai. Mid-life refits-cum-modernisation of the class is being undertaken in a progressive manner starting with Shishumar in 1999.)

Mines Counter-measures

: Standard 1,450 Surfaced 1,660 Dived 1,850 : 211.2 x 21.3 x 19.7(64.4 x 6.5 x 6) : Diesel Electric 4MTU 12V 493 AZ80 GA31L diesels; 4 Siemens alternators; 1 Siemens motor; 1 shaft : Surfaced 11; Dived 22 : 8,000 Snorting at 8 knots 13,000 Surfaced at 10 knots : 40 (8 officers) : 8 Nos. 21 inch (533mm) tubes carries 14 AEG SUT Mod 1 wire guided active/passive torpedoes homing to 28 km at 23 knots;

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Dimensions feet (metres) Main machinery

: 4 : Shishumar, Shankush, Shalki, Shankul

TECHNOLOGY

Total No. in service Name Specifications: Displacement, tonnes

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

INDIAN DEFENCE

CONTENTS

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Mines Counter-measures Weapon control Radars Sonars

: 2 Model 4-2AA-42M diesels; 2 generators; 1 motor 1 shaft; 2 MT-168 auxiliary motors; 1 economic speed motor : 10 surfaced; 17 dived; 9 snorting : 6,000 at 7 kt snorting; 400 at 3 kt dived : 52 (13 officers) : 6-21 in (533 mm) tubes combination of Type 53-65 passive wake homing to 19 km (10.3 n miles) at 45 Kt; TEST 71/96 antisubmarine; active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt or 20 km (10.08 n miles) at 25 kt warhead 220 kg Total of 18 weapons. Wire-guided on 2 tubes. : 24 DM-1 in lieu of torpedoes : ESM; Squid head radar warning, Porpoise (Indigenous) : Uzwl MVU-119EM TFCS : Navigation; Snoop Tray; MRP-25; I-band : MGK – 400, hull mounted, active/passive search and attack; medium frequency. MG-519; hull mounted active search; high frequency. Being replaced

Modernisation: Medium refits-cum-modernisation of the submarines is being undertaken in India/Russia on a progressive manner. A submarine launched cruise missile (SLCM) capability is also part of the refit. Retrofit and trials of submarine launched version of BrahMos missile (a joint Indo-Russian venture) is expected to be undertaken on one of the submarines. An Indian designed main battery with a five-year life has replaced Russian batteries in all of the class. Battery cooling has been improved. Operational: First four form the 11th Submarine Squadron based at Visakhapatnam and the remainder of the 12th Squadron based at Mumbai. Sindhuvir completed major refit at Severodvinsk from May 1997 to July 1999. Sindhuraj and Sindhukesari completed similar refits at Admiralty Yard St. Petersburg from May 1999 to November 2001. Sindhuratna completed a two-year refit at Severodvinsk in 2002. Sindhughosh was refitted at Visakhapatnam from September 2002 to 2004. One submarine is expected to be fitted out with BrahMos cruise missile – an Indo-Russian venture; the surface version of this 290 km range missile is already being fitted on the Indian Navy’s surface platforms.

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INDIAN DEFENCE

Speed, knots Range, miles Complement Torpedoes

Programme: The Kilo class was launched in the former Soviet Navy in 1979 and India was the first country to acquire these between 1993 and 2000. Indian Navy procured 10 submarines of this class from Russia. This class of submarine has since been supplied to Algeria, Poland, Romania, Iran and China.

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Displacement, tonnes Dimensions, feet (metres) Main machinery

by Sonar USHUS manufactured by BEL, Bangalore in a progressive manner on submarines.

: 10 : Sindhughosh, Sindhudhvaj, Sindhuraj, Sindhuvir, Sindhuratna, Sindhukesri, Sindhukirti, Sindhuvijay, Sindhurakshak, Sindhushastra : 2,325 surfaced; 3,076 dived : 238 x 32.5 x 21.7 (72.6 x 9.9 x 6.6)

REGIONAL BALANCE

Total No. in service Name

BUSINESS

Sindhughosh (Kilo) Class (Project 877 EKM/8773)

Answering the call with confidence. It’s in our power.™

There are powerful reasons why 27 armed services across the globe employ 11,000 of our engines to deliver when it really counts. Learn more at www.pw.utc.com. Military Engines

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

Looking Back

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On October 8, 1932, the IAF Bill was passed, allowing for creation of the Number 1 Squadron of the IAF with only one flight, equipped with four obsolescent Westland Wapiti aircraft, at Drigh Road, Karachi on April 1, 1933. The flight was commanded by an RAF officer and had five pilots and the first batch of “Hawai Sepoys”. The fledgling IAF went into action for the first time in 1937, during air policing operations in the North West

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Frontier Province (NWFP). During Second World War, the IAF expanded rapidly to about 10 squadrons. For its achievements during the war, the service was awarded the prefix ‘Royal’ in March 1945. The division of assets and manpower of the armed forces at the time of independence in August 1947 reduced the force level to a little more than half its original size. Two months later, the Royal Indian Air Force (RIAF) went into action in Kashmir, which saw the landing of Dakotas at what was termed ‘the roof of the world’. On January 26, 1950, India became a Republic and the RIAF dropped the ‘Royal’ prefix. The 1950s witnessed rapid expansion and modernisation of the IAF both in terms of capital assets and infrastructure. The modernisation process was kicked off in 1948 with the arrival of the Vampire—the first combat jet of the IAF. Subsequently, Ouragan, Mystere, Canberra, Hunter and Gnat entered service during the 1950s. Closer strategic and military cooperation with the USSR resulted in the IAF acquiring the MiG-21 supersonic aircraft in 1963, which then went on to pave the way for subsequent induction of various other combat aircraft and weapon systems of Soviet origin. From this point onwards, the IAF inventory acquired a distinct Soviet orientation, which is still in evidence 43 years after the first induction of the MiG-21. This also had a great bearing on the evolving shape and structure of the aviation industry in India. The 1965 war saw the IAF aggressively using the famous Gnat, demolishing the myth of the F-86 Sabre being the best combat aircraft of that time. The Gnat again played a significant role in the 1971 con-

he Indian Air Force (IAF) would have to seek greater governmental indulgence to acquire additional aircraft. In addition, the force will have to start working towards development and acquisition of fifth generation fighter aircraft. Manifestations of flight capabilities (the third dimension) in military affairs have witnessed phenomenal changes. The term ‘air power’ is used to denote the flight potential of military services. Air power is in itself an indicator of its undeniable impact on modern warfare. The role of the air force can make or mar the war potential of a modern-day state. Recent international conflicts have proved the overwhelming importance of air power. In the Indian context, the contribution of the IAF to the national security effort was emphatically driven home during the Kargil conflict in 1999, when intruding Pakistani soldiers, stunned by the strike potential of the IAF and resolute Indian response, retreated from their positions inside the line of control (LoC). However, its current effectiveness notwithstanding, the origin of the IAF was very humble.

INDIAN DEFENCE

The role of the Air Force can make or mar the war potential of a modern-day state. Recent international conflicts have proved the overwhelming importance of air power. In the Indian context, the contribution of the IAF to the national security effort was emphatically driven home during the Kargil conflict in 1999, when intruding Pakistani soldiers, stunned by the strike potential of the IAF and resolute Indian response, retreated from their positions inside the line of control (LoC).

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www.wikipedia.org

Impacting Modern-day Warfare

REGIONAL BALANCE

4 Air Force The Indian

CONTENTS

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‘IAF is Transforming Into a Potent Strategic Force’

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

SP Guide Publications

Chief of Air Staff

TECHNOLOGY

Interview:

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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SP’s: What are the key ingredients of the IAF’s latest revised doctrine? Have these been disseminated and practised right down to the field level? How will these affect the IAF’s war-waging and winning capabilities? CAS: The “Indian Air Force Doctrine” is the essence of the IAF’s understanding of aerospace power. It has two parts: ‘Basic’ and the ‘Operational’. Part I of the doctrine is a guide on the basic aspects of aerospace power with inputs from old precepts and their subsequent evolution. The amalgamation of space and its enormous force-enhancing impact have also been included. Part II covers the operational aspect of the employment of aerospace power. The doctrine has been disseminated and is being practised right down to the field level. It is helpful in understanding, planning and employing aerospace power and provides the options to select from, when confronted with an operational situation.

SP’s: “The IAF in metamorphic transformation” is an often repeated statement emanating from different quarters from within and outside the establishment. Do you agree? If so, could you elaborate, especially with regard to the IAF’s ideology, concepts, doctrine and so on? CAS: I agree with the statement. The IAF is transforming into a potent strategic force, keeping in line with national aspirations. In the coming decade, the IAF envisions itself to be a modern force with cutting edge technologies that are flexible, adaptable and have a strategic reach to

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SP’s: It has been reiterated on many occasions that the IAF needs to be fully equipped and trained to fight across the entire spectrum of modern-day conflict. Describe the measures being undertaken by the IAF to build the necessary capabilities. CAS: Nobody can accurately predict the kind of war one may have to

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provide limitless options to India. The concepts, beliefs and practices will evolve to keep pace with advances in technology, changing global environment, military capabilities and vital national interests. The upgrades in technology change the concept of employment of air power which, in turn, affects ideology. The doctrine also must be receptive to the advantages that new technologies offer and must evolve accordingly.

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SP Guide Publications (SP’s): Having spent more than four months at the helm of one of the largest and battle-tested air forces in the world, what do you reckon are the major challenges facing the Indian Air Force (IAF)? How do you propose to cope with these? Chief of Air Staff (CAS): The first and foremost challenge that the IAF is facing is the requirement of capability build up which has been affected by the depletion due to phasing out of aircraft and systems since last few years. India is an emerging regional power. As an emerging power, you have attendant responsibilities as well as larger security challenges. A comprehensive modernisation plan is already underway which involves enhancement and modernisation of our air defence (AD) and offensive strike capabilities, enhancement of our force multipliers, space assets and NCW (network-centric warfare) capabilities. Associated with acquisition is the challenge of operationalising these modern and high-end technology platforms and weapon systems. Training and preparing our air warriors to absorb the new technology in the shortest possible time is also a challenge and we are looking into these aspects by reviewing our organisational policies and training patterns.

REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

Air Chief Marshal P.V. Naik took over as the Chief of Air Staff (CAS) on May 31, 2009. In an interaction with SP Guide Publications, the CAS delineates the emerging roles and responsibilities of the Indian Air Force and its efforts to adequately prepare itself to face the myriad challenges of the 21st century.

Equipment Catalogue Indian Air Force Air Defence and Strike Fighters Mikoyan MiG-21FL/MF/Bis

Dimensions Wing span Length Height Wing area Weights Take-off (combat)

: : : :

: 390 km : 6,500 m/min : + 7/–1.5

Note: While the ‘FL’ version of the MiG-21 is being phased out, a fleet of 125 MiG-21Bis aircraft with adequate residual airframe life have reportedly undergone an avionics and armament upgrade programme which comprises the following:  Fitment of KOPYO multi-mode radar in the nose cone in place of the original ALMAZ radar which, in combination with the active homing RVV-AE, Beyond Visual Range (BVR) air-to-air missile in place of the R-60 has given the aircraft a ‘Fire-and-Forget’ capability. Coupled with a new Russian made Mission Computer, the KOPYO radar has also enhanced the aircraft’s overall air-to-surface capability.  The aircraft has been fitted with a Thales; Monolith Ring Laser Gyro based INS with integral GPS and GLONASS card. The INS has a drift of 0.5 nm per hour which is automatically updated by the integral GPS giving it a highly reliable navigation system.  The aircraft has been given a semi-glass cockpit with the fitment of a Russian made Liquid Crystal Multi-function Display and a Head-up Display.  Additional avionics include a HAL made INCOM jam resistant communications equipment and TARANG, RWR equipment.  An Israeli video recording system has been fitted in the cockpit which captures HUD as well as visual parameters during air-to-ground strikes for better post-strike debriefs. The upgraded MiG-21Bis aircraft has been renamed the ‘Bison’ by the Indian Air Force.

7.15 m 16.10 m including pitot boom 4.5 m 23.45 m2

: 8,750 kg

Mikoyan MiG-23BN/MF NATO reporting names Indian Air Force names Country of origin Type Number in service

: : : : :

Conventional fin houses a large inset rudder. Power Plant: One Tumansky R-29 Turbojet rated at 17,500 lb dry and 25,350 lb reheat; four fuel tanks aft of cockpit in fuselage and two integral wing tanks. Total usable fuel capacity of 6,275 litres. Provision for 800 litre droptanks at three points. Cockpit: KM-21 0-130 kmph ejection seat in a pressurized and air-conditioned cockpit. Bullet proof wind screen and small rearward looking mirror on top of canopy. Kevlar plating around cockpit to withstand hits up to 23mm calibre shells. Avionics and Systems: (MiG-23BN): KLEN Laser marker and ranger in nose cone, VHF/UHF, IFF equipment. Doppler nav/attack system and radar altimeter. Gyro gun sight accurate up to 7.5 g loads. Armament: One GSh-23/2 23mm cannon in fuselage belly pack with 200 rounds, normal loading pattern is AP, API, HEI. Seven pylons (five underbelly, one on each wing) capable of carrying various combinations of ordnance up to 4,500 kg.

MiG-23BN (Flogger-H), MiG-23MF (Flogger-B) Vijay, Rakshak USSR Single-Seat Variable Geometry Strike Fighter. All MiG-23 variants reportedly phased out from operational service

Construction Wings: Shoulder wing mono-plane with variable sweep angles at 16 deg,45 deg and 72 deg. Full span hydraulically actuated trailing edge flaps in three sections. No ailerons. Instead two-section upper surface spoilers/lift dumpers operate differentially in conjunction with horizontal tail surfaces to provide aileron functions Fuselage: Conventional semi-monocoque structure with lateral air intakes. Four forward hinged air brakes above and below horizontal tail planes. All moving horizontal surfaces of the tail unit act differentially and symmetrically to provide aileron and elevator functions.

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

: Mach 2.23 : Mach 1.1

TECHNOLOGY

Construction Wings: Delta planform with a 2° anhedral and 57° sweepback with small boundary layer fences at tips. Large blown plain trailing edge flaps. Fuselage: Circular section all metal semi Tail Unit monocoque structure. Ram air intake in nose with floating centre body controlled by air speed and alpha angle. Large dorsal spine for avionics, and fuel tanks. Air brakes under the leading edge of wing roots. Second air brake forward of the ventral fin. Tail unit of all moving surface type, mass balanced at tips. Conventional fin with large inset rudder. Power Plant: One Tumansky R-13 turbojet rated at 9,400 lb dry and 14,000 lb reheat. Internal fuel capacity 2,750 litres Provision for drop tanks under fuselage and inboard wing pylons. The MiG-21Bis is powered by a Tumansky R-25-300 turbojet rated at 15,000 lb static thrust with reheat. Cockpit: K-13 ejection seat with 0-130 kmph capability. Avionics and Equipment: ALMAZ search and track radar with a 30 km lock on range. ARK radio compass, IFF and Gyro gun sight Armament: One twin-barrel 23mm GSh-23/2 cannon with 250 rounds carried internally, & up to 2,500 1b of ordnance on four wing pylons. Typical loads include 2*1,000 lb, RVV-AE, R-73/R-60 AAMs, S-24 and UB80/UB 57 rocket pods.

: 10,500 kg

BUSINESS

Max take-off Performance Max speed Above 10,000 m At sea level Combat radius (lo-lo-lo) Max rate of climb ‘g’ Limits

INDIAN DEFENCE

Fishbed and Mongol (trainer version) USSR Single-Seat Multi-Role Fighter. 250-300 all variants.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

: : : :

REGIONAL BALANCE

NATO reporting names Country of origin Type Number in service

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INDIAN DEFENCE

CONTENTS

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MISSION-CRITICAL ADVANTAGES

WHATEVER THE MISSION

For more than 40 years, some 300 Bombardier special mission aircraft have been selected by countries around the globe to fulfill a wide spectrum of missions ranging from government VIP transportation, through search and rescue, to C4ISR. Today, we continue to meet the critical needs of governments, armed forces and commercial operators with high performance Global, Challenger and Learjet series jets and Dash-8/Q-series turboprops. We meet your needs. We deliver.

FOR MORE INFORMATION : W W W.SPECIALMISSION.BOMBARDIER.COM BOMBARDIER, LEARJET, CHALLENGER, GLOBAL, GLOBAL EXPRESS, DASH 8, Q-SERIES AND OTHER BOMBARDIER AIRCRAFT MODEL NAMES ARE REGISTERED AND/OR UNREGISTERED TRADEMARK (S) OF BOMBARDIER INC. OR ITS SUBSIDIARIES. GLOBAL EXPRESS PICTURE: COPYRIGHT © 2006 RAYTHEON COMPANY. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RAYTHEON COMPANY IS THE MISSION SYSTEMS INTEGRATOR FOR ASTOR.

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

Duties and Functions The Coast Guard Act 1978 specifies the duties and functions of the service, mandating adoption of appropriate measures for the following tasks:  Safety and protection of artificial islands and offshore terminals, installations and devices.  Protection and assistance to fishermen at sea while in distress.  Preservation and protection of marine environment.  Prevention and control of marine pollution  Assistance to customs and other authorities in anti-smuggling operations.  Enforcement of Maritime Laws in force.  Safety of life and property at sea.  Collection of scientific data.  Other duties as and when prescribed by the Government of India.

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

T

The following additional responsibilities have been entrusted to the Coast Guard:  Coordinating authority for taking measures to address oil pollution response in the maritime zones of India. The Director General Indian Coast Guard (DGICG) is the Chairman of the National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan (NOSDCP) Preparedness Meeting.  The authority for coordinating Maritime Search and Rescue in the Indian Search and Rescue Region. The DGICG is the Chairman of the National Maritime Search and Rescue Board.  The DGICG is the Chairman of the Offshore Security Coordination Committee (OSCC) and regular meetings are conducted at the national level, to identify threats to offshore installations such as internal sabotage, terrorist attacks, hijacking of platforms, drill ships, jack up rig, blowouts, fire hazards, etc.  The authority responsible for coastal security in territorial waters. The DGICG has been designated as the Commander, Coastal Command, with the responsibility for overall coordination between central and state agencies in all matters related to coastal security.  Nominated as the Lead Intelligence agency (LIA) for the country’s coastal/sea borders, for the purpose of generating, coordinating and sharing the intelligence with the agencies concerned including the Central Government. These duties are carried out by the ICG over an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) measuring 2.01 million sq km that are home to inter alia 3,565 sq km of mangroves, 18,000 sq km of coral reefs and a potential 4.72 million tonnes of fisheries resources. It is also entrusted with the responsibility of ensuring the safety and security of a peninsular nation

he Indian Coast Guard (ICG) was constituted as an armed force of the Union by an Act of Parliament, on August 18, 1978, to undertake the predominantly peace-time tasks of ensuring the security of the maritime zones of India, with a view to the protection of maritime and other national interests in such zones and for matters connected therewith. The Indian Coast Guard functions under the Ministry of Defence (MoD), primarily for non-military maritime security functions. It has military functions in a war situation, when it conjoins with military forces in national defence under the Indian Navy. The Coast Guard began patrolling in earnest with two old frigates inducted from the navy and five patrol vessels seconded from the Central Board of Excise and Customs, Ministry of Home Affairs.

INDIAN DEFENCE

The Indian Coast Guard functions under the Ministry of Defence, primarily for non-military maritime security purposes. It has military functions in a war situation, when it conjoins with military forces in national defence under the Indian Navy.

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www.pib.nic.in

Ensuring Peace-time Maritime Security

REGIONAL BALANCE

5 Coast Guard The Indian

CONTENTS

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: 6 Flight deck Main machinery Speed, knots Range Complement (crew)

: : : : :

with Electro-Optical Fire Control (EOFCS) Can operate ALH & Chetak 2xdiesels, 7,710 kw each 23.5 6,500 nm at 12 knots 106

Flight deck Main machinery Speed, knots Range, miles Complement (crew)

: : : : :

Optical sight 2x12.7mm HMG Can operate Chetak 2 diesels, 4,707kw each 22 4,000 nm at 14 knots 90

: 8

Armament

: Indian built

Main machinery Speed, knots Range Complement (crew)

: 40/60 or 30mm 2A42 Gun, 2x12.7mm HMG : 2xdiesels, 1,480 kw each : 23 : 2,400 nm at 14 knots : 35

: : : :

Indian built Light: 1,840, Deep: 2,000 101.95x11.5x3.65 m 2x12.7mm HMG CRN 91 2x12.7mm gun

Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) “Vikram” class Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement, tonnes Dimensions (LOAxBxD) Armament

: 7 + 2 (on lease) : Indian built : Light: 1100 Deep: 1220 : 74.1x11.4x3.2 m : 40/60 or 30mm 2A42 Gun

Fast Patrol Vessels (FPV) “Priyadarshini” class Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement, tonnes Dimensions (LOAxBxD)

: Light 164, Deep 215 : 48x7.5x2.09 m

Fast Patrol Vessels (FPV) “Sarojini Naidu” class Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement, tonnes Dimensions (LOAxBxD)

: 7

Armament

: Indian built

Main machinery Speed, knots Range Complement (crew)

: 30mm 2A42 Gun, 2x12.7 mm HMG : 3xdiesels, 2,720 kw each : 35 : 1,500 nm at 12 knots : 35

Armament Main machinery Speed, knots Range, miles Complement (crew)

: : : : :

: Light 235, Deep 260 : 48.14x7.5x2 m

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement, tonnes Dimensions (LOAxBxD) Armament

TECHNOLOGY

Surface Advanced Offshore Patrol Vessels (AOPVs) “Samar” class

BUSINESS

Equipment Catalogue Indian Coast Guard

INDIAN DEFENCE

INDIAN DEFENCE

CONTENTS

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: 6 : Singapore/Indian : Light: 195, Deep: 273 : 44.9x7x1.99 m

30mm A242 Gun 2xdiesels, 1,480 kw each 25.5 2.400 nm at 14 knots 35

Inshore Patrol Vessels (IPVs) “Tarabai” class Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement, tonnes Dimensions (LOAxBxD)

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Armament Main machinery Speed, knots Range, miles Complement (crew)

: 6 : Singapore/Indian : Light: 195, Deep: 273 : 44.9x7x1.99 m

: : : : :

30mm A242 Gun 2xdiesels, 1,480 kw each 25.5 2,400 nm at 14 knots 35

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Total No. in service Specifications Make Displacement, tonnes Dimensions (LOAxBxD)

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Inshore Patrol Vessels (IPVs) “Jija Bai” class

Compiled by SP Guide Publications team As on May 31, 2010

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

6 Indian Defence Who’s Who in

CONTENTS

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Union Government Prime Minister ....................� Dr Manmohan Singh Minister of Defence.............� A.K. Antony Minister of State for Defence............................................................................................................................... M.M. Pallam Raju

TECHNOLOGY

President & Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces ....................................................................................... Pratibha Devisingh Patil Vice President.....................� M. Hamid Ansari

Defence Secretary ...............� Pradeep Kumar Secretary ............................� Neelam Nath Joint Secretary (Navy/Ordnance) ......................................................................................................................... Binoy Kumar Joint Secretary (Establishment, Public Grievance & Chief Vigilance Officer) ......................................................... Arun Kumar Bal Joint Secretary (General/Air) ............................................................................................................................... Subhash Chandra Joint Secretary, (Ex-Serviceman Welfare) ............................................................................................................. Sanjeeva Kumar Joint Secretary, (Training) ....� Upamanyu Chatterjee

BUSINESS

Ministry of Defence Department

Department of Defence Production & Supplies

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Secretary (Defence Production) ........................................................................................................................... Raj Kumar Singh Spl. Secretary (Defence Production) .................................................................................................................... Ajoy Acharya Joint Secretary (Electronic Systems) .................................................................................................................... Satyajeet Rajan Additional Secretary (Land Systems) ................................................................................................................... V. Soma Sundaran Joint Secretary (Aerospace) .� Manoj Saunik

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Director General (Acquisition) ............................................................................................................................. Shashikant Sharma Financial Adviser (Acquisition) & Additional Secretary ........................................................................................ S. Chandrasekaran Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Land Systems) ........................................................................................ Jatinderbir Singh Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Maritime & Systems) .............................................................................. Preeti Sudan Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Air) ......................................................................................................... Ranjan Kumar Ghose Technical Manager (Land Systems) .................................................................................................................... Major General Sanjiv Chachra Technical Manager (Maritime & Systems) ............................................................................................................ Rear Admiral B.R. Taneja Technical Manager (Air) ......� Air Vice Marshal P. Singh Finance Manager (Land System) & Joint Secretary ............................................................................................... Vishvajit Sahay Finance Manager (Maritime & System) & Joint Secretary ..................................................................................... Rajnish Kumar Finance Manager (Air) .........� Vandana Srivastava

REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

Acquisition Wing

INDIAN DEFENCE

WHO’S WHO IN INDIAN DEFENCE

CONTENTS

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Pratibha Devisingh Patil

Prime Minister of India

Dr Manmohan Singh, the 15th Prime Minister of India, is rightly acclaimed as a thinker and a scholar. Born on September 26, 1932, in a village in Punjab province of undivided India, Dr Singh completed his matriculation from Punjab University in 1948. His academic career took him to the University of Cambridge in the UK, where he earned a first class Honours degree in Economics in 1957 followed by a D.Phil in Economics from Nuffield College at Oxford University in 1962. Dr Singh’s academic credentials were burnished by the years he spent on the faculty of Punjab University and the Delhi School of Economics. His brief stint at the UNCTAD Secretariat was prior to his appointment as Secretary General of the South Commission in Geneva between 1987 and 1990. In 1971, Dr Singh served as Economic Advisor in Ministry of Commerce and subsequently took over as the Chief Economic Advisor in the Ministry of Finance in 1972. Among the numerous positions held by Dr Singh are

Secretary in the Ministry of Finance, Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission, Governor of the Reserve Bank of India, Advisor to the Prime Minister and Chairman of the University Grants Commission. The turning point in the economic history of independent India was his tenure as the Finance Minister of India from 1991 to 1996. Among the multitude of awards and honours conferred upon Dr Singh in his public career, the most prominent are India’s second highest civilian honour, the Padma Vibhushan (1987); the Jawaharlal Nehru Birth Centenary Award of the Indian Science Congress (1995); the Asia Money Award for Finance Minister of the Year (1993 and 1994); the Euro Money Award for Finance Minister of the Year (1993); the Adam Smith Prize of the University of Cambridge (1956); and the Wright’s Prize for Distinguished Performance at St. John’s College in Cambridge (1955). Dr Singh has been a member of the Rajya Sabha since 1991 and has served as the Leader of the Opposition from 1998 to 2004.

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

Dr Manmohan Singh

BUSINESS

Nagar) constituency till 1985. Thereafter, she served as a Member of Parliament in the Rajya Sabha from 1985 to 1990 and was later elected a Member of Parliament to the 10th Lok Sabha in the 1991 General Elections from Amravati. Pratibha Patil enjoys the unique distinction of having won every election that she contested. Having represented India at various international fora, she attended the International Council on Social Welfare conference at Nairobi and Puerto Rico. In 1985, she was a member of the AICC(I) delegation to Bulgaria and three years later, she attended the Commonwealth Presiding Officers Conference in London. Patil led the Indian delegation to the Conference on the Status of Women in Austria and was a delegate at the World Women’s Conference in Beijing in September 1995.

INDIAN DEFENCE

The 12th President of India, Pratibha Devisingh Patil, is the first woman to have been elected to this august office. Born on December 19, 1934 in Nadgaon in Jalgaon district of Maharashtra, she assumed office of the President of India on July 25, 2007. Her early education was from R.R. Vidyalaya, Jalgaon and her Master’s in Political Science and Economics was completed from the Mooljee Jetha College, Jalgaon. Having studied law from Government Law College in Mumbai, she began her law career in the Jalgaon District Court and simultaneously devoted herself to various social activities especially for the upliftment of women. At the age of 27, she successfully contested her first election to the Maharashtra State Legislature from the constituency of Jalgaon. Subsequently, for the next four times, she was elected MLA from the Edlabad (Muktai

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

President of India & Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces

A.K. Antony took over as the Union Defence Minister on October 24, 2006, marking a return to the Indian Cabinet after a long hiatus of 12 years. Born on December 28, 1940 in Cherthala of Alappuzha district in Kerala, to Aley Kutty and Arakkaparambil Kurian Pillai, he is a law graduate from the University of Kerala. He was married on March 17, 1985 to Elizabeth Antony and has two sons. His interest in politics and social work dates back to his young days when he headed the students’ unions.

Having been a member of the Congress Party from the beginning, he has held several party posts both at the state and national levels. He has also held numerous positions in the Kerala Legislative Assembly from 1970 onwards and took charge of the portfolio of Union Cabinet Minister of Civil Supplies, Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution from 1993 to 1995. Antony, who has been the Chief Minister of Kerala thrice, is an astute politician with a spotless image.

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Minister for Defence

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

A.K. Antony

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INDIAN DEFENCE

WHO’S WHO IN INDIAN DEFENCE

Mangapati Pallam Raju

Minister of State for Defence

An alumnus of the Hyderabad Public School, Begumpet, Mangapati Pallam Raju is an electronics & communications engineering graduate from Andhra University, Visakhapatnam and an MBA from Temple University, Philadelphia, USA. He worked in Philadelphia and Boston in the US and in Oslo, Norway, in the field of computers and information technology. He has a political lineage with his grandfather, the late Mallipudi Pallam Raju, being a freedom fighter and his father, M.S. Sanjeevi Rao, being a Union Minister in the Government of India from 1982 to 1984.

He was first elected to the Indian Parliament in 1989 and was the youngest MP in the ninth Lok Sabha. He has served as a Director on the boards of Indian Airlines and Air India during 1994-1997. He is a successful entrepreneur in the field of information technology, and was on the boards of a few very successful public limited companies until his induction into the Union Council of Ministers. He has been a very active member of the Indian National Congress and has held several important positions in the state unit and at the national level. At present, he is a Member of Parliament (15th Lok Sabha).

Pradeep Kumar Defence Secretary Pradeep Kumar took over as Secretary (Defence Production) in the Ministry of Defence on January 1, 2008 and as Defence Secretary in August 2009. A Haryana cadre officer of the 1972 batch of the Indian Administrative Service, Kumar is a graduate in electrical engineering from Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi and masters in economics and social studies from the University of Wales, UK. Being a veteran in the field of public administration, he has held many senior positions at the state and national levels. He served as Director of Industries, Principal Secretary, Power Irrigation, Science and

Technology, Town and Country Planning and Urban Estates departments in the Government of Haryana. At the national level, he has held the appointments of Joint Secretary in the Department of Heavy Industry, Additional Secretary in the Ministry of Coal, Chairman, National Highways Authority of India and Secretary (Disinvestment) in the Ministry of Finance. Pradeep Kumar has served on the boards of a number of leading companies including Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd, Maruti Udyog Ltd, Andrew Yule Ltd, Hindustan Paper Corporation Ltd, Coal India Ltd and Nyvelli Lignite Corporation Ltd.

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7 Industry

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

Department of Defence Production & Supplies In the aftermath of the Chinese aggression in 1962, the Department of Defence Production was set up to create a self-reliant defence production base. In November 1965, the Department of Defence Supplies was created to forge linkages between the civil industries and defence production units. In December 1984, the two departments were merged and renamed as Department of Defence Production and Supplies (DDP&S). The DDP&S deals with the indigenisation, development and production of defence equipment both in the public and private sectors.

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TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

A total of 16 new ordnance factories have been set up since 1962 and currently there are eight Defence Public Sector Undertakings (DPSUs) and 41 ordnance factories. These have a wide range of infrastructure for manufacture and maintenance of aircraft, warships, submarines, heavy vehicles, missiles, electronic devices, alloys and special purpose steel. Their capacities have been augmented and modernised by development and induction of new technology to meet the emerging requirements of the armed forces. In addition, the capacities of the civil sector are also utilised for defence production through outsourcing, joint ventures and commercialisation of new products developed from time to time by defence research establishments. The following organisations, directly under the DDP&S are responsible for quality control and technical support:  Directorate General of Quality Assurance (DGQA)  Directorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance (DGAQA)  Directorate of Standardisation  Directorate of Planning and Coordination  Defence Exhibition Organisation (DEO)  Ordnance Factory Board In the newly introduced Defence Procurement Procedure-2008 for contracts exceeding Rs 300 crore, 30 per cent offset is mandatory. However, for mega contracts, the offset obligation has been enhanced to 50 per cent. There is also a provision for “Offset Banking”. Outsourcing of products and services from the Indian defence industry both in the private and public sectors will not only enhance manufacturing capabilities, capacity and exports, but will also provide opportunities for better integration with the world economy and access to higher levels of technology.

BUSINESS

R

esearch and development (R&D), particularly in the defence sector, has not been proactive in India. Not only has the investments in R&D been miniscule in India, as compared to the US, UK, Germany, China, Japan, it has also been restricted mostly to the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). While advanced countries invest heavily in R&D in private industry, India has failed to do so. This has resulted in lack of competitiveness. There is a need to not only involve the private industry by giving them focussed directions, but also through provision of requisite infrastructure and necessary funds for R&D. Such voids have resulted not only in indegenous development of state-of-the-art UAVs but even items like engines for helicopters, aircraft, etc. Lack of focus has also resulted in no computers being manufactured in India and only being assembled with parts coming from mainly China with attendant cyber security hazards. There is a need to correct this fault line of R&D if we are to accelerate the pace of modernisation in keeping with our aim of being a global player.

INDIAN DEFENCE

With the strategic objective of self-reliance in defence, the DDP&S has been endeavouring to indigenise defence equipment wherever technologically feasible and economically viable. In-house R&D activities towards product and process improvements are also receiving a great deal of attention in the ordnance factories.

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Research, Development & Production

REGIONAL BALANCE

www.wikipedia.org

Defence

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8 R&D  Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

Integrated Guided Missiles Development Programme (IGMDP) The Indian missile programme was initiated in 1983. In keeping with the Indian threat perceptions on the proliferation of missiles in the region, the IGMDP was a well thought out multi-pronged approach for India to achieve a very high degree of self-reliance in the vital missile technology area. The tendency of the American-Western alliance to target India with technology embargo regimes was also a compelling factor for India to launch its indigenous programme. The IGMDP originally consisted of the development of four missile systems: - Surface-to-Surface Tactical Battlefield Support  PRITHVI Missile. - Surface-to-Air Medium Range Missile.  AKASH - Surface-to-Air Short Range Missile.  TRISHUL - Third Generation Anti-tank Missile.  NAG In addition to the above, development of the under mentioned missile systems has also been taken up:  AGNI I, II, III & V - Surface-to-Surface Intermediate Range series. - Supersonic Cruise Missile.  BRAHMOS - Naval version of PRITHVI.  DHANUSH - Beyond Visual Range (BVR) Air-to-Air Missile.  ASTRA - Long Range Surface-to-Air Missile.  LRSAM - Ballistic Missile Defence  BMD The MTCR (Missile Technology Control Regime) instituted by the US alliance in 1987, forced India to accelerate its own missile technology programme. Despite initial setbacks, MTCR actually proved to be a boon to the Indian defence industry. All the critical technologies have been developed indigenously.

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Organisational Structure The organisation is headed by the Scientific Advisor to the Defence Minister who is also Secretary to the Government of India. The DRDO headquarters has two kinds of directorates namely corporate and

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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

Programme Highlights

INDIAN DEFENCE

F

technical. While the former is responsible for matters related to HR, finance and administration, the latter is responsible for all technical and scientific issues. DRDO has two societies under it namely Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) to undertake design & development of advanced technology aircraft and Society for Integrated Technology Application & Research (SITAR) for designing digital components for various projects. DRDO has around 28,500 personnel on its rolls which includes 7,500 scientists, 10,500 administrative and allied technical staff and the rest are from administrative cadres.

ormed on January 1, 1958 as a fledgling research establishment, the Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) of India became a department under the Central Government in 1980. Today, it is one of the largest science and technology departments of the Indian government with a network of 50 laboratories and establishments spread all over the country. Several complex defence-related projects designed to achieve a high degree of self-reliance are currently being undertaken by the DRDO. It is also pursuing R&D in emerging areas such as computational sciences, artificial intelligence and robotics, high-energy physics and systems engineering. Survival and support systems, ranging from food and shelter to psychology and health care for the personnel of the Indian armed forces, are also being developed. About 70 academic institutions, 50 national science and technology centres, and over 600 public/private industries have supported the efforts of the DRDO in meeting the stringent technological needs of the country. Having developed several advanced defence systems, DRDO has acquired expertise in a wide spectrum of defence technologies. Areas of core competence in the organisation include:  System design and integration of complex sensors, weapon systems and platforms  Development of high-end software packages  Development of functional materials  Test and evaluation  Technology transfer and absorption In addition, expertise and infrastructure have been built up for carrying out basic/applied research in areas of relevance to defence science and technology, quality assurance and safety, project and technology management. These are further established under the core competence of different disciplines and laboratories. DRDO is thus fully dedicated to progressive enhancement of selfreliance in defence systems, in state-of-the-art technologies and R&D infrastructure of the country with a vision to make India independent of foreign technologies in critical spheres.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

About 70 academic institutions, 52 national science and technology centres, and 250 public/private industries have supported the efforts of the DRDO in meeting the stringent technological needs of the country

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Emerging New Technologies

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

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Defence

Internal security management has been an important component of India’s national security apparatus ever since independence. In the past five decades, the focus is on the ongoing insurgency in the Northeast, the extinguished insurgency in Punjab, the dissidence and proxy war in J&K and the burgeoning Naxalite violence.

LT GENERAL (RETD) V.K. KAPOOR

thirdly, Left wing extremism or Naxalism. Each one of them shares many characteristics with the other two. At the same time, each one of them is significantly different from the other two. We have one instrument to confront and defeat the three challenges, and that is the police. In the final analysis, it is the policeman and the policewoman who will help us win these battles. To that policeman and policewoman, this conference must send out a clear message that the government at every level is duty bound to provide them every kind of support—monetary, material and moral.” The government’s resolve to reform the internal security apparatus of the country was apparent in the Minister’s statement.

I

n the era immediately after independence, threats to India were mainly external—from hostile nations. Despite the recommendations of various committees instituted by the government of the day, the internal security threats were never so acute as to seriously induce the political leadership to reform the internal security apparatus. However, as the challenges and threats to the internal security of India grew, the Indian Government felt compelled to focus on this dimension of national security. It is now widely acknowledged that there is more to security than purely military factors. Today’s definition of security acknowledges political, economic, environmental, social and human among other strands that impact the concept of security. Today, it is the concern for security of the lowest common denominator of every society, namely the ‘human being’ or ‘civil security’ as the Americans term it, which has resulted in the development of the concept of ‘human security’ with focus on the individual and the people. Therefore, the definition of security is related to the ability of the state to perform the function of protecting the well-being of its people. Consequent to the Mumbai terror attacks on November 26, 2008, the UPA Government went into high drive to implement internal security reforms. The Union Home Minister P. Chidambaram on August 17, 2009 at the Conference of Chief Ministers on Internal Security held in New Delhi said,“Let me recall the three challenges to internal security: firstly, terrorism; secondly, insurgency in the Northeastern states; and

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Internal Security Management India’s internal security remains a major area of concern. Internal security management has been an important component of India’s national security management ever since India became independent in 1947. The Ministry of Home Affairs of the Government of India handles India’s internal security management mechanism. In the formative years after independence, India focussed its energies mainly on the maintenance of law and order, communal peace and harmony, crime control and counter-insurgency which was mainly confined to the Northeast in the early years. But in the past five decades or so, besides the ongoing insurgency in the Northeast, the focus is also on the extinguished insurgency in Punjab, the dissidence and proxy war in Jammu & Kashmir and the burgeoning Naxalite violence which started as a peasant uprising in West Bengal in the late 1960s, and has now spread to 20 of India’s 29 states with seven states being severely

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299 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

REGIONAL BALANCE

www.nsg.gov.in; www.pib.nic.in; Indian Army

Threats and Challenges

TECHNOLOGY

1Homeland Security India’s

BUSINESS

F O C U S

INDIAN DEFENCE

S P E C I A L

CONTENTS

www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m

S P E C I A L

F O C U S

2 Reforms

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

LT GENERAL (RETD) V.K. KAPOOR

I

ndia’s internal security remains a major concern. In the years following our independence, the Indian government focussed its energies mainly on the maintenance of law and order, communal peace and harmony, crime control and counter-insurgency which was mainly confined to the Northeast in the early years. However, in the past five decades or so, the ongoing insurgency in the Northeast, the extinguished insurgency in Punjab, the dissidence and proxy war in Jammu & Kashmir, the burgeoning Naxalite violence which is currently affecting 20 states (223 districts) of the Indian Union, the jehadi terrorism unleashed by our unscrupulous western neighbour, poor governance in most states, all put together, have become serious enough to destabilise the Indian state if allowed to grow unchecked. This realisation seemed to have dawned on a sluggish UPA government after the November 26, 2008 terror attacks in Mumbai. In the days following the attacks, people came out on the streets, though peacefully, to protest the inaction on part of the government in facing growing internal threats and challenges. Public reaction to the growing terrorist activities in India should be seen in light of the large number of incidents of terrorist attacks, during the year 2008, in different parts of the country. These included the terrorist attack on a CRPF camp in Rampur, serial bomb blasts in Jaipur, Bengaluru, Ahmedabad, Delhi, Tripura, Imphal and Guwahati, and the savage attack by terrorists who came from Pakistan

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TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

via the sea route to Mumbai on November 26, 2008. About 166 civilians and police/security personnel were killed, including 26 foreign nationals, and several hundred persons were injured in the November 26 attack. As the public anger became palpable, the government was forced to act speedily. India’s Home Minister and the Chief Minister of Maharashtra became the first two political casualties. A spate of reforms, which were already in the pipeline, were announced by the new Home Minister. Meanwhile, the perception was growing stronger that India’s external and internal security was getting inextricably linked, especially on its western borders. A large number of India’s internal security problems are connected to Jehadi groups based in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir. Pakistan’s intelligence agencies and the military are funding, training, and abetting terror in India and these linkages now stand fully exposed. However, despite a restrained but tough stance taken initially, the national leadership now seems confused regarding the way forward. If these sponsored terror activities continue unabated, the likelihood of a war with Pakistan cannot be ruled out. The succeeding paragraphs give some relevant details of India’s internal security reforms and the lack of it in certain areas. Maritime security has not been included as that forms a major input by itself and has to be dealt with separately.

BUSINESS

INDIAN DEFENCE

In view of the repeated terror attacks on the Indian soil and the disjointed actions by the state government and the police following attacks in Mumbai, and the public outcry thereafter, the government was forced to speedily undertake a number of internal security reviews and adopt measures which could either pre-empt future terror attacks or at least improve the crises management after such attacks occur

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

India’s Internal Security Measures

Measures to Strengthen the Internal Security Apparatus

In view of the repeated terror attacks on the Indian soil and the disjointed actions by the state government and the police following the

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www.wikipedia.org; www.mha.nic.in

A Spate of

CONTENTS

www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m

S P E C I A L

F O C U S

4 Rage

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES neo-liberal policies of globalisation, liberalisation, privatisation”. Naxal influence has since spread over a huge geographical area. According to the Home Minister’s own statement, various Naxal groups have pockets of influence in 20 states across the country, and over 2,000 police station areas in 223 districts of these states are partially or substantially affected by the menace. He further revealed that the party’s politbureau had decided to expand its activities into newer areas on the one hand and intensify its ‘mass resistance’ in the existing areas on the other. No wonder, Naxal violence has been on a high trajectory. There have been significant violent incidents in about 90 districts of 13 states. In 2008, there were a total of 1,591 incidents of Naxal violence resulting in 721 killings. In 2009, there have already been (till August 27) 1,405 incidents of Naxal violence resulting in the death of 580 persons. Casualties among security forces personnel have been quite high. Altogether 231 security forces personnel lost their lives in Naxal violence in 2008, while 270 personnel have already lost their lives this year so far.

T

he Naxal movement, which erupted violently in the country in 1967, has passed through three distinct phases. The first phase witnessed the formation of the CPI(ML) and its rapid spread over different parts of the country. “Expand anywhere and everywhere,” was Charu Mazumdar’s message. This phase ended with the death of Charu Mazumdar and was followed by ideological differences within the party leading to fragmentation of the movement. The second phase began with the formation of the People’s War Group in Andhra Pradesh in 1980 under the leadership of Kondapalli Seetharamaiah. The movement, with the Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh as its epicentre, spread over the neighbouring states. This phase also tapered off with the state government mounting well coordinated counter-insurgency operations against the Naxals. The third phase started at the beginning of the 21st century. Its highlight has been the increasing militarisation of the movement with the Naxals establishing their presence over vast swathes of territory. The Ninth Congress of the People’s War Group held in 2007 “reaffirmed the general line of New Democratic Revolution with agrarian revolution as its axis and protracted people’s war as the path of the Indian revolution”, and resolved to “advance the people’s war throughout the country, further strengthen the people’s army, deepen the mass base of the party and wage a broad-based militant mass movement against the

Main Features The Prime Minister has described Naxalite movement as the single biggest threat to the internal security of the country. The movement which started from a small village in 1967 has spread over a vast swathe of the country during the last over 40 years. Thirteen states of the country are particularly affected. These include Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Kerala, Karnataka, Haryana and Tamil Nadu.

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321 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

PRAKASH SINGH

BUSINESS

INDIAN DEFENCE

The movement which started from a small village in 1967 has spread over a vast swathe of the country during the last over 40 years. Thirteen states of the country are particularly affected. These include Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Kerala, Karnataka, Haryana and Tamil Nadu.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Spreading Anywhere & Everywhere

REGIONAL BALANCE

www.pragoti.org; marxistleninist.wordpress.com; southasiarev.files.wordpress.com

Naxalite

CONTENTS

www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

LT GENERAL (RETD) ARVIND SHARMA

tion of United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) in 1979. Today, insurgency is festering in Assam, Manipur, Tripura and Southern ALP; a ceasefire (CF) is operative in Nagaland. A few insignificant insurgent groups exist in Meghalaya, but the state has a law and order problem of ethnic variety. Sikkim, though a peaceful state, has adversarial ‘sleeper cells’ to its South and a host of problems on its periphery viz. ‘Gorkhaland’, Bhupali refugees, Kamtapur insurgents and a ‘transient’ democracy in Nepal, which can be a potential source of trouble; it is thus emerging as an area of concern. Illegal migration into the NE region from Bangladesh continues. Over a period of time, it has manifested in various forms providing an opportunity to forces inimical to national security to execute their diabolical plans in the region. NE region thus has immense geo-strategic significance. The challenges to India’s security in the NE region are therefore myriad and complex. To meet these challenges, it is imperative to have a comprehensive strategy and a policy for tackling problems in each state, both external and internal. Besides, it requires in-depth knowledge, great deliberation, well crafted solutions, deft implementation and necessary political will to overcome these challenges. It is intended to briefly cover various maladies that are afflicting the region and suggesting solutions to them.

T

he Northeastern (NE) region of India comprises the states of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh (ALP), Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and Sikkim. Five neighbouring countries viz Nepal, Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) of China, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar have borders contiguous to these states. Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh also border West Bengal, but the latter is not part of the NE region. China has created massive infrastructure in TAR over the past two decades ostensibly for development of the region. The infrastructure has been tailored to cater to the long-term strategic requirements of China; this would give it the capability to exercise the military option. Though today, Myanmar and Bangladesh do not pose a threat to India, but in a given scenario, they can provide collusive support to China. The NE region has abundance of natural resources and is connected to the rest of the country only through the narrow Silliguri corridor; it is the bridge to Southeast Asia and our “Look East” policy for economic cooperation. The NE has been plagued with insurgency for the past five decades. Naga rebellion was signaled by declaration of independence on August 14, 1947 and commencement of violence in 1955. The resultant of the rat famine of 1959, an insurgent movement had started in Mizoram but was successfully dealt with by mid-1980s. Insurgency took roots in Manipur in 1964, whereas the ‘Anti Foreigners Agitation’ in Assam, resulted in forma-

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

The NE has been plagued with insurgency for the past five decades. It started with Naga rebellion signaled by declaration of independence on August 14, 1947 and commencement of violence in 1955. Today, insurgency is festering in Assam, Manipur, Tripura and Southern ALP; a ceasefire is operative in Nagaland.

External Threat: China

China had initiated its four modernisations in the late 1970s; plans for military modernisation have been successfully implemented. It has also commenced developing blue water capability for its navy. Aiming to achieve global power status by 2050, China has been able to achieve more than 9 per cent annual growth in its GDP, notwithstanding the

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REGIONAL BALANCE

www.newsblaze.com; http://en.wikipedia.org

Plagued with Insurgency

BUSINESS

5 Northeast

Challenges in the

INDIAN DEFENCE

F O C U S

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

S P E C I A L

CONTENTS

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LT GENERAL (RETD) NARESH CHAND

including the maritime zone is by itself a formidable task and it becomes even more complex and challenging if the template of terrorism and piracy is superimposed upon it.

I

The events of 26/11 resulted in deep introspection by the government of India, resulting in the setting up of committees to recommend the future course of action so that such an event is not repeated on the Indian soil. Similar brave words and promises have been made earlier also, and in fact, after every terrorist strike, terrorists have still struck at will. Immediately after the Kargil War, the Group of Ministers (GoM) working under L.K. Advani, made recommendations in the form of a public document Reforming the National Security System in February 2001. Even after eight years, its recommendations on coastal security seem to be up to date. The brief details of the recommendations are:  While the Jammu & Kashmir border is still active, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra and the West coast of the country are also being used for the purpose of smuggling arms. The smugglers have acquired high-powered speed boats, which can land at uncharted beaches and creeks.  The concept of border security has undergone a sea change with the growing vulnerability of the coastline as well as the airspace. In response to strengthening of security along a sensitive land border, the transgressor is already on the lookout for soft gaps...along the coast, and if need be, from the air.  Little has been done over the years to understand or even take action in creating an infrastructure for the protection of India’s vast coastal areas.  The GoM felt that it was desirable to set up a Specialised Marine Police

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327 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

INDIAN DEFENCE

Post-Kargil

ndia has 15,106 km of land border running through 92 districts in 17 states and a coastline of 7,516 km touching 13 states and Union Territories. The country has 1,197 islands spreading over 2,094 km additional border or coastline. The Ministry of Home Affairs, Department of Border Management has a Border Area Development Programme started during the Seventh Five-Year Plan with the twin objective of balanced development of sensitive border areas in the western region through adequate provision of infrastructure facilities and promoting a sense of security amongst the local population. The programme was revamped in the Eighth Five Year Plan and extended to states which have an international border with Bangladesh. The land borders have been continuously under focus due to the hostile attitude of certain neighbouring countries. However, the same is not true in the coastal areas. There are some disputed areas in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), but apart from this, there are routine problems of smuggling and illegal fishing. Division of responsibility amongst effected agencies is that the Coast Guard functions between 12 and 200 nautical miles (about 20 km to 370 km), which is the EEZ, while the marine police keeps a watch inside the 12 nautical miles of territorial waters and the Navy beyond 200 nautical miles of blue water. There is continuous movement of all types of vessels for trade, fishing, military, policing, sports and so on. It is understood that on each of the coast of India there are 1,50,000 small fishing boats with no modern means of navigation and communication. Management of such a coastline

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

BUSINESS

Management of coastline including the maritime zone is by itself a formidable task and it becomes even more complex and challenging if the template of terrorism and piracy is superimposed upon it

REGIONAL BALANCE

http://pages.intnet.mu/warbirds/warships/; www.newsblaze.com; www.marinebuzz.com

Challenges Faced in India’s Littoral Border

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

6 Management Coastal

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

F O C U S

TECHNOLOGY

S P E C I A L

CONTENTS

www. s p s m i l i t a r y y e a r b o o k . c o m

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

5

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section five

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

uuu u u

BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE

Malaysia 333 Myanmar 333 Nepal 333 North Korea 333 Oman 333 Pakistan 334 Philippines 334 Qatar 334 Saudi Arabia 334 Singapore 335 South Korea 335 Sri Lanka 335 Syria 335 Taiwan 335 Tajikistan 336 Turkmenistan 336 United Arab Emirates 336 Uzbekistan 336 Vietnam 336 Yemen 336

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Afghanistan 329 Algeria 329 Australia 329 Bahrain 330 Bangladesh 330 Cambodia 330 China 330 Egypt 330 Indonesia 331 Iran 331 Iraq 331 Israel 331 Japan 331 Jordan 332 Kazakhstan 332 Kuwait 332 Kyrgyzstan 332 Laos 332 Lebanon 332 Libya 333

REGIONAL BALANCE

Contents

TECHNOLOGY

Asian Who's Who

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 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

 ALGERIA President Abdel-aziz Bouteflika Prime Minister Ahmed Ouyahia Chief of General Staff General Salah Ahmed Gaid Commander of the Army General Ahcene Tafer Commander of the Navy General Mohand Tahar Yala Commander of the Gendarmerie General Ahmed Bousteila Ministry of Defence Avenue des Tagarins Algiers, Algeria Tel: +213 2611515 National People’s Army Headquarters C/o Ministry of National Defence Avenue Ali Khoudja, Algiers, Algeria Tel: +213 2634176, +213 2631765, +213 2611515

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 AUSTRALIA Head of State Queen Elizabeth II (Since January 6, 1952)

329 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

Governor General Quentin Bryce Prime Minister Kevin Rudd Defence Minister John Phillip Faulkner Secretary to the Department of Defence Dr Ian J Watt Chief of the Defence Forces Air Chief Marshal Allan Grant (Angus) Houston Chief of Army Lt General Ken Gillespie Chief of Navy Vice Admiral Russ Crane Chief of Air Force Air Marshal Mark Binskin Chief Joint Operations Lt General Mark Evans Department of Defence Russel Offices Suite MF149, Parliament House Canberra ACT 2600, Australia Tel: +61 2626 59111 Fax: +61 26273 4118 www.defence.gov.au Army Headquarters GPO Box 393 Melborne VIC 3001, Australia Tel: +61 392825393 Fax: +61 392825434 www.army.gov.au Navy Headquarters Queanbeyan Annex 2 Department of Defence Canberra ACT 2600, Australia Tel: +61 262665962 Fax: +61 262665851 www.navy.gov.au Air Headquarters Queanbeyan Annex 2 Department of Defence Canberra ACT 2600, Australia Tel: +61 262665965 Fax: +61 262665851 www.raaf.gov.au

BUSINESS

 AFGHANISTAN President Hamid Karzai Vice Presidents Mohammad Qasim Fahim Khan and Abdul Karim Khalili Defence Minister General (Retd) Abdul Rahim Wardak Foreign Minister Dr Zalmai Rassoul Chief of General Staff, Afghan National Army General Bismillah Mohammadi Khan Commander Afghan National Army Air Corps Major General Mohammad Dawran Ministry of Defence Kabul, Afghanistan Tel: +93 202300331, +93 700275707

INDIAN DEFENCE

Compiled by SP Guide Publications Team As on March 31, 2010

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Asian Defence Forces

REGIONAL BALANCE

Who’s Who in

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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uuuuuu

section six uuu u u

GDP & Military Expenditure 337 Central & South Asia 341 East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia 365 West Asia and North Africa 401 Asia-Pacific: China Rising 435 Equipment & Hardware Specifications 441

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

One Two Three Four Five Six

REGIONAL BALANCE

Contents

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

Regional Balance

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

6

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GDP based on (PPP) ($ Billion)

GDP current prices Per Capita ($)

GDP based on (PPP) Per Capita ($)

1

Afghanistan

16.968

29.549

572.047

996.19

2

Algeria

156.845

252.927

4,417.98

7,124.38

3

Australia

1,192.96

882.422

53,862.04

39,841.45

4

Bahrain

22.358

29.301

21,096.69

27,648.59

5

Bangladesh

104.63

256.037

624.016

1,527.02

6

Bhutan

1.397

3.785

2,042.17

5,533.76

7

Cambodia

11.453

29.635

805.428

2,084.02

8

China

5,364.87

9,711.72

3,999.41

7,239.91

9

Egypt

215.845

496.604

2,758.83

6,347.35

10

India

1,367.22

3,862.01

1,124.41

3,176.15

11

Indonesia

670.421

1,027.28

2,858.24

4,379.66

12

Iran

359.97

858.652

4,777.33

11,395.58

13

Iraq

80.286

120.425

2,505.35

3,757.92

14

Israel

199.456

214.508

26,843.07

28,868.80

15

Japan

5,272.94

4,267.50

41,365.76

33,478.14

16

Jordan

24.884

35.279

4,061.69

5,758.51

17

Kazakhstan

126.346

187.697

8,107.56

12,044.47

18

Korea

991.147

1,435.55

20,264.85

29,350.94

19

Kuwait

135.062

140.589

37,451.21

38,983.73

20

Kyrgyzstan

5.122

12.746

940.891

2,341.22

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337 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

GDP Current Prices ($ Billion)

BUSINESS

Country

INDIAN DEFENCE

Sr No.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

GDP Total/Per Capita Based on Current Prices/Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)

REGIONAL BALANCE

1

GDP & Military Expenditure

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

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341 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

C

relationships which seem threatening. Three different strategies have been employed to balance out the major players including “strategic partnership”, “non-alignment” and a “multi-vectored approach”. The key to what became known as Kazakhstan’s “multi-vectored” approach is to build strategic partnerships with all three powers. Today, this policy has eroded somewhat under pressure from Russia’s Eurasec, Gazprom, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), but it nonetheless remains in place. Kazakhstan’s successful campaign to gain the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) presidency is evidence of a more recent effort to engage Europeans as a fourth element in the balance. The major attraction for key players, as also India, Japan and the European Union, is the vast energy reserves of the Caspian basin. Russia, which already enjoys military presence in the region, has in conjunction with China, sought to counterbalance Washington’s influence in the region through the SCO. Russia is also further increasing its troop deployment in the region. The region spanning Pakistan and Afghanistan in South Asia has been the focus of the global war on terrorism since the catastrophic events of 9/11. Today, international terrorism has come to occupy a prominent position on the security agenda of virtually every state. Additionally, Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) continues to foment terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir since 1989, and now, Pakistan-inspired terrorist activity has spread across India, bedevilling relationship between the two countries. The current impasse in their relationship is the result of Mumbai terrorist attacks on November 26, 2008, which emanated from Pakistan. The new political dispensation of coalition politics in Pakistan has not stabilised while the growth of Al-Qaeda and Taliban in the western provinces of Pakistan adjacent to Afghanistan, namely Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Baluchistan, has further complicated the governance by the newly formed government. The war in Afghanistan commenced on October 7, 2001 and marked the beginning of the US-led war on international terrorism in the wake of the 9/11 attacks. The purpose of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) was to capture Osama bin Laden, destroy the Al-Qaeda and dethrone the Taliban regime. While the operation achieved most of its stated objectives, it has failed to establish stability in Afghanistan due to increased warlord activity and the resurgence of the Taliban activity in Afghanistan. Today, NATO and the American commanders have to contend with two Taliban forces, the Afghan Taliban and the Pakistani

entral and South Asia together account for about one-quarter of the world’s population. Both the regions have countries that are mostly underdeveloped and poor. Central Asia lies at the crossroad of Europe and Asia, and together with South Asia constitutes one of the most unstable regions of the 21st century. It encompasses the world’s largest landmass (3,995,800 sq km) and has vast natural resources, including significant reserves of oil and gas. Historically, it has acted as a crossroad for the movement of people, goods, and ideas between Europe, Western Asia, South Asia, and East Asia. On the other hand, South Asia is strategically important because it lies astride the main sea routes from West Asia to the Far East. Further India’s economic growth and dynamism has made South Asia an attractive destination for foreign investment. Despite the global economic meltdown, India’s GDP is expected to grow at the rate of 7 per cent and more from 2010 onwards. Central Asia is a region that comprises the five states that belonged to the erstwhile Soviet Union – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyztan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. It is a region that once used to be called the ‘Centre of the world’. Given its abundant energy resources and by virtue of its geographical location, it has consistently been in the limelight. In the 19th century it was the theatre of the classic great game which was played out between the Russian and the British empires. Later, it became a prized possession of the Soviet Union. The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the independence of the Central Asian states. The 9/11 events brought further global attention to this region, reiterating its geostrategic relevance. Along with this, the presence of hydrocarbons has again made this region important. The key players in this region are the US, Russia, and China. Central Asia is also referred to as the “backyard of Russia and China”. It has emerged as the focal point of rivalry between the US on one side, and Moscow and Beijing on the other side. Post -9/11, Central Asia also emerged as the epicentre of geo-political changes on a global scale. The US became the main economic donor and assumed security responsibility, enabling it to establish military presence in the region and set up military bases in four out of the five Central Asian states. Due to intensely competitive ties among countries of the region as well as the key players, namely the US, Russia and China, the American presence now has greatly reduced. It is interesting to note that while each major player tries to accomplish its national interests through their grand strategies, the countries of Central Asia, are using their own strategies to balance the

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the integration of the Maoist cadres into the Nepalese army and civilmilitary relations, has brought about political instability in the country. This situation is likely to continue even though a new government led by UML has been installed. In Sri Lanka, with the defeat of LTTE and the demise of Prabhakaran, a new chapter has opened. Rehabilitation of the Tamil population will provide long-term peace to this war-torn country. In Bangladesh, the massive mandate for change given to the Awami League by the voters presents an opportunity for India and Bangladesh to work towards a better relationship which had stagnated during the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP)-led government. Pakistan, having earlier encouraged, trained and funded terrorist groups including the Taliban, is now plagued by terrorism, insurgency and sectarian violence within its territory. Pakistan is passing through an unprecedented political, economic and social crisis. The Islamic radical elements pose a threat to stability in Pakistan. Both India and Pakistan face the challenge of dealing with an increasingly Talibanised Pakistan where the institutions of governance and particularly the army, are coming under the sway of Taliban ideology. The military operations launched by the Pakistan army in FATA and NWFP under the US pressure have created long-term problems. Nearly two million people have been displaced. Fears have been expressed that indiscriminate use of force by the Pakistani army could trigger civil war in Pakistan. Pakistan remains ambivalent on dealing with militant groups in PoK, and particularly the LeT. It has not taken any credible action against the terrorists who perpetrated the Mumbai attacks on November 26, 2008. Internal instability of the member states and growing terrorism in the region is a threat to the stability of the region. In this regard, the SAARC Council of Ministers meeting in Colombo on February 27-28. 2009, renewed their commitment to strengthen comprehensive cooperation among SAARC member states to combat and eliminate all forms and manifestations of terrorism, and affirmed the need to further the legal regime and institute pragmatic cooperation to address the issue effectively. Details pertaining to the countries of the region have been given in the following sequence:

Taliban’s Tehrik-e-Taliban (TTP). The group contains members from all of FATA’s seven tribal agencies as well as several districts of the NWFP, including Swat, Bannu, Tank, Lakki Marwat, Dera Ismail Khan, Kohistan, Buner and Malakand. Current estimates place the total number of operatives between 30,000 and 35,000. The TTP was earlier commanded by Baitullah Mehsud. In August 2009, a missile strike from a US drone reportedly killed Baitullah, and Hakimullah Mehsud has been selected as the new leader. TTP is known to provide assistance and fighters to the Afghan Taliban and is also suspected to have caused the assassination of Benazir Bhutto. In early January 2009 Mullah Omar sent a delegation, led by former Guantanamo Bay detainee Mullah Abdullah Zakir, to persuade leading members of the TTP to put aside differences and aid the Afghan Taliban in combating the American presence in Afghanistan. Baitullah Mehsud, the former leader, Hafiz Gul Bahadur and Maulavi Nazir agreed in February and formed the Shura Ittehadul Mujahideen (SIM), meaning Council of United Mujahedeen. In a written statement circulated in a one-page pamphlet written in Urdu, the three affirmed that they would put aside differences to fight American-led forces. The statement included a declaration of allegiance to both Mullah Omar and Osama bin Laden. The Pakistani government has already stepped up operations against TTP and the US pressure is on Pakistan to keep up the fight. Top representatives of the US government are persuading Pakistan to continue confronting the insurgents within the Pakistan border. On August 10, 2009, Stanley McChrystal, the newly appointed US Commander in Afghanistan said that the Taliban has gained the upper hand and that the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) is not winning in the eight-year-old war. Calling the Taliban a “very aggressive enemy,” he added that the US strategy in months to come is to stop their momentum and focus on protecting and safeguarding Afghan civilians. ISAF is the name of the NATO-led security and the development mission in Afghanistan which was established by the United Nations Security Council on December 20, 2001. As of January 2009, its troops number around 55,100 from 26 NATO, 10 partner and two non-NATO/non-partner countries, including contributions from Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Italy, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Poland and most members of the European Union and NATO; besides also including Australia, New Zealand, Azerbaijan, Turkey and Singapore. With the US, UK and Canada sustaining substantial casualties in intensive combat operations, the intensity of the combat faced by contributing nations varies greatly. The South Asian scene has been marred by hostility between nuclear-armed India and Pakistan, and even more by internal unrest in most of the countries of this region. India is battling terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir, in its north eastern states and, intermittently, in the rest of the country. Naxalite violence which has affected 20 states of the Indian Union is becoming more and more virulent virtually, overwhelming state authority in certain places. In neighbouring Nepal, the fall of the Maoist-led government in May 2009 over the sensitive question of

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KAZAKHSTAN

The growth slowed to 2.4 per cent in 2008, however, as a result of declining oil prices and a softening world economy. Inflation reached 10 per cent in 2007 and 17 per cent in 2008. In the energy sector, the opening of the Caspian Pipeline Consortium in 2001, from western Kazakhstan’s Tengiz oilfield to the Black Sea, substantially raised export capacity. In 2006, Kazakhstan completed the Atasu-Alashankou portion of an oil pipeline to China that is planned to be extended from the country’s Caspian coast eastward to the Chinese border. The country has embarked upon an industrial policy designed to diversify the economy away from overdependence on the oil sector by developing its manufacturing potential. The policy changed the corporate tax code to favour domestic industry as a means to reduce the influence of foreign investment and foreign personnel. The government has engaged in several disputes with foreign oil companies over the terms of production agreements, most recently, with regard to the Kashagan project in 2007-08. Since 2007, Astana has provided financial support to the banking sector which has been struggling with poor asset quality and large foreign loans.

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Defence Total Armed Forces : Active – 49,000 (army 30,000; air 12,000) Terms of Services : 24 months Paramilitary forces : Presidential Guard – 2,000 Internal Security Troops – 20,000 State, Border Protection Force – 9,000 Government Guard – 500

Area Capital Population Ethnic Divisions

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Security Environment Kazakhstan has stable relationships with all of its neighbours. Kazakhstan is also a member of the United Nations, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council and Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). It is an active participant in the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) Partnership for Peace programme. Kazakhstan is also a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Economic Cooperation Organization, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO). Although Kazakhstan is comparatively safer than other countries in Central Asia, supporters of extremist groups such as the Islamic Jihad Union, the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, Al-Qaeda, and the Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement remain active across Central Asia. These groups have expressed anti-US sentiments and may attempt to target US government or private interests in the region, including in Kazakhstan. Attacks against foreign interests in Central Asia have occurred and new tactics, including the use of suicide bombers, have been employed by extremists in neighbouring Uzbekistan. Terrorists do not distinguish between official and civilian targets. Because of increased security at official US facilities, terrorists are also targeting “soft” civilian targets such as residential areas, clubs and restaurants, places of worship, hotels, schools, outdoor recreation events, resorts, beaches, maritime facilities, and aircraft. International disputes: Kyrgyzstan is yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; field demarcation of the boundaries with Turkmenistan commenced in 2005, and with Uzbekistan in 2004; demarcation is scheduled to get under way with Russia; demarcation with China was completed in 2002; creation of a seabed boundary with Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea remains under discussion; equidistant seabed treaties have been ratified with Azerbaijan and Russia in the Caspian Sea. But no resolution has been made on dividing the water column among any of the littoral states

2,724,900 sq km Astana 15,399,437 (July 2009 est.) Kazakh (Qazaq) 53.4 per cent, Russian 30 per cent, Ukrainian 3.7 per cent, Uzbek 2.5 per cent, German 2.4 per cent, Tatar 1.7 per cent, Uygur 1.4 per cent, other 4.9 per cent (1999 census) Muslim 47 per cent, Russian Orthodox 44 per cent, Protestant 2 per cent, others 7 per cent Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 64.4 per cent, Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the “language of inter-ethnic communication”) 95 per cent (2001 est.) 99.5 per cent Republic authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch 18 years of age; universal

: 14 provinces and three cities

Overview of the Economy Kazakhstan, the largest of the former Soviet republics in territory, excluding Russia, possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves and plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. Kazakhstan’s industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources. Kazakhstan enjoyed double digit growth in 2000-01 and 8 per cent or more per year in 2002-07 per cent—thanks largely to its booming energy sector, and also to economic reform, good harvests, and increased foreign investment.

ARMY Strength

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and scope of China’s military transformation has increased in recent years, fuelled by acquisition of advanced foreign weapons, continued high rates of investment in its domestic defence and science and technology industries, and far reaching organisational and doctrinal reforms of the armed forces. China’s ability to sustain military power at a distance remains limited, but its armed forces continue to develop and field disruptive military technologies, including those for anti-access/area denial, as well as for nuclear space and cyber warfare, that are changing regional military balances and that have implications beyond the Asia-Pacific region.” Tensions between North Korea and the US resurfaced during 2008 due to disagreements over the six-party talks over the disarmament process. The talks began to break down after the US insisted on more intrusive verification measures than North Korea was prepared to accept. On October 8, 2008, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors were forbidden by the North Korean government to conduct further inspections of the site. But two days later, the US removed North Korea from the US State Sponsors of Terrorism list and the Yongbyon deactivation process was expected to resume. On April 25, 2009, however, the North Korean government announced that the country’s nuclear facilities had been re-activated and spent fuel reprocessing for arms-grade plutonium has been restored. On May 25, 2009, North Korea confirmed to have performed a second “successful” underground nuclear test. The same day a successful short range missile test was also conducted. The confirmation came little more than an hour after the US Geological Survey reported a magnitude 4.7 seismic disturbance on the proximity of the site of North Korea’s first nuclear test conducted in October 2006. This was confirmed by other agencies such as the International Data Center of the Comprehensive Nuclear-TestBan Treaty Organisation (CTBTO), and the Japanese Meteorological Center. Thereafter, North Korea began insisting on bilateral discussions with the US which were not accepted by the latter and North Korea was asked to join the six party talks on denuclearising Korean Peninsula, which they had quit in April 2008. The US spokesman said that in future they would be guided by what North Korea does, not by what North Korea says. US Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton while welcoming North Korea’s return to the talks, said that any improvement of relations would depend on credible actions by the North Koreans. No normalisation of ties was possible with a nuclear North Korea, she said. Taiwan poses another threat to peace in East Asia. Unification of Taiwan with the mainland is central to China’s thinking and it has not ruled out the use of force. Most Taiwanese, however, continue to remain opposed to the

ast Asia and the Pacific Rim cover all the Asian countries east of Myanmar. Australia, though not strictly a part of the region, has been included because of its strategic location astride the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The three important powers in the region are the United States, China and Japan. China is the largest country in this region and a major concern for the other countries of the region who wish to cope with its growing economic and military might. China, while being apprehensive of the US hegemony and assertiveness, is also aware that the latter’s presence in the area prevents an independent military role for Japan, its historical antagonist. Four major issues continue to impact the security environment in East Asia: China-Japan relations, North Korea, Taiwan, and international terrorism. Japan’s long chain of invasions and war crimes in China between 1894 and 1945 as well as modern Japan’s attitude towards its past are major issues affecting the current and future Sino-Japanese relations. Sino-Japanese relations had worsened because of the repeated visits to the Yasukuni Shrine by former Japanese Prime Minister, Junichiro Koizumi. One consequence was a complete freeze in mutual visits at the highest political levels between 2001 and 2006. Even exchanges at other levels were affected. The ice was broken in 2006 when Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited China, and the ice began to thaw when Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visited Japan in 2007. These two Prime Ministerial visits set the stage for President Hu Jintao’s “warm-spring” visit to Japan between May 6 and 11, 2008. On August 30, 2009, after fifty-four years of essentially one-party rule, the Japanese people voted overwhelmingly to usher in a completely new government and a new way of thinking. The Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), which ruled Japan since 1955, was completely rejected. Obtaining only 119 out of 480 seats of the House of Representatives (the lower Diet), the LDP took a second seat to the younger and fresher Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ). The DPJ won 308 seats in the House, ensuring that their leader, Yukio Hatoyama, would become Prime Minister. The DPJ’s victory guarantees that much change will come to Japan. In the first few weeks of tenure, Prime Minister Hatoyama called for the complete transformation of the traditional government-bureaucracy relationship, the need to rework Japan’s economic recovery plan, and has called for a review of the US troops stationed in Japan. The US has continued to express concern over the growth of China’s influence and military power in the Asia-Pacific region. In its annual report to the Congress in 2009, the US Department of Defense note, “The pace

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the current Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva. Since January 2004, there has been heightened tension in four southern provinces, namely Yala, Pattani, Narathiwat and Songkhla where there continues to be violent incidents. More than 3,400 people have reportedly been killed and many more injured, including foreigners. Over the past few years, there have been several instances of multiple explosions occurring across a range of locations in southern Thailand over one or two days. ASEAN does not have a military dimension; it mainly focuses on economic, social and cultural aspects. The economic growth of ASEAN countries is, however, directly linked to the region’s law and order situation. In view of the security environment in East Asia, it has formed the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), bringing all the major powers into it as dialogue partners. In all there are 24 dialogue partners, including the US, Russia, China, Japan, India and the EU. Pakistan is the latest entrant. The charter of ASEAN may also be amended in the future to lay greater stress on security, including terrorism. In pursuance of its declared global war on terror, the US has signed an anti-terror declaration with ASEAN. The document does not make any specific provision for deployment of the US troops, but leaves it as a choice for individual countries. India’s relations with its extended neighbourhood have received a fillip with the formulation of its “Look East” policy in early 1990s. Forging comprehensive and mutually beneficial bonds with Southeast Asia has been the cornerstone of this policy. Today, this region comprises the most dynamic and progressive economies, and its close interaction with India is amply reflected in the free trade agreement that took nearly six years of talks to finalise. This will create a new free trade area of 1.7 billion people and cover 11 countries, India and the ten ASEAN states, with a combined Gross Domestic Product of $2.3 trillion as of now. The conclusion of negotiations on the trade-in-goods agreement was announced here on August 28, 2009 following the latest annual ASEAN-India consultations among economic ministers. The fine text will now be firmed up, and the target timeline for signature was during the ASEAN-India summit in Bangkok in December 2009. The dispute over the ownership of Paracel and Spratly Islands, to which a number of countries in the region are a party, is continuing, but it is unlikely to flare up into an open conflict. China has astutely cultivated the grouping by signing ASEAN Treaty of Amity and Cooperation and telling ASEAN that China would like to be the first nuclear power to sign the South East Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty, provided some parts of protocol were amended. In July 2005, ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement (FTA) took effect, with both sides exempting 7,000 commodities from tax, and deciding to exempt all commodities by 2010. Details pertaining to economic review, security environment and the armed forces of the countries of this region have been given in the following sequence:  Australia  Cambodia  China  Indonesia  Japan  North Korea  South Korea  Laos  Malaysia  Myanmar  The Philippines  Singapore  Taiwan  Thailand  Vietnam

idea of merger and occasional statements from their leaders emphasising the island’s independent identity further aggravate tensions. The US does not support Taiwanese independence but is committed to supplying arms for its defence. The US has also promised Taiwan aid if China resorts to the use of force. The current President of Taiwan, Ma Ying-jeou, remains committed to maintaining Taiwan’s status quo and the cross-strait policy of letting its people decide the country’s future. The president, like the majority of the nation, supports the idea of “no unification, no independence, no military conflict” in order to maintain Taiwan’s status quo. Terrorism continues to rear its head in parts of Southeast Asia as seen from the challenges faced in 2008. Indonesia has cracked down on the terrorist modules while Philippine has launched major operations against insurgents in the southern island of Mindanao. The Mindanao Model— using classic counter-insurgency techniques to achieve counter-terror goals—has been directed against the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) and has helped force its fighters out of their traditional stronghold on Basilan. But it runs the risk of pushing them into the arms of the broader insurgencies in Mindanao, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF). Analysts are of the opinion that the US and the Philippines need to revive mechanisms to keep these conflicts apart and refocus energies on peace processes with these groups. The Jemaah Islamiyah (JI), Indonesia’s most prominent extremist organisation, has developed a profitable publishing consortium in and around the pesantren (religious school) founded by Abu Bakar Ba’asyir and Abdullah Sungkar in Solo. The consortium has become an important vehicle for the dissemination of jihadi thought, getting cheap and attractively printed books into mosques, bookstores and discussion groups. The publishing venture demonstrates JI’s resilience and the extent to which radical ideology has developed roots in Indonesia. On July 17, 2009, Jemaah Islamiah was blamed for attacks on the Ritz Carlton Jakarta and the J.W. Marriott hotels in Jakarta. On September 17, 2009, Noordin Top was killed in a raid by Indonesian police in Solo, Central Java. Top was a recruiter, bombmaker, and explosives expert for Jemaah Islamiyah. However, later on his colleagues in Jemaah Islamiah claimed that Noordin had formed his own splinter cell which was even more violent and militant. He was for a while dubbed the “most wanted Islamic militant in Southeast Asia.” Indonesia’s efforts of counter-terrorism have won international praise and in May 2008 the US government lifted the longstanding travel warning on Indonesia. Myanmar witnessed the violent crushing of protests led by Buddhist monks in late 2007 which has caused even allies of the military government to recognise that change is desperately needed. China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have thrown their support behind the efforts by the UN Secretary-General’s special envoy to re-open talks on national reconciliation, while the US and others have stepped up their sanctions. But neither incomplete punitive measures nor intermittent talks are likely to bring about major reforms. Myanmar requires a more sustainable process of national reconciliation. The balance of power is still heavily weighted in favour of the army, whose top leaders continue to insist that only a strongly centralised, military-led state can hold the country together. Myanmar will still face immense challenges in overcoming the debilitating legacy of decades of conflict, poverty and institutional failure, which fuelled the recent crisis and could well overwhelm future governments as well. Thailand has been rocked by political turmoil since the September 2006 coup against Thaksin Shinawatra, who now lives in exile to avoid a jail term for corruption. The kingdom remains deeply divided between his supporters, concentrated in rural areas, and his foes in the Bangkokbased power cliques of the palace, military and bureaucracy. In September 2009, the Internal Security Act was also imposed when at least 26,000 Red Shirts (Thaksin supporters) took to the streets of Bangkok to mark the coup’s third anniversary, demanding new elections and the resignation of

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EAST ASIA, PACIFIC RIM & AUSTRALIA: AUSTRALIA

AUSTRALIA

Overview of the Economy Australia has an enviable, strong economy with a per capita GDP on par with the four dominant West European economies. Emphasis on reforms, low inflation, a housing market boom, and growing ties with China have been key factors over the course of the economy’s 17 solid years of expansion. Robust business and consumer confidence and high export prices for raw materials and agricultural products fuelled the economy in recent years, and particularly in mining states. Drought, robust import demand, and a strong currency pushed the trade deficit up however, while infrastructure bottlenecks and a tight labour market constrained growth in export volumes and stoked inflation through mid-2008. The unwinding of the yen-based carry trade in late 2008 has contributed to a weakening of the Australian dollar. Tight global liquidity has challenged Australia’s banking sector, which relies heavily on international wholesale markets for funding. The economy remains relatively healthy, despite falling export commodity prices. The government plans to counter slowing growth in 2009 with fiscal stimulus efforts.

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Defence Total Armed Forces

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Area Capital Coastline Territorial sea Contiguous zone Exclusive economic zone Continental shelf Population Ethnic Divisions

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7,741,220 sq km Canberra 25,760 km 12 nm 24 nm

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200 nm 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin 21,262,641 (July 2009 est.) White 92 per cent, Asian 7 per cent, aboriginal and other 1 per cent Catholic 25.8 per cent, Anglican 18.7 per cent, Uniting Church 5.7 per cent, Presbyterian and Reformed 3 per cent, Eastern Orthodox 2.7 per cent, other Christian 7.9 per cent, Buddhist 2.1 per cent, Muslim 1.7 per cent, other 2.4 per cent, unspecified 11.3 per cent, none 18.7 per cent (2006 census) English 78.5 per cent, Chinese 2.5 per cent, Italian 1.6 per cent, Greek 1.3 per cent, Arabic 1.2 per cent, Vietnamese 1 per cent, other 8.2 per cent, unspecified 5.7 per cent (2006 census) 99 per cent Federal parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm Universal and compulsory over age of 18

: Active–54,747 (Army 27,461; Navy 13,230; Air 14,056 ) : 19,915 (Army 15,315; Navy 2,000; Air 2,600 ) : US Army-27, US Navy-24, USAF-62, USMC-16, New Zealand Air Force—9, Singapore Air—230

Security Environment Terrorism, the primary security threat to Australia, escalated in the wake of the country’s military involvement in Iraq. Closely identified with the US and fully supportive of its war against terror, Australia has become a target for overseas-based Islamic militant terrorist groups like the AlQaeda and Indonesia-based Jemaah Islamiya. Paul O’Sullivan, Director General, Australian Security Intelligence office while speaking at the ECU Joondalup Campus in November 2008, said, “Australia continues to face threats to our security from terrorism, espionage, and foreign interference. Terrorism by violent jihadists is a significant and immediate threat to Australia and Australian interests. The picture is complicated and continues to evolve. From a global perspective, counter-terrorism efforts remain focused on disrupting tightly-knit, disciplined groups and networks engaged in violent antiWestern jihad. Al-Qaeda is the vanguard of this movement of violent jihadists, and its core leadership group, who are operating from a stronghold in the tribal areas of Pakistan, retains the capacity, and the determination, to carry out and sponsor mass-casualty attacks against Western and international targets. As such, we are greatly concerned by the deteriorating situation in South Asia, and notably in Pakistan and Afghanistan.” Details of the country’s counter-terrorism policy response are enumerated in two government documents—Transnational Terrorism: The Threat to Australia, focusing on the international dimensions of the terrorism problem; and Protecting Australia Against Terrorism, elaborating Australia’s national counter-terrorism policy and arrangements. Both the documents can be accessed on the government’s national security website www.nationalsecurity.gov.au Australia has inked several agreements to cooperate in fighting terrorism with some of its neighbours, including Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines and Fiji. With India, it has come to an understanding on sharing intelligence and information on terrorist networks and for coordination between law enforcement agencies of the two countries. The Five Power Defence Agreement, of which Australia is a member along with Britain, Malaysia, New Zealand and Singapore, has

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 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

T

Works Agency (UNRWA) provided basic food aid to about 7,50,000 people in Gaza, but in the weeks preceding the Israeli operation, these were suspended because the UN ran out of food as Israel closed the crossings into Gaza citing security reasons. Some reports did emerge of food and missiles being brought in through smuggling tunnels from Egypt. A weak ceasefire was negotiated in mid-2008, but the terms were never written down and it broke down. Israeli forces attacked Hamas and other militants in the West Bank, prompting the militants in Gaza to fire rockets into Israel. Israeli offensive bombed numerous targets with the stated aim of taking out Hamas. Given that Gaza is a densely populated area, their choice of offensive method (air strikes) was bound to result in a lot of civilian casualties. Numerous schools and UN compounds as well as other civilian infrastructure were also hit, killing many children, women and others. Calls for investigations of war crimes against Israel were made due to the type of weaponry used against civilians including white phosphorous, the use of which is illegal in civil areas. Israel generally denied such accusations strongly and pointed to Hamas’ firing of rockets into Israel as a war crime. The propaganda war spread onto the web as supporters of each side attempted to use social websites as much as they could to raise their views. In the end, once journalists were able to get into Gaza, they found destruction on a scale far worse than they imagined. The UN warned that rebuilding Gaza would cost millions and take 3 to 5 years under normal circumstances. Humanitarian aid and rebuilding of infrastructure, albeit extremely important, will not be lasting without a political solution. Lebanon is one of the smallest countries in the Middle East, yet it is one of the most politically contested nations in the region, largely owing to its proximity to Israel. Countries such as Iran, Syria, and the United States have each sought to exert their influence over Lebanon, where political parties have received support from Tehran and Damascus or the West. The Lebanese voted in a parliamentary election on June 7, 2009, just over a year after the country’s feuding political factions reached an agreement in Doha, the Qatari capital, on the formation of a new cabinet. Prior to that deal, street battles between supporters of the Hezbollah-led March 8 movement and the West-supported March 14 parliamentary block had raised the spectre of a return to civil war —18 years after a bloody internecine conflict ended. The country is battling to rebuild after Israel launched a 34-day war in 2006 against Hezbollah.

he term West Asia is coterminous with the Middle East which describes geographical position in relation to Western Europe rather than location within Asia. Due to this perceived Eurocentrism, international organisations such as the United Nations, have replaced Middle East with the term Western Asia. Except for Israel, a Jewish country, all other states of West Asia and North Africa are Muslim countries. Ethnically, most of the Muslim states are Arab and predominantly Sunni. The exceptions are Iraq, which is largely dominated by Shia’s, and Iran, which has both non-Arab and Shia populace. This region is the birthplace of three of the world’s most widespread religions—Judaism, Christianity and Islam. West Asia is an area of unique historical importance. Huge oil deposits, which were discovered in the early 20th century, have further augmented its strategic importance as the economies of a number of developed countries are critically dependent on its oil. Saudi Arabia is geographically the biggest country in West Asia. It is also the richest, as it has the largest oil reserve. Iran, Iraq and some of the smaller countries like Kuwait and UAE also have huge oil deposits. Politically, most of the states are monarchies, sheikhdoms or single party dictatorships, and enjoy very little democratic freedom. The Israel-Palestine struggle, the Lebanon crises, Iraq war and insurgency, fundamentalist Islamic militancy, sectarian violence and terrorism, and Iran’s nuclear ambitions pose threats to peace in West Asia. The US is involved in a significant way in clearing up or resolving all of them. The Gaza crisis had worsened the security situation in West Asia. A total blockade of the Gaza Strip came about in mid-2007 when Hamas had taken control of Gaza after a battle with Fatah, a few months after Hamas was elected by Palestinians in a democratic vote. Israel and much of the West sees Hamas as a militant/terrorist organisation, not a political party. Israel, fearing lack of security from within Gaza, and Egypt fearing militant spill over into Egypt, imposed a blockade (that could be regarded as an act of war). As early as March 2008, international humanitarian organisations Amnesty International, CARE International UK and Oxfam said the humanitarian situation in the Gaza Strip was more acute than at any time since the beginning of the Israeli occupation in 1967. They urged Israel to lift the blockade, characterising it as collective punishment against the 1.5 million residents of the territory. The UN had repeatedly called for a lift of the blockade, too. A total ban on exports had left the already fragile economy devastated. Unemployment had soared. The United Nations Relief and

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West Asia and North Africa

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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WEST ASIA AND NORTH AFRICA

the other hand, feels that the war against terrorism will only be won after the changes not only in the nature of the regimes, but also in the political and social culture of West Asia. It has, therefore, been pushing for democracy in these countries, the first signs of which are already visible. Egypt has now allowed more than one candidate to contest the presidential elections, while Saudi Arabia has agreed to local level elections. In Kuwait, women have won full political rights, including the right to vote and stand for parliamentary elections. Despite the current difficulties and constraints, the US has been and remains by far the most dominant player in West Asia. The reality is that for the foreseeable future no single country on its own or in conjunction with others can challenge the US presence and influence in the region. No country or coalition of countries can force the US to withdraw from the region or compel a change of the US policies in the region. It is only the US domestic political opinion that can bring about a change in the US policy. If the US loses its pivotal position in this strategically important oil rich region, its global pre-eminence would be very severely compromised and its ability to keep potential challengers at bay, in particular China, greatly weakened. Therefore, even at the risk of its policies contributing to continuing instability in the region over the next five to 10 years, the US will maintain an assertive physical presence in region and support its allies. It would be prudent for other countries to bear this in mind in formulating their policies towards the region. Though low-profile, India has enjoyed good relationships with countries of the region. Delhi, however, needs to be more proactive in nurturing its bilateral relationships in West Asia.

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In September 2009, during congressional hearings, Army General Ray Odierno told lawmakers about the situation in Iraq. He said that the US is speeding up its withdrawal of troops from Iraq. The top US commander in Iraq called for “strategic patience” during the US withdrawal and the transition of responsibilities to Iraq’s security forces. He said that the combined and sustained efforts of the US and Iraqi security forces, coupled with the efforts of civilian partners, had reduced security incidents and attacks of all types to levels on par with the summer of 2003. He said that it was being ensured that risks were not taken where ethno-sectarian violence was able to continue, for example over ArabKurd tensions and that external influences such as Al-Qaeda and Iran and others were not permitted to cause violence inside Iraq that would cause the Iraqi political system to fall. Those risks were being avoided. He added that after Iraqi elections in 2010, many more troops would be withdrawn so that by the end of the summer of 2010, there would only be 50,000 American forces in the country and all of them would be trainers instead of combat forces. Terrorism in West Asia, promoted by Islamic fundamentalists, is another issue which needs resolution. The terrorist attacks are targeted at western countries in general and the US and its Arab allies, in particular. There are two basic causes for the fundamentalist terrorist activities. The first is what the Arabs views as unjust US support to Israel, and the second, the continuing US military presence in the region. The presence of US troops has enabled underground militant Islamic organisations to call for Jehad against the US and recruit youth to their cause. Moderate Arabs are of the view that terrorism will die if the Arab-Israeli problem is resolved and US troops are withdrawn from West Asia. The US, on

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

West Asia & North Africa

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WEST ASIA AND NORTH AFRICA: ALGERIA

ALGERIA

construction of infrastructure, hampered by corruption and bureaucratic resistance, moves ahead slowly.

 General Information

Defence Total Armed Forces

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Terms of Service Paramilitary Forces

Area Capital Coastline Population Ethnic Divisions Religions

: : : : : :

Languages Literacy Government Suffrage Administrative Divisions

: : : :

: Active – 147,000 Res – 150,000 : Conscription 18 months : Gendarmerie- 20,000 National Security Forces – 16,000 Republican Guard – 1,200 Legitimate Defence Groups – est 150,000

Security Environnent Algeria has no external threats but internally it continues to suffer instability. Building on the goodwill gained by passing the popular Civil Concord general amnesty in 1999, President Abdelaziz Bouteflika appeared to have gained upper hand by 2002 against Islamist insurgency that had destabilised the country in the nineties. He had also begun to nudge out of politics members of the military who were suspected of manipulating Islamist violence and re-election in 2004 was largely due to the perception that he was personally responsible for bringing an end to the Islamist threat in Algeria. However, the struggle against Islamist insurgents has continued, but only one group—the former Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC), now known as the Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM)—remains active. Its number is severely depleted, with estimates ranging from 250 to 500 members in contrast with the thousands of fighters distributed across at least three groups during the height of the conflict between 1994 and 1996. The police and the military have, in addition to reducing their numbers, confined the terrorists to the mountainous areas in Boumerdes province “where even the French couldn’t go when they were fighting the Algerian mujahideen” during the War of Independence. The gendarmerie and the military have currently adopted new counter-terrorism methods, including deploying units to live in the mountains for extended periods in order to combat AQIM rather than trying to launch forays from regional military bases. Interestingly, after using the police, the paramilitary forces and the army against Islamist insurgents, Algeria is now deploying a new, more subtle weapon: a branch of Islam associated with contemplation, not combat. The government of this North African oil and gas producer is promoting Sufism, an Islamic movement that it sees as a gentler alternative to the Salafism espoused by many of the militants behind Algeria’s insurgency. Sufism, found in many parts of the Muslim world, places greater focus on prayer and recitation and its followers have tended to stay out of politics. In Algeria, it has a low profile, with most mosques closer to Salafism— though not the violent connotations that it sometimes carries. The Algerian officials have predicted that the last of Algeria’s Islamist insurgents will either surrender or be killed within 12 to 18 months. The officials have in the past predicted an end to the insurgency—which has caused instability in the oil and gas exporting country for over 15 years— but have never previously issued such a precise timetable. Interrogations of the ex-fighters who have surrendered indicated that the remaining insurgents were deeply demoralised. Although its yearly military expenditures are well above the world average, Algeria maintains a relatively small active military. More than half of its troop strength consists of conscripts who serve for six months (with an additional year of civic service). Most conscripts serve in the army. Algeria has only a small air force and navy. The former has relatively few high-performance aircraft, and the navy consists largely of coastal patrol craft. Paramilitary and police forces outnumber the active-duty military by a substantial margin, and years of civil unrest have forced the government to rely on such forces—divided among sev-

2,381,741 sq km Algiers 998 km 34,178,188 (July 2009 est.) Arab-Berbers 99 per cent, European 1 per cent Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99 per cent, Christian and Jewish 1 per cent Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects 69.9 per cent Republic 18 years of age; universal

: 48 provinces

Overview of the Economy The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 60 per cent of budget revenues, 30 per cent of GDP, and over 95 per cent of export earnings. Algeria has the eighth-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the fourth-largest gas exporter. It ranks 15th in the oil reserves. Sustained high oil prices in recent years have helped improve Algeria’s financial and macroeconomic indicators. Algeria is running substantial trade surpluses and building up record foreign exchange reserves. Algeria has decreased its external debt to less than 5 per cent of GDP after repaying its Paris Club and London Club debt in 2006. Real GDP has risen due to higher oil output and increased government spending. The government’s continued efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector, however, has had little success in reducing high unemployment and improving living standards. Structural reform within the economy, such as development of the banking sector and the

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404 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

China : Type-98/Type-99, Type-90-II Main Battle Tanks (MBTs) : Type-62, Type-63, Type-63A Light Tanks (Lt Tks) Armoured Personnel Carriers/Infantry : Type-90, Type-89 (YW 534), Combat Vehicles (APCs), (ICVs) Type-85 (531H), Type-WZ 501, Type-77, Norinco YW 531 APC Self-Propelled Guns and Howitzers : Type-83 152mm, PLZ45 155mm How : NORINCO TYPE 85 122mm How (SP Guns and Hows) Towed Anti-Tank (A Tk) Guns, : Type-59-1 130mm Fd Gun, Guns and Hows Type-66 152mm Gun How Multiple Rocket Launchers (MRLs) : Type-90 122mm (40 round) MR System : Type-80 Twin 57mm SP AA Gun SP Anti-Aircraft Guns and SAMs System, PL-9C : Low Altitude (Alt) SAM System (SP AA Guns and SAMs) : Chinese Type-56, 14.5mm Gun, Towed AA Guns Norinco 37mm Type 74 Czech/Slovak Republics APCs/ICVs

France MBTs

SP Guns and Hows SP AA Guns and SAMs

Germany MBTs APCs/ICVs

India MBTs Towed ATk Guns, Guns and Hows MRLs

: OT-64 C (SKOT-2A), BMP-1 & OT90 APC

Israel MBTs Reconnaissance Vehicles (Recce Vehs)

: Leclerc, AMX-30

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: AMX -13 : Giat AMX-10P, Nexter Systems AMX-10P Marines, AMX VCI (ICV), Improved VAB 4x4 version (Wheeled), Panhard PVP, Panhard M3 : GIAT Mk. F3 155mm SP Gun, GIAT 155mm, GCT SP Gun : Panhard M3 VDA Twin 20mm SP AA Gun System, Crotale Low Alt SAM System, : Shahine Low Alt SAM System, AMX-30 twin 30 mm SP AA Gun System

: Leopard 2A6, Krauss-Maffei Wegmann Leopard 2 MBT : Condor, Fuchs, Rheinmetall Landsystem Marder 1A3 ICV

: Arjun : IFG Mk.2 105mm : Pinaka MR System

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

Lt Tks APCs/ICVs

Army eqpt is listed below in the following order:

INDIAN DEFENCE

ARMY EQUIPMENT

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

T

the years, a composite unit like a tk, ship or an ac passes through various phases of development and appears in different versions with varied fitments and op parameters. We have listed these variants, but greater details of each version with specific parameters are given in the dedicated publications. We have also relied on such publications in compiling our data. In this volume, specifications have been listed in general terms and common features spelt out. Details of sensors and weapon control systems have been omitted, as they may vary from craft to craft, even within the same class.

his chapter contains specifications of all important military hardware being employed by the countries mentioned below. Equipment (eqpt) having greater commonality within the region and those of comparatively recent origin have been chosen and presented under separate headings for the Army, Navy and Air Force. We have listed each type of hardware under the headings of its countries of origin like Russia, UK and the US. It would be appreciated that the development of weapon systems is a long-term process. Over

: Merkava Mk3, Sabra MBT : RAM family of lt AFVs

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Equipment & Hardware Specifications

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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EQUIPMENT & HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS: ARMY

South Korea : K1 MBTs Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows : 155mm KH179 How

ARMY EQUIPMENT (Contd.) : Soltam L-33 155mm SP Guns and Hows Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows : Soltam M-71 155mm Gun/How : ADAMS Vertical Launch Low Alt SP AA Guns and SAMs SAM System

Spain APCs/ICVs

Sweden Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows : Bofors FH-77 B 155mm : Bofors L-40/-70, 40mm Auto Towed AA Guns AA Gun

Italy : Oto Palmaria 155mm SP Guns and Hows Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows : Oto Melara Model 56 105mm Pack How, Oto Melara 155mm M109L [SP]How Japan MBTs Recce Vehs APCs/ICVs SP Guns and Hows MRLs

Switzerland APCs/ICVs Towed AA Guns

: Type-74, Type-90 : Type-87 : Type-73, Type-89, Mitsubishi Type SU 60 : Type-75 155mm, Type-99 155mm : Type-75 130mm (30 round) MR System

: Chieftain Mk 5, Centurion Mk13, Challenger 2, Khalid, Vickers MBT Mk3 : Alvis Scorpion Lt Tks : Alvis Saladin, Daimler Ferret Recce Vehs Mk 2/3 : Stormer, GKN Def Desert APCs/ICVs Warrior, FV432 : SP Abbot 105mm, AS90 SP Guns and Hows (Braveheart) 155mm SP Gun Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows : 105mm Lt Gun (L 118), 155mm Lightweight How (M 777)

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: T-54, T-55, T-55 (Upgraded), T-62, T-64B, T-72, T-80U, T-90S : PT-76B Lt Tks : BRDM-2, PRP-4 Recce Vehs : BMP-1, BMP-2, BMP-3, APCs/ICVs BMD-1 ACV, BTR-50, BTR-80, MT-LB, BTR-152VI : M 1973 (2S3) 152mm, M 1974 SP Guns and Hows (2S1) 122mm, (MSTA-S) 152mm Self-Propelled Artillery System 2S19 Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows : D-30 122mm Fd Gun, M-46 130mm Fd Gun, 155mm Gun How D-20 : Splav 300mm BM 9A52 MRLs (12 round) Smerch MR System : BM-21 122mm (40 round) MR System : ZSU-23-4 Quad 23mm SP AA SP AA Guns and SAMs Gun System, : ZSU-57-2 Twin 57mm SP AA Gun System, 2K22M Tunguska System, SA-6 Gainful Lowto- Med alt SAM System, SA-8 Gecko Low Alt SAM System, SA-8B SAM System, SA-9 Gaskin SAM, SA-13 Gopher SAM System, SA- 10 Grumble Low to High Alt SAM System : ZU-23-2 Twin 23mm Automatic Towed AA Guns : S-60 57mm Auto AA Gun, (Auto) AA Gun 100mm anti-aircraft gun KS-19

: SSPH-1 Primus

South Africa APCs/ICVs

: Casspir Mk. III, Ratel 90

: Mowag Piranha : Oerlikon-Contraves GDF-002 and 005 Twin 35mm Auto AA Guns, Oerlikon Contraves 20 mm GAI-B01 Auto AA Guns

United Kingdom MBTs

Russia MBTs

Singapore SP Guns and Hows

: BMR-600

United States of America MBTs

: M-1 Abrams, M-48 series, M 60 A3 : M-41, Sting Ray Lt Tks : M-113 A3 APCs/ICVs : M-107 175mm SP Gun, M-109 SP Guns and Hows Series of 155mm SP How, M-110 Series of 203mm SP How (8 inch) Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows : M-198 155mm How : M-42 Twin 40mm SP AA Gun SP AA Guns and SAMs System, M-163 Vulcan 20mm SP AA Gun System, M-48 A1 Chaparral Low Alt SP SAM System, Patriot Msl Single Stage Low to High Altitude SAM System, Hawk Single Stage, Low to Medium Altitude SAM System System, Hawk XXI, SL-AMRAAM : M-167 Vulcan 20mm AA Gun Towed AA Guns China

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MBTs 1. Type-98 Specifications Crew Weight

442 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

: 3 : 50,000 kg

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REGIONAL BALANCE

EQUIPMENT & HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS: NAVY

Lada Class Destroyers Sovremenny Class Frigates Corvettes Taran Tul Class

NAVAL EQUIPMENT Naval equipment is presented in the order as shown below. China Strategic Missile Submarines : XIA Class : Shang Class : Patrol Submarines Kilo Class Ming Class Romeo Class Modified Romeo Class : Destroyers Sovremenny Class Luyang Class Luyang II Class Luhai Class Luhu Class : Frigates Jiangkai II Class Jiangwei Class Jiangwei II Class Jianghu 1/V Class Jianghu II Class : Fast attack Missile Craft Houxin Class Huangfen/Hola Class Huchuan India Submarines Kilo Class Foxtrot Class Scorpene Class Air Craft Carrier Destroyers Kashin Class Frigates Godavari Class Bharamputra Class Talwar Class Leander Class

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Israel Submarines Corvettes Patrol forces Reshef Class Super Dvora Class North Korea Submarines Sang-O Class Frigates Patrol forces Soju Class Hainan Class Russia Patrol Submarines

Jin Class Han Class Song Class

Luda Class

: Kashin Class : Krivak Class : Nanuchka Class

South Korea Submarines Destroyers Frigates Corvettes

: Chang Bogo Class : KDX-2 Class : Ulsan Class : P O Hang Class

Thailand Air Craft Carriers Frigates Corvettes

: Chakri Naruebet Class : Naresuan Class : Khamronsin Class

United Kingdom : Leander Class Frigates Salisbury Class Alvand (Vosper Mk. 5) Class Lekiu Class : Dhofar (Province) Class Missile Craft : Qahir Class Corvettes

Jiangkai Class

United States of America Guided Missile Destroyers Frigates Amphibious forces

Houku

West European Countries Submarines Daphne Class (France) Sishumar Class (Germany) Frigates Madina Class (France) La Fayettes Class (France) Descubierta Class (Spain) Fast Attack Missile Craft Ratcharit Class (Italy) Air Craft Carriers

: Shishumar Class

: Hermes Class : Delhi Class

: Gearing Class : Adelaide Class : Austin Class

: Agosta Class (France, Spain)

: Al Riyadh Class (France)

: Combattante Class (France) : Principe De Asturias Class (Spain)

China Strategic Missile Submarines Jin Class (Type 094) (SSBN) : 8,000 Displacement, tonnes Dimensions, feet (metres) : 449.5 × 36 × 7.5 (137.0 × 11.0 × 2.3) : Nuclear: 2 PWR; 150 MW; 2 turbines; Main machinery 1 shaft : To be announced Speed, knots : 140 Complement : SLBM; 12 JL-2 (CSS-NX-5); 3-stage Missiles solid-fuel rocket; stellar inertial guidance to over 8,000 km (4,320 n miles); single nuclear warhead of 1 MT or 3-8 MIRV of smaller yield. CEP 300 m approx. : 6-21 in (533mm tubes). Torpedoes : Decoys: ESM. Countermeasures : Surface search. Radars

: Dolphin Class : Eilat (SAAR 5) Class : Hetz (SAAR 4.5) Class

: Romeo Class : Najin Class : SO1 Class

: Kilo Class

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XIA class (Type 092) (SSBN) : 6,500 dived Displacement, tonnes Dimensions, feet (metres) : 393.6 × 33 × 26.2 (120 × 10 × 8) : Nuclear; turbo-electric; 1 PWR; Main machinery 90 MW; 1 shaft : 22 dived Speed, knots : 140 Complement : SLBM: 12 JL-1 (CSS-N-3); inertial guidMissiles ance to 2,150 km (1,160 n miles); warhead single nuclear 250 kT. : 6-21 in (533mm) bow tubes. Yu-3 Torpedoes (SET-65E); active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt; warhead 205 kg. : ESM: Type 921-A; radar warning. Countermeasures : Surface search: Snoop Tray; I-band. Radars : Trout Cheek; hull-mounted; active/ Sonars passive search and attack; medium frequency. Programmes: A second of class was reported launched in 1982 and an unconfirmed report suggests that one of the two was lost in an accident in 1985.

Structure: From 403 onwards the hull has been extended by some 8 m although this was not to accommodate missile tubes as previously reported. SSMs may be fired from the torpedo tubes. Diving depth 300 m (985 ft). Operational: In North Sea Fleet based at Jianggezhuang, although one reported to have deployed to the new submarine base at Yalang, Hainan Island, in 2005. 403 and 404 started mid-life refits in 1998 which completed in early 2000. 405 started mid-life refit in 2000 and was reported completed in 2002. Torpedoes are a combination of older straight running and more modern Russian homing types. The first of class 401 was reported to have been decommissioned in 2003 and it is expected that others will follow as the Type 093 enter service : China User

Modernisation: Started major update in late 1995 at Huludao, thought to include fitting improved JL-1A missile with increased range but this has not been confirmed. Structure: Diving depth 300 m (985 ft).

Shang class (Type 093) (SSN) : 6,000 dived Displacement, tonnes Dimensions, feet (metres) : 351 × 36 × 24.6 (107 × 11 × 7.5) : Nuclear: 2 PWR; 150 MW; 2 turbines; Main machinery 1 shaft : 30 dived Speed, knots : 100 Complement : SLCM; SSM. Missiles : 6-21 in (533mm tubes). Torpedoes : Decoys: ESM. Countermeasures : Surface search. Radars : Hull mounted passive/active; flank Sonars and towed arrays.

Operational: First test launch of the JL-1 missile took place on April 30, 1982 from a submerged pontoon near Huludao(Yellow Sea). Second launched on October 12, 1982, from the Golf class trials submarine. The first firing from Xia was in 1985 and was unsuccessful (delaying final acceptance into service of the submarine) and it was not until September 27, 1988 that a satisfactory launch took place. Based in the North Sea Fleet at Jianggezhuang. Following a refit which completed in late 1998, was reported to be operational as a submarine in 2003 although firing of a JL-1 missile has not been reported and its status as a ballistic-missile submarine is uncertain. : China User

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

Operational: Likely to be based at Jianggezhuang. The long range of the missile may prompt a change in operating concept to a ‘bastion’ patrol approach. The first of class had begun sea trials by early 2006. : China User

BUSINESS

Structure: Details of both the boat and the SLBM are speculative. Likely to be based on the Type 093 SSN design which in turn is believed to be derived from the Russian Victor III design. The dimensions of the hull assume the incorporation of a 30 m ‘missile plug’ of 12 tubes for the 42 tonne JL-2 missiles.

INDIAN DEFENCE

: Hull mounted passive/active; flank and towed arrays. Programmes: The first of class is expected to become operational as a submarine in mid-2007 and as a ballistic-missile submarine in about 2008-09, depending on the successful introduction into service of the JL-2 missile. Three further boats are thought to be under construction and are likely to commission at two-year intervals.

Sonars

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Attack Submarines Han class (Type 091) (SSN) : 4,500 surfaced; 5,550 dived Displacement, tonnes Dimensions, feet (metres) : 321.5; 347.8 (403 onwards) × 32.8 × 24.2 (98; 106 × 10 × 7.4) : Nuclear; turbo-electric; 1 PWR; 90 Main machinery MW; 1 shaft : 25 dived; 12 surfaced Speed, knots : 75 Complement : SSM: YJ-801Q (C-801); inertial cruise; Missiles active radar homing to 40 km (22 n miles) at 0.9 Mach; warhead 165 kg; sea-skimmer may be carried. : 6-21 in (533mm) bow tubes; combiTorpedoes nation of Yu-3 (SET-65E); active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt; warhead 205 kg and Yu-1 (Type 53-51) to 9.2 km (5 n miles) at 39 kt or 3.7 km (2 n miles) at 51 kt; warhead 400 kg. 20 weapons. : 36 in lieu of torpedoes. Mines : ESM: Type 921-A; radar warning. Countermeasures : Surface search: Snoop Tray; I-band. Radars : Trout Cheek; hull-mounted; active/ Sonars passive search and attack; medium frequency. DUUX-5; passive ranging and intercept; low frequency. Programmes: First of this class delayed by problems with the power plant. Although completed in 1974 she was not fully operational until the 1980s. Modernisation: The basic Russian ESM equipment was replaced by aFrench design. A French intercept sonar set has been fitted.

NAVAL EQUIPMENT (Contd.)

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EQUIPMENT & HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS: AIR FORCE

AIR EQUIPMENT Air equipment is given as under in the following order: Brazil Combat Aircraft China

Europe France

India Israel Russia

Sweden United Kingdom United States of America

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Transport Aircraft Germany Russia

Spain Ukraine

United Kingdom United States of America

Hong-6 Jian-7 Jian-8 Jian Hong-7 Jianjiao-7 Qiang-5 FC-1 J-10 J-11 (locally produced Su-27) Eurofighter Typhoon Dassault Aviation Mirage 2000H Dassault Aviation Mirage III Dassault Aviation Mirage F-1C Dassault Aviation Mirage 5 Dassault Aviation Rafale LCA IAI Kfir Mikoyan MiG-21 Mikoyan MiG-23 Mikoyan MiG-25 Mikoyan MiG-27M Mikoyan MiG-29 Mikoyan MiG-31 Sukhoi Su-24 Sukhoi Su-25 Sukhoi Su-27 Sukhoi Su-30MK Sukhoi Su-30MKI MiG-35 JAS-39 Gripen BAE Systems Hawk 200 Series BAE Systems Sea Harrier Boeing F-15A/B/C/D Eagle Boeing F/A-18A/B/C/D Hornet Lockheed Martin F-16A/B/C/D Fighting Falcon Northrop F-5E Tiger F-22 Raptor Joint Strike Fighter F-35

Helicopters France

Dornier Do-228 Ilyushin IL-18 Ilyushin IL-76 Tupolev Tu-134 Tupolev Tu-154 Yakovlev Yak-40 EADS CASA C-212 EADS CASA CN-235M Antonov An-12 Antonov An-24 Antonov An-26 Antonov An-32 BAE Systems HS-748 Boeing 737-100/200 (VIP) Boeing 737-300

Maritime Reconnaissance France

Germany India Russia

United Kingdom United States of America

Training Brazil India

United Kingdom

Russia United States of America

BBJ Lockheed Martin C-130 Hercules C-130J/C-130J-30 Embraer Legacy (VIP)

Eurocopter AS 332 Super Puma/AS 532 Cougar Eurocopter AS 350 Ecureuil/AS 550/ AS 555 Fennec Eurocopter SA 360/AS 365 Dauphin, SA 365/ 366 Dauphin II, AS 565 Panther Eurocopter SA 316/319 Alouette III Eurocopter SA 330 Puma Eurocopter SA 341/342 Gazelle Eurocopter (MBB) Bo-105 Advance Light Helicopter (ALH) Dhruv, Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) Kamov Ka-25 Kamov Ka-25 B SH Kamov Ka-31 Mil Mi-6 Mil Mi-8 Mil Mi-17 Mil Mi-24 Mil Mi-25/-35 Mil Mi-26 Westland Sea King Bell 407 Bell AH-1 Cobra/Super Cobra Boeing AH-64 Apache Boeing CH-47 Chinook Sikorsky UH-60/SH-60/S-70 Blackhawk, S-92

Embraer EMB-312 Tucano HAL HJT-16 Kiran HAL HPT-32 Deepak HAL HJT-36 Sitara BAE Systems Hawk 100 (two seat version) China/PakistanK-8 Karakoram

Dassault Aviation Atlantique 2 Ilyushin IL-38 Tupolev Tu-142 Lockheed Martin P-3C Orion MMA P-8 Poseidon

Airborne Early Warning & Control Embraer AEW Brazil Saab 2000 Sweden Boeing E-3 Sentry United States of America Northrop Grumman E-2C Hawkeye Russia /Israel IL-76 with Phalcon System

498 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

REGIONAL BALANCE

EQUIPMENT & HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS: AIR FORCE

: F-7 : Single-seat fighter and close support aircraft : MiG-21 F (Soviet) Design based on : (i) J-7 I Other versions (ii) F-7A (export version of J-7I; exported to Albania, Egypt, Iraq and Tanzania) (iii) J-7 II (modified and improved version of J-7I; also known as J-7B) (iv) F-7 B (upgraded export version based on J-7II with ability to carry air-to-air missiles, exported to Bangladesh, Iran, Jordan, Pakistan, Zimbabwe); F-7BS (Sri Lanka) (v) J-7 IIA (improved version of J-7 II) (vi) J-7 H (improved version of J-7 II with improved ground attack capability) (vii) F-7 M Airguard (export version of J-7 IIA) (viii) J-7 II M (Chinese version of F-7M) (ix) F-7 P Airbolt: (variant of F-7M to meet specific requirements of Pakistan Air Force including ability to carry 4 X air-to-air missiles; F-7 MP Airbolt (modified version of F-7 P) (x) J-7C (J-7 III) (design based on MiG-21 MF) (xi) J-7 D (J-7IIIA; Improved J-7C version) (xii) J-7E (third generationJ-7 version based on J-7II airframe) (xiii) F-7 MG (export variant of J-7E) (xiv) F-7 PG (variant of F-7 MG modified for Pakistan Air Force) (xv) J 7/FT 7 Tandem two-seat operational trainer based on J-7 II Users: China (J-7 II/ IIA/ H/ IIM/ III/ IIIA/ E), Bangladesh (F-7M), Egypt (F-7A/B), Iran (F-7M), Myanmar (F-7M), North Korea (F-7), Pakistan (F7P/PG) and Sri Lanka (F-7BS)

Jianjiao - 7 Westernised designation Type Versions

: FT-7 : Tandem two-seat fighter/trainer : JJ-7, JJ-7A (FT-7A), J-7 II and MiG-21 US, JJ-7B, JJ-7N, FT-7 (export version of JJ-7) : Second cockpit in tandem. Can carry Accommodation dual air-to-air missiles, rockets or bombs up to 250 kg. Can also be fitted with 23mm gun in underbelly pack : With internal fuel 545 nm With drop Range tanks 787 nm Users: Bangladesh (FT-7B), China (JJ-7), Iran (FT-7), Myanmar (FT-7), Pakistan (FT- 7P/ PG) and Sri Lanka (FT-7). Qiang - 5 NATO reporting name Westernised designation Type

: Fantan : A-5 : Single-seat close air support and ground attack aircraft, with air-to-air combat capability : Q-5, Q-5A, Q-5I, Q-5IA, Q-5II, Q-5B, QVersions 5III (A-5C (export version for Pakistan Air Force with upgraded avionics. Ordered also by Bangladesh), Q-5M, A- 5M, Q-5E/F : 52 1/2o swept back wings Design Armament: 23mm cannon in each wing root (internal) and ten attachment points each capable of carrying 250 kg bombs and a mix of other desired bombs/missiles. Max capacity 2,000 kg including drop tanks. : Max 1.5 Mach; level speed 1.12 Mach Speed : With maximum payload with after Combat Radius burners off (i) In Lo-Lo-Lo profile 216 nm (ii) In Hi-Lo-Hi profile 324 nm Users: Bangladesh (A-5C), China (Q-5), Myanmar (A-5-C/-M) and Pakistan (A-5III).

Jian - 8 NATO reporting name Westernised designation Type

GET YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE

: Finback : F-8 : Single-seat twin-engine air superiority fighter with secondary capability of ground fighter Versions: J-8, J-8I (J-8A, Finback A), JZ-8 (Reconnaissance variant of basic

499 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Jian - 7 Westernised designation Type

TECHNOLOGY

: B-7 : All-weather interdictor and attack aircraft with secondary air-to-air capability : JH-7 Versions : In same role and configuration class Design as Russian Sukhoi Su-24 ‘Fencer’ : 2 Crew Armament: Twin barrel 23mm gun in nose, two pylons under each wing plus rail for close range air-to-air missile at each wing tip or sea skimming anti-ship missile : Max takeoff weight 27,500 kg Loading : Mach 1.7 Max level speed : PLA Navy. Users

BUSINESS

Jian Hong - 7 Westernised designation Type

INDIAN DEFENCE

Users

: B-6 : Twin jet strategic bomber, tactical or, maritime strike and reconnaissance aircraft. : Tu-16 Badger (Soviet) : H-6A, H-6D (maritime roles), H-6E, H-6F, H-6H, H-6 tanker, HD-6 (EW) : China.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Design based on Versions

Armament: One 23mm twin barrel cannon under fuselage and seven external stations (one centre & 3 either side) for a variety of weapons : Mach 2.2 Operating speed : 432 nm Combat Radius : 1,187 nm Max Range : China. User

REGIONAL BALANCE

CHINA

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

J-8), J-8E (upgraded J-8A) J-8II (J-8B, Finback B) (all-weather dual role version), J-8D (air-to-air refueling capable) F-8IIM (proposed export version)

AIR EQUIPMENT (Contd.)

Combat Aircraft Hong – 6 Westernised designation Type

CONTENTS

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ABBREVIATIONS A A&E A/S Mortars A/S A2C2S

Ammunition and Explosives Anti Submarine Mortars Anti Submarine Army Airborne Command and Control Systems AA Air Attache AA Anti-Aircraft AAA Anti-Aircraft Artillery AAD Advanced Aircraft Defence/anti-arcraft defence AAM Air-to-Air Missile AAP Annual Acquisition Plan AAPCC Annual Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee AAPCHC Annual Acquisition Plan Categorisation Higher Committee AAR Air-to-Air Refuellers AAW Anti-Air Warfare AB Airborne/Air Base ABL Airborne Laser ABM Anti-Ballistic Missile Ac/ac aircraft ACAS Assistant Chief of the Air Staff ACCCS Artillery Combat, Command and Control System ACCP Assistant Controller of Carrier Project ACEMUs Alternating Current Electrical Multiple Units ACIDS Assistant Chief Integrated Defence Staff ACIDS(PP & FS) Assistant Chief Integrated Defence Staff (Policy Planning & Force Structures) ACM Advanced Cruise Missile/Air Chief Marshal ACNS Assistant Chief of Naval Staff ACNS Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Submarines) ACOL Assistant Controller of Logistics ACOP(CP) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Career Planning) ACOP(HRD) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Human Resource Development) ACOP(P&C) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Personnel & Conditions) ACOP Assistant Chief of Personnel Acqn Acquisition ACV Air Cushion Vehicle/ Armoured Combat Vehicle ACWP&A Assistant Controller of Warship Production & Acquisition AD Air Defence ADA Aeronautical Development Agency ADAMS Air Defence Advanced Mobile System ADC&RS air-defence control and reporting system ADC Aide-de-Camp ADDC Air Defence Direction Centre

Addl FA Addl ADE ADF ADG Avn ADG DV ADG EM ADG Mov

Additional Financial Advisor Additional Aeronautical Development Establishment Australian Defence Force Additional Director General Army Aviation Additional Directorate General Discipline and Vigilance Additional Directorate General Mechanical Engineering Additional Director General, Movements

ADG Procurement

Additional Directorate General Procurement ADG PS Additional Directorate General Personnel Services ADG Quartering Additional Director General Quartering ADG TA Additional Directorate General Territorial Army ADGES Air Defence Ground Environment System ADGIS Additional Directorate General Information Systems ADGIW Additional Director General, Information Warfare ADGMI Assistant Director General, Military Intelligence ADGMO Additional Director General, Military Operations ADGOL Additional Director General, Operational Logistics ADGPI Additional Director General Public Information ADGSI Additional Director General Signal Intelligence adj adjusted ADRDE Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment AEA Airborne Electronic Attack AEC Army Education Corps AESA Active Electronically Scanned Array AEW Airborne Early Warning AEW&C Airborne Early Warning & Control AF Air Force/Auxiliary Fleet AFA Air Force Aacdemy AFB Air Force Base Af-Pak Afghanistan-Pakistan AFSPA Armed Forces Special Powers Act AFTA ASEAN Free Trade Area AFV Armoured Fighting Vehicle AG Adjutant General AGM Air-to-Ground Missile AGPL Actual Ground Position Line AH Attack Helicopter AIFV Armoured Infantry Fighting Vehicle AIP Air Independent Propulsion AIP Approval In Principle

AIS AIT AJT ALCM AlGaAs ALH ALP AM AMAS AMD Amn amph AMRAAM AMRs AMTIR ANC ANP ANURAG ANZAC ANZUS AOA AOC AOC-in-C AOM AON AOP AOPVs APAR APC APCs(T) APCs(W) APEC APFSDS appx APSOH AQIM AR&DE ARC AREN ARF ARIS ARM armd ARMREB ARTRAC arty Arty ARV AS ASAT ASC

513 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

automatic identification system automatic identification technologies Advanced Jet Trainer Air Launched Cruise Missile Aluminium gallium arsenide Advanced Light Helicopter Arunachal Pradesh Acquisition Manager Australian Minesweeping System anti-missile defence Ammunition amphibious/amphibian Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile anti-material rifles Amorphous Material Transmitting Infrared Radiation Andaman & Nicobar Command Afghan National Party Advanced Numerical Research and Analysis Group Australian and New Zealand Army Corps Australia-New Zealand-United States Air Officer-in-Charge, Administration/ Angle of Attack Army Ordnance Corps Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief Air Officer in–Charge Maintenance Acceptance of Necessity Air Officer-in-Charge Personnel Advanced Offshore Patrol Vessels Active Phased Array Radar Armoured Personnel Carrier Armoured Personnel Carriers (Tracked) Armoured Personnel Carriers (Wheeled) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation armour-piercing fin stabilised discarding sabot approximately advanced panoramic sonar hull Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb Armament Research and Development Establishment Aviation Research Centre Army Radio Engineering Network ASEAN Regional Forum anti-resonance isolation system Anti-Radiation/Radar Missile armoured Armament Research Board Army Training Command artillery Artillery Armoured Recovery Vehicle Additional Secretary Anti-Satellite Army Supply Corps/Army Service Corps

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ABBREVIATIONS ASCON ASD ASEAN

Army Static Communication Network Admiral Superintendent Dockyards Association of South East Asian Nations ASEM Asia-Europe Meeting ASG Abu Sayyaf Group ASL Advanced Systems Laboratory ASLAV Australian Light Armoured Vehicle aslt assault ASM Air-to-Surface Missile/Anti-Ship Missile ASO Air Staff Office ASPL Akash Self-Propelled Launcher ASTE Aircraft and Systems Testing Establishment ASuW Anti Surface Warfare ASV Anti Surface Vessel/armoured security vehicles ASW Anti-Submarine Warfare ATACMS Army Tactical Missile System ATC Air Traffic Control ATE Advanced Technologies and Engineering ATEP advanced technical exploitation programme ATGM Anti-Tank Guided Missile ATGW Anti-Tank Guided Weapon atk attack/anti-tank ATL Advanced Tactical Laser ATP Acceptance Test Procedure ATTF All Tripura Tigers Force ATTS Air-Transportable Towed System ATV Advanced Technology Vessel Auto Automatic AUV Autonomous Underwater Vehicles AUW All Up Weight AV Armoured Vehicles AVIC Aviation Industries Corporation avn aviation AVS Committee Ajai Vikram Singh Committee AVSM Ati Vishist Seva Medal AWACS Airborne Warning and Control System

BMCS BMD BMS Bn (bn) BNP BOPs BRIC+M BRICs BRO BSF BSNL BSS bty BVR BVRAAM BW

C C&R C2 C2RP C2W C3 C3CM C3I C4I C4I2

C4I2SR

C4ISR

C4ISTAR

B

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BACN BADZ BARC bbr bde BDL BE BEL BEML BFSR BFSR-SR bhp BIMSTEC

BIS BM BMC2

battlefield air-borne communication node Base Air Defence Zone Bhabha Atomic Research Centre bomber brigade Bharat Dynamics Ltd Budget Estimate Bharat Electronics Ltd Bharat Earth Movers Ltd Battlefield Surveillance Radar Battlefield Surveillance Radar-Short Range brake horsepower Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand Economic Cooperation Bureau of Indian Standard Border Management Battle Management Command and Control

Bi-Modular Charge System Ballistic Missile Defence Battlefield Management System Battalion Bangladesh National Party Border Out Posts Brazil, Russia, India, China and Mexico Brazil, Russia, India, China Border Roads Organisation Border Security Force Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited Battlefield Surveillance System battery Beyond Visual Range Beyond Visual Range Air-to-Air Missile Biological Warfare

CA CAB CABS CAE CAIR cal CAM capt CAR CARAT CAS casevac cat cav CAW CBMs cbt CC

Control and Reporting Command and Control Command and Control Reconnaissance Post Command and Control Warfare Command, Control & Communications Command, Control & Communications Countermeasures Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Information and Intelligence Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Information management, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance Command, Control, Communications, Computers and (military) Intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition and reconnaissance Combat Aircraft Complaint Advisory Board Centre for Airborne Systems Computer Aided Engineering Centre for Artificial Intelligence & Robotics calibration Computer Aided Machining captain Central Asian Republics Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training Chief of the Air Staff/Close Air Support casualty evacuation category cavalry College of Air Warfare Confidence Building Measures combat Central Committee

CC(R&D) CCA CCD CCS CCT CCTNS CCTV CDA CDEC CDF CDISS CDO CDP Cdr CDS CE CEC CEMILAC CENTO CEP CEPTAM CERT CFA CFC CFD CFEES CG CG CGAIS CGAS CGDA CGE CGHQ CGRPT CGS CHRI CI CIA CIAT CICP CIDS CIDSS CIFs CIG CII CIJWS C-in-C CINCAN CIP CIR CIS

514 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

Chief Controller (Research & Development) Central Coordinating Authority Charge Coupled Device Cabinet Committee on Security Combat Capable Trainer Crime and Criminal Tracking Network System Closed Circuit Television Controller of Defence Accounts Custom Duty Exemption Certificate Chief of Defence Force Centre for Defence and International Security Studies Command Diving Officer Committee for Defence Planning Commander Chief of Defence Staff Corps of Engineers Central Military Commission Centre for Military Airworthiness & Certification Central Treaty Organisation circular error probable Centre for Personal Talent Management Computer Emergency Response Team-India Competent Financial Authority Combined Forces Commander Computational Fluid Dynamics Centre for Fire, Explosive & Environment Safety Coast Guard Commanding General/Combined Group/Coast Guard Coast Guard Air Inspection Superintendent Coast Guard Air Station Controller General Defence Accounts Central Government Expenditure Coast Guard Headquarters Coast Guard Refit Production Team Chief of the General Staff/Coast Guard Ship Commonwealth of Human Rights Initiative counter-insurgency Central Intelligence Agency Counter insurgency and Anti-Terrorism Computerised Inventory Control Procedure Chief of Integrated Defence Staff Command Information Decision Support System Counter Insurgency Forces Counter Insurgency Grid Confederation of Indian Industry Counter Insurgency and Jungle Warfare Commander-in-Chief Commander-in-Chief of the Andaman and Nicobar Command Carriage and Insurance Paid Cargo Integration Review Commonwealth of Independent States

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ABBREVIATIONS CISC CISF CISO CIWS CJCS CKD CLGP CLO CLS cm CM CMC CMCs CMD CMDS CMM CMOS CMS CMT CMTV CNC CNC CNO CNO CNP CNS CO CGS Delhi COAS COD CODAD CODOG COGAG COL COM comb comd COMINT comns Comp COMSAT COP COP COS COSC COTS coy CP CPB CPF CPMF CPI (M) CPI (ML) CPI CP-NPA-NDF

CPOs CPT CPWD CRC CRL

Chief of Integrated Defence Staff to Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee Central Industrial Security Force Chief Information and Security Officer Close-in Weapon System Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff Complete Knocked Down Cannon-Launched Guided Projectile Chief Law Officer capsule launch system Centimetre Cruise Missile Central Military Commission ceramic matrix composites Chairman & Managing Director Counter Measure Dispensing Systems Common Modular Missile Complimentary metal-oxide semi-conductor combat management system Carrier Mortar Tracked/ Continuous Moldline Technology carrier mortar tracked vehicle Commercial Negotiation Committee Computer Numerical Control/Cost Negotiations Committee Chief of Naval Operations computer networks operation comprehensive national power Chief of the Naval Staff Commanding Officer Coast Guard Ship Delhi Chief of the Army Staff Central Ordinance Depot Combined diesel and diesel Combined diesel or gas turbine Combined gas or gas Controller of Logistics Chief of Material combined/combination command Communications Intelligence communications Composite communication satellite Chief of Personnel common operational picture Chief of Staff Chiefs of Staff Committee Commercial off the shelf company Central Purchase Charged Particle Beams Central Police Forces Central Paramilitary Forces Communist Party of India (Marxist) Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Consumer Price Index Communist Party of Philippines-New People’s Army-National Democratic Front Central Police Organisations Carriage Paid To Central Public Works Department Control and Reporting Centre central research laboratories

CROWS CrPC CRPF CRT CRZ CS CSAR CSE CSFO CSIR CSM CSSC CST CSTO CT CTBT CTBTO CTK FLT CTM CTOT CUNPK CVC CVRDE CW CWIN CWP&A CYBERINT

common remotely operated weapon station Criminal Procedure Code Central Reserve Police Force Cathode-Ray Tube Compact Revolutionary Zone Centre-State Combat Search and Rescue Core System Evaluation Counter Surface Force Operations Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Communications Support Measures China State Shipbuilding Corporation Comparative Statement of Tenders Collective Security Treaty Organisation counter-terrorist Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organisation Chetak Flight Communist Terrorist Movement Complete Transfer of Technology Centre for United Nations Peace Keeping Central Vigilance Commission Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment Continuous Wave Cyber Warning and Information Network Controller of Warship Production & Acquisition Cyber Intelligence

D D (Admin) D (AV) D (FE) D (FM) D (INT) D (Log) D (MAT) D (Med) D(MPRT) D(Ops) D(Pers) DA DAC DADCs DAF DAI DARE DAS DASE DASI DASR DCAS DCF DCMG DCN DCNS DCOAS

Director (Administration) Director (Aviation) Director (Fisheries and Environment) Director (Fleet Maintenance) Director (Intelligence) Director (Logistics) Director (Materials) Director (Medical) Director (Manpower Planning, Recruitment & Training) Director (Operations) Director (Personnel) Defence Attache Defence Acquisition Council Division Air Defence Centres Delivered At Frontier Director of Administration Inspection Defence Avionics Research Establishment Director of Air Staff Director of Armament System Equipment Directorate of Air Staff Inspection Directorate of Air Staff Requirements Deputy Chief of the Air Staff Discounted Cash Flow Defence Crisis Management Group Defence Communications Network Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff Deputy Chief of the Army Staff

DCP DD DDG MF DDG DDGMS DDH DDOs DDP DDP DDP&S DDU DE DEAL DEBEL DECS DEE def defn DEO dept DEQ DES DES DESA DESIDOC det DEW DF DFM DFPR DFRL DFS DG(I&S) DG AAD DG CW DG DCW DG Inf DGMF DG PP DG FP DG WE DG DG DG, OS DG, SP DGAFMS DGAQA DGAR DGCA

515 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

Directorate of Civilian Personnel Demand Draft Deputy Director General Military Farms Destroyer, Guided Missile/Deputy Director General Deputy Directorate General Management Studies Destroyer, Helicopter Direct Demanding Officers Department of Defence Production Directorate of Data Processing Department of Defence Production & Supplies Delivered Duty Unpaid Directorate of Education Defence Electronics Application Laboratory Defence Bio-Engineering and Electro Medical Laboratory Director Electronics and Computer Sciences Directorate of Electrical Engineering defence definition Defence Exhibition Organisation department Delivered Ex Quay Delivered Ex-Ship Directorate of Engineering Support Director Ex-Serviceman’s Affairs Defence Scientific Information & Documentation Centre detachment Directorate of Electronic Warfare/ Directed Energy Weapons Deuterium Floride Directorate of Fleet Maintenance Delegation of Financial Power Regulations Defence Food Research Laboratory Directorate of Flight Safety Director General (Inspection and Safety) Directorate General Army Air Defence Directorate General Ceremonials and Welfare Directorate General Discipline Ceremonials and Welfare Directorate General Infantry Directorate General of Mechanised Forces Directorate General Financial Planning Directorate General Perspective Planning Directorate General Weapons and Equipment Diesel Generator Director General Director General, Ordnance Services Director General, Seabird Project Directorate General Armed Forces Medical Services Director General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance Director General Assam Rifles Directorate General of Civil Aviation

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ABBREVIATIONS DGDIA DGDPS DGFI DGFT DGI DGICG DGIS DGMI DGMO DGMP DGMS DGMT DGNAI DGNCC DGND DGOF DGOL&SM DGQA DGR DGS&D DGSD DHD DHQ DIA DIAT DIBER DIHAR DIME DIPAS DIPP DIPR

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Dir DIR(MM) div DL DLRL DLS DLS DM DMA DMI DMPR DMRC DMRL DMSRDE DMZ

Director General Defence Intelligence Agency Director General Defence Planning Staff Director General of Forces I ntelligence Directorate General of Foreign Trade Directorate General of Infantry Director General Indian Coast Guard Directorate General Information Systems Director General Military Intelligence Director General Military Operations Directorate General Manpower Planning Director General Medical Services Directorate General Military Training Director General Naval Armament Inspection Director General National Cadets Corps Director General of Naval Design Director General Ordnance Factories Director General Operational Logistics & Strategic Move Director General of Quality Assurance Director General Resettlement Director General Supplies & Disposal Directorate General Staff Duties Dimasa Halam Dogah District Headquarters/Defence Headquarters Defence Intelligence Agency Defence Institute of Advanced Technology Defence Institute of Bio-Energy Research Defence Institute of High Altitude Research Dense Inertial Metal Explosive Defence Institute of Psychology & Allied Sciences Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion Defence Institute of Psychological Research Director Director (Material Management) division Defence Laboratory Defence Electronics Research Laboratory Director Life Sciences Director Logistic Support Director Missiles Director of Maintenance Administration Director of Maintenance Inspection Directorate of Manpower Planning & Recruitment Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory Defence Material & Store Research & Development Establishment Demilitarised Zone

DNA DNAI DNAS DNE DNI DNO DNP DNPF DNRD DNS DNT DOA DOC DOD DODY DOE DOFA DOP DOT DP DP DPA DPB DPC DPJ DPM DPP DPR DPRK DPS DPS DPSA DPSU DQMG DRDE DRDL DRDO DSA DSCA DSE DSEI dse DSIR DSP DSR DSSC DTI DTRL DVE DVE DVI DW DWE

Directorate of Naval Architecture Directorate of Naval Armament Inspection Directorate of Naval Air Staff Director of Naval Education Directorate of Naval Intelligence Director of Naval Operations Director Naval Plans Director Non Public Funds Director Naval Research and Development Director Naval Signals Directorate of Naval Training Director of Administration Director of Contracts Department of Defence/ Director of Diving Directorate of Dockyards Director of Education Defence Offset Facilitation Agency Directorate of Personnel Directorate of Tactics/ Doctrine, Organisation and Training Delhi Police Delivery Period Directorate of Pay and Allowances Defence Procurement Board Digital Pulse Compression / Departmental Promotion Committee Democratic Party of Japan Defence Procurement Manual Defence Procurement Procedure detailed project reports Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Defence Planning Staff Director of Personnel Services deep penetration strike aircraft Defence Public Sector Undertaking Deputy Quarter Master General Defence Research & Development Establishment Defence Research & Development Laboratory Defence Research and Development Organisation Director of Systems Application / Draft Supplementary Agreement Defence Security Cooperation Agency Defence and Security Exhibitions Defence Systems and Equipment International director of system evaluation Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Directorate of Ship Production Directorate Staff Requirement Defence Services Staff College Department of Trade and Industry Defence Terrain Research Laboratory Directorate of Value Engineering driver’s vision enhancers digital video interface Directorate of Works Directorate of Weapons Equipment

E EA EAC EADS EAM EASA EBO ECCM ECM ECO ECS EEZ EFC EIC E-in-C ELINT El-Op EMC EMCON EMD EMI EMS engr EOCM EOFCS EoI EP eqpt ER ERA ERFB ERV ESM ESP est estt ET EU EUMA EurASEC EW EWS excl

Electronic Attack Eastern Air Command/Expenditure Angle Clearance European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company External Affairs Minister European Aviation Safety Agreement effects-based operations Electronic Counter Counter Measures Electronic Counter Measures Economic Cooperation Organisation Electronics & Computer Sciences Exclusive Economic Zone Expenditure Finance Committee Equipment Induction Cell Engineer-in-Chief Electronic Intelligence Electro-optic Industries Ltd Electro Magnetic Compatibility Emissions Control Earnest Money Deposit Electro Magnetic Interference Electromagnetic spectrum engineer Electro-optical counter measures Electro-optic Fire Control System Expression of Interest Electronic Protection equipment extended range Explosive Reactive Armour Extended Range Full Bore Exchange Rate Variation Electronic Support Measures Engineering Support Package estimate establishment Electro Thermal European Union End Use Monitoring Arrangement Eurasian Economic Community Electronic Warfare Electronic Warfare Support excludes/excluding

F FA FA(DS) FAA FAC FAS FAS FAST FATA FB FBM FBW FCA FCS FCU fd FDI FE

516 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

Financial Advisor Financial Adviser (Defence Services) Federal Aviation Administration Fast Attack Craft/Forward Air Controller Favourable Air Situation Free Alongside Ship fleet assistance and shipboard training Federally Administrated Tribal Areas Fast Boat fleet ballistic missile Fly-by-Wire Free Carrier Fire Control System Fire Control Unit field Foreign Direct Investment forecast estimates

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ABBREVIATIONS FE FEALAC FEBA FF FFG FGA FGFA FIC FIC FICV Fin F-INSAS FIPB FIS Flg Offr FLIR flt FM FMBT FMC FMCW FMECA FMS FMS FMTC FMUs FOB FOC-in-C FOGA FOMAG FONA FOSM FOST FP FPA FPDA FPGA FPQ FPU FPVs FR FRA FRP FRP FSA FSU ft FTA FTC ftr/ftrs FY FYDP

Foreign Exchange Forum for East Asia-Latin America Forward Edge of the Battle Area Frigate Frigate, Guided Missile Fighter, Ground-Attack Fifth Generation Fighter aircraft/ Future Generation Fighter Aircraft Fast Interception Crafts flight information centres future infantry combat vehicle Finance Future Infantry Soldier as a System Foreign Investment Promotion Board Flying Instructors’ School Flying Officer Forward Looking Infra Red flight/fleet Financial Manager future main battle tank Financial Management Cell Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave Failure Mode, Effect and Criticality Analysis Flight Management System Foreign Military Sales Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty Fleet Maintenance Units Free On Board Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief Flag Officer Goa Area Flag Officer Commanding Maharashtra & Gujarat Area Flag Officer Naval Aviation Flag Officer Submarines Flag Officer Sea Training Financial Planning Focal plane array Five Power Defence Arrangement Field Programmable Gate Array Fixed Price Quotation Formed Police Unit Fast Patrol Vessels Financial Regulation Flight Refuelling Aircraft Fibre Reinforced Polymer Full Rate Production Fluid Supply Assembly Former Soviet Union feet Free Trade Agreement Fast Torpedo Craft fighter/fighters financial year Five Year Defence Plan

G GA GaAs GAETEC GCC GDP GE

Group Army/Ground Attack gallium arsenide Gallium Arsenide Enabling Technology Centre Gulf Cooperation Council Gross Domestic Product General Electric

GED Gen GFR GGA GHG GIS GITS II GMDSS GOC-in-C GOI GOM GOST gp GPS GRP GRS GRSE GSB GSD GSL GSLV GSO GSQR GSR GTD GWOT

General Engineering Department General General Financial Regulations Gain Generator Assembly Greenhouse Gas Geographical Information System gunner’s integrated TOW system Global Maritime Distress and Safety System General Officer Commanding-in-Chief Govt of India Group of Ministers Gost Specifications (Russian) group Global Positioning System Glass Reinforced Plastic gross tonnage Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Ltd General Staff Branch General Staff Department Goa Shipyard Ltd Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Ground Staff Office General Staff Qualitative Requirements General Service Regulations General Trade Department Global War on Terror

H HAA HAF HAL HARM HATSOFF HDW HE HEAT HEL HELLADS helo/hel HEMRL HFSWR HHTIs HINDRAF HM HMMWV HOBOS hp hp/ton HQ HR HRD hrs HS HUD HuJI HUMINT HUMSA (NG)

High Altitude Airship Hellenic Air Force Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd High-speed Anti Radiation Missile Helicopter Academy to Train by Simulation of Flying Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG High Explosive High Explosive Anti-tank High Energy Laser high energy liquid laser area defence system helicopter High Energy Materials Research Laboratory High Frequency Surface Wave Radar hand-held thermal imaging devices Hindu Rights Action Force Home Minister High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle Homing and Bombing System horsepower Horse Power per ton Headquarters human resources human resource department hours Home Secretary Head-Up Display Harkat-ul-Jihad-i-Islam Human Intelligence Hull Mounted Sonar Advanced (Next Generation)

HuT HVAC HVF hy

Hizb-ut-Tahrir Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning System Heavy Vehicles Factory heavy

I IA IACCS IAEA IAF IAI IAPTC IBR IBs IBSA ICBM ICG ICV ID/IQ IDF IDS IDSA IDSN IED IEDs IEP IFA IFDSS IFF IFG IFS IFV IGA IGMDP IHPTET IIGs IIR IISc IIT IITF IJT ILMS ILT IM IMA IMDP IMF IMI IMINT IMO IMOLS IMMOLS IMU

517 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

Indian Army Integrated Air Command & Control Systems International Atomic Energy Agency Indian Air Force/Israeli Air Force Israel Aircraft Industries International Association of Peacekeeping Training Centres integrally bladed rotor Interceptor Boats India-Brazil-South Africa Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile Indian Coast Guard Infantry Combat Vehicle Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity Indigenous Design Fighter/Israel Defence Forces Integrated Defence Staff Institute of Defence Studies and Analysis Integrated Service Digital Network Indigenous Explosive Devices Improvised Explosive Devices Integrated Electric Propulsion Integrated Financial Advisor Integrated Fire Detection & Suppression System Identification Friend or Foe Indian field gun Indian Foreign Service Infantry Fighting Vehicle Inter Governmental Agreement Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology Indian Insurgent Groups Imaging Infra Red Indian Institute of Science Image Intensifier Tubes/ Indian Institute of Technology India International Trade Fair Intermediate Jet Trainer Integrated Logistics Management System Instructor Led Training Indigenously Manufactured Indian Military Academy Integrated Missile Development Programme International Monetary Fund Israel Military Industries Imagery Intelligence International Maritime Organisation Integrated Maintenance and Logistics System Integrated Material Management Online System Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan

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ABBREVIATIONS IN incl INCOTERM indep INDSAR INDU inf INMAS INS INSAS InSb int INTW IOC IOR IORARC IORB IP IP IP IPC IPC IPKF IPMT IPS IPVs IR IRAF IRBM IRBs IRDE IRGC

IRIAF IRSS IS IS IS ISACs ISAF ISC ISGA ISI ISLEREP ISPS

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ISR ISRO ISRR ISRT ISSA ISSA IT ITA 2008 ITBP

Indian Navy includes/including International Commercial Terms independent Indian (Maritime) Search and Rescue Indian National Defence University infantry Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences Inertial Navigation System/ Indian Naval Ship Indian Small Arms System Indium antimonide intelligence Indian Naval Work Up Team Initial Operational Capability/ Clearance Indian Ocean Region Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation Indian Ocean Rim Block Industrial Policy integrity pact Intellectual Property Indian Penal Code Inshore Patrol Craft Indian Peace Keeping Force integrated project management teams Integrated Power Systems Inshore Patrol Vessels Infra-red Royal Indian Air Force Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile India Reserve Battalions Instruments Research & Development Establishment Iranian Revolutionary Guards Corps/Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force infra-red suppression system Information System Indian Standard/ Internal Secretary internal security Information Sharing and Analysis Centres International Security Assistance Force Integrated Space Cell Interim Self-Governing Authority Inter-Services Intelligence Island M-SAAR Ship Reporting System international ship and port facility security Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Indian Space Research Organisation Indian Search and Rescue Region Infra Red Search & Tracking System Institute of Systems Studies & Analysis Institute of Systems Studies & Analysis Information Technology Information Technology Act 2008 Indo-Tibetan Border Police

ITEC ITM ITU IW

Indian technical and Economic Cooperation Institute of Technology Management International Telecommunication Union Information Warfare

J J&K JADC JAG JSDF JASSM JCOs JDAM JDAM JI JIC JIEDDO JOCOM JOCs JPC JRI JS JSF JSIC JSOW JSQR JSSC JSTARS Jt. JTC JTFI J-UCAS JV JVC

Jammu & Kashmir Joint Air Defence Centre Judge Advocate General Japan Air Self-Defence Force Joint Air to Surface Stand off Missile Joint Combat Operations joint direct attack munition Joint Direct Attack Munition Jemaah Islamiyah Joint Intelligence Committee Joint Improvised Explosive Devices Defeat Organisation Joint Operations Committee Joint Operation Centres Joint Planning Committee Joint Receipt Inspection Joint Secretary Joint Strike Fighter Joint Service Intelligence Committee Joint Stand Off Weapon Joint Service Qualitative Requirements Joint Services Staff College Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System Joint Joint Training Committee Joint Task Force on Intelligence Joint Unmanned Combat Air System Joint Venture Joint Venture Company

K KALI KCP kg KGF KIFV KLO km km/h KORCOM KRC kt kw KYKL

Kilo Ampere Linear Injector Kangleipak Communist Party kilogramme Kolar Gold Fields Korean Infantry Fighting Vehicle Kamtapur Liberation Organisation Kilometre kilometres per hour Korea Command Kargil Review Committee Kilo tonne Kilowatt Kanglei Yowal Kunna Lup

L L&D L&T LAAD LAC LACM LADAR LAF LASTEC

Learning & Development Larsen & Toubro Latin America Aero and Defence line of actual control land attack cruise missile Laser Detection and Ranging Lebanese Armed Force Laser Science & Technology Laboratory

LAV LAW LC LCA LCAC LCD LCM LCP LCPA LCS LCT LCU LCVP LD LDP LED LEL LEO LeT LFA LFDS LFG LGB LIA LICO LICs LLADS LLADS LLTR LMG LNG LOA LOC log LOI LORADS LORROS LOS LP LPA LPAF LPC LPD LPH LPIR LPP LRC LRDE LRF LRIP LRLAP LRMP LRSAM LRTR LRU LS&HR LSD LSL LSM LSP LSRB LSRVs

518 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

Light Armoured Vehicle Light Anti-tank Weapon Landing Craft/Letter of Credit Landing Craft, Assault/ Light Combat Aircraft Landing Craft, Air Cushion Liquid Crystal Display Landing Craft, Mechanised Landing Craft, Personnel Landing Craft, Personnel Aircushion littoral combat ship Landing Craft, Tank Landing Craft, Utility Landing Craft, Vehicles and Personnel Liquidated Damages Liberal Democratic Party Light-emitting diodes Low Energy Laser Low Earth Orbit Lashkar-e-Toiba low frequency active Low Frequency Dunking Sonar light field gun Laser Guided Bomb lead intelligence agency Low Intensity Conflict Operations Low Intensity Conflicts Liquid Laser Area Defence System liquid laser area defence system Low Level Tactical Radar light machine gun Liquefied Natural Gas Laser Optics Assembly Line of Control logistics Letter of Intent Long Range Radar & Display System long-range observation system (how double r) Line of Sight Local Purchase Lao People’s Army Lao People’s Armed Forces Large Patrol Craft Landing Platform, Dock Landing Platform, Helicopter Low Probability of Intercept Radar Last Purchase Price line-replaceable components Electronics and Radar Development Establishment Laser Range Finder Low Rate Initial Production long-range land attack projectile long-range maritime patrol Long Range Surface-to-Air-to-Air Missile long-range tracking radar Line Replaceable Unit Life Sciences & Human Resources Landing Ship, Dock Landing Ship, Logistics Landing Ship, Medium Limited Series Production Life Sciences Research Board Light Surveillance & Reconnaissance Vehicles

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ABBREVIATIONS LSS LST(L/M) LSV Lt BPVs lt LTAP LTE LTH LTIPP LTPP LTPPFC ltr/ltrs LTTE LUH LWE LWT

Logistic Support Ships Landing Ship Tank (Large/ Medium) Landing Ship Vehicles Light Bullet Proof Vehicles light long-term Action Plan Limited Tender Enquiry light-weight towed howitzer Long Term Integrated Perspective Plan Long Term Perspective Plan Long Term Perspective Plan Formulation Committee litre/litres Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Light Utility Helicopter Left Wing Extremists Light Weight Torpedo / Local Wor-up Team

M M&C M&S m/sec MA MA MAC MAC maint MALE MANPADS MARS M-ATV max MBAT MBFSR MBRLS MBT MC MCM MCMV MCT MDA MDL MDSR MEA mech med MEM MES MET MF MFCR MFO MFOs MFR MG MGO MGSIS MHA MHC MHI MHPV MHR MIDHANI

Materials and Components Modelling & Simulation metres per second Military Assistant Military Attache Metal Augmented Charge Multi-Agency Centre maintenance Medium Altitude and Long Endurance man-portable air-defence systems Marine Acoustic Research Ship MRAP all-terrain vehicles Maximum Multi-beam array tracking Mobile Battle Field Surveillance Radar Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher System Main Battle Tank Maintenance Command Mine Counter Measures Mine Counter Measures Vessel Mercury Cadmium Telluride Maritime Domain Awareness Mazagon Dock Ltd Movement Detection and Security Radar Ministry of External Affairs mechanised medium Micro-Electro Mechanical Military Engineering Service Maintainability Evaluation Trial Main File multi-function control radar Multinational Force and Observers Muslim Fundamentalist Organisations Multi Function Radars Machine Gun Master General of Ordnance Military Geo-Spatial Information System Ministry of Home Affairs Mine Hunter Coastal Mine Hunter, Inshore Mine-Hardened Patrol Vehicle Man Hour Rate Mishra Dhatu Nigam Ltd

mil/mily MILF MILSPECS MINDER MIRACL MIS misc MLRS mm MMCRA MMG MMRCA MND MNLF mob MoD mod MOD/D(MC) MODA MODte MOFTU MOPs MOQ Mor MoS mot M0U MP MPA MPAT MPVs MR MR MRBM MRCA MRCC MRD MRL MRLS MRLS MRSAM MRSC MS MSA M-SAR MSC MSDFs MSI msl MSO MSQA MSS mt mt/mts MTA MTBF MTBO MTBUR MTCR MTHEL MTI

military Moro Islamic Liberation Front Military specifications Miniature Detection Radar Mid Infra-Red Advanced Chemical Laser Management Information System miscellaneous Multiple Launch Rocket System millimetre Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft Medium Machine Gun Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft Ministry of National Defence Moro National Liberation Front mobilisation/mobile Ministry of Defence modified/modification Ministry Of Defence/D (Monitoring of Contracts) Ministry of Defence & Aviation Military Operations Directorate MiG Operational Flying Training Unit Mobile Observation Posts/ Massive Ordnance Penetrator Minimum Order Quantity Mortar Minister of State motorised/motor Memorandum of Understanding Military Police/Member of Parliament Maritime Patrol Aircraft Multi-purpose Anti Tank Mine-Protected Vehicles Maritime Reconnaissance/ Motor-Rifle/ Multiple Rocket Military Region Medium Range Ballistic Missile Multi-role Combat Aircraft Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre Motorised Rifle Division Multiple Rocket Launcher Manufacturer Recommended List of Spares Multiple Rocket Launcher System medium range surface-to-air missile Maritime Rescue Sub-Centre Military Secretary/Mild steel Mine Sweeper, Auxiliary Maritime Search and Rescue Mine Sweeper, Coastal Maritime Self Defence Forces Mine Sweeper, inshore missile Mine Sweeper, Ocean Missile System Quality Assurance Missiles & Material Sciences Mega tonne minute/minutes Multi-role Transport Aircraft Meantime between failures Minimum Time Before Overhaul Mean Time Between Unit Replacement Missile Technology Control Regime Mobile Tactical High-Energy Laser Moving Target Indicator

mtn MTOW MTTR MULTA mw MW MWR MZI

mountain Maximum Take off Weight Mean Time To Repair Muslim United Liebration Tigers of Assam Megawatt Megawatt Millimeter Wave Radar Maritime Zones of India

N n miles NA NA NADP NAM NATGRID NATO NAY NBC NCC NCOs NCW NDA NDFB NDPG NDU NE NEC NEO NETD NFU NG NGCI NGN NGO NHQ NHRC NIA NIA NLC NLFT NM NMRL NMS NMS NMSARCA NOE NOSDCP NOS-DCP NPC NPOL NPT NPV NREGA

519 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

nautical miles Naval Attache/ Not-available Numerical Aperture National Academy of Defence Production Non-Aligned Movement National Database Grid North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Naval Aircraft Yard nuclear, biological and chemical National Counterterrorism Centre National Combat Operations network-centric warfare National Democratic Alliance National Democratic Front of Bodoland National Defence Programme Guidelines National Defence University North East network-enabled capability network-enabled operations noise equivalent temparature difference no first use Next Generation Northrop Grumman and Cobham joint venture next generation warfare Non-governmental organisations Naval Headquarters National Human Rights Commission National Investigation Agency National Investigation Agency Naval Logistics Committee National Liberation Force of Tripura Nao Sena Medal/ Naxalite Management Naval Materials Research Laboratory National Military Strategy New Management Strategy National Maritime SAR Coordinating Authority Nap of the Earth National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan National Police Commission Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Net Present Value National Rural Employment Guarantee Act

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ABBREVIATIONS NS&ACE NSA NSC NSCN(IM) NSCN(K) NSCS NSG NSRY NSS NSTL NTRO

NWFP

Naval Systems & Armament & Combat Engineering National Security Adviser National Security Council National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Issac-Muviah) National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang) National Security Council Secretariat National Security Guard/ Nuclear Suppliers Group Naval Ship Repair Yards National Security Strategy/ National Security System Naval Science & Technological Laboratory National Talent Research Organisation/ National Technical Research Organisation North West Frontier Province

O O&S O, I, D LEVEL OASIIS obs OCU ODF OEF OEF OEM OF OFB OFILAJ OFILAM OFILAV OFILDD OFILIS OFILKH OFILKN

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OFILMK OFs OFT OIC OIF OM ONGC OODA op OPCON OPEC OPLAN Ops Opsec OPV

Operating and Support Operator, Intermediate, Depot Level on aircraft scheduled inspections industrial service observation Operational Conversion Unit Operational Deployment Force Operation Enduring Freedom Ordnance Equipment Group of Factories Original Equipment Manufacturer Ordnance Factory Ordnance Factory Board Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Ambajhari Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Ambernath Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Avadi Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Dehradun Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Ishapore Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Khamaria Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Kanpur Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Medak Ordinance Factories Operational Flight Trainer Organisation of Islamic Conference Operation Iraqi Freedom Office Memorandum Oil and Natural Gas Corporation observe, orient, decide, act operational operational control Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries operational plan operations Operations Security Offshore Patrol Vessel

org ORP ORSA ORV OSCC OSCE OSD OSS OTE

organised/organisation Operational Readiness Platform Operational Research and Systems Analysis Oceanographic Research Vessel Offshore Security Coordination Committee Organisation and Security Cooperation in Europe Officer on Special Duty Office of Strategic Services Open Tender Enquiry

P P&C P&MM P&W PA PA PAC PAC PAF PAP para PBL PBs PC PCB PCC PCDA PCI PCO PCPA PCR PD (Policy & Plans) PD(AV) PD(FM) PD(HRD) PD(MAT) PD(Ops) PDD PDI PDMS pdr pers PGMs PHM PHT PIB PIVADS pl PLA PLAAF PLANAF PM PMF PMOC PNC PNVS PoK

Personnel and Conditions Planning & Material Management Pratt and Whitney Price Agreement Production Agency Project Appraisal Committee Proprietary Article Certificate Pakistan Air Force People’s Armed Police parachute/paratroop Performance Based Logistics Patrol Boats Personal Computer Printed Circuit Board Patrol Craft, Coastal Principal Controller Defence Accounts Patrol Craft, Inshore Patrol Craft, Ocean People’s Committee against Police Atrocities Patrol Craft, Riverine Principal Director (Policy and Plans) Principal Director (Aviation) Principal Director (Fleet Maintenance) Principal Director (Human Resource Development) Principal Director (Materials) Principal Director (Operations) project definition document Pre Dispatch/Delivery Inspection Point Defence Missile Systems pounder personnel Precision Guided Munitions Patrol Hydrofoil (with SSM) Patrol Hydrofoil (with torpedo) Public Investment Board Product Improved Vulcan Air Defence System platoon People’s Liberation Army People’s Liberation Army Air Force People’s Liberation Army, Navy, Air Force Provost Marshal Paramilitary Forces Principal Maintenance Officers Committee Price Negotiation Committee Pilot Night Vision Systems Pakistan Occupied Kashmir

POL POV PP&FD PPBP PP&FD PPOC PPP PPS PQ PRA PRC PREPAK Proc PROM PRT PS PSEs PSI PSLV PSO PSO PSOC PSQR PSR PSU Psyops PTA PTS PTTs PV PVSM PWG PXE

Petrol, Oil and Lubricants Professional Officers Valuation Policy, Plans and Force Development Planning and Participatory Budget Programme Policy, Planning and Force Development Principal Personal Officers Committee public-private partnership Principal Private Secretary Procurement Quantity Pressure Recovery Assembly People’s Republic of China People’s Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak Procurement Programmable Read Only Memory Pollution Response Team Private Secretary Public Sector Enterprises Proliferation Security Initiative Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle Principal Staff Officer project sanction order Principal Supply Officers Committee preliminary services qualitative requirements Preliminary Staff Requirements Public Sector Undertaking Psychological Operations Pilotless Target Aircraft Point Tracker Subsystem Post Task Trainers Prototype Vehicle Param Vishist Seva Medal People’s War Group Proof and Experimental Establishment

Q QA QFI QMG QRM QRs QR SAM QSR

Quality Assurance Qualified Flying Instructor Quarter Master General Quick Reaction Missile Quantitative Requirements Quick reaction surface-to-air missile Qualitative Staff Requirements

R R&D ENGRS R&D RAAF RAF RAF RAM RAM RAMICS RAS RAW RBG RC RC

520 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

Research & Development Establishment (Engineers) Research and Development Royal Australian Air Force Rapid Action Force Royal Air Force Radar Absorbing Material Rolling Airframe Missile Rapid Airborne Mine Clearance System Replenishment at Sea Research and Analysis Wing Royal Bhutan Guards Rate Contract Regional Command

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ABBREVIATIONS RCC RCI RCIED RCL RCS RCWS RE ReCAAP recce regt Retd RF RFI RFID RFP RHQ RL RM RMA RMN RNA ROC ROE ROE ROI ROIC ROK ROP ro-ro ROV RPG RPG rpm RPV RR RR RSTA RUF RUR RWR RWS

Revolutionary Command Council/ Regional Communication Centres Research Centre Imarat Remotely Controlled Improvised Explosive Devices Recoilless Launcher Radar Cross Section Remote Control Weapon System Revised Estimate Regional Cooperation Agreement to Combat Piracy and Armed Robbery reconnaissance regiment Retired Radio Frequency Request for Information radio-frequency identification Request for Proposal Regimental/Regional Headquarters Rocket Launcher Resources & Management, Raksha Mantri (Minister of Defence) Revolution in Military Affairs Royal Malaysian Navy Royal Nepal Army Republic of China Rosoboron Export Rules of Engagement region of interest readout integrated circuit Republic of Korea Road Opening Party roll-on, roll-off Remotely Operated Vehicle Riffle Propelled Grenade Rocket-Propelled Grenade Revolutions per Minute Remotely Piloted Vehicle Rashtriya Rifles Rolls-Royce reconnaissance surveillance and target acquisition Revolutionary United Front Raksha Udyog Ratna Radar Warning Receiver remote weapon stations

SARDP SARS SASE SASO SATCOM SBG SBI SBL SBM SCAP SCAPCC SCAPHCC SCD SCO SCOC SDB SDBs SDC SDF SDLF SDR SDR SEAD Secy SES SEZ SF SFC SFC SFTS SFW SG SHBO SHQ SI SIDs SIGINT sigs SIM SIPRI SITAR

S SA TO RM SA SA SAAM SAARC SAC SACLOS SAG SAGE SAM Bdes SAM SAPTA SAR

Scientific Advisor To Raksha Mantri Scientific Advisor/ South Africa Supplementary Agreement Surface-to-Air Anti-Missile South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation Southern Area Command semi-automatic command-to-light-ofsight Special Action Group/ Scientific Analysis Group Semi-Automatic Ground Environment Surface to Air Missile Brigades Surface-to-Air Missile South Asian Preferential Trade Agreement Search and Rescue/ Synthetic Aperture Radar

SKD SLAM SL-AMRAAM SLBD SLBM SLBM SLCM SLOCs SM SM SMD SMEs SMH SMSO SMT SO SOF

Special Area Road Development Programme Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment Senior Air Staff Officer Satellite Communications Smooth Bore Gun State Bank of India Space Based Laser single buoy moorings Services Capital Acquisition Plan Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee Services Capital Acquisition Plan Higher Categorisation Committee Standing Committee on Defence Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Standard Conditions of Contract Small Diameter Bomb Seaward Defence Boats Supreme Defence Council Self Defence Forces Shaft Driven Lift Fan Software Defined Radio/ software driven Strategic Defence Review Suppression of Enemy Air Defence Secretary Surface Effects Ship special economic zone Special Forces specific fuel consumption Strategic Forces Command Special Forces Training School Sensor Fused Weapon Speical Group Special Helicopter Borne Operations Service Headquarters Services Interaction Signal Intelligence Directorates Signals Intelligence signals Shura Ittehadul Mujahideen Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Society for Integrated Technology Application & Research Semi Knocked Down Stand-Off Land Attack Missile surface launched advanced medium-range air-to-air missile Sea Lite Beam Director Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile Surface Launcher Ballistic Missile Sub-marine Launcher Cruise Missile Sea Lines of Communication Sena Medal Submarines Storage Module Device Small and Medium Enterprises Standard Manhour Senior Maintenance Staff Officer Special Maintenance Tools Supply Order special operations forces

SOFA SOP SP Arty Sp Hels SP sp/sup SPA SPAAG SPC SPG SPS SPSG sqn SQR SR SRAM SRBM SRE SRG SRR SRU SS SSB SSB SSBN SSC SSHC SSI SSK SSM SSN STAP STARS STE STEA stk STO STOBAR STOL STOVL STP STRI surv SWAC sy SYSM

Status of Forces Agreement Standard Operating Procedures Self Propelled Artillery Support Helicopters Self-Propelled support/supply Supreme People’s Assembly Self-Propelled Anti Aircraft Gun Stores Procurement Committee Self-Propelled Gun Stratospheric Platform System Southern Philippines Secessionist Groups squadron Services Qualitative Requirements Short Refit Sideways Random Access Memory Short Range Ballistic Missile Security related expenditure scheme Special Ranger Groups Search and Rescue Region Shop Replaceable Unit Special Secretary Sashastra Seema Bal Special Service Bureau ship sub-mercible ballistic nuclear diesel submarine, coastal Solid State Heat Capacity Small Scale Industries diesel submarine, ASW Surface-to-Surface Missile Nuclear-Fuelled Submarine short-term Action Plan Surveillance Target Attack Radar System Single Tender Enquiry/ Special Test Equipment Strategic & Technical Environment Assessment strike Short Take-Off short take-off but arrested recovery Short Take-off and Landing short take-off verticle landing specialized technical panels Simulation Training and Instrumentation surveillance South Western Air Command security Sarvottam Yudh Seva Medal

T t TA tac TacC3I TACDE TAR TBA TBRL TC TCA

521 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

tonne Territorial Army/Transport Aircraft tactical Tactical Command, Control, Communications and Information Tactics and Air Combat Development Establishment Tibet Autonomous Region Tactical Battle Area Terminal Ballistic Research Laboratory Technical Committee Technical Collaboration Agreement

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ABBREVIATIONS TCDL TCS TD TE TEC temp THEL TI TIALD TIFA TIFCS TISAS TIZ tk tkr TLPS TM TMC TNC TNC TOC TOOC TOT TOTE TOW missile TPC tps tpt/tptn TR Bdes TRV TS TST TT TTL TTLS TTP TU TUAV TVC TVM TVN

Tactical Common Datalink tactical communications system Technology Demonstrator Tender Enquiry Technical Evaluation Committee temporary Tactical High Energy Laser Thermal Imager Thermal Imaging Airborne Laser Designator Trade and Investment Framework Agreement Tank Integrated Fire Control System Thermal Imaging Stand Alone Sights Territorial Interest Zone tank tanker Thunderbolt Lifecycle Programme Support Technical Manager Trinamool Congress Technical Negotiations Committee Tender Negotiation Committee Technical Oversight Committee Technical Offer Opening Committee Transfer of Technology Table of Tools and Equipment Tube-launched Optically-tracked Wire-guided missile Tender Purchase Committee troops transport/transportation Tank Brigades torpedo recovery vehicle Training Ship/ Thermal sight Time Sensitive Targets Target towing Total Technical Life torpedo tube launch system Taliban’s Tehrik-e-Pakistan Transport Unit Tactical Unmanned Air Vehicle Thrust Vector Control Track-via-missile thrust-vectoring nozzles

U UAC UAE UAV

UDD UFH UGC UGS UGV UHQ UK ULFA UMV UN UNDOF UNIFIL UNIKOM UNLF UNMEE UNMOGIP UNMONUC UNPAs UNPKF UNPROFOR UNRWA UNSC UNSCR UNTSO UPA URV USAF USD USMC USN USSR UTD utl UUVs UW UWB UYSM

Unmanned Combat Armed Rotorcraft Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle Uniform Customs & Practices For Documentary Credits United Front of Democracy Against Dictatorship ultra-lightweight field howitzer University Grants Commission Unattended Ground Sensors Unmanned Ground Vehicle Unified Headquaters United Kingdom United Liberation Front of Assam Unit Maintenance Vehicle United Nations United Nations Disengagement Observer Force United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission United National Liberation Front UN Mission in Ethiopia-Eritrea United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan UN Mission in Congo United Nations Protection Areas United Nations Peace Keeping Force United Nations Protection Force United Nations Relief and Works Agency United Nations Security Council United Nations Security Council Resolution United Nations Truce Supervision Organisation United Progressive Alliance Unit Repair Vehicle United States Air Force US Dollar United States Marine Corps United States Navy Union of Soviet Socialist Republic Unit Training Device utility Unarmed Underwater Vehicles Underwater Ultra wideband Uttam Yudh Seva Medal

VCAS VCDS VCNS VCOAS veh VHF VIS-X VLCC VLS VM VOIP VOx VPs VR VRDE VSM VSSC VTO VTUAV

WCMD WE WE wg WiMAX WLR WMD WPI wpn WSOI WTO WTT WV&V WWR WZC

V V/STOL VAs

Vertical/ Short Take Off and Landing vital areas

Western Air Command/ Western Area Command Wind Corrected Munitions Dispenser War Establishment Weapons and Equipment wing Worldwide Interoperability of Microwave Access Weapon Locating Radar Weapons of Mass Destruction Wholesale Price Index weapon Weapons Systems, ORSA & Infrastructure World Trade Organisation Weapons and Tactics Trainer Weapons, Vehicles and Equipment War Wastage Reserves War Zone Campaign

Y YSM

United Aircraft Corporation United Arab Emirates Unmanned Aerial Vehicle/ Unmanned Air Vehicle under-barrel grenade launchers

Vice Chief of the Air Staff Vice Chief of Defence Staff Vice Chief of the Naval Staff Vice Chief of the Army Staff vehicle Very High Frequency vehicular intercom systems very large crude carrier vertical launch system Vayusena Medal Voice over Internet Protocol Vanadium Oxide vital points Virtual Reality Vehicles Research and Development Establishment Vishist Seva Medal Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre Vertical Take-Off Vertical Take-off UAV

W WAC

Yudh Seva Medal

Z ZnS ZnSe

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UBGLs

UCAR UCAV UCPDC

522 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

Zinc blende structure Zinc Selenide

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INDEX 26/11/2008, Mumbai

2s12 2s3

75/24 Indian Mountain Gun 75/24 Pack How E-2 9/11

15, 41, 56, 62, 66, 117, 122, 131, 178, 199, 315, 327, 328, 357, 437 346, 351 345, 350, 351, 400, 405, 409, 430, 442, 457 112 185 5, 6, 11, 13, 17, 31, 59, 60, 318, 341, 432–33

A A-31 FP A-50/T-50 AA-10 Alamo AA-11 Archer AAV-7A1 Abbas, Mahmud Abdul-Aziz Al Al-Sheikh, Grand Mufti Sheikh Abdullah II, King of Jordan Abhay Class Abu Bakar Ba’asyir Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) Abu Zaby AC-130 ACC Acharya, Ajoy Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) Actual Ground Position Line (AGPL) acupuncture warfare Adams SAM Adelaide (Oliver Hazard Perry) class Frigate Aditya Class advanced combat aircraft Advanced Induction Motors Advanced jet trainer (AJT) Advanced Numerical Research & Analysis Group (Anurag) Advanced Systems Laboratory (ASL) Advanced Tactical Laser (ATL) advanced-computer control system advanced light helicopter (ALH)

Advani, L.K. Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment (ADRDE)

83, 498 385 234, 383, 414, 431 234, 351, 359, 383, 388, 414 385, 396 416 428 332, 418 ) 206, 358 366 366, 391 431 91 318, 319 249, 252, 269

Aerospatiale SA-342 Gazelle Afghan National Police (ANP) Afghanistan —defence forces —drug mafia/poppy cultivation —economy —India, relations/development aid —maritime conflicts —security environment —Soviet intervention —strategic vacuum —terrorism —US and NATO forces, military intervention

Africa —European Union strategic partnership Agarwal R.C. Aggarwal, Ashok K. AGM-130 AGM-142 Popeye AGM-65A Maverick AGM-84 Harpoon AGM-84-H SLAMMER AGM-88 HARM Agni ballistic missiles Agni II Agni III

122, 229, 293 175 23 442 492 212, 358 223 79 126, 217 295 295 91 56 120, 211, 126, 195, 203, 204, 205, 207, 211, 216, 232, 240, 247, 248 327

295

Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) aerospace —power —technology and warfare Aerospatiale

Agni IV Agni V AGOR Agosta Class Submarine AgustaWestland EH-101 AH-64 Apache Ahluwalia, Lt general V.K. Ahmad, A.E. Ahmadi-Moghaddam, General Ismail Ahmadi-Nezad, Mahmud Ahmed, Dr Zakwan AIM-120B/C5 AMRAAM AIM-7 Sparrow

274, 289, 294, 295

AIM-9 Sidewinder air cushion vehicles air defence (AD)

295 43–6 223 284, 409, 487, 490, 491, 494, 495, 496, 497 407, 491 352 6, 11, 44, 59, 325, 348, 373 329 316, 346 169, 352 3, 181, 222, 306, 315, 357 40 368, 373 11 1 13, 115, 130, 131, 432 2, 4, 8, 13, 17–20, 36, 44, 115, 130, 341, 342, 346, 347, 353, 436 5, 176, 406 8 296 270 385 385 385 385 385 385 284 187, 289, 290 120, 289, 290, 437 289, 290 289, 290 385 468, 493 126, 144, 158 498, 510 262 300, 302 331 331, 412, 432 296 385 385

—and Strike Fighters Air Defence Control and Reporting System (ADC&RS) Air Defence Direction Centres (ADDCs) Air Defence Ground Environment (ADGES) Air Force Academy (AFA) Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) air search air space management Air Squadron air traffic control (ATCs) Airborne Early Warning and Control Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS)

Airbus and Boeing Aircraft and System Testing Establishment (ASTE) Aircraft Carriers aircraft self defence Airland Battle doctrine Airports Authority of India (AAI) air-to-air missile

385 248 67, 90, 98–99, 111, 126, 195, 216, 221–2, 284, 293 225–30 115, 178 236 235–37 217, 224 292 496 161 328 41 498–99, 512 14, 26, 27, 126, 216, 217, 220, 222, 229, 236 275

217 487–8, 497 91 30 278 120, 225, 233–34, 289, 292 air-to-Air refuellers (AAR) 223 air-to-surface missiles (ASMS) 27 air-to-Surface weapons 234–35 Ajai Vikram Singh (AVS) Committee 178 Ajeya 112, 183 Ajgaonkar, Air Vice Marshal D.V. 219 Ajman 431 AK-47 322, 406 Akahoshi, Admiral Keiji 332 Akash SAM 126 115, 222, 284, 289, Akash 290 Akatsiya (SP Gun-How) 457 Akayev, Askar 346 Akbar, Malik Siraj 362 Akihito 331 Aksai Chin 130 Akula (Bars) class 202 Akula II 120, 437 Al Fujayrah 431 Al Riyadh (Modified La Fayette) class Frigate 494 Al Riyadh Class 468 AL-31 83 AL-31FP 82–83 AL-41 F 83 Alcock Ashdown Gujarat Ltd 196, 210

523 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

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INDEX

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Algeria —War of Independence ALH Civil Variant ALH, 195 ALH.Mk.III ALH.Mk.IV Ali, Brig General Muhammad Nasser Ahmad Alion Science and technology Al-Jazeera Al-Khalid All Tripura Tigers Force (ATTF) ALMAZ Almaz/Baeriev A-60 Almaz-Antey Alouette III/SA 315B Lama ALP Alpha Jet Al-Qaeda

Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) Alternating Current Electrical Multiple Units (ACEMUs) Al-Thani, Amir Hamad Bin Khalifa Altynbayev, General Mukhtar aluminium gallium arsenide (ALGaAs) Alvand (Vosper Mk 5) class frigate Alvis Saladin Alvis Scorpion Amin, Major General Anwar Hamad AML-90 Recce Amman, hotel bombings Amnesty International Amorphous Material Transmitting Infrared Radiation (AMTIR) Amphibious forces Amplifier and signal processor Amu Darya AMX VCI (ICV) AMX-10P Marines AMX-13 Lt Tks AMX-30 AMX-30 Lt Tks AMX-30 MBT AMX-30 SP AA An-12 An-24 An-26 An-32 Andaman and Nicobar Command (ANC) Andaman and Nicobar Islands Andeean Community Andhra Pradesh Androth Angola annual acquisition plan (AAP) Ansari, M. Hamid

404–05, 409 404 274 274 274 274 336 140 426 112 326 225 90 90 232 324, 326 407 1, 4, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 31, 43, 316, 341, 344, 361, 368, 397, 402, 404, 418, 428, 433–34

anti-aircraft and anti-tank missiles anti-aircraft defence (AAD) anti-ballistic missile (ABM) programme anti-material rifles (AMRs) anti-missile defence (AMD) anti-missile warfare Anti-Radar Missiles anti-resonance isolation system (ARIS) Anti-Satellite (ASAT) anti-shipping strike anti-submarine warfare (ASW)

Anti-submarine Warfare School anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs) Antonov Antonov AN-32 Antony, A.K. ANZUS Treaty AoA indicator AON Aoun, Michel APEC application software Arabian Sea Arabs —Israeli problem —Kurd tensions Aramid area radio engineering network (AREN) Arihant Arjun main battle tank (MBT)

404 280 426 332 95 489 442, 463 442, 462–3 331 411 2005, 418 401 94 208–9, 492–93 95 349 441, 447 426, 441, 447 441, 447 446–7 441 426, 441 449 125, 498, 506 498, 506 498, 506 125, 216, 498, 506 161, 163, 181, 192, 266 191, 192, 213, 216, 390 8 321, 322 199 306 101, 132 249, 349

Armament Research & Development Establishment (AR&DE) Armaris Armed Forces Integration Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) Armitage, Richard Armoured Fighting Vehicles (AFVs) armoured personnel carriers (APCs)

Army Education Corps (AEC) Army Intranet Army Ordnance Corps (AOC)

407 114–15, 121 121 112, 113 99, 118 223 235 232 91 195 77, 78, 99, 118, 119, 120, 122, 195, 211–12 195 113, 178, 284 498, 506 228–30 56, 111, 249, 252, 255, 294, 328 11, 369 226 165 423 8 76 130 415 8, 402 402 79 115 437 112, 177, 183, 287, 292, 441, 451

295 196 68, 161 180–1, 314 13 441, 451 26, 114, 369, 371, 374, 375, 377, 378, 379, 382, 384, 386, 388, 390, 392, 394, 396, 398, 400, 405, 407, 409, 411, 413, 415, 417, 419, 421, 423, 425, 426, 428, 430, 432, 434, 441, 442, 443, 444, 445, 446, 447, 450–1, 453, 455, 460, 461, 463, 465 182 70 182

Army Service Corps (ASC) Army Static Switcjed Communication Network (ASCON) Arroyo, Gloria Macapagal ARS Arsenal AK-74 (Bulgaria) Arthashastra artificial intelligence artillery combat command and control system (ACCCS) artillery command, control and communications system (ACCCS) Arty Arun Prakash Arunachal Pradesh

AS 555 Fennec AS-10 Karen AS-332 AS-7 Kerry AS 90 (Braveheart) ASAT system ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) ASEAN Treaty of Amity and Cooperation ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement (FTA) Aselsan Ash Shariqah Ashkenazi, Gabi Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) Asian Development Bank Asian financial crisis Asia-Pacific Asok Kumar, G., Assam Rifles

Assam Assassin’s Mace Programme Assegaai Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) ASTRA ASTROIDS ASTROS II ASW Atasu-Alashankou Athawale, Air Marshal P.V. Atlas Elektronik ATREX ATS attack submarines ATV Aulakh, NPS Aung San Suu Kyi Austal Austin Class Australia

—Air Force —Army —Australian Defence Force

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182

115, 178 334 385 178 51 69, 72 113, 115, 292 178 184 118 57, 62, 130, 175, 216, 305, 307, 308, 311, 323, 355 507 235 385 235 442, 464 92 366, 393 366 366 160 431 331 8 361 8 6, 36, 39, 435 302 62, 114, 127, 304, 307–8, 317, 318, 319 304, 307, 308, 323 28 493 8, 11, 200, 357, 366, 391, 393, 436 289, 292 178 427 385 342 251, 266 486 84 385 469–70 437 306 389, 390 78, 153 468 2, 39, 342, 366, 368–70, 393, 436–37 370 369

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INDEX (ADF) —Australian Minesweeping System (AMAS) —Australian Security Intelligence —strategic dilemma —US relations automated command and control automated decision support system (DSS) automated networked systems automated operational information system Automatic Fire Detection and Suppression System Automatic Grenade Launcher (AGS-30) Automatic Identification System (AIS) Automatic NBC System Aviation Industries Corporation (AVIC) Aviation Research Centre (ARC) Avinash Chander Awami League Azerbaijan

369, 438 122 368 437–8 369 115 72, 115, 318, 320 71 71 292 189 199 292 27 310, 318, 319 295 342 342, 344

B B-1 bomber B-737-300 (VIP) Babur BAE 748 (VIP) BAE systems

BAeHAL Software Ltd Bahadur, Air Vice Marshal M. Bahrain, 410–11 —and United States, Free Trade Agreement (FTA) Bakiyev, Kurmanbek Bal, Arun Kumar ballistic missiles Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) Banco Delta Asia Bandar Abbas Bandwidth on Demand Bangit, Lt General Delfin Bangladesh

—Bangladesh National Party (BNP) —equipment —foreign relations —India relations

—illegal migration from Bangladesh, India, Myanmar,

91 385 113 385 137, 138, 141, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 149, 151, 152, 153, 217, 498, 503, 506, 511 275 218 426 410, 411 346 249 56, 59, 66, 77, 79, 121, 130, 382 90, 289, 292 60 413 75 334 2, 36, 37, 130, 175, 176, 216, 305, 316, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327, 344, 353–54, 356, 370, 393 354 354 370, 393 2, 131, 175–76, 216, 305, 316, 323–23, 325, 327, 356 323, 324–26

Sri Lanka, Thailand Economic (BIMSTEC) Banh, General Tea Bannu Bansal, U.K. BAP-100 Barak –I Barak Next Generation Barak SAM Barak, Ehud Barak-M Barbora, Air Marshal, P.K. Barua, Paresh Barua, Raju Base Air Defence Zone (BADZ) Batalik Batiullah Battleffield Surveillance Radar-Short Range (BFSR-SR) battlefield automation battlefield management system (BMS) battlefield surveillance radars (BFSRs) battlefield surveillance system (BSS) Bay of Bengal Beazley, Kim Beech 200T Beechcraft 1900 C Maritime Surv Beijing

Belgium Bell 407 Bell AH-1 Cobra/Super Cobra Bell Helicopter Textron Inc. Bell-212CCT BEL-Multitonnee Bengaluru Berdimuhamedow, Gurbanguly Beri, Sudhir Kumar Bewoor, Air Vice Marshal K.G. Beyond Visual Range (BVR) Beyond Visual Range Air-to-Air Missile (BVRAAM) Bhaba Atomic Research Centre (BARC) Bhamathi, B. Bhangu, Air Marshal P.S. Bharani Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL)

Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) Bhardwaj, Lt General D. Bhardwaj, Lt General P.C. Bhasin, Vice Admiral S. Bhatia, Ranjit Kumar Bhutan —equipment and hardware Bhutto, Benazir

390 330 342 300, 302 235 121 122 205 331 196 218, 251, 259 67 354 236 216 342

Bhutto, Zulfiqar Ali Biden, Joseph R. (Jr.) Bihar Binoy Kumar Binskin, Air Marshall Mark Black Sea BLG-66 Beluga Blitzkrieg BM-21 MR system BM-21 RL BM-21 BMD-1 ICV BMP-1 APC BMP-2 ICV BMP-3 ICV BMR-600 Boeing

293 180 70, 71, 76, 92, 115, 178, 180, 319, 320 115 70, 115, 178, 320 390 40 405 407 14, 16, 21, 23, 55–58, 124, 130, 255 342 509 509 116 385 278 119 336, 349 270 219 225 289, 292 92 303 251, 265 293 269, 284 236, 269, 280–82 113, 114, 121, 122, 236, 269, 278–80, 293 166 250 173, 250, 258 251, 262 306 316, 323, 344, 355–6 356 342

Boeing-737-100/200 (VIP) Boeing-737-300 Boing-737 ELINT Boeing Business Jet Boeing E-3 Sentry Boeing F-15A/B/C/D Eagle Boeing F-A/-18A/B/C/D Hornet Bofors 57mm gun Bofors Bonus PGM Bofors FH-77 towed AA gun Bofors Howitzer Bofors L-40/70 AA gun Bombardier Boopathy, G. Border Area Development Programme border fencing Border Guarding Force (BGF) border management (BM) Border Out Posts (BOPs) Border Roads Organisation (BRO) Border Security Force (BSF) Bosnia Bouphavanh, Bousone Bousteila, General Ahmed Bouteflika, Abdel-aziz Brahmaputra Class BrahMos

Brazil —equipment and hardware Brazil, Russia, India, China (BRICs) BRDM-2 Bremer Vulcan British Aircraft Carrier Project Brown Amendment Browne, Air Marshal N.A.K. Bryce, Quentin BTR-152VI BTR-50

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55 15, 353 304, 310, 315, 321 249, 252, 269 329 344 235 30, 66 458 185 442 456 184, 284, 442, 446, 455–6 456 456 442, 460–1 137, 141, 142, 146, 148, 150, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 159, 275, 498, 503, 504, 506, 510, 512 506 506 216 230 498, 512 503 503 480, 490 115 442, 461 54, 112, 115, 184 209, 213, 442, 461, 489, 491, 496, 497 238 296 327 305 308 161, 301, 328 305 306, 357 274, 304, 305, 310, 313, 319, 324, 354 306 332 329 329, 404 192, 203 113, 119, 121, 196, 201, 204, 220, 289, 292 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 27, 229 507 7, 9 184, 442, 455 488 79 56 251, 266 329 456 456

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INDEX BTR-80A BUK-M1 Bulgaria Bulk Encryption Unit Burma, Air Marshal J.N. Bush, George W.

buy and make Indian

456–7 115 178 109 218, 251 1, 12–13, 14, 15, 18, 20, 36, 59, 60, 357, 411 101, 102, 104, 105, 107, 110, 134

C C-130 Hercules Transport Aircraft C-130H C-130J C-130J/C-130J-30 C-130J Super Hercules C-131 Class C-141 Class C-17 C-212 C-63 Class Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) CACI International Inc. Cambodia

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Camcopter 5.1 Canada capability building capability definition document (CDD) capability development capability upgradation capacity building capital budget capital expenditure CARE International Carrier Command Post Tracked (CCPT-BMP II) Carrier Mortar Tracked Vehicle (CMTV) Carthage Caspian Pipeline Consortium Caspian Sea Casspir Mk casualty evacuation Catapult Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) CDO Technologies CENTCOM Central Air Command Central Asia

Central Asia Gas Pipeline Central Asian Republics Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Central Military Commission (CMC) Central Paramilitary Forces (CPF) central police forces

55, 506 30, 385, 405 220 507 125 248 248 125 505 248 53, 122, 128, 161, 167, 199, 322, 328 141, 154, 156, 160 35, 306, 366, 370–71 407 342, 393 97–100, 118 104 437 181 127–8 97, 98, 182 63 401

—budget allocations —modernisation —reforms Central Police Organisation (CPO) Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) Centre for Airborne Systems (CABS) Centre for Artificial Intelligence & Robotics (CAIR) Centre for Development of Telematics Centre for Fire, Explosive & Environment Safety (CFEES) Centre for Military Airworthiness & Certification (CEMILAC) Centre for Personal Talent Management (CEPTAM) Centre for United Nations Peace Keeping (CUNPK) centre-state synergy Centurion Mk13 Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) Cessna 150 Aircraft Cessna 170 Aircraft Cessna 172 Aircraft Cessna 177 Aircraft Cessna 180 Aircraft Cessna 185 Aircraft Cessna 207 Aircraft Cessna 208B Aircraft Cessna 310P Aircraft Cessna 401 Aircraft Cessna 402 Aircraft Cessna 402B Aircraft Cessna 421 Aircraft Cessna U 206 Aircraft CH-47 Chinook

292

199, 304, 306–7, 310, 356 56

Chachra, Major General Sanjiv Chairman Chief of Staff Committee (CISC) Chakri Narubet class Aircraft Carrier Challenger Challenger 2 Chan Chung Sing, Lt General Chanakya Chandra, Air Marshal J. Chandramouli, C. Chandrasekharan, S. Chandrasekharan, K.M. Chang Bogo class Submarine Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL) Chatterjee, Upamanyu Chaudhary, Anita Chaudhary, Dileep Rai Singh Chechanya Cheetah

22, 24, 25, 66 310 304–5

chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) Chemical Weapons Convention

114 40 344 344, 349, 357 442, 460 172 184–5 96 140 426 216 341, 344, 346, 348, 349, 351, 357, 361, 373 349 19, 20

312 313 311

Chetak Chew Men Leong, Rear Admiral Chhattisgarh

62 132, 304, 305, 309, 313, 317, 356

Chic-4 design Chidambaram, P.

295

Chief of Air Staff (CAS) Chief of Army Staff (COAS)

295

Chief of Defence Staff (CDS)

121

Chief of Naval Staff (CNS) Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC)

295 295 295

Chieftain Mk Chile China

176 61 442, 462 84 398 392 429 392 390 413 378 415 429 378 378 388 371 417 385, 488, 498, 510 249, 253 163 , 165 468, 487–88 238 442, 462 335 51 219 300 249, 252 328 468, 485 155 249 300, 302 300, 303 31 116, 216, 232, 275, 358

—Armed Forces —Australia, relations —cyber warfare capability —Chinese Communist Party (CCP) —Civil War —Cultural Revolution —defence capability

—global power

—equipment and hardware

—India, relations

—infiltration in Northeast —security threat to India —territorial dispute —war (1962) —Japan relation —military modernization —Pakistan alliance —Pakistan-North Korea proliferation nexus —strategic challenge in Asia-Pacific —revolution in military affairs (RMA) —space warfare —strategic partnership, an evolving strategy —Tibet issue —United States, relation

90, 91, 92 47

526 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

116, 120, 195, 211, 216, 232, 248, 275 335 310, 313, 315, 321, 326 55 62, 299, 300, 301, 308 221–2 111, 170, 172, 173, 179–82 68, 70, 128, 161, 163, 167, 223 199 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167 5 113 12, 19, 20, 31, 40, 41, 43, 48, 49, 52, 112, 316, 342, 347, 355, 366, 379, 382, 390, 393, 395 25–28 438 71, 74 11, 92 35 11 21–24, 37, 90, 91, 116, 267, 280, 281, 365 2, 5, 6, 8–10, 35, 37–8, 129, 370, 372 374, 435, 441, 442–6, 468–79, 499–80, 511 2, 3, 29, 39, 52, 57–8, 113, 119, 123, 124, 127, 181, 305, 307, 308, 316 323–4, 356, 437 323–25, 356 73, 111, 130–1, 305, 307 34, 128, 235, 267, 286 373 124 55–56 38 373, 435–40 22, 66, 67, 89 27 436–37 323 11, 13, 15, 16, 23, 26, 49, 56, 67, 438. See also Arunachal Pradesh

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INDEX China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC) Chinese Hegu Class Chinese Romeo Chinese Type-56 Towed AA Chong-Pin Lee Chopra, Air Vice Marshal A. Chopra, Air Vice Marshal R. Chopra, Vice Admiral Anil Choudhury, Shankar Roy Christopher, Dr S. Chun Jee AORH Chung Un-chan C-I circular error probable (CEP) Civil Aviation, Ministry of Civil Trade and Exports Class Delhi (Project 15) class patrol submarine Clausewitz climate change Clinton, Hillary CMDS CN-235M Coastal Defence coastal management coastal security coastal surveillance capabilities Cochin Shipyard ltd Cold War

Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) College of Air Warfare College of Defence Management College of Naval Warfare in Karanja, Mumbai Combat Aircraft combat data systems Combat Improved Ajeya (CIA) Tank combat information centres combat management system (CMS) Combat Vehicles Research & Development Establishment (CVRDE) Combattante II G Class Fast Track Craft-Missile COMCOS COMCOS (East) COMCOS (West) Cominform command and control (C2) command, control, and communication (C3) command, control, communication and information (C3I) systems command, control, communications, computers, information and intelligence

27 488 407 407 446 23 219 219 250, 254, 266, 328 170 295 385 335 366 34 223 270 203 470 54 6–8, 10, 11, 13, 16, 38, 122, 372, 384 8, 12, 13, 15, 56, 59, 381, 382 284 385, 506 328 327–8 41, 131, 200 131, 210 196 1, 2, 5, 7, 11, 12, 14, 32, 40, 48, 196, 435, 438 351 224 224 195 498 209, 496 292 79 121, 196, 493

292, 295 468, 496–97 195 195 195 11 70, 71, 73, 111, 317 66, 439

91, 122

(C4I2) command, control, communications, computers, information and intelligence surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4I2SR) command, control, communications, computers, and (military) intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition, and reconnaissance (C4ISTAR) command information and decision support system (CIDSS) Command Integrated Network (CIN) command and mission effectiveness commercial negotiation committee (CNC) Commercial off-the-Shelf (COTS) Technology Committee of Concerned Citizens Common Display System (CDS) Commonwealth of Human Rights Initiative (CHRI) Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) communication networks communication satellite (COMSAT) communication system communication technologies Communications School communications, computers, intelligence operations, surveillance and reconnaissance (C2ISR) Communist Party of Bhutan Communist Party of China (CPC) Communist Party of India (Maoist) CPI (Maoist) Communist Party of India (Marxist) CPI (M) Communist Party of Nepal Communist Terrorist Movement (CTM) Comprehensive National Power (CNP) Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) compression technologies Computer Emergency Response Team-India (CERT-In) Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) Condor Conference on Disarmament (2009) confidence-building measures (CBMs) Constitution of India container security initiative (CSI)

70

115, 121, 238

75, 132 115, 178. 178 69 103, 195 75 322 230

Control & Reporting Centres (CRCs) Controller and Auditor General (CAG) convergence technology Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) Copenhagen Climate Summit Corps of Engineers (CE) Corps of Signals Corvettes cost effectiveness Cost-Exchange Ratio Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Council of United Mujahideen Council on Foreign Relations Counter Surface Force Operations (CSFO) counter-bombardment capability counter-guerrilla warfare counter-insurgency (CI)

311 5–6, 233, 234, 235, 236, 345 34, 73 27 115, 223 168 195

26, 33, 34, 91, 98 355 21, 92 315, 322 315 316, 322 391 165, 324 3, 4, 13, 48–50 365, 382 72 87–8 280 450 50 412 301, 317 41

Counter-Insurgency Forces (CIF) Counter-Insurgency Grid (CIG) Counter-Insurgency and Jungle Warfare School (CIJWS) counter-terrorism

Cowshish, Amit Crane, Vice Admiral Russ Crestitalia Crime and Criminal Tracking Network System (CCTNS) Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) Crisis Management Centre Cross budgeting team Crotale Low Alt SAM System cryogenic cooling CVN 21 New generation Aircraft Carrier cyber command cyber crime cyber security —national strategy to secure Cyber Security Awareness and Training Programme Cyber warfare (CW) cyber warning and information network (CWIN) Cyberspace Security Response System Czech Republic —army equipment and hardware

236 64 75 393 2, 10 182 172 207, 468, 479, 485, 487, 488, 489, 491 161 86 64 342 12 216 113 310 98, 113, 114, 177, 178, 262, 304, 307, 310, 312, 315–20, 325, 366 170 317, 318, 319, 320 318, 319, 320 34, 56, 62, 74, 98, 130, 178, 220, 312, 368, 411 252 329 407 62 311 163 165 449 95 80 68 85 70, 85–88, 115, 127 86 87 23, 31, 43, 67, 71, 73, 74, 223, 365 87 87 383 446

D D-20 Gun How D-30 Fd Gun Daewoo Daimler Ferret MK 2/3 Dalai Lama

527 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

458 442, 458 486 442, 463 2, 58, 130, 307

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INDEX Daman Damascus Dandkaranya Region Dantewada Daphne Class submarine DARIN DARIN-3 DARPA Das, Dr J. Narayana Das, N.R. Dash-8/Q-Series Dassault Aviation Mirage 2000H data management technology Datar, Anil M. Datta, I.N. David vs Goliath Dawran, Major General Mohammad DDG-1000 Debroy, Bibek deep penetration strike aircraft (DPSA) defence management Defence Accounting Defence Acquisition Council (DAC)

Defence and Security Exhibitions Defence Avionics Research Establishment (DARE) Defence Bio-Engineering And Electro Medical Laboratory (DEBEL) defence budget

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—allocations —decline —reforms defence capability Defence Communication Network (DCN) defence communications equipment Defence Crisis Management Group (DCMG) Defence Electronics Application Laboratory (DEAL) Defence Electronics Research Laboratory (DERL) Defence Exhibition Organisation (DEO) defence expenditure Defence Food Research Laboratory (DFRL) defence industry Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT) Defence Institute of Bio-Energy Research (DIBER) Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (DIHAR) Defence Institute of Psychological Research (DIPR) Defence Institute of Psychology & Allied Sciences (DIPAS)

328 401, 429–30 322 315 493 274 220 91 250 307 238 226–27 132 295 270 23

Defence Institute of Quality Assurance, Bangalore Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA) Defence Laboratory (DL) defence management Defence Material & Store Research & Development Establishment (DMSRDE) Defence Material Organisation (DMO) Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) Defence, Ministry of (MoD)

329 77, 79 311 123 161 63–64 101, 102, 104, 106, 108, 109, 133, 134, 163, 164, 178, 287 288 296

296 63, 68, 97–100, 133 163 127–8 161 3, 86, 220 70, 72, 115, 178, 180 278 163

Defence Modernisation Fund Defence Offset Facilitation Agency (DOFA) Defence Planning Council defence planning process —jointmanship Defence Planning Staff (DPS) Defence Procurement Board (DPB) Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) —2006 (DPP-2006) —2008 (DPP-2008) —2009 (DPP-2009) defence production Defence Production, Department of (DDP) Defence Production & Supplies, Department of (DDP&S) —Allied Organisations —research and development activities Defence Production Board (Def Prod Board)

296 296 267, 287–8 63, 64, 97 296 267–89 296 296

Defence Public Sector Undertakings (DPSUs)

286 161, 163, 166 296 64

296 159 296 37, 52, 53, 64, 70, 71, 76, 101, 105, 107–09, 110, 112, 113, 114, 116, 128, 133, 134, 135, 161, 163, 165, 166, 167, 178, 182, 195, 223, 224, 274, 280, 286, 294, 313 54 135, 106, 287 164 67, 166 161–67 161, 223 54, 161, 163, 165 75–76, 132, 134, 181, 224 182 101–06, 109, 134, 181, 224, 267 222–24 133 285, 286–87 267, 268 286–88 269–70 102, 106, 108, 109, 110, 135, 287 103, 109, 133, 267, 286, 287

Defence Research & Development Board (DRDB) Defence Research & Development Establishment (DRDE) Defence Research & Development Laboratory (DRDL) Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)

296 296 296

—proposed restructuring plan Defence Scientific Information & Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) Defence Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA) Defence Systems and Equipment International (DSE)

102, 110, 165 296 296

64, 91, 92, 98, 102, 103, 104, 107, 108, 109, 110, 112, 113, 114, 115, 119, 121, 122, 127, 134, 223, 267, 274, 284, 286, 287, 289–93

Defence Technology Commission Defence Terrain Research Laboratory (DTRL) Defense Security Cooperation Agency Delhi Class Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) Delhi Police (DP) Denel NTW-20/14.5 Deng Xiao Ping Deputy Chief of Army Staff (DCOAS) Deputy Chief of Integrated Defence Staff (DCIDS) Dera Ismail Khan Derby Beyond Visual Range Destroyers detailed project reports (DPR) Dewan, Vice Admiral D.K. Dhafra Air Base Dhanush Dharam Vira Dhawan, Sunil Kumar Dhofar (Province) Class Dhowan, Vice Admiral R.K. Dhruv Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH)

Digital Battlefield digital engine control system Digital Navigation System digital video interface (DVI) digital video interface Dimasa Halam Dogah (DHD) Dimri, Sashi Dhar Diptivilasa, D. DIRCM System direct energy weapons (DEW) Director General Coast Guard Director General Defence Planning Staff (DGDPS) Director General of Forces Intelligence (DGFI) Director General Ordnance Factories (DGOF) Directorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance (DGAQA) Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) Directorate General of Information Systems (DGIS) Directorate General of Mechanised Forces (DGMF) Directorate General of Quality Assurance (DGQA)

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296 121, 147 288 (should be DSEI) 294 297 155 468 307 313 189 25, 28 178 162, 165, 263, 291 342 120 472–5, 484, 486 105 193, 251, 258 432 289, 290–1 311 302 468 193, 251, 260 126, 211, 216, 232, 274, 275, 310, 498, 508 73 84 212 95 95 325 270 300, 303 190 89–90, 91, 92, 93 328 161 324, 325 268, 290 267, 286 64, 274 171, 178 171 267, 269, 286, 287, 288

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INDEX Directorate of Planning and Coordination Directorate of Standardisation disaster relief disaster rescue Diu Diving School Diving support ship Diving tenders (YDT) Djebel Chenona FS Dó 228-212 aircraft Dokdo class Dolphin class Submarine Doppler nay/attack system Dornier-228-101 Dornier DO-228 Dornier Maritime Surveillance DRS Technologies drug trafficking and smuggling Dubayy Dushanbe Dutt, Vikram Dev DynCorp International Dzhaksybekov, Adilbek

electronic warfare (EW) 267, 286–7 267, 269, 286 37–38 7, 8 328 195 213 213 405 216, 275 439 479–80 226 195, 210, 248 228, 505 120 143 169, 435 431 348 302 157 332

E E-2 Hawkeye EADS CASA early warning system East Africa East Asia

East Asia-Latin America Cooperation (EALAC) East Coast of Africa East Timor Eastern Air Command Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement EC725 ECM Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) economic growth Ecreuil/AS 550 Ecuador effect-based operations (EBO) Egypt Eilat (SAAR 5) Class (FSGHM) EL/M-2083 Tethered Aerostat Radar System Elangovan, G. Elbit Systems Limited Eldeen, Lt General Abd El Aziz Electrical Engineering School electromagnetic (EM) radiation electromagnetic weapons Electro-Mechanical Drive Units electronic chart display information system (ECDIS) electronic intelligence system (ELINT) Electronic Support Measure (ESM)

498, 512 505–6 293, 317 192 2, 6, 8, 341, 353, 365, 366, 373, 376, 381, 395, 397, 438 8 40, 41 369, 393 216 344 120 203, 204, 205, 211, 226, 227, 236 344 2, 4, 123 507 275 33 406–08, 418 468, 480–1 237 250, 291 158, 160 331 195 73, 89, 91 90 292 122 23, 178 217

electronic warfare system (EWS) Electronics and Radar Development Establishments (LRDE) electro-optical counter measures (EOCM) Elettronica SpA and Elbit Systems Inc. Elizabeth II, Queen ELOP ELT/572 EMB-312 Tucano Embraer Legacy Emerson Electric Emmali Rahmon, 336Ma Ying-Jeou Enan, Lt General Sami Hafez End Use Monitoring Arrangement (EUMA) energy security engine lubrication systems Enhanced Interoperability environmental degradation equipment and hardware specifications Army Naval Eurasian Economic Community (EurASEC) Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council Eurocopter Eurocopter (MBB) Bo-105 Eurocopter AS 332 Super Puma Eurocopter AS 350 Dauphin II Eurocopter AS 350 Eurocopter AS 365 Dauphin Eurocopter AS 565 Panther Eurocopter SA 360 Eurocopter SA-316 Eurocopter SA-319 Alouette III Eurocopter SA-330 Puma Eurocopter SA-341/342 Gazelle Eurofighter Typhoon Euromissile European Aviation Safety Agreement (EASA) European Union (EU) Evans, Lt General Mark Evidence Act (1871) exclusive economic zones (EEZs) explosive reactive armour (ERA) Extended Range Barak (ER-SAM) External Affairs Ministry (MEA)

23, 70, 74, 113, 121, 192, 196, 216, 278, 292, 488 178

297 91, 92 190 329 284 190 498, 510 126, 229 487 335 330 14 41 83 74 7, 435

442–67 468–512 351 344 116, 120 508 507 507 507 507 507 507 508 508 508 508 500 284 275 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 27, 342, 366, 393 329 311 40, 121, 191, 327, 488 188, 292 119, 205 37, 165, 167, 306

F F/A-18E/F F100/110 F119 F119-PW100 F-124 F-125

82 82 82, 83 82 79 220

F-125 F-135 F-136 F-155 F-15K F-16 F-16 A/B/C/D F-22 Raptor fighters F-22 F-27 F-35 Lightening II F-35 F-35A F-35B F-35C F-405 F-4E F-4EJ Phantoms F-5B F-5E Tiger F-5E F-AB Laser Bomb Units Falcon 900, Far East Fast Attack Craft (FACs) Fast Attack Craft Tarmugli Fast Attack Missiles Craft

Fast Interception Crafts (FIC) Fast Track Missile Crafts Fatah al-Islam Fatikhovich, Zhaksilikov Faulkner, John Phillip FBC-1 FC-1 Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) Feingold, Russ Ferranti Blue Box Fertilisers and Chemicals Travancore Limited FH-77B Fifth Generation Combat Aircraft (FGFA) fighter aircraft engines fighter jets Fiji Finance Commission Finance, Ministry of (MoF) Fincantieri Finmeccanica Fire Control System (FCS) fire-control radars Firefinder system firepower asymmetries Firouzabadi, Major General Hassan Fishbed Fisheries Department Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT) Five Power Defence Agreement Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief (FOC-in-C) Flag Officer Sea Training (FOST) FLAME

529 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

79 82, 83 82 494 385 82, 124 504 438, 504 82, 83 405 82 83, 504 82 82 82 385 385 438 385 498, 505 385 235 405 2 196 195 468, 478–9, 481, 482, 483, 490, 496, 497 328 496–97 422 332 329 27 124, 500 341–2, 357, 361 353 210 307 112 275 81–84 56 368 63–64 166 196 145, 147 93, 112, 177 496 113 112 331 225 199 50 368, 393 192, 194, 195 195 284

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INDEX Fleet Rehabilitation and Modernisation (FRAM) flight management system (FMS) Flying Instructors School (FIS) focal plan arrays (FPAs) foreign direct investment (FDI) Foreign Military Sales (FMS) foreign policy Formed Police Unit (FPU) Four Groups Fourth Generation Aircrafts Foxtrot Class France

—equipment and hardware Franco-Siamese Treaty FREMM frequency modulated carrier wave (FMCW) Frigates

FSU Komar Fuchs Fujairah Future Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA) Future Infantry Soldier as System (F-INSAS) FV432

General Dynamics 491 229, 230 217 94, 95 106, 129, 131, 132, 136 98 12, 52 307 5–10 274 202 6, 14, 40, 64, 89, 95, 112, 166, 188, 196, 202, 222, 227, 233, 236, 284, 342, 379, 420, 426 446, 500, 507, 511 1907, 386 79 78 405, 407, 409, 411, 413, 428, 430, 432, 438, 439, 475–8, 483–4, 486–7, 488, 489–91, 492–3, 494–6 407 450 432 222, 223

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Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE) Gautam, R.D. Gaza Strip GCT SP Gun Gearing (Fram I) Class Guided Missile Destroyer GE-Bell General Atomics

—equipment and hardware GFAST Ghatak Platoons Ghose, Ranjan Kumar Ghosh, Lt General S.R. GIAT AMX-10P GIAT GCT (SP Gun) GIAT Mk (SP Gun and How) Gilani, Syed Yousuf Raza Gilani, Yousaf Raza Gillespie, Lt General Ken GKN Def Desert Warrior global financial crisis Global Nuclear Security summit global positioning systems (GPS)

70, 113, 180 442, 464 global security global strategic context globalisation

G G-4 G-7 G-8 G-20 Gagneja, Air Vice Marshal S.K. Gaid, General Salah Ahmed Gallium arsenide (GaAs) Gandhi, Indira —Mujibur Rahman Accord Gandhi, Rajiv Gangadharan, Neela Ganju, Ashwagosha Gantz, Major General Anwar Hamad Garden Reach Ship Builders Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Limited (GRSE)

General Electric General Staff Equipment Policy Committee General Staff Qualitative Requirement (GSQR) geographical information system (GIS) geo-political issues George, Air Vice Marshal M. geospatial technology geostationary earth satellite German type 212 Germany

0 9, 10 2, 9 2, 8, 9, 10 219 329 95 40, 48 354 12 302 298 331 41 119, 196, 269, 282–3 297 302 406, 416, 430 441 491 278 151

GLONASS Gnat Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL) Godavari Class Godrej & Boyce Goel, Dr P.S. Goel, Rashmi Gogoi, Air Marshal A.K. Golan Heights Golden Triangle Goldwater Nichols Act Gonzales, Norberto B. Gopalpur Gormo-Lhasa oil pipeline Gorshkov, Admiral Goshawk Goyal, A.K. Great Depression Greatship Global Services Ltd, Singapore green house gas (GHG) emissions Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Grotius, Hugo Ground Support Laser Weapons Group of Ministers (GoM)

78, 112, 137, 138, 140, 144, 146, 148, 151, 154, 155, 156, 209 119, 209, 278 287 112 70–2, 178 73 218 132 44 480 10, 30, 40, 66, 81, 89, 95, 112, 166, 178, 195, 267, 342 449–50, 505 165 178, 318, 319 249, 253 250, 261 447 448–9 441, 448 334 56 329 442 6, 416, 420, 426, 428 2 26, 77, 96, 113, 114, 225, 229, 230, 232, 233, 274, 292 14, 52 1–2 6, 8, 32, 40, 52, 306, 321 225 215 196, 269, 283–4 120, 203 135 298 300, 303 218 430 52, 192 66 334 199 324 195, 210 120 300, 303 8 282 15 366 40 91 53, 128, 161, 165, 166, 167, 327

Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) Grover, Air Cmde P.C. GSAT-7A satellite GSG-9 GSh-23/6 GSh-301 Guangzhou Guided Missile Destroyers Gujarat, 308, 328 —communal riots Gulf of Aden Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Gulf War (1991) Gulfstream IV Gulfstream V Guo Boxiong, General Gupta, Ashok Kumar Gupta, Balraj Gupta, D.M. Gupta, Dheeraj Gupta, K.G. Gvozdika (M 1974- SP Gun-How) Gwadar Port Gyanesh Kumar Gyatso, Tsangyan

404 219 220 306 226 226, 228 395 491 312 3, 41, 199–200, 437–38 8, 426 22, 25, 52, 65, 67, 91, 115, 426 405 405 330 252 295 270 252 270 457 36, 130, 324 254, 269 130

H H-181 class Hafez Mohamed, Air Marshal Reda Mahmoud Hafiz, Major General Abdul Hainan class (Large Patrol Craft) Hainggyi HALBIT Avionics Pvt Ltd HAL-Edgewood Technologies Pvt Ltd Hales Hamas Hambantota Hamilton Sunstrand Han class (Strategic missile submarine) Handa, Lt General S.N. hand-held thermal imaging devices (HHITs) Hariri, Rafiq Hariri, Saad Harkat-ul-Jihad-i-Islam (HuJI) Harpoon Harpy Harris Corporation Hastak, R.S. Hatoyama, Yukio Hawai Sepoys Hawk Hawk-100 Hawk-132 Hawk-200 Hawk-21 Hawk AJT Hawk MK67 Hawk Single Stage Low to Medium Alt SAM

530 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

248 330 330 483 390 275 275 159 406, 416, 430 324 82 468, 469 250 113 422 332, 422 354 385 385 149 297 8, 365, 438 215 220 498, 511 126, 217 503 115 220 385 442, 467

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INDEX Hawk XXI Hawker 800RA Hawker 800XP HDW 1500 He Nong Duc Manh Head-up Display (HUD) HEAT heavy water (D2O) Heckler Hekmatyar, Gulbuddin Helicopter Academy to Train by Simulation of Flying (HATSOFF) helicopters 507–8 Hermes Class Herons Herstal F-2000 (Belgium) Herzegovina Hetz (Saar 4.5) class (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) Hetz (SAAR 4.5) Class Hezbollah Hibako, General Yoshifumi High Energy Laser (HEL) applications high energy liquid laser area defence System (HELLADS) High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL) High Power Microwave (HPM) Systems High Speed Anti-Radiation Missiles (HARM) Hindu Rights Action Force (HINDRAF) Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL)

Hiroshima Hitler Hizb-ut-Tahrir (HuT) HJT-16 Kiran HJT-36 Sitara Hokazono, General Ken’ichiro Home Affairs, Ministry (MHA)

Homeland security Honeywell Technology Solutions Inc. (HTSI) Hong – 6 Horizon Core Technology group Hormuz Strait Houku Class (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) Houston, Air Chief Marshall Allan Grant Houxin class (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) (PTG) Hovercraft Howaldtswerke HPT-32 Deepak HS-748

442 385 385 195 336 225, 226, 227, 274 188 56 178 18 275 211–12, 498, 202, 468 126, 233 187 306 481 468 43, 401, 412–13, 416, 422, 423, 430 332 90, 91 91

216 216 126 25, 56, 57, 330, 365, 439

HS-748 Avro HS-748 ELINT HTT-40 Hu Jintao Huangfen (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) Huchuan Class (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) Hudong Zhonghua Shipyard hull mounted panoramic sonar (HUMSA) Hull Mounted Sonar (New Generation)-HUMSA (NG) human intelligence (HUMINT) human resource (HR) human resource development (HRD) human resource management human trafficking humanitarian assistance and disaster relief Hunter Hutbay HVF Avadi hydrogen bomb Hydrographic School Hyundai

297

I

91

IAI Kfir IAR-316 (SA-316) Alouette III IFG Mk.2 IL-103 IL-38 IL-76 aircraft IL-76MD IL-76TD IL-78 Ilavazhagan, Dr G. Ilyushin IL-18 Ilyushin IL-76MD Ilyushin IL-76TD (AWACS Version) Ilyushin IL-78 M (Tanker Version of IL-76MD) Ilyushin L-38 image processing IMI Galil 5.56, 178 import substitution improvised explosive devise (IEDs)

505 388 119, 123, 125, 126, 211, 217, 220, 222, 224–25, 227, 232, 269, 274–77, 319 59 30 346 126, 498, 510 126, 498, 510 332 62, 167, 299, 301–3, 308, 311, 312, 318, 319, 327, 328 299–308 138, 141 498, 499 165 36, 40, 424, 432 468, 478

INAS 303 INCAT-HAL Aerostuctures Ltd INCOM Independent Parachute Brigade Group India

329 478–79 248 494 212, 498, 511 506–7

—cyberspace security —equipment and hardware

Indian Air Force (IAF)

479 479 439, 477

—budget allocation —equipment catalogue —modernisation —Training Command India Reserve Battalions (IRBs) Indian Armed Forces —modernisation Indian Army (IA)

122, 205 292 318 67, 71, 294 286 223–4 435 37–8, 200 215 199 292 56 195 486

501 385 441, 451 385 195, 211 90, 125, 216–17 405 405 216, 405 296 498, 505 229, 498 229 229 511 95 63 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 322, 407 120 275 225 170 2, 5, 7, 19, 39–42, 236, 344, 356–9, 370 85–8 358, 441, 451–2, 479–82, 498, 501, 508 34, 37, 64, 98–9, 115, 116, 126,

—equipment catalogue —specifications —modernisation plans Indian Coast Guard (ICG) Indian Military Academy (IMA) Indian National Defence University (INDU) Indian Naval Ship (INS) Indian Naval Work up Team (INWT) Indian Navy (IN)

—maintenance and logistic support —organisation —personnel Indian Ocean Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS) Indian Ocean Region (IOR)

Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IORARC) Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) Indian Penal Code (IPC) Indian Railways Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) indigenous aircraft carrier (IAC) Indonesia —equipment and hardware Indo-Russian Aviation Limited Indo-Tibetan Border Police Force (ITBP) Indra-I/II Infantry infantry battalions infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) Infantry Soldier as System (INSAS) Infantry Batallions

531 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

132, 178, 215–20, 221–2, 274, 284, 290, 394, 437 220 225–37 123–6, 216 217 312, 313 3 53 98–99, 132, 169– 78, 179–82, 274, 290, 292, 304, 306, 314, 437 183–7 451–2 111–16, 181, 182 41, 199, 274, 282, 283, 287, 328 318, 319 68, 166, 224 225, 231 195 29, 30, 34, 35–38, 40, 42, 98, 99, 113, 117–22, 178, 191–8, 199, 200, 274, 282, 292, 328, 437, 494 194–95 192–94 192 3, 35–37, 38, 40, 41, 52 41 35, 37, 38, 41, 67, 117, 118, 121, 130, 200 424 262, 304. See also Sri Lanka 311 278 223, 274 348 119 41, 192, 366, 368, 376–8, 394 377–8 275 304, 305–6, 310, 313, 356 235, 236 171–2 114 184 114, 132 178

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INDEX information and communication technology (ICT) information assurance cum cyber security Information Dominance information security information sharing information sharing and analysis centres (ISACs) information systems (IS) Information Technology (IT) Information Technology Act 2008 (ITA 2008) information warfare (IW) INFOTECH HAL Ltd infrared imaging systems Infrared Laser and Sensor Technology infrared optical system infrared photon detectors infra-red suppression system (IRSS) infrastructure creation and development

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—in border regions INS Amba INS Bangaram INS Bitra INS Chapal, Chatak and Chamak INS Chilka INS Dronacharya INS Garuda INS Hamla INS Himgiri INS Kadamba INS Kalveri INS Makar, Meen and Mithun INS Nistar INS Satavahana INS Shivaji INS Subhadra INS Suvarna INS Udaygiri INS Valsura INS Vikramaditya INS Viraat INS Zamorin Institute of Defence Studies and Analysis (IDSA) Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS) Institute of Systems Studies & Analysis (ISSA) Institute of Technology Management (ITM) Instruments Research & Development Establishment (IRDE) Insurgency in North-east and Punjab

Integral starter generators and Electric Actuators integrally bladed rotor (IBR)

disks Integrated Air Command & Control Systems (IACCS) integrated communications networks Integrated Defence Staff (IDS)

65, 122 70 72, 74 71 69, 86, 199 87 70 12, 65, 66, 72, 86, 113, 278, 286 87 23, 70, 74, 113, 120 275 94 190 94 94 119 164, 170–1, 180, 182 437 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 196 195 195 195 195 195 197, 207, 292 197, 207, 292 195 195 119, 195, 196, 203, 210 119, 192 196 312 297 165, 297 297

Integrated Electric Propulsion (IEP) Integrated Electronic Warfare Programme, Samyukta Integrated Fire Detection & Suppression System (IFDSS) Integrated Guided Missiles Development Programme (IGMDP) Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) Integrated Material Management Online System (IMMOLS) network Integrated Perspective Planning Integrated Power Systems (IPS) integrated project management terms (IPMT) integrated security system Integrated Space Cell (ISC) integrated surveillance system Integrated Test Range (ITR) Integrated Tri-Ser vice Perspective Planning Integrates Defence Staff (IDS) integrity pact (IP) intelligence and precision force Intelligence Bureau (IB) intelligence systems & apparatus Intelligence Task Force Intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) intercepter boats (IBs) Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT) Internal Security (IS)

Internal Security Academy Internal Security Act Internal Security Assistance Force (ISAF) International Aerospace Manufacturing Pvt Ltd International Association of Peacekeeping Training centres (IAPTC) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

297 57, 61–62, 97, 176, 179, 299, 301, 304, 305, 435 83

International Compact with Iraq international Cooperation in Defence Production international forces International Monetary Fund (IMF)

82

international relations (IR)

236

International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) international ship and port facility security (ISPS) International Strategic Security Cooperation and Dialogue International Telecommunication Union (ITU) international terrorism Internet Protocol (IP) Network Technologies inter-service technical intelligence Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), Pakistan IR detectors Iran

76 161–67, 181, 223, 224 79 292 292

284, 289

82 217 164 79 103, 104, 105, 108, 109, 110 132 223 178 297 164 53, 101, 128 105 66 128, 163, 245 66, 161 , 192 62

—nuclear programme —International Compact with Iraq Iraq

—United States War (2003) Isakov, General Ismail Islam —extremism —fundamentalists Islamic Action Front (IAF) Islamic Jihad Union Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps Islander Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) Israel Aircraft Industries (RAMTA) Israel

74 248 65, 66, 67 217, 220, 274 74, 161, 299, 301, 304–5, 307–8, 309–10, 312–13 304 366 18, 19, 342, 352 275

176 3, 48, 49, 59, 357, 365, 382, 412 414 287 5–10, 12 5, 6, 9, 10, 406, 414

—equipment and hardware —Hezbollah —Palestine, conflict —peace agreement Italy, 196, 342; army equipment and hardware ITT Corporation IVECO Latin America Iyer, Air Marshal V.R.

5, 6, 10, 12, 37, 52, 192, 258 19, 342 41 163 43 1, 7, 56 75 163 316, 324, 325, 326 95 2, 6, 19, 20, 36, 37, 40, 60, 412–14 412 414 60, 115, 402, 414–15, 428, 430, 432 22, 32 332 401, 404, 415 418, 428 402, 424 418 344 344 413 210 196, 292 482 8, 11, 14, 27, 48, 49, 64, 89, 95, 112, 115, 119, 122, 126, 131, 178, 233, 284, 401, 402, 406, 407, 412–13, 416–17, 418, 422–23, 430, 437 417, 479–82, 498, 501 43, 401, 412–13, 416, 422, 423, 430 401, 416 418 442 137, 138 149 251, 265

J J-10, 124 J-11 (Su27SK) J57 Jafari, Major General Mohammad Ali Jaguars

532 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

439 124, 500 81 331 123, 125, 195, 216,

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INDEX

Jain, K.C. Jain, R.K. Jalashwa (Austin) Class (Amphibious Transport Dock) Jammu & Kashmir (JK)

217, 220, 227, 265, 274, 275, 359, 425, 463 300, 303 298

119, 209, 492–3 2, 4, 30, 52, 56, 57, 61, 97, 131, 170–1, 175, 176, 180, 216, 299, 304, 308, 309, 324, 327, 342 2, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, Japan 13, 39, 40, 41, 49, 60, 89, 267, 357, 366, 378 382, 393, 424, 436, 438 379, 380, 438 —Air Self Defence Force —Democratic Party of Japan (DJP) 365 39, 357, 366 —economy 267, 379–80, 442, —equipment and hardware 452–3 60, 89, 382, 424 —foreign relations/policy 49 —India relations —Liberal Democratic Party 365 (LDP) 379 —Liberal Democratic Party —National Defence Programme 379, 438 Guidelines (NDPG) 393 —regional cooperation 6 —Russia relations 41 —shipbuilding 11, 13, 436 —US relations 365 —war crime in China 82, 503 JAS-39 250, 260 Jaswal, Lt General B.S. 284 JATO booster Jawad, Rear Admiral Muhammad 331 335, 393 Jayakumar, S. 432 Jebel Ali 366, 368, 377, 391 Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) 56 JF-17 fighter 126, 439 JF-17 Thunder 438 JF-35 27 JH-7 124 JH-7/7A 300, 303 Jha, Lokesh 310, 313, 315, 321 Jharkhand 498, 499 Jian – 7 498, 499 Jian – 8 499 Jian Hong – 6 477 Jianghu I/V class frigate 477 Jianghu II class frigate 475–6 Jiangkai I class frigate 476 Jiangkai II class frigate 56, 476–7 Jiangwei-class frigates 500 Jianji – 10 468 Jiankai Class Jin Class (Strategic missile 468 submarine) Jindalee Operational Radar 370 Network Joint Air to Surface Stand-off 505 Missile (JASSM) Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) 318 164 joint military strategy 41, 328 joint operation centres (JOCs)

Joint Operations Committee (JOCOM) Joint Planning Committee (JPC) Joint Task Force on Intelligence (JTFI) Joint Training Committee (JTC) Jordan —equipment and hardware Jordanian Air Force Jordanian Qualifying Industrial Zones (QIZ) Joshi, Shobhana Joshi, Vice Admiral D.K. JS Myoko Jyoti Class

163 163 310 163 414, 415, 418–19, 428, 430 419 418 418 253 250, 266 438 212

K K 1A1 K0-1 K-13 AA-2 Atoll K-8 Karakoram KA-31AEW KA-32 Kailsh Mansarovar Yatra Kakodkar, Anil Kalia, Air Vice Marshal V.N. Kalsi, N.S. Kalvari Class Kamov Ka-25 B SH Kamov Ka-25 Kamov Ka-31 Kampuchea Kamtapur Liberation Organisation (KLO) Kan, Naoto Kanglei Yowal Kunna Lup (KYKL) Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP) Kanupp reactor Kao Hua-chu Kaplan, Robert D. Kapoor, J.C. Kapoor, Nita Karaikal Karakoram Range Kargil conflict

—post-Kargil Kargil Review Committee (KRC)

Karimov Karnataka Karnik, Air Marshal A.S. Karshi-Khanbad airbase Karwal, Lt General R.K. Karwar Karzai, Hamid Kashagan Kashin Class Kassam, 406 Katoch, Prakash

460 385 233 498, 511 119, 196 385 306 49 218 300 202 498, 508 498, 508 498, 509 192 355 331 326 326 56 335 35, 38 295 252 199 56, 130 41, 43, 46, 52, 53, 112, 113, 123, 128, 161, 165, 166, 182, 215–16, 305 327–8 53, 66, 128, 161, 165, 166, 167. See also Pakistan; United States 351 321 218–29 351 250 195, 196, 199 17–18, 329 342 468, 484 115

Katyusha rocket Kaushal, M.B. Kaveri Class Kazakhstan KDX-2 class Destroyer KDX-III Kelkar Committee Keltron Kerry-Lugar legislation Kevlar KF-16C/D KH179 How Khalid Khalifa bin-Zayed al-Nahyan, Sheikh al-Khalifa, General Sheikh Duaij bin Salman al-Khalifa, Hamad bin isa al-Khalifa, Lt General Sheikh Salman bin Hamad al-Khalifa, Sheikh Mohammed Bin Mubarak al-Khalifa, Sheikh Salman bin Hamad Khalili, Abdul Karim Khamronsin class Corvette Khan, Dr A.Q. Khan, General Bismillah Mohammadi Khan, Moahmmad Qasim Fahim Khanna, Lt General Pradeep Khanna, Nagal, Lt General Pradeep Kharonsin Class Khmer Rouge Khukri class (Project 25) Khullar, S.K. Khushab Kiev Class Kilo Ampere Linear Injector (KALI) Kilo class Kim Jong II Kim Yong Chun, Vice Marshall Kim Yong II Kim, Tae Young Kiran MK 1&2 Kissinger, Henry Kitazawa, Toshimi Kizu County Klub missiles Koch G 36 Kochar, Air Marshal G.S. Kochi Kohistan Koizumi, Junichiro Kolar Gold Fields (KGF) Kolay, Sukumar Kolkata Class Komratov, Rear Admiral Ratmir Kongsberg Defense Corporation Kongsberg Gruppen Konkurs KOPYO

533 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

90 302 202, 292 341, 342, 344–45, 349–50, 351, 357 486 439 102, 108, 134, 135 122 14, 15 79 385 460 442, 462 336 330 330 330 330 330 329 488–89 38, 55 329 329 251 251, 261 468 316 207 302 55 203 92 27, 201, 405, 413, 468, 470 333 333 333 335 210, 224, 274 2, 5 331 59 119, 120, 121, 205 178 251, 265 119, 195, 200, 328, 328 342 365 280 270 119, 196 332 139, 143 142, 151 188, 284 225

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INDEX Kora class Korea Command (KORCOM) Korean War Kornet E Kosovo Krauss-Maffei Wegmann (KMW) Krishna Godavari Basin Krishnan, P.S. Krivak Class frigate KS-19 KT-1 Kukreja, Air Marshall Dheeraj Kumaon Mandal Vikas Nigam Kumar, Air Vice Marshal S. Kumar, Lt General S.S. Kunming, military exercise Kurds Kuwait

207 439 60 188 43, 52, 67, 115, 306 140, 450 41 295 468, 484–5 442, 459 385 250 306 219 175, 250 437 415 113, 01, 402, 411, 420–21, 424, 426 —equipment and hardware 421 Kvadrat 115 KXD-2 Class 468 Kyong Buk 487 Kyoto Protocol 10 341, 342, 344, Kyrgyzstan 345–6, 347, 348, 351, 357 —army equipment and hardware 346

L

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L-100-30 L-3 Communication L-40/70 L-70 gun system La Fayette class Frigate Lada class (Project 677) Submarine Ladakh Laden, Osama bin Lahud, Emile Lakki Marwat Lakshadweep Lalit Kumar, Dr Lamba, Lt General A.S. Lamba, Rear Admiral Sunil land attack cruise missile (LACMs) land systems land warfare Land Warrior programme landing platform decks (LPDs) Landing Ships Tank (LSTs) Lao People’s Armed Forces (LPAF) Lao People’s Army (LPA) Laos, 366, 385–86 Larsen & Toubro Laser Guided Bombs Laser Science & Technology Laboratory (LASTEC) laser-guided bombs laser-guided weapon system Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT) Latin America Latin America Aero and Defence (LAAD)

405 139, 142, 147, 158, 159 186 114–15 495–96 484 175, 216, 308 342, 433 422 342 191, 216 297 251, 262 251

Leaopard 2 MBT Learjet series Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) Lebanon —civil war Leclerc Lee Hsein Loong Lee Kuan Yew Lee Myung Bak Lee Sang-Eui, General Lee, Kae Hoon left wing extremism Lei Yu Chi Lekiu class Frigate (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) Leopard 2A6EX Levite, Ariel Liang Guanglie, General liberalisation of economy Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) Libya light combat aircraft (LCA)

Light Combat Helicopter Light Emitting Diode (LED) light field gun (LFG) light machine gun (LMG) Light Utility Helicopter (LUH) light-weight towed howitzer (LTH) Limited Series Production limited war Lind, William S. Line of Actual Control (LAC) line of control (LoC)

26, 113 292 29–34 114 41 196 386 386 113, 122, 135 234 297 227 113 15, 31, 316, 357 8, 275 288

Lavasa, Ashok law enforcement, 62 —at sea lead intelligence agency (LIA) League of Arab States Leander class frigate (Krishna)

line-of-sight (LOS) communications line-replaceable components (LRCs) Liquid Laser Area Defence System (LLADS) Liquid Crystal (LCD) technology Liquid Crystal Multi-function Display Lisbon Treaty Littoral combat ship (LCS) Liu Chao-shiuan Liu Huaqing Lockheed Martin

Logistics & Management School

300 38 308 406 195, 206, 210, 468, 489 450 238 422 40, 43, 401, 412, 416, 422–3, 430 422 432, 441, 446 335 5, 439 335 335 335 130, 131–2, 312 335 490 449–50 32 330 306, 321 316, 322, 342 408–10 119, 120, 126, 196, 217, 220, 222, 274, 292 274 91, 319 112 114 120, 275 112 274 21–22, 24, 41 31 175–6, 181, 182, 216, 324 52, 53, 111, 113, 131, 176, 182, 215–16, 304, 305 75 82 284 96, 230 225 8 77–78, 79 335 27 78, 120, 125, 137, 139, 140, 143, 144, 145, 147, 148, 149, 151, 152, 153, 154, 157, 160, 504, 506–7 195

London International Conference Long Range Maritime Patrol (LRMP) Long Range Surface-to-Air Missile (LRSAM ) Long Range Tracking Radar (LRTR) Long-Term Integrated Perspective Plan (LTIPP) Long-Term Perspective Plan (LTPP) Look East Policy Lop Nor test range Los Alamos Laboratories Low Altitude (Alt) SAM system Low Energy Laser (LEL) Systems Low frequency active (LFA) Low Frequency Dunking Sonar (LFDS) low intensity conflicts (LIC) Low Level Tactical Radars (LLTRs) Low-Level Transportable Radars (LLTR) Low Probability Interception Radar (LPIR) Lowry Computer Products LR-SAM LSP LST (large) LTPP Formulation Committee (LTPPFC) Luda Class Luhai class destroyer Luthra, Air Vice Marshal S.C. Luyang I class destroyer Luyang II class destroyer LVTP-7 Lynx Mk-99

18 40, 196 289, 292 121 104, 108, 164, 165, 166 132, 133, 164 323, 357, 366 55 28 441 91 78 292 29, 34, 41, 66, 98, 169–70, 181 236 126 78 141 119 274 208 164 468, 472 474, 475 219 473–4 44 385 385

M M-1 Abrams MBT M-107 SP Gun M-107 SPAA and How M-109 series M-11 missiles M-110 SPAA and How M-113 A3 APC M-160 M-163 Vulcan, SP AA and SAM M-167 Vulcan AA Gun M-198 Towed A Tk M-31M M-37M M-41 Lt Tks M-42 Twin SPAA and How M-46 Fd Gun M-47 M-48 A1 Chaparral Low Alt SP SAM M-48 series M-60 A3 MBT

534 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

442 466 384, 400, 413, 417, 442, 466 442, 466 56 442, 466 442, 465–6 185 442, 467 442, 467 442, 466 187 187 442 442, 466 458 385 442, 467 442, 465 396, 398, 407, 411, 417, 419, 425, 428,

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INDEX M-60A1 M-60A3 MBT M-777 (39 calibre Howitzer) Ma Ying-Teou Macao Mach-3 MacMahon Line Madhoosudanan, Air Marshal P. Madhya Pradesh Madina class Frigate Magic II Mahabharata Mahadevan, Vice Admiral G. Mahalingam, V.S. main battle tank (MBTs)

Maini, Anil Kumar Majid, General Tariq Majid, Lt General Ali Ghaidan Major, Air Chief Marshal F.H. Makaran Coast make (high tech) Maken, Ajay Malabar Malacca Straits Malakand, 342 Malakondaih, Dr G. Malaysia

Maldives Malik, G.S. al-Maliki-al, Nouri Malyutka management information system (MIS) Man-aung Mandal, Dr M.K. Manipur, insurgency Man-portable air-defence systems (MANPADS) ManTech International Corporation Mao Tse Tung Mao Zedong Maoism Maoist Communist Centre of

434, 465 413 442, 465 98, 112 366 60 123 307 (Should be MacMahon) 219 321 495 227, 233 89 193, 251 295 26, 183–4, 292, 369, 371, 374, 379, 382, 384, 386, 390, 394, 396, 398, 400, 405, 407, 409, 411, 413, 417, 419, 421, 423, 425, 426, 428, 430, 432, 434, 441, 442–4, 446–7, 449, 450, 451, 452, 454, 458, 460, 461, 462, 464 297 334 331 124 36 107–10 300, 302 437 3, 35, 38, 40, 118, 192, 377 296 41, 113, 366, 368, 377, 387–8, 391, 392, 393, 394, 399, 410, 489, 490; equipment and hardware, 388 36, 38, 41, 195, 216, 275 297 331, 414 188 718 390 296 304, 307, 308, 311, 323, 326 90 145 316 21, 55 67, 301, 310, 314, 315–20, 342

322 167, 301, 310, 312, 314, 315–17

India (MCCI) Maoist insurgency —countering, 317–20 Mapagu, Lt General Reynaldo Marine Acoustic Research Ship (MARS) Marine Engineering Training and Naval College of Engineering marine police maritime —challenges —Doctrine —domain awareness (MDA) —management —operations centres —reconnaissance (MR) —search and rescue (M-SAR) —security —Strategy Maritime Capability Perspective Plan (MCPP) Maritime Helicopter Support Co. Maritime Warfare Training School, Kochi Maritime Zones of India (MZI) Mark III Marom, Admiral Eli Masimov, Karim, 332 Matheswaran, Air Vice Marshal M. Mathews, Air Marshal K.J. Mathur, Major General P. Mathur, R.K. Matra Durandal Bomb Mauritius Maykeev, Lt General Murat Mazagaon Dock Ltd (MDL) Mazar-e-Sharif Mazdock Modernisation Project Mazumdar, Charu McChrystal, Stanley Me 262 mean time between failure (MTBF) meantime between overhauls (MTBO) Medium Altitude and Long Endurance (MALE) Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) UAV Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft (MMCRA) medium range surface-to-air missile (MRSAM) Meerut communal riots Meghalaya Mehsud, Baitullah Mehsud, Hakimullah Mehta, Admiral Sureesh Mekong-Ganga project Menon, Lt General Prakash Mercosur mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) Merkava Mk3

334 209 195 199 39–42, 66 118 41, 118 161 71 118, 195, 498 248 191–8, 199 118 118 153 195 121 178 331

218 218–19, 251 298 252 235 41, 275 332 118, 195, 269, 282 19 282 315, 321 17, 342, 352, 353 81 94 83 233 292 220, 222 115 304 216, 307, 308, 311, 323 342 342 117, 200 390 250 8 95 441, 451

Meteorological Department MFI fighter Mi-17 IV Mi-17 Mi-25 Mi-26 Mi-35 Mi-35/35P Mi-8 MICA micro scanning micro-electro-mechanical systems microwave systems Microwave Tube R&D Centre (MTRDC) Middle East

MIDHANI Mid-life upgrades (MLUs) MiG-19 MiG-21 Bison MiG-21 FL MiG-21 Mig-21 MiG-21Bis. See MiG-21 Bison MiG-21BS MiG-21FL/MF/Bis MiG-23 MiG-23BN (Flogger-H) MiG-23BN MiG-23BN/MF MiG-23MF (Flogger-B) MiG-23MF/MS/U MiG-25 MiG-27 M MiG-27 MiG-27M MiG-29 MiG-29A/B MiG-29C/UB MIG-29K Mig-29M MiG-29UBT MiG-31 MiG-35 Mil Mi-17 Mil Mi-24 Mil Mi-25/-35 MIL Mi-25/Mi-35 Mil Mi-26 Mil Mi-6 MiL Mi-8 MILAN Milhollin, Gary military —capability —communications —doctrine —expenditure —modernisation —operations —technology Military Engineering Service (MES)

535 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

278 83 220 216 216 216 216 216 217 115 95 92 90 297 8, 36, 43, 44, 56, 191, 401, 406, 418, 422, 424, 432 269 120 383 216, 225 216 124, 125, 371, 498 215, 225 125, 216 225–30 123, 124, 216, 226, 383, 498, 501 225 123, 405 225–26 225 405 123, 126, 405, 431, 498, 501 226, 501 123, 125, 216, 220 216, 498 125, 216, 220, 226, 498, 501 226 405 119, 120, 196, 210 216 405 498, 501 125, 498, 502 230–1, 509 509 509 231 231, 509 498, 509 230–32, 498, 509 114, 188, 284 56 3, 4 73–6 65 337–40 25–8 69–72 3 172

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INDEX Military Operations Directorate MIM-23 B MIM-32 A Mindanao mine counter-measures (MCM) mine warfare Minesweepers (266 ME) Ming class patrol submarine Minicoy Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Mirage 2000

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Mirage 2000H Mirage 5 Mirage 50 Mirage F-1C Mirage III MIRV Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited Mishra, P.K. Mishra, Sanjeev missile, missile systems —defence system —technology Missile & Gunnery School Missile System Quality Assurance (MSQA) Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) Mitchell, George Mitra, Anuradha Mitsubishi Type SU 60 Mittal, Air Vice Marshal R. MIzan Zainal Abidin, Sultan Mizoram MK 5 MMA P8 Posedidon mobile ballistic missile systems Mobile Observation Posts (MOPs) mobile weapon systems Modified Romeo Class patrol submarine Mohab Mamish, Vice Admiral Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum Mohanty, Lt General J.K. Mohapatra, Lt General P. Mohenjo-Daro money-laundering Mongolia MONUC (Congo) Moorthy, Dr A.L. Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) Motorised Rifle Division (MRD) Mourad Rais FSU Koni Mousavi, Lt Commander General Seyed Abdolrahim Mowag Piranha III Mowag Piranha Mozambique MR-SAM

164 467 467 366 78 122 208 470 199 278 123, 124, 125, 216, 220, 407 498, 500 501 501 498, 500 498, 500 27 285 253 300 115, 121–2 132 381 195

MSTA-S Self-propelled Artillery System (2S19) MT-LB Multipurpose Tracked Vehicle Mubarak, Mohamed Husni Mubeen, General Md Abdul Mufriji-al, Abd al-Qadir Mujahideen Mujawwar, Ali Muhammad Mujibur Rahman, Sheikh Mukerji, Air Marshall S. Mukherjee, Pranab Mukherji, Air Marshal L.S. Mukul, Air Marshall S.C. Multi Function Radars (MFR) Multi-Agency Centre (MAC) Multifunction phased Array Radar-Rajendra multifunctional control radar (MFCR) multilateralism multimode combat support systems multiple rocket launchers (MRLs)

286 120, 289 416 253 442, 452, 453, 454 219 333 216, 307, 308, 311, 323 461 196, 498, 512 26 236 132 471–2 330 336 251 250 35 435 393 176 296

multiple surveillance resources multipolarisation Multipurpose Support Vessel multi-technology, multi-vendor environment Multitonnee, UK Muntho Dhalo Murlidharan, Dr. R. Murlidharan, M. Murlidharan, Vice Admiral M.P. Murr, Elias Murughan, Rear Admiral P. Musharraf, Pervez Muslim Brotherhood Movement Muslim Fundamentalist Organisations (MFOs) Muslim United Liebration Tigers of Assam (MULTA) Myanmar (formerly Burma)

—equipment and hardware Mystere

366, 391

N

366, 391 348 405

Nag Naga People’s Convention Nagal, Lt General B.S. Nagaland, insurgency

331 461 442 306 126

Nagraj, Smita Nahr al-Barid Palestinian refugee camp Naik, Air Chief Marshal P.V.

457 457 330, 406 330 331 17, 404 336 324, 354 266 118 251 250, 258 78 62, 310 293 121 52 180 371, 405, 407, 409, 411, 413, 417, 421, 423, 427, 428, 430, 432, 434, 441, 442, 445, 451, 454, 454, 458, 482 71 5 282 74, 76 278 216 297 302 193, 251 332 251 12, 13, 14, 15, 124, 357 406, 418 325 325 36, 37, 41, 175, 191, 216, 316, 323, 324, 356, 366, 386, 389–90 390 215

114, 284, 289, 290 325 250 307, 311, 323, 325, 326 252 422 125, 218, 221–2,

250, 257 174, 250 Nair, Lt General G.M. 468, 483 Najin Class Frigate 64 NAL 306 Namibia 175, 250 Nanda, Lt General A.K. 395 Nanjing Nanuchka III (Veter) (Project 1234.1) class Corvett 274 Nap of the Earth (NOE) 219 Narang, Air Vice Marshal V.K. 295 Narang, S.C. 291 Narayana Das, J. 328 Narayanan, M.K. 297 Narayanan, S. Anantha 296 Narendra Kumar, Dr 468, 488 Naresuan Class Frigates 406 Nasser, Gamal Abdel 249 Nath, Neelam 300, 303 Nath, Ray Pratap National Centre for Training in Search, Rescue & Disaster 305 Response National Codification Bureau 286 for India 163 National Command Post National Command, Control Communication and Intelligence 199, 328 Network National Counter-terrorism 62, 166, 310, Centre (NCTC) 318, 319, 320 National Crime Record 318 Bureau (NCRB) 88 National Cyber Security Strategy National Cyber Threat and Vulnerability Mitigation 87 Programme National Database Grid 62, 318, 319 (NATGRID) National Defence Academy 318, 319 (NDA) 224 National Defence College National Defence University 161, 163, 165 (NDU) National Democratic Alliance 11, 12, 14 (NDA) National Democratic Front of 324, 355 Bodoland (NDFB) National Human Rights 312 Commission (NHRC) 68 National Information Grid 310 National Intelligence Grid National Investigation Agency 62, 310, 318 (NIA) National Liberation Force of 326 Tripura (NLFT) National Police Commission 311 (NPC) National Police Reforms 61 Commission National Rural Employment 317 Guarantee Act (NREGA) National Security Commission 311 (NSC) 318 National Security Council (NSC) National Security Council 163 Secretariat (NSCS)

536 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

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INDEX National Security Guard (NSG) National Security Strategy (NSS) National Security System National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Isaac-Muviah) (NSCN-IM) National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang) NSCN-K National Talent Research Organisation (NTRO) National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO) National War-gaming Centre (NWC) Naval Academy Naval Air Technical School Naval Aircraft Yard (NAY) Naval Higher Command Course Naval Materials Research Laboratory (NMRL) Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory (NPOL) Naval Science & Technological Laboratory (NSTL) Naval Ship Repair Yard (NSRY) naval systems navigation Navigation & Direction School Navistar Defense LLC NAVWASS Naxalism

Nayak, Dr K.D. Nazarbayev, Nursultan A. Nazif, Ahmed Mohammed National Counter-terrorism Centre (NCC) NCOs Academy Neena Gopal Nehoshtan, Major General Ido Nehru, Jawaharlal Neo Kian Hong Nepal —equipment and hardware Nepal, Maoist insurgency Neri, Air Marshal Joseph Netanyahu, Binyamin net-centric operations (NCO) capability Netherlands network centric

304, 306, 310, 313, 318 128, 166 308

322, 325, 326 325, 326 310, 318 87, 223 224 195 195 195 200 297 122, 297, 494 297 196 292 223 195 145, 147, 155 274 61, 127, 131, 181, 299, 301, 309, 310, 311, 313–14, 321–22, 356 250, 291, 295 332, 357 330 287 318 58 331 11, 47 335 2, 130, 323, 324, 344, 359–60 360 316 218, 219, 251 331, 416, 417, 430

178 342 67–68, 69–72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 78, 111, 192, 200 75 —communications 72, 76 —hardware 180 —joint service compatibility 67, 69–72, 73–74, —warfare (NCW) 75, 99, 115, 118, 120, 221–2, 223 Network Enabled Capability (NEC) 73–74 342, 368–69, New Zealand 383, 393 Next Generation Networks (NGN) 75

Nexter (France) Nguyen Sinh Hung Nguyen Tan Dung Nguyen Van Hien, Admiral NH90 NICD Niger Nigeria night capability Night Intruder Nishant Nisr Nizampatnam no first use (NFU) Nobusuke, Kishi Nohwar, Air Marshal K.K. Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) non-governmental organizations (NGOs) Noordin Top Norinco Type 74 Norinco Type 85 Norinco YW 531 APC NORINCO, 26 North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)

—Codification System —Partnership for Peace programme North Korea (DPRK)

112, 148, 441, 447 336 336 336 120 306 409 40 319 385 292 407 199 3, 37, 40 379 251, 265 406 5, 8, 311 366 446 445 444 441 6, 11, 13, 18, 19–20, 115, 181, 225–6, 228, 229, 230, 231, 234, 341–2, 346–8, 351–2, 411 286

344 2, 38, 59–60, 366, 379, 381–3, 395, 438, 471, 479 —army equipment and hardware 382 365 —first nuclear test 468, 482–4 —naval equipment 381–2 —nuclear weapon programme 439 —second nuclear test North West Frontier Province 342 (NWFP) 30, 57, 61–2, 170, Northeastern states, insurgency 175–6, 180, 182, 192, 236, 259, 260, 299–301, 304–7, 309, 311, 323–6 17 Northern Alliance 171 Northern Army Command 31 Northern Ireland 90, 137, 139, 142, Northrop Grumman Skyguard 143, 144, 145, 147, 150, 151, 152, 155, 160, 505 202 Novator SS-N-15 Starfish 189 NTW-20/14.5 37, 59 nuclear deterrence 1, 4, 6, 47 nuclear disarmament Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 2, 3, 4, 12, 13, (NPT) 47, 48–50, 59, 60, 357, 412 1 nuclear proliferation Nuclear Suppliers Group 3, 48, 49, 356, 357 (NSG)

nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) Nuke delivery systems Numerical Aperture (NA) Nuri al-Maliki Nvala Academy Nyyazow

75 67 94 415 196 349

O O’Sullivan, Paul Obama, Barrack

observe, orient, decide, act (OODA) Odierno, General Ray Oerlikon-Contraves GDF-002 Oerlikon-Contraves-20 offensive capability offset banking offset policy Ogarkov, Marshall Nikolai Oil & Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) Oil Stabilisation Fund Okinawa military base Olmert, Uhud Oman, Sultanate of —equipment and hardware Oman-Iran political relations Omar, Mullah ONGC Videsh ONUCI (Ivory Coast) Open System Architecture Mission Computer Operation Cactus Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) Operation Green Hunt Operation Iraqi Freedom Operation Rakshak Operation Sadbhavana Operation Sukoon Operation Vijay operational control (OPCON) Operational Directive Operational Shock OPLAN 5029 Ordnance factories —modernisation Ordnance Factories Organisation Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC) original equipment manufacturer (OEM) Orissa OSA-AK

537 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

368 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 20, 36, 49, 56, 352, 353, 373, 406, 415, 416, 430, 436, 439 52 402, 415 442, 461 442, 461 68 267 106 65 194 412 438 416 424–25, 426, 428 425 424 342 40 176 275 40 341, 411, 414, 426 317 426 328 319 40 260 439 100, 163, 164 30 439 268, 271–2 270 268 134, 178, 267, 268, 269, 270, 287, 292 427 341, 344 344 102, 103, 104 310, 315, 321 126

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INDEX Oshkosh Corporation Oshkosh Defense OT-64 C (SKOT-2A) OT-90 APC OTHT link Oto Melara 56 Oto Melara Palmaria Ouragan outsourcing programmes Ouyahia, Ahmed Oxfam

139, 146, 149, 152, 153, 155, 156 142, 143, 144, 154 441, 446 441, 446 494 442, 452 442, 452 215 275 329 401

P P-12/15 P-15A P-16A P-18 P-19 P-3 Orion P-3C surveillance PAC-3 Padaki, Dr V.C. Padmanabhaiah Committee PAK-FA Pakistan

—Air Force (PAF) —Army —conflict within —equipment and hardware —India relations/insurgency —War (1971) —Kamra airbase —Navy, 439 —strategic significance for Asia-Pacific —United States strategy

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Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (POK) Palestinian conflict Palestinian Islamic Jihad Palk Bay Pallam Raju, M.M. Panchendriya Panda, K.P. Pandey, S.C. Panhard M3 VDA Twin (SP AA Gun) Panhard M3 Panhard PVP

235 196 195 236 236 385, 498, 511–12 438 439 296 311 83, 220, 222, 223 1, 2, 3, 8, 12, 15, 29, 30, 31, 36, 38, 40, 46, 48, 49, 52, 53, 56, 57, 73, 97, 111, 112, 113, 115, 116, 119, 123, 124, 127, 130, 131, 169, 175, 176, 180, 181, 215, 224, 245, 259, 261, 309, 316, 324, 325, 326, 342, 344, 381, 437 124, 439 14, 37, 342, 357 439 511 4, 356–7 55, 216, 262, 305 439

439 4, 13–14, 17–20, 37, 439. See also China; United States, Jammu and Kashmir 32, 56, 113, 131, 180, 309, 348 416 406, 430 41 249, 252, 256 122, 494 270 253 441, 449 441, 448 441, 448

Panikkar, K.M. Papua New Guinea Paracel Paramilitary Forces (PMF) Parivartan Parmar, Lt General N.K. Partial Test Ban Treaty Pashtun Patil, Pratibha Devisingh Patnaik, Lalit Mohan Patriot Msl (PAC-1) Single Stage Low to High Alt SAM system Patriot Msl Single Stage Low to High Altitude SAM Patrol and coastal combatants

Patrol Class submarines 483–4 Patrol Forces Pattanayak, Rear Admiral R.K. PAUK II Class peasant uprising Pechora Pegasus People’s Committee against Police Atrocities (PCPA) People’s Liberation Army (PLA)

—Air Force (PLAAF) —Navy (PLA-Navy) People’s Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK) Pepople’s War Group (PWG) Peres, Shimon performance budgeting Persian Gulf Perspective Planning Directorate perspective planning process Phalcon Phazotron NO10 Philippines —equipment and hardware —New People’s Army-National Democratic Front (CPP-NPA-NDF) Philips Phizo, AZ Pike Jaw Sonar Pillai, A.S. Pillai, Gopal K. Pillai, Rear Admiral S. Pinaka MBRL weapon system piracy

PL-9C Low Alt SAM System Planning and Participatory Budget Programme (PPBP) Planning Commission planning process, effectiveness Plasan

35 393 366 62, 316–20 118 250 47, 48 17, 18, 19 249, 255, 348 296 467 442 404, 405, 407, 411, 413, 414, 415, 419, 421, 423, 424, 425, 428, 430, 432, 434, 437 417, 468, 470, 481–2 251 206 299 126 112 315 21–24, 25, 26, 27, 31, 36, 37, 65, 66, 67, 180, 324, 326, 355, 395 124 200 326 322 331 161 40, 130, 420, 432 164 164 126, 220, 229 228 366, 368, 391–2 392

391 490 325 471, 472, 482 250, 291 300, 302 251 113, 185, 441, 451 3, 7, 40–2, 117, 129, 192, 199, 245, 306327, 394, 424, 433, 435, 437 445 164 311, 322 163 141

Platform System Technologies PLZ45 Po Hang class Corvette Pokhran II Poland Policy, Planning and Force Development (PP&FD) Pollnochny C&D Class LSM Pondicherry Class Pourdastan, Brig General Ahmad Reza Powell, Colin power conflicts/ politics power projection capability Prabhakaran, V. Pradeep Kumar Prahalada, Dr Pratt & Whitney Praveen Kumar precision attack capability precision response precision-guided munitions (PGMs) preliminary services qualitative requirements (PSQR) Pressler Amendment Pressler, Larry price negotiation committee (PNC) Principal Maintenance Officers Committee (PMOC) Principal Personal Officers Committee (PPOC) Principal Supply Officers Committee (PSOC) Principe De Asturias class Aircraft Carrier Princpe De Asturias Class Prithvi II Prithvi private sector participation in defence production privatisation project appraisal committee (PAC) project definition document (PDD) Project Kranti project management project sanction order (PSO) Project Sea 1390 proliferation security initiative (PSI) Proof and Experimental Establishment (PXE) proxy war

PRP-4 PT-76B Lt Tks PT-76B Public Sector Undertakings

538 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

79 445 468, 487 48–49 195, 342 163 , 164 208 208 331 12, 13 7, 36 41 342 249, 252, 256 250, 291 82, 140, 144, 148 253 67 76 111, 115, 179, 180, 223 104, 105, 108 56 56 100 164 163 164 497 468 290 188, 284, 289, 290 161 321, 356 104, 115 104–05, 109, 109 180 64 110 492 38, 41, 369, 393 298 30, 62, 97, 169, 179–81, 299, 307, 309, 362. See also China. Pakistan, Jammu and Kshmir, North-east 455 442 455

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INDEX (PSUs) public-private partnership (PPP) Pulsed Energy Projectile’ Pyongyong

306, 307 74, 76, 133 91 59

Q Qaboos Bin Said al Said, Sultan of Oman Qadhafi, Moammar Qadi-al, Nayef Qahir Class Qatar —equipment and hardware Qayyum, Abdul Qiang – 5 Qiao Liang Quality Assurance of Imported Equipment Quality Management Systems Quick Reaction Missiles (QRM) quick reaction surface-to-air missile (QSA-AK)

333, 424 407 332 468 426–7, 428 426–7 56 499 31 286 286 126 115

Rao, P.V. Narasimha Rao, T. Mohana Rao, V. Bhujanga Rapid Action Force (RAF) rapid response mechanism Rashtriya Rifles (RR) Rassoul, Dr Zalmai RAST helo recovery system Ratan, Air Vice Marshal N. Ratcharit class Fast Track Craft-Missile Ratel 90 Ratnagiri Ray, S.K. Rayleigh scattering Raytheon Company

Razak, Mohamed Najib bin Tun Abdul readout integrated circuit (ROIC) Recce Vehs

R R-23-R AA-7 Apex R-530 D R-550 Magic I R-60 AA-8 Aphid R-60 R-73 Ra’s al Khaymah Rabena, Lt General Oscar H Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Rai, A. Rais Hamidou (FSU Nanuchka II) FSG Rajagopalan, B. Rajan, Satyajeet Rajendra Rajguru, Air Vice Marshal S.P. Rajnish Kumar Rajput Class Raju, A.R. Raksha Udyog Ratnas Ram Pratap, Lt General RAM Rama Nathan, Sellapan Ramachandran, Mullapally Ramachandru, T. Ramadan Class Ramayana Ramesh Kumar RAM-V-1 (Open) RAM-V-2 (Closed) Randhawa, Air Marshal T.S. Rao, Dr A. Shubhananda Rao, Dr K.U. Bhaskar Rao, Dr P. Rao, Dr R. Sreehari Rao, Dr V. Bhujanga Rao, H.V. Srinivasa Rao, Krishna M.V. Rao, Lt General K.R. Rao, Nirupama

234 227 233 234 225 227 431 334 137 302 405 298 249, 253, 269 293 219 249 120, 203 302 134 250 441, 451 335 300, 301 254, 269 407 89 253 451 451 251 297 296 294 250 297 297 308 250 57

reconnaissance —and attrition —and support battalions reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition (RSTA) Recruitment & Assessment Centre (RAC) Red Sea Red Shirts regional cooperation Regional Response Centres regional security concerns Relay Mirror Experiment religious fundamentalism Remote Control Weapon System (RCWS) Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) request for information (RFI) request for proposals (RFP) Research & Development (R&D)

Research & Development Establishment (Engineers) R&DE (ENGRS) Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) Research Centre Imarat (RCI) Reshef (Saar 4) class (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) Retrofit Revankar, Dr U.K. revenue budget revenue expenditure Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) RF-4C

11, 12 297 297 304 199 113, 127, 170–71, 313, 318, 319, 356 329 492 219 497 442, 460 199 298 93, 94 115, 138, 140, 143, 146, 147, 149, 150, 152, 154, 156, 157, 159 333 95 441, 442, 447, 450, 451, 453, 455, 456, 457, 463 172, 192, 216 114 114 111, 115 298 35, 40 366 5–10 305 52, 169 90 11

RF-5A Rheinmetall Landsystem Marder 1A3 ICV Rheinmetall Nitrochemie Rhino Project Ribeiro Committee Rice, Condoleezza Rifai, Samir Ritz Carlton Jakarta Rizvi, Safi A. RMB rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs) Rockwell Collins Rohini MPR (Medium Power Radar) Rohini Rolls Royce Rolls Royce AE3007AIP Rolls Royce MT30 Rolls Royce Pegasus Rolls Royce Wr-21 Romeo (Project 033) class Submarine Romeo Class patrol submarine Rosoboronexport ROTEM South Korea Roy, Air Vice Marshal P.K. Royal Air Force of Oman Royal Bhutan Guards (RBG) Royal Bhutanese Army Royal Thai Navy Rudd, Kevin Rumaithi-al, Hamad Mohammed Thani Rumsfeld, Donald H. Russia

292 292 102, 104, 120, 126, 135 70, 102, 103, 104, 112, 115, 134, 135 14, 16, 26, 71, 72, 91, 97, 108, 110, 135, 267

298 163, 310, 318 298 481 284 296 98, 100 63, 100 22, 23–24, 65–68, 89, 128 385

—cyber warfare capability —equipment and hardware Rustamji, K.F. RUSTOM

385 450 112, 143 177 311 12 332 366 301 10 407 145 236 126, 236 82, 146, 153, 220, 275 229 79 210 79 482 468, 471 113, 274–75 281 219 437 355 316 488 329 336 13, 66 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 14, 20, 27, 30, 60, 64, 74, 79, 83, 89, 90, 91, 92, 113, 115, 120, 126, 195, 196, 227, 344, 347, 382, 393, 432, 434, 441 74 442, 454–5, 484– 5, 505, 508, 511 305 292

S S-60 Auto AA S-92A (VIP) SA-10 Grumble Low-to-High Alt SAM SA-13 SA-13 Gopher SAM SA-16 SA-3B Pechora SA-6 Gainful Low-to Mediumalt SAM SA-7 SA-8 Gecko Low Alt SAM SA-8B SA-8B Osa-AK SA-8B SAM

539 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

469 385 459 187 459 187 234 459 186 442, 459 186 234 459

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INDEX SA-9 Gaskin SAM Saab Saab 2000 SAARC Council of Ministers Sabah Oliver Hazard Perry Class Sabharwal, Lt General Mukesh Sabra MBT Sabu, Lt General C.K.Suchindra Sada Kant Sadat, Anwar El Saddam Hussein Safavi, Major General Seyed Yahya Rahim Sagar Prahari Bal Sagardhwani Class Sagarika Sahay, Vishvajit Sahgal, Arun Sahyadri Saignason, Lt General Choummaly sail training ships (AXS), Varuna and Tarangini Saito, Admiral Takashi Sajjil Sakhalin Salafism Saleh, Ali Abdullah Salehi, General Ataollah Salisbury class Frigate Samnang, Lt General Soeung Samsung (South Korea SAMTEL HAL Display System Ltd Samyukta Sana’a Water Basin Project Sandhayak Class Sang-O class Submarine Sanjeeva Kumar Santhanam, K. Santoso, General Djoko Saran, Lt General Chea SARAS Saraswat, Dr V.K. Sarayrah-al, General Khaled Jamil Saryu SAS, UK Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) 356 satellite communication systems Satellite Datalink Integration satellite surveillance and networking Satha, Lt General Ses Vong Satish Kumar, Dr Satpura Satyam Computer Ltd Saudi Arabia

—equipment and hardware

Saunik, Manoj Sawari II programme Saxena, Dr P.K.

459 159 498, 512 342 411 174, 250 441, 451 251, 261 300, 303 406 414, 415, 420 331 122, 192, 200, 328 198, 209 437 249, 253 112 196, 205 332 198, 210 331 413 40 404 336, 434 331 489 330 112 275 292 434 209 482 249, 252 49 331 330 64 92, 250, 252, 295 332 196 306 304, 308, 310, 313,

192, 200, 324 233 117 330 298 196, 205 135 17, 36, 37, 401, 402, 420, 426, 427–29, 432, 434 428–9. See also Saddam Hussein, United States 249, 253, 269 494 298

Sayyari, Rear Admiral Habibollah Schilka Schmidt, Helmut Science Applications International Corporation Scientific Analysis Group (SAG) Scorpene class Scorpion Scud missiles SDB MK-3 class SDB MK-5 SDB T54 SDB T58 SDB T-60 sea control capability Sea Eagle missile Sea Harrier Sea King sea lanes of communication (SLOCs) Sea Systems Command Seahawk Seaking 42C Seaking 42S Search and Rescue (SAR) Searcher-1 Searcher II Seaward defence forces security threats and challenges

Sekhar, Dr K. Sekhon, Lt General A.S. SELEX Galileo Self-Propelled Artillery System (2S19) self-synchronisation Selvamurthy, Dr W. Semi-Automatic Command– to-Line-of-Sight (SACLOS) Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) Sen, Samdech Hun Senezeh Sengupta, Prabir sensor exploitation Sensor Grid Sepecat Jaguar Services Capital Acquisition Plan (SCAP) Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee (SCAPCC) Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Higher Committee (SCAPHCC) Services Qualitative Requirements (SQR) Seychelles SFF Shadab-3 Shaft Driven Lift Fan (SDLF) Shahine Low Alt SAM System

331 114–15, 186, 458 5 151, 157 298 195, 196, 202 413 115 207–08 208 195 198 198 67 227 195, 210, 488, 503 211 39, 40, 376 79 488 119 120 21, 178, 195, 211, 223, 238 115 115, 126, 232–33 198 41, 61–62, 97, 129–30, 177, 299. See also insurgency, terrorism, Pakistan, Northeast 250, 291 250 147 442, 457, 458 69 250, 291 188 222 330 410 134 71, 78 200 227 101, 132

101, 165

101, 104, 105, 165 101, 102–03, 135 36, 37, 41, 195 318 413 82 441, 449

Shah-Safi, Brig General Hassan Shakti Shambaugh, David Shang class (Strategic missile submarine) Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) Shankush Shark Gill (Skat MGK 503) Sharma, Air Vice Marshal G.P. Sharma, Air Vice Marshal R.K. Sharma, Air Vice Marshal, S.K. Sharma, Arun Sharma, Dharmendra Sharma, G.V. Venugopal Sharma, Lt General Vinay Sharma, Shashikant Shashi Bhushan Sherwood-Randall, Elizabeth Shillong Accord (1975) Shinawatra, Thaksin Ship Submercible Ballistic Nuclear (SSBN) shipbuilding Shipping Corporation of India Shishumar class Submarine Shivalik Class Shodash, Major General Hussein Ahmad Short Take off Vertical Landing (STOVL) Short Take-off but Arrested Recovery (STOBAR) Short-Range Ballistic Missiles (SRBMs) Shura Ittehadul Mujahideen (SIM) Siachen Glacier Siddique, M.A. SIG SG 551 (Switzerland) Signal Intelligence (SIGNIT) Signal Intelligence directorates (SIDs) Sihamoni, Norodom Sikkim —merger with India Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Siliguri Corridor Sindhughosh (Kilo) Class Sindhukesari Sindhuraj Sindhuratna Sindhuvir Singal, Anil Kumar Singapore —equipment and hardware 60 Singapore Technologies Singh, Air Vice Marshal A.K. Singh, Air Vice Marshal Daljit Singh, Air Vice Marshal Devinder Singh, Air Vice Marshal J. Singh, Air Vice Marshal N.B. Singh, Air Vice Marshall P. Singh, Anil Kumar Singh, Arun

540 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

331 274 21 469 341, 344, 347 404 202 218 218 219 302 300, 303 300, 303 175 249, 252 300 32 325 366 120 41, 119 213 201, 468, 493–94 205 332 82 119 21–22, 24, 26 342 176 301 178 120 163 330 175, 176, 308, 323 57 148, 153 355 201 201 201 201 201 252 2, 41, 200, 342, 366, 368, 437 393–4, 442, 459– 112, 178 219 218 218 219 218 249, 253 270 161

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INDEX Singh, Dr Shashi Bala Singh, Dr. A.K. Singh, General V.K. Singh, Jaswant Singh, Jatinderbir Singh, Kashmir Singh, Lt General Bikram Singh, Lt General Chetinder Singh, Lt General J.P. Singh, Lt General J.P. Singh, Lt General Tejinder Singh, Manmohan Singh, N.K. Singh, Prakash Singh, Raj Kumar Singh, Rajendra Singh, V.K. Singh, Vice Admiral Anup single buoy moorings (SBMs) Sinha, Vice Admiral Shekhar Sino. See China Sir Creek Sittwe Sivakumar P. Skandan, K. Skardu SL-AMRAAM SLRs SM-3 SM-6 Smerch 9K58 Multiple Launch Rocket System Smerch MRL Smoke Grenade Discharger smuggling Snecma HAL Aerospace Pvt Ltd Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE) So 1 class (Large Patrol Craft) Society for Integrated Technology Application & Research (SITAR) Sofradir Software Defined Radios (SDRs) Soju class (Fast Attack Craft-Missile) Sokha, Lt General Sao Soliman, Field Marshal Mohamed Hussien Tantawi Solomon Islands Soltam Soltam L-33 Soltam M-71 Soma Sundaram, V. Somali Somalia Sonar USHUS Sonars Song Class patrol submarine Sophea, General Mess Sorabjee, Soli South Africa —army equipment and hardware South America

296 295 250, 257 393 249, 253 300, 303 251, 262 250 174 250, 259 250 3, 4, 12, 16, 49, 61, 131, 224, 249, 255 311 61, 311 249, 252, 269 254 179–82 251, 262 41 250 41 324 295 300, 303 113 442 322 439 439

South China Sea South Common Market South-east Asia South East Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty South Korea

—equipment and hardware South Pacific Island South. FOST Southern Air Command Southern Philippines Secessionist Groups (SPSGs) Soviet Communist Party Soviet Union

Sovremenny (Sarych) class (Project 956/956A) Frigates Sovremenny Y class SP Abbot SP Guns and Hows

185 113, 442, 451, 458 292 7, 327. See also piracy 275 298 468, 483 289 95 71, 75, 98 483 330 330 369 112 442, 451 452 249, 253 3, 41, 433 31, 40, 42, 199, 434, 437 201 78, 201, 278, 292, 469, 480, 494 468, 470 330 311 2, 6, 8, 9, 10, 113 442 40

3, 15, 130, 316, 341, 342, 364, 368, 424, 439 40, 192, 387, 391, 395, 399 8 35, 180, 200, 274, 316, 323, 366, 393

South Asia

Space Based Laser Strike Weapons Space Command space debris clearance space-based surveillance & reconnaissance space-enabled warfare Spain —equipment and hardware Special Action Group (SAG) Special Area Road Development Programme (SARDP) special economic zones (SEZs) Special Forces Training School (SFTS) Special Ranger Group (SRG) Specialised Marine Police specialist technical panels (STP) specific fuel consumption (SFC) Spector, Leonard S. Splav Spratly Islands Spyder Sreehari Rao, R. Sri Lanka

Srinivasan, N. Srivastava, Raman Srivastava, Vandana Srivastava, Vikram SS11B1 SSG SSPH-1 Primus ST Aerospace

366 2, 8, 11, 13, 60, 12, 195, 357, 366, 381, 382, 383–5, 393, 424, 436, 438, 439 384, 385, 460, 485–7 369 195 216 391 11 2, 4, 11, 18, 39, 40, 47, 65, 123, 341, 345, 409 484 27, 472–3 442, 464 441, 442, 444, 448, 451, 452, 453, 454, 457, 459, 464, 466 91 223 91 126 27, 223 342 442, 460–1, 505 306 324 40 318, 319 306 327 286 81 55 442, 458 366 115, 126, 220, 222 291 2, 36, 37, 38, 41, 130, 175, 192, 216, 304, 342, 344, 393 301 305 249 304 114, 284 316 442 156

ST-68 ST-68U/UM Staff Equipment Policy Committee Standardisation Committee Standing Committee on Defence (SCD) State Counter Terrorism Centre (SCTC) state police forces —modernisation —politicisation Steyer A3 (Austria) Sting Ray Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) strategic and business environment China factor Strategic and Technical Environment Assessment (STEA) Strategic Defence Review (SDR) Strategic Forces Command (SFC) Strategic missiles submarines Stromer Su-24E Su-24M/Mk Su-27 Su-30K Su-30MKA Su-30MK I Subhash Chandra submarines

Sub-Marine Launched Cruise Missile (SLCM) Submarine Training School Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missiles (SLBM) Subrahmanyam, K. Subramanian, Air Vice Marshal S. Subramanyam, P.S. Subsidiary-Multi-Agency Centre (SMAC) Sudan, Preeti Sufaat, Air Marshal Imam Suharto Suhartono, Admiral Agus Sukanya class Sukhoi Design Bureau Sukhoi Su-25 Sukhoi Su-27 Sukhoi Su-30K Sukhoi Su-30MKI Suleiman, Michel Suleman, Air Chief Marshal Rao Qamar Sumedha Sumitra Sun Tzu Sunayana Sundaram, S.S. Sungkar, Abdullah Sunjin AG Sunnis

541 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

235 236 103 287 53, 63, 95, 165, 166, 167 318, 319, 320 312 310 178 442, 465 423 3–4, 51, 129–36 130–1 163 163 161, 163, 165 468–9 442 405 405 27, 82 124, 217 405 220 249, 252 417, 468, 470, 479–81, 482–4, 485–6, 493–4 201, 480 195 120, 437 161 219 295 310 249 331 377 331 207 275 498, 502 498, 502 502 82, 124, 125, 217, 227–28, 498, 502 332, 422 334 196 196 23, 31 196 250, 291, 297 366 385 422

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INDEX Super 530 D Super DVORA MK II classes (Fast Attack Craft-Gun) Super Sea Sprite Super Sea Sprite SH-2G supply chain management support tankers Suresh Kumar, S. sur¬face launched advanced medium range air-to-air missile (SL-AMRAAM) surface-to-air missile (SAM) system surface-to-surface missiles surface-to-surface ballistic missiles surface-to-surface cruise missiles surveillance —capability —and intelligence —and night vision —and reconnaissance —radars Survey Ships (AGSH) survival and support systems Sushil, Vice Admiral K.N. Swat Sweden —equipment and hardware Swiftships Switzerland —army equipment and hardware Symantec India 2009 Security and Storage Syria —equipment and hardware

233

Tactical Air Combat Development Establishment (TACDE) Tactical Battle Area (TBA) Tactical Command, Control, Communication and Information (TacC3I) Tactical Communications System (TCS)

208, 482 407 407 64 213 300, 303

115 26, 122, 124, 220, 222, 290, 234 121 290 196 93–96, 120–1, 192, 223, 319, 320, 328 114, 115 41 180 66 114 209 289 251, 262 342 442, 461, 511 407

442, 461, 442 85 401, 415, 422, 429–30 430–1

T T-38 Talon T-50 T-50l T-54/55 MBT

T-55 (Upgraded) T-62 MBT

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T-64B MBT T-72,

T-72 MBT T-72 M1 (Ajeya) T-72S T-80U T-80 UD T-90 (Bhishma) T-90S

385 385, 27 183, 371, 382, 386, 400, 405, 407, 409, 413, 317, 423, 434, 442, 454 442 382, 400, 405, 407, 409, 413, 430, 434, 442, 454 442, 454–5 390, 405, 409, 413, 415, 430, 434, 442, 455 390, 405, 409, 413, 434, 442, 455 112, 183 183 442, 455 112 98, 111–12, 177, 183, 287, 442, 451 455

217 307

70, 115–16, 178

67, 70, 75–76, 109, 115 tactical high energy laser (THEL) 90, 91 Taepodong-2 missile 59 Tafer, General Ahcene 329 26, 27, 366, 391, Taiwan 395–6 —army equipment and hardware 396. See also China 20, 341, 342, 344, Tajikistan 347–8, 357 —army equipment and hardware 348 Talabani, Jala 331 1, 3, 4, 13, 14, Taliban 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 43, 115, 131, 181, 316, 341–42, 348, 352, 357, 361. See also Afghanistan, United States Taliban’s Tehrik-e-Taliban (TTP) 342 119, 192, 195, 196, Talwar Class 205; Teg, Tarkash and Trikhand, 196 Tamil Nadu, 2 321 Tamilmani, K. 295 Taneja, Rear Admiral B.R. 249, 253 Tanguska 115, 186 Tank Integrated Fire Control System (TIFCS) 112 TARANG 225 Tarantul Class 206, 485 Tarwanah 56 Tata Group 134, 135 TATRA 113 Tavor TAR 21 178 Tawang 2, 57, 130, 324 Technical Evaluation Committee (TEC) 102, 103 technical obsolescence 164 Technical Oversight Committee (TOC) 103 Technological Dimensions of Warfare 73–74 Technology Demonstrator (TD-1) 274 Technology Induction Paradigm 75 Tehran 401, 412, 432 Tehrik-e-Taliban (TTP) 342 125, 196, 274, 292, Tejas 501 Teledyne technologies 159 Tenaji-al, Rear Admiral Ahmed Mohammed Al Sabab 336 Tengiz oilfield 344 TEREX Corporation of USA 281 Terminal Ballistic Research Laboratory (TBRL) 298 Territorial Interest Zone (TIZ) 121 44, 62, 97, 111, terrorism 124, 127, 129–31,

Tesla, Nikola Textron Marine & Land Systems Thailand —equipment and hardware Thakur, Sushil Thales Raytheon Thamburaj, Lt Gen Noble thermal imaging (TI) Thermal Imaging Standalone Sights (TISAS) Thomson-CSF Thrust-vectoring nozzles (TVNs) Tiangong-I, 436 Tibet, Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR)

Tiger Tillangchang Timperlake Timsah TIR Class Toisutta, Lt General George Tonk, Lt General V.S. Tor M-1 Torpedo recovery vessel (YPT) Toubro Ltd TOW-2 ATGW TOW-2A ATGW TPE 331-12 Garrett Engines trainer aircraft transfer of technology (ToT) transformation process transnational crimes transport ships Tri Services Strategic Forces Command Tribal Autonomous District Council (TTADC) Trinamool Congress (TMC) Trinkat Class Triplett Tripura, insurgency —Tripura National Front (TNF)

Tri-Service Disaster Management Response Committee Trishul Trivedi, V.C. Trivedi, Vishwapati TRV 71 tsunami Tu-142 Transport Aircraft Tunguska Tupolev Tu-142 Turbiprop Maritime Patrol Aircraft Turbomeca

542 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

169, 179, 181, 299, 301, 306, 309–10, 313, 315, 318, 322, 327, 342, 366, 368, 402, 428, 430, 435. See also Afghanistan, Pakistan, Taliban 89 140 41, 192, 366, 368 487–8, 498 270 146 111 93–6 177 494 83

52, 57, 58, 130, 323, 324. See also China, Dalai Lama 407 195 23 407 209 331 173, 250, 259 115 213 134, 135 407 417, 428 275 126 102, 103, 106, 134, 135 70–71 7, 435 213 181 326 315 208 23 307, 308, 311, 323, 326 326. See also Bangladesh, China, Northeast 163 284, 289 48 300, 302 195 37, 38 120, 195, 196 442, 458 212, 498, 505, 511 211–12 274

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INDEX Turbomeca Artouste IIIB Turgeman, Major General Sami Turkey Turkmenistan —equipment and hardware Tyagi, Air Marshal N.V. Type-1500 submarines Type-45 Type-54 (MG) Type-54 Type-56 (Norinco) Type-59 Type-59 (MBT) Type-59-1 Type-59-1 (Towed A Tk) Type-62 Type-63 Type-63 A Type-64 B Type-66 (Gun How) Type-66 (Towed A Tk) Type-72 Type-73 Type-74 (MBT) Type-74 (Norinco) Type-74 (Towed AA) Type-75 (SP and How) Type-77 APC Type-80 SP AA Type-80 Twin SP AA gun system Type-83 Type-83 (SP and How) Type-85 II Type-85 III Type-85 APC Type-85 (YW 531H) Type-87 Type-89 Type-89 Type-89 (YW 534) Type-90 Type-90-II Type-90 MRL Type-98 Type-99 Type-99 A 2 Type-99 (SP and How) Type-SU 60 Type-WZ 501 IFC

232 331 342 341, 342, 344, 349–50, 351 350 218, 251, 258, 260 494 79 444 26, 371 441 26 371 441, 445 445 371, 441, 443 371, 441, 443 441, 443 442 441 445 442 442, 453 441, 442, 452 446 446 442, 453–4 441, 444 445 441, 445 407, 441 444 26 26 444 441, 444 442, 453 442, 453 APC, 444 441, 444 441, 443, 452–3 26, 441, 443 445 374, 441, 442 441, 442, 443 443 454 442 441, 444

U UAPA UH-60 UH-60 L (VIP) UH-60/SH-60/S-70 Blackhawk UK Shipyards Ukraine —equipment and hardware Ulsan class Frigate Umkhonto Umm al Qaywayn undersea warfare Unified Cyber Command Uniflex Cables unit maintenance vehicles (UMV)

310 385 407 510 489 112 505–6 468, 486–7 493 431 122 74 122 292

unit repair vehicles (UMV) United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) United Arab Emirates (UAE) and United States, Trade and Investment Framework Agreement United Kingdom (UK) —equipment and hardware

—export —foreign relations/policy —terrorism —and West Asia and North America United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA)

292 125, 275 401, 426, 428, 431–32

431 128, 166, 306, 379 89, 267, 441, 442, 461, 503, 506, 509, 511 95, 195, 217, 227 6, 47, 342, 368 43 401, 409, 420, 426, 432 180, 316, 322, 323, 325–6, 354, 355

United National Liberation Front (UNLF) United Nations (UN)

326 23, 42, 43, 48, 91, 306, 352, 379, 401, 406, 408, 409

—Development Programme (UNDP) 386 —Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) 176, 430 —Environment Programme, 2009 434 —General Assembly 47, 49 —Interim Force in Lebabon (UNIFIL) 176, 422 —Missions Congo 306 —Peace keeping missions 176, 180, 304, 306 —Peace Keeping Force (UNPKF) 52 —Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) 401 —Security Council (UNSC) 2, 6, 11, 20, 49, 58, 379, 412, 424 —Resolution (UNSCR) 422 United Progressive Alliance (UPA) 14, 166, 299, 309, 312, 356 United States of America (US) 5, 6, 7, 10, 18, 19, 43, 60, 90, 91, 95, 130, 132, 235, 267, 289, 306, 316, 342, 347, 351, 406, 412 —Active Denial System 91 —Afghanistan-Pakistan strategy 4, 13–14, 17–20, 37 —Air Force (USAF) 91, 222, 432 —Armed Forces, 65economy 1 —Army 30, 31 —Carrier Battle Group 67 —Cambodia, Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) 370 1, 13, 16, 23, 26, —China relations 49, 56, 67, 438 —Department of Defense 66 —Defense Intelligence Agency 413 —and East Asia and Pacific Rim 366, 368, 369, 381, 382, 393 —equipment and hardware 442, 464–5, 503, 506–7, 509, 511, 512 —Global war on terror (GWOT) 4, 124, 433 1–4, 9, 11–16, 47, —India relations

49, 437 —India Business Council (USIBC) —Instrument of Accession —and international forces regrouping —Iraq Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) —Joint Forces Command —maritime power —Middle East Force —military strategy —Navy —North-Korea, relations —Nuclear Posture Review —superpower in decline —against Taiwanese independence —and West Asia and North America

University Grants Commission (UGC) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs) UNMIS (Sudan) URS Corporation USS Freedom USS Independence Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR)

Uzbekistan —equipment and hardware

357 8 5–6, 7, 9 414, 415 66 36, 40 411 8 41, 77, 78, 79, 196 59–60, 365, 382 2 435, 436, 440 366 401, 402, 407, 409, 411, 415, 420, 423, 426, 430, 432, 434 224 27, 45, 75, 93, 114, 115, 118, 121, 122, 126, 195, 196, 232–33, 267, 292, 319 115 176 152 78 78 7, 11, 225, 226; India cooperation, 215 341, 342, 344, 346, 347, 348, 350–1 351

V V-22 Osprey VAB 4x4 (Wheeled) Vadinagar Vahidi, Ahmad Vajpayee, Atal Bihari Vampire Vanadium Oxide (VOx) Varadarajan, S. Varunastra Vashist, Air Marshal R.K. Vasudeva, Dr S.K. Ved Prakash Veer Class Vehicles Research and Development Establishment (VRDE) Vejjajiva, Abhisit Venezuela Venugopalan Verma, Admiral Nirmal K.

543 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

91 441, 448 199 331 12, 49, 357 215 95 297 292 219 250, 291 303 206

298 366 8, 40 P., 296 18, 119, 199–200, 250, 257, 328

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INDEX Verma, Air Marshal N. Verma, Naveen Vessel and Air Traffic Management Systems VHF/UHF communication systems Vice Chief of Defence Staff (VCDS) Vickers MBT Mk3 Vietnam —war Vijayaraghavan, Dr R. Vinh, Vice Admiral Sao Visakhapatnam Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) Volachit, Boun-Gnang Vosper Thornycroft Province class vote bank politics

219 300, 303

West Africa West Asia and North Africa West Bank West Bengal

328 226, 227

Western Air Command Westland Sea King MK47 wide area network (WAN) Wipro World Bank

161, 163 442, 462 366, 370, 392 21, 25, 26 296 330 328, 437

World Food Programme World War II Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) World Trade Centre (WTC) World Trade Organisation (WTO) —Agreement on Textiles and Clothing —Doha Round Wu Sheng Li Wyle

75 332 489 324

W W-88 Wajed, Sheikh Haseena Wang Xiangsul Wangchuk, Penden War Zone campaign (WZC) Wardak, General Abdul Rahim Warrior ICV (Tracked) warship building capacity Watt, Dr Ian J WD386 V-8 weapon locating radars (WLRs) Weapon Systems, ORSA & Infrastructure (WSOI) weapon technology weapons of mass destruction (WMDs)

75 31 345, 409, 427 370 8, 401, 422 200 148

X XIA class (Strategic missile submarine) Xinjiang Xinkiang XM8 (USA) Xu Caihou, General Xu Qiliang, General

469 130, 438 52 178 330 330

Y

165 65 10, 44, 56, 169, 393, 435, 439 58, 330, 372 28

Yadav, A.K. Yadava, Lt General K.S. Yakovlev Yak-40 YAL-1A Airborne Laser (ABL) Yala, General Mohand Tahar Yang Tien-Hsiao

300, 303 308 505 90 329 335

Yangon massacre (1988) Yantar Shipyard Yanzi Yemen, Republic of YF-100 Yongbyon YPT (Torpedo Recovery Vessel) Yudhoyono, Susilo Bambang Yurka MSC Yusgiantoro, Purnomo

390 195 59 40, 42, 428, 433–34 81 59 213 331 407 331

Z Zaben-al, Major General Dari Rajeb Nofal Zadetkyi Zahir Shah, king of Afghanistan Zahir Uddin Ahmed, Rear Admiral Zakaria, Fareed Zakir, Mullah Abdullah Zangger Committee Zardari, Asif Ali Zdhanov Zebari, General Babaker Shawkat B. Zemin, Jiang Zhanzakov, Captain Zhandarbek Zhuk-27 Zia-ur-Rahman, Air Marshal Shah Mohammed Zillur Rahman ZIYUAN 1and 2 Zoellick, Robert ZSU-23-2 Towed AA Gun ZSU-23-4 SP AA ZSU-23-4 Quad SP AA ZSU-57-2 SP AA ZU 23-2 Zulfiqar

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Wen Jiabao Wen-ho Lee

28 330, 354 31 355 22 329 463–4 119 329 443 113, 293, 480

36 401–34 416 299, 321, 323, 324, 325 216 407, 509 75 135 5, 6, 9, 36, 386, 406, 434 381 7, 10, 11, 29, 30, 34, 307, 378

544 SP's MILITARY YEARBOOK | 2009-2010 | 39th Year of Issue

332 390 17 330 5, 49 342 48 334 11 331 66 332 228 330 330 27 36 459 196, 442 458 442, 458 186 413

S n e c m a

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