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TKGS Science Department Handbook

The Green Man in Laboratory Coat represents the scientist in all TKgians The Red Liquid in the test tube Represents the passion for science The Red Bubbles represents the peaks of Excellences of the department’s and students’ efforts

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TKGS Science Department Handbook

CONTENTS 1

Values, Vision and Mission

2

Syllabus

2.1

Biology 5094

2.2

Chemistry 5072

2.3

Physics 5058

2.4

Science ( Biology / Chemistry) 5116

2.5

Science ( Physics / Chemistry ) 5118

3

Work Plan

3.1

Biology

3.2

Chemistry

3.3

Physics

3.4

Lower Secondary Science

4

Scheme Of Work

4.1

Biology 5094

4.2

Chemistry 5072

4.3

Physics 5058

4.4

Science 5116 / 5118 i

4.4.1 Science ( Biology ) 4.4.2 Science ( Chemistry ) 4.4.3 Science ( Physics ) 2

TKGS Science Department Handbook

4.5

Lower Secondary Science

4.5.1 Lower Secondary Science – Secondary One 4.5.2 Lower Secondary Science – Secondary Two

5

Laboratory Matters

5.1

Science Laboratory Manual

5.2

Laboratory Safety Rules

5.3

Laboratory Time Table

5.4

Requisition Form For Apparatus and Materials

6

Examination Matters

6.1

Tracking Form For Vetting Of Examination Paper

6.2

Examination Cover Page

6.3

Table Of Specification ( TOS ) for Examination Paper

6.4

Yellow Cover Sheet For Printed Examination Papers

6.5

Examination Format

6.6

Standard Format Of Common Test Paper

6.7

Information For FTs, CAs, Examinations

6.8

Post Test Reflection

6.9

Setter and Marker List

7

SPA Matters

8

Staff Development

8.1

EPMS Work Review Form 3

TKGS Science Department Handbook

8.2

Individual Learning Plan

8.3

Learning Needs Analysis ( LNA ) For Teachers

8.4

Pre And Post Course Review ( PPCR )

8.5

Lesson Observation

8.5.1 Lesson Observation By Reporting Officer Peer Lesson Observation Information Required For Lesson Observation Monitoring Exercise – Checking Of Files

9

Departmental Matters

9.1

E-Record Book Template

9.2

Science Remedial Lessons Schedule

9.3

Copy Of Duties Of Science Teachers

9.4

Science Teachers For Semester One and Two

9.5

LSS Program

9.6

Science Department ICT Plan 2009-2010

10

SOPs

10.1 2009 Guidelines For Teachers : To preparation For and Conduct of School Internal Examinations 10.2 Out of School Activity Form And Summary Sheet 10.3 SOP Out of School Activities (V1) 10.4 SOP For Out Of School Activities (14/3/09) 4

TKGS Science Department Handbook

10.5 Withdrawal Of Funds For Edusave Account ( Form E3 ) 10.6 Claim For Reimbursement By Staff 10.7 Report of Absences For Teachers ( 24 Mar 2009 ) 10.8 Instructions For Sit-In or Class Chairman 10.9 Medical Certificate / Medical Receipt Submission Form

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TKGS Science Department Handbook

1

Values, Vision and Mission

Values Passionate, Analytical, Disciplined and Inquiring (PADI)

Vision An inquirer with an innovative spirit

Mission To nurture and develop effective lifelong learners with inquiring minds and keen interest in science by equipping them with the scientific skills and moral values to be responsible global citizens

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TKGS Science Department Handbook

2

Syllabus

_______________________________________________________

2.1

Biology 5094 Syllabus 2009 BIOLOGY GCE ORDINARY LEVEL 5094

INTRODUCTION

This syllabus is designed to have less emphasis on factual materials, but a much greater emphasis on the

understanding and application of scientific concepts and principles. This approach has been adopted in

recognition of the need for students to develop skills that will be of long-term value in an increasingly

technological world, rather than focusing on large quantities of factual material, which may have only short-term

relevance. It is envisaged that teaching and learning programmes based on this syllabus will feature a wide variety of learning experiences designed to promote inquiry. Teachers are encouraged to use a combination of appropriate strategies in teaching topics in this syllabus. The assessment will be specifically intended to test skills, comprehension and insight in familiar and unfamiliar contexts.

AIMS These are not listed in order of priority. The aims are to: 1. provide, through well-designed studies of experimental and practical Biology, a worthwhile educational experience for all students, whether or not they go on to study science beyond this level and, in particular, to enable them to acquire sufficient understanding and knowledge to 1.1 become confident citizens in a technological world, able to take or develop an informed interest in matters of scientific importance; 1.2 recognise the usefulness, and limitations, of the scientific method and to appreciate its applicability in other disciplines and in everyday life; 1.3 be suitably prepared and stimulated for studies beyond Ordinary Level in Biology, in applied sciences or in science-dependent vocational courses. 2.

develop abilities and skills that 2.1

are relevant to the study and practice of science; 7

TKGS Science Department Handbook

3.

2.2

are useful in everyday life;

2.3

encourage efficient and safe practice;

2.4

encourage effective communication.

develop attitudes relevant to science such as 3.1 concern for accuracy and precision; 3.2 objectivity; 3.3 integrity; 3.4 enquiry; 3.5 initiative; 3.6 inventiveness. 4.

stimulate interest in and care for the local and global environment.

5.

promote an awareness that

5.1 the study and practice of science are co-operative and cumulative activities, and are subject to social, economic, technological, ethical and cultural influences and limitations; 5.2 the applications of science may be both beneficial and detrimental to the individual, the community and the environment; 5.3 science transcends national boundaries and that the language of science, correctly and rigorously applied, is universal; 5.4 the use of information technology (IT) is important for communications, as an aid to experiments and as a tool for the interpretation of experimental and theoretical results.

ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES

These describe the knowledge, skills and abilities which candidates are expected to demonstrate at the end of

the course. They reflect those aspects of the aims which will be assessed. A

Knowledge with Understanding

Students should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding in relation to: 1. 2.

scientific phenomena, facts, laws, definitions, concepts, theories; scientific vocabulary, terminology, conventions (including symbols, quantities and units contained in 'Signs, Symbols and Systematics 16-19', Association for Science Education, 2000); 3.

scientific instruments and apparatus, including techniques of operation and aspects of safety;

4.

scientific quantities and their determination; 8

TKGS Science Department Handbook 5.

scientific and technological applications with their social, economic and environmental implications.

The subject content defines the factual knowledge that candidates may be required to recall and explain.

Questions testing those objectives will often begin with one of the following words: define, state, describe, explain

or outline. (See the glossary of terms.)

B

Handling Information and Solving Problems

Students should be able - in words or by using symbolic, graphical and numerical forms of presentation - to:

7.

1.

locate, select, organise and present information from a variety of sources;

2.

translate information from one form to another;

3.

manipulate numerical and other data;

4.

use information to identify patterns, report trends and draw inferences;

5.

present reasoned explanations for phenomena, patterns and relationships;

6. make predictions and propose hypotheses; solve problems.

These assessment objectives cannot be precisely specified in the subject content because questions testing

such skills may be based on information which is unfamiliar to the candidate. In answering such questions,

candidates are required to use principles and concepts that are within the syllabus and apply them in a logical,

reasoned or deductive manner to a novel situation. Questions testing these objectives will often begin with one of

the following words: predict, suggest, calculate or determine. (See the glossary of terms.)

C

Experimental Skills and Investigations

Students should able to: 1.

follow a sequence of instructions;

2.

use techniques, apparatus and materials;

3.

make and record observations, measurements and estimates;

4.

interpret and evaluate observations and experimental results;

5.

plan investigations, select techniques, apparatus and materials;

6.

evaluate methods and suggest possible improvements.

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TKGS Science Department Handbook WEIGHTING OF ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES Theory Papers (Papers 1 and 2) A

Knowledge with Understanding, approximately 45% of the marks.

B

Handling Information and Solving Problems, approximately 55% of the marks.

School-Based Science Practical Assessment (SPA) (Paper 3) C Experimental Skills and Investigations, 100% of the marks.

SCHEME OF ASSESSMENT Candidates are required to enter for Papers 1, 2 and 3. Paper 1 2

3

Type of Paper Multiple Choice Structured and free-response questions School-based Science Practical Assessment (SPA)

Duration 1h 1h 45 min

Marks 40 80

Weighting 30% 50%

—

96

20%

Theory Papers

Paper 1 (1 h, 40 marks)

consisting of 40 compulsory multiple choice items of the direct choice type.

Paper 2 (1h 45 min, 80 marks)

consisting of two sections.

Section A will carry 50 marks and will consist of a

variable number of compulsory structured questions.

Section B will carry 30 marks and will consist of 3 free

response questions.

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TKGS Science Department Handbook

The first two questions are compulsory questions, one

of which will be a data-based question carrying 8-12

marks.

The last question will be presented in an either/or form

and will carry 10 marks.

School-based Science Practical Assessment (SPA) Paper 3 (96 marks)

The School-based Science Practical Assessment (SPA) will be conducted to assess appropriate aspects of

objectives C1 to C6. SPA will take place over an appropriate period that the candidates are offering the subject.

The assessment of science practical skills is grouped into 3 skill sets: Skill set 1 - Performing and Observing Skill set 2 - Analysing Skill set 3 - Planning Each candidate is to be assessed only twice for each of skill sets 1 and 2 and only once for skill set 3.

Weighting and Marks Computation of the 3 Skill Sets The overall level of performance of each skill set (skill sets 1, 2 and 3) is the sum total of the level of performance of each strand within the skill set.

Skill Set No. of Assessments Max Marks per (a) Assessment (b) 1 2 6 2 2 4 3 1 4 Total Marks for SPA

Weight (c) 4 3 6

Sub-total (a x b Weighting x c) 2 x 6 x 4 = 48 50% 2 x 4 x 3 = 24 25% 1 x 4 x 6 =24 25% 96

Please refer to the SPA Information Booklet for more detailed 11 information on the conduct of SPA.

TKGS Science Department Handbook The weighting and marks computation of the skill sets are as follows:

CONTENT STRUCTURE I.

II.

THEMES PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY

MAINTENANCE AND REGULATION OF LIFE PROCESSES

III.

CONTINUITY OF LIFE

IV.

MAN AND HIS ENVIRONMENT

1. 2. 3. 4.

Topics Cell Structure and Organisation Movement of Substances Biological Molecules Animal Nutrition

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Plant Nutrition Transport in Flowering Plants Transport in Humans Respiration Excretion Homeostasis Co-ordination and response Reproduction Cell Division Molecular Genetics Inheritance Organisms and their Environment

SUBJECT CONTENT ___________________________________ THEME I: PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY Overview A basic characteristic of life is the hierarchy of structural order within the organism. Robert Hooke (1635-1703), one of the first scientists to use a microscope to examine pond water, cork and other things, was the first to refer to the cavities he saw in cork as "cells", Latin for chambers. Subsequent scientists developed Hooke's discovery of the cell into the Cell Theory on which modern Biology is built upon. The Cell Theory states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells, and that those cells have arisen from pre-existing cells.

In this section, we study two key principles of biology. The first principle is the correlation of structure to function.

This is illustrated by how each part of the cell is suited for its intended function. The second principle is that

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TKGS Science Department Handbook

specialisation results in the division of labour which enables the cell to effectively carry out a number of vital life

processes. A strong foundation in the principles of biology will pave the way for students to master the content in

the subsequent topics.

1. Cell Structure and Organisation Content •

Plant and Animal Cells

Specialised Cells, Tissues and Organs Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

identify organelles of typical plant and animal cells from diagrams, photomicrographs and as seen under the light microscope using prepared slides and fresh material treated with an appropriate temporary staining technique:

chloroplasts

cell membrane

cell wall

cytoplasm

cell vacuoles (large, sap-filled in plant cells, small, temporary in animal cells)

nucleus (b)

identify the following membrane systems and organelles from diagrams and electron micrographs:

endoplasmic reticulum

mitochondria

Golgi body

ribosomes (c)

state the functions of the membrane systems and organelles identified above.

(d)

compare the structure of typical animal and plant cells.

(e)

state, in simple terms, the relationship between cell function and cell structure for the following:

absorption - root hair cells

conduction and support - xylem vessels

transport of oxygen - red blood cells

(f)

differentiate cell, tissue, organ and organ system.

Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems.

2.

Movement of Substances Content

Diffusion

Osmosis

Active Transport Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: 13

TKGS Science Department Handbook (a) define diffusion and discuss its importance in nutrient uptake and gaseous exchange in plants and humans. (b)

define osmosis and discuss the effects of osmosis on plant and animal tissues.

(c) define active transport and discuss its importance as an energy-consuming process by which substances are transported against a concentration gradient, as in ion uptake by root hairs and uptake of glucose by cells in the villi. Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems.

3.

Biological Molecules Content

Water and Living Organisms

Carbohydrates, Fats and Proteins

Enzymes Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

state the roles of water in living organisms.

(b)

list the chemical elements which make up

carbohydrates

fats

proteins

(c)

describe and carry out tests for

starch (iodine in potassium iodide solution)

reducing sugars (Benedict's solution)

protein (biuret test)

fats (ethanol emulsion) (d)

state that large molecules are synthesised from smaller basic units

glycogen from glucose

polypeptides and proteins from amino acids

lipids such as fats from glycerol and fatty acids

(e) (f) (g)

explain enzyme action in terms of the 'lock and key' hypothesis. explain the mode of action of enzymes in terms of an active site, enzyme-substrate complex, lowering of activation energy and enzyme specificity. investigate and explain the effects of temperature, pH on the rate of enzyme catalysed reactions.

Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems.

THEME II: MAINTENANCE AND REGULATION OF LIFE PROCESSES Overview

Life is sustained through the integrated organisation of the whole organism. In humans, the maintenance and

regulation of life processes include nutrition, transport, respiration, excretion, homeostasis and co-ordination and 14

TKGS Science Department Handbook

response. The key overarching theme in the study of the organ systems is the correlation between form and

function.

4.

Animal Nutrition Content

Human Alimentary Canal

Chemical Digestion

Absorption and Assimilation Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

describe the functions of main regions of the alimentary canal and the associated organs: mouth, salivary glands, oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, pancreas, gall bladder, liver, ileum, colon, rectum, anus, in relation to ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion of food, as appropriate.

(b)

describe peristalsis in terms of rhythmic wave-like contractions of the muscles to mix and propel the contents of the alimentary canal.

(c)

describe digestion in the alimentary canal, the functions of a typical amylase, protease and lipase, listing the substrate and end-products.

(d) (e) (f)

describe the structure of a villus and its role, including the role of capillaries and lacteals in absorption. state the function of the hepatic portal vein as the route taken by most of the food absorbed from the small intestine. state the role of the liver in

carbohydrate metabolism

fat metabolism

breakdown of red blood cells

metabolism of amino acids and the formation of urea •

breakdown of alcohol, including the effects of excessive alcohol consumption Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems.

5.

Plant Nutrition Content

Leaf Structure

• Photosynthesis Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

identify and label the cellular and tissue structure of a dicotyledonous leaf, as seen in cross-section under the microscope and describe the significance of these features in terms of their functions, such as the

distribution of chloroplasts in photosynthesis

stomata and mesophyll cells in gaseous exchange 15

TKGS Science Department Handbook •

vascular bundles in transport

(b)

state the equation, in words and symbols, for photosynthesis.

(c)

outline the intake of carbon dioxide and water by plants.

(d)

state that chlorophyll traps light energy and converts it into chemical energy for the formation of carbohydrates and their subsequent storage.

(e)

investigate and discuss the effects of varying light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration and temperature on the rate of photosynthesis (e.g. in submerged aquatic plant).

(f)

discuss light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration and temperature as limiting factors on the rate of photosynthesis.

Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems.

6. Transport in Flowering Plants

Content •

Water and Ion Uptake

Transpiration and Translocation Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

identify the positions and explain the functions of xylem vessels, phloem (sieve tube elements and companion cells) in sections of a herbaceous dicotyledonous leaf and stem, under the light microscope.

(b)

relate the structure and functions of root hairs to their surface area, and to water and ion uptake.

(c)

explain the movement of water between plant cells, and between them and the environment in terms of water potential. (Calculations on water potential is not required).

(d)

outline the pathway by which water is transported from the roots to the leaves through the xylem vessels.

(e)

define the term transpiration and explain that transpiration is a consequence of gaseous exchange in plants.

(f) •

describe

the effects of variation of air movement, temperature, humidity and light intensity on transpiration rate •

how wilting occurs

(g)

define the term translocation as the transport of food in the phloem tissue and illustrate the process through translocation studies.

Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems. 7.

Transport in Humans Content

Circulatory System Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

identify the main blood vessels to and from the heart, lungs, liver and kidney.

(b)

state the functions of blood

red blood cells - haemoglobin and oxygen transport

white blood cells - phagocytosis, antibody formation and tissue rejection

platelets - fibrinogen to fibrin, causing clotting 16

TKGS Science Department Handbook •

plasma - transport of blood cells, ions, soluble food substances, hormones, carbon dioxide, urea, vitamins, plasma proteins

(c)

list the different ABO blood groups and all possible combinations for the donor and recipient in blood transfusions.

(d)

relate the structure of arteries, veins and capillaries to their functions.

(e)

describe the transfer of materials between capillaries and tissue fluid.

(f)

describe the structure and function of the heart in terms of muscular contraction and the working of valves.

(g)

outline the cardiac cycle in terms of what happens during systole and diastole (Histology of the heart muscle, names of nerves and transmitter substances are not required).

(h)

describe coronary heart disease in terms of the occlusion of coronary arteries and list the possible causes, such as diet, stress and smoking, stating the possible preventative measures.

Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems.

8.

Respiration Content

Human Gaseous Exchange

Aerobic Respiration

Anaerobic Respiration Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

identify on diagrams and name the larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli and associated capillaries.

(b)

state the characteristics of, and describe the role of, the exchange surface of the alveoli in gaseous exchange.

(c)

describe the removal of carbon dioxide from the lungs, including the role of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme

(d) (e) (f) (g) (h)

describe the role of cilia, diaphragm, ribs and intercostal muscles in breathing. describe the effect of tobacco smoke and its major toxic components - nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide, on health. define and state the equation, in words and symbols, for aerobic respiration in human. define and state the equation, in words only, for anaerobic respiration in human. describe the effect of lactic acid in muscles during exercise.

Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems.

9.

Excretion Content

Structure and Function of Kidneys

Kidney Dialysis Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

define excretion and explain the importance of removing nitrogenous and other compounds from the body.

(b)

outline the function of kidney tubules with reference to ultra-filtration and selective reabsorption in the production of urine.

(c)

outline the role of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) in the regulation of osmotic concentration. 17

TKGS Science Department Handbook (d)

outline the mechanism of dialysis in the case of kidney failure.

Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems.

10. Homeostasis Content •

Principles of Homeostasis

Skin

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

define homeostasis as the maintenance of a constant internal environment.

(b)

explain the basic principles of homeostasis in terms of stimulus resulting from a change in the internal environment, a corrective mechanism and a negative feedback.

(c)

identify on a diagram of the skin: hairs, sweat glands, temperature receptors, blood vessels and fatty tissue.

(d)

describe the maintenance of a constant body temperature in humans in terms of insulation and the role of: temperature receptors in the skin, sweating, shivering, blood vessels near the skin surface and the coordinating role of the brain.

Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems.

11. Co-ordination and Response Content •

Receptors - Eye

Nervous System - Neurones (Reflex Action)

Effectors - Endocrine Glands Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

state the relationship between receptors, the central nervous system and the effectors.

(b)

describe the gross structure of the eye as seen in front view and in horizontal section.

(c) (d) (e) (f)

state the principal functions of component parts of the eye in producing a focused image of near and distant objects on the retina. describe the pupil reflex in response to bright and dim light. state that the nervous system - brain, spinal cord and nerves, serves to co-ordinate and regulate bodily functions. outline the functions of sensory neurons, relay neurones and motor neurons.

(g)

discuss the function of the brain and spinal cord in producing a co-ordinated response as a result of a specific stimulus in a reflex action.

(h)

define a hormone as a chemical substance, produced by a gland, carried by the blood, which alters the activity of one or more specific target organs and is then destroyed by the liver.

(i)

explain what is meant by an endocrine gland, with reference to the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. (j) state the role of the hormone adrenaline in boosting blood glucose levels and give examples of situations in which this may occur.

(k)

explain how the blood glucose concentration is regulated by insulin and glucagon as a homeostatic mechanism. (l) describe the signs, such as an increased blood glucose level and glucose in urine, and the treatment of diabetes mellitus using insulin. 18

TKGS Science Department Handbook Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems.

THEME III: CONTINUITY OF LIFE Overview The many aspects of form and function that we have examined in this syllabus can be viewed in the widest context as various adaptations aimed at ensuring reproductive success. Reproduction is vital for the survival of species across generations. In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick developed the model for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), a chemical that had then recently been deduced to be the physical carrier of inheritance. In this section, we examine how genes interact to produce hereditary characteristics in the offspring. This section focuses on understanding the processes involved in the continuity of life and how genetic information is passed from one generation to the next.

12. Reproduction Content •

Asexual Reproduction

Sexual Reproduction in Plants

Sexual Reproduction in Humans

Sexually Transmitted Diseases Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to:

(a)

define asexual reproduction as the process resulting in the production of genetically identical offspring from one parent.

(b)

define sexual reproduction as the process involving the fusion of nuclei to form a zygote and the production of genetically dissimilar offspring.

(c)

identify and draw, using a hand lens if necessary, the sepals, petals, stamens and carpels of one, locally available, named, insect-pollinated, dicotyledonous flower, and examine the pollen grains under a microscope.

(d) (e)

state the functions of the sepals, petals, anthers and carpels. use a hand lens to identify and describe the stamens and stigmas of one, locally available, named, windpollinated flower, and examine the pollen grains under a microscope.

(f)

outline the process of pollination and distinguish between self-pollination and cross pollination.

(g)

compare, using fresh specimens, an insect-pollinated and a wind-pollinated flower.

(h) (i)

describe the growth of the pollen tube and its entry into the ovule followed by fertilisation (production of endosperm and details of development are not required). identify on diagrams, the male reproductive system and give the functions of: testes, scrotum, sperm ducts, prostate gland, urethra and penis. (j) identify on diagrams, the female reproductive system and give the functions of ovaries, oviducts, uterus, cervix and vagina. (k) briefly describe the menstrual cycle with reference to the alternation of menstruation and ovulation, the natural variation in its length, and the fertile and infertile phases of the cycle with reference to the effects of progesterone and estrogen only.

(l) describe fertilisation and early development of the zygote simply in terms of the formation of a ball of cells which becomes implanted in the wall of the uterus. (m)

state the functions of the amniotic sac and the amniotic fluid.

(n) describe the function of the placenta and umbilical cord in relation to exchange of dissolved nutrients, gases and excretory products. (Structural details are not required.) (o) discuss the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and methods by which it may be controlled. Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems.

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TKGS Science Department Handbook 13. Cell Division Content •

Mitosis

Meiosis Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to:

(a)

state the importance of mitosis in growth, repair and asexual reproduction.

(b)

explain the need for the production of genetically identical cells and fine control of replication.

(c)

identify, with the aid of diagrams, the main stages of mitosis.

(d)

state what is meant by homologous pairs of chromosomes.

(e)

identify, with the aid of diagrams, the main stages of meiosis. (Names of the sub-divisions of prophase are not required.)

(f)

define the terms haploid and diploid, and explain the need for a reduction division process prior to fertilisation in sexual reproduction.

(g)

state how meiosis and fertilisation can lead to variation.

Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems. 14. Molecular Genetics Content •

The Structure of DNA

The Role of DNA in Protein Synthesis

Genes

Genetic Engineering and Medical Biotechnology

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) (b)

outline the relationship between DNA, genes and chromosomes. state the structure of DNA in terms of the bases, sugar and phosphate groups found in each of their nucleotides.

(c)

state the rule of complementary base pairing.

(d)

state that DNA is used to carry the genetic code, which is used to synthesise specific polypeptides.

(e)

state that each gene is a sequence of nucleotides, as part of a DNA molecule.

(f)

explain that genes may be transferred between cells. Reference should be made to the transfer of genes between organisms of the same or different species - transgenic plants or animals.

(g)

briefly explain how a gene that controls the production of human insulin can be inserted into bacterial DNA to produce human insulin in medical biotechnology.

(h)

outline the process of large-scale production of insulin using fermenters.

(i)

discuss the social and ethical implications of genetic engineering, with reference to a named example.

Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems.

15. Inheritance Content •

The Passage of Information from Parent to Offspring 20

TKGS Science Department Handbook •

The Nature of Genes and Alleles, and their Role in Determining the Phenotype

Monohybrid Crosses

Variation

Natural and Artificial Selection Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

define a gene as a unit of inheritance and distinguish clearly between the terms gene and allele.

(b)

explain the terms dominant, recessive, codominant, homozygous, heterozygous, phenotype and genotype.

(c)

predict the results of simple crosses with expected ratios of 3:1 and 1:1, using the terms homozygous, heterozygous, generation and F2 generation.

(d)

explain why observed ratios often differ from expected ratios, especially when there are small numbers of progeny.

(e)

use genetic diagrams to solve problems involving monohybrid inheritance. (Genetic diagrams involving autosomal linkage or epistasis are not required.)

(f)

explain co-dominance and multiple alleles with reference to the inheritance of the ABO blood group A B O phenotypes - A, B, AB, O, gene alleles I , I and I .

(g) (h) (i)

describe the determination of sex in humans - XX and XY chromosomes. describe mutation as a change in the structure of a gene such as in sickle cell anaemia, or in the chromosome number, such as the 47 chromosomes in a condition known as Down Syndrome. name radiation and chemicals as factors which may increase the rate of mutation. (j) describe the difference between continuous and discontinuous variation and give examples of each.

(k) state that competition which arises from variation leads to differential survival of, and reproduction by, those organisms best fitted to the environment. (l)

give examples of environmental factors that act as forces of natural selection.

(m)

assess the importance of natural selection as a possible mechanism for evolution.

(n) give examples of artificial selection such as in the production of economically important plants and animals. Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems. THEME IV: MAN AND HIS ENVIRONMENT Overview

All living organisms are part of a complex network of interactions called the web of life. This section focuses on

the interrelationships among living things. These include two major processes. The first is the cycling of nutrients,

as illustrated by the carbon cycle. The second major process is the flow of energy from sunlight to organisms

further down the food chain.

16. Organisms and their Environment Content •

Energy Flow 21

TKGS Science Department Handbook •

Food Chains and Webs

Carbon Cycle

Effects of Man on the Ecosystem

Environmental Biotechnology Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

briefly describe the non-cyclical nature of energy flow.

(b)

explain the terms producer, consumer and trophic level in the context of food chains and food webs.

(c)

explain how energy losses occur along food chains, and discuss the efficiency of energy transfer between trophic levels.

(d)

describe and interpret pyramids of numbers and biomass.

(e) (f)

describe how carbon is cycled within an ecosystem. evaluate the effects of

(g) (h)

water pollution by sewage and by inorganic waste

pollution due to insecticides including bioaccumulation up food chains and impact on top carnivores

outline the roles of microbes in sewage disposal as an example of environmental biotechnology. discuss reasons for conservation of species with reference to the maintenance of biodiversity, management of fisheries and management of timber production.

Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems.

PRACTICAL GUIDELINES

Scientific subjects are, by their nature, experimental. It is therefore important that the candidates carry out

appropriate practical work to support and facilitate the learning of this subject. Over the course of study,

candidates could be exposed to the following range of experiments/techniques/skills: 1.

Candidates should be able to:

(a)

follow carefully a sequence of instructions within a set time allowance;

(b)

use familiar and unfamiliar techniques to record their observations and make deductions from them;

(c)

recognise and observe features of familiar and unfamiliar biological specimens, record their observations and make deductions about functions of whole specimens or their parts;

(d)

make clear line drawings of the specimens provided, indicate magnification and label familiar structures;

(e)

interpret unfamiliar data and draw conclusions from their interpretations;

(f)

design/plan an investigation to solve a problem;

(g)

comment on a procedure used in an experiment and to suggest an improvement.

(h)

employ manipulative skills in assembling apparatus, in using chemical reagents and in using such instruments as mounted needles, scalpels and razor blades, forceps and scissors; (i)

observe reactions, read simple measuring instruments and perform simple arithmetical calculations;

(j) measure to an accuracy of 1 mm, using a ruler.

22

TKGS Science Department Handbook 2.

Candidates may be asked to carry out simple physiological experiments, involving tests for food substances {see 3(c)}, enzyme reactions, hydrogencarbonate indicator solution, cobalt(II) chloride paper etc. It is expected that glassware and instruments normally found in a laboratory e.g. beakers, test-tube racks, funnels, thermometers, droppers and so on, should be available for these experiments.

3.

Candidates may be asked to carry out simple physiological experiments, involving the use of the instruments mentioned in 1(h), on plant or animal materials. Accurate observations of these specimens will need a hand lens of not less than x6 magnification for each candidate.

4.

The material used in experiments will be closely related to the subject matter of the syllabus but will not necessarily be limited to the particular types mentioned therein. In order to assist their own practical work, schools are asked to build up a reference collection of material.

5.

When planning practical work, teachers should make sure that they do not contravene any school, education authority or government regulations which restrict the sampling, in educational establishments, of urine, saliva, blood or other bodily secretions and tissues.

GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN BIOLOGY PAPERS ________ It is hoped that the glossary will prove helpful to candidates as a guide, i.e. it is neither exhaustive nor definitive. The glossary has been deliberately kept brief not only with respect to the number of terms included but also to the descriptions of their meanings. Candidates should appreciate that the meaning of a term must depend in part on its context. 1.

Calculate is used when a numerical answer is required. In general, working should be shown, especially where two or more steps are involved.

2.

Comment is intended as an open-ended instruction, inviting candidates to recall or infer points of interest relevant to the context of the question, taking account of the number of marks available.

3.

Compare requires candidates to provide both similarities and differences between things or concepts.

4.

Define (the term(s) ...) is intended literally, only a formal statement or equivalent paraphrase being required.

5.

Describe requires candidates to state in words (using diagrams where appropriate) the main points of the topic. It is often used with reference either to particular phenomena or to particular experiments. In the former instance, the term usually implies that the answer should include reference to (visual) observations associated with the phenomena.

6.

Determine often implies that the quantity concerned cannot be measured directly but is obtained by calculation, substituting measured or known values of other quantities into a standard formula.

7. 8.

Discuss requires candidates to give a critical account of the points involved in the topic. Estimate implies a reasoned order of magnitude statement or calculation of the quantity concerned, making such simplifying assumptions as may be necessary about the points of principle and about the values of quantities not otherwise included in the question.

9.

Explain may imply reasoning or some reference to theory, depending on the context.

10.

Find is a general term that may be variously interpreted as calculate, measure, determine etc.

11.

List requires a number of points, generally each of one word, with no elaboration. Where a given number of points is specified, this should not be exceeded.

12.

Measure implies that the quantity concerned can be directly obtained from a suitable measuring instrument, e.g. length, using a rule, or mass, using a balance.

13. 14.

Outline implies brevity, i.e. restricting the answer to giving essentials. Predict or deduce implies that the candidate is not expected to produce the required answer by recall but by making a logical connection between other pieces of information. Such information may be wholly given in the question or may depend on answers extracted from an earlier part of the question. 23

TKGS Science Department Handbook 15.

Sketch, when applied to graph work, implies that the shape and/or position of the curve need only be qualitatively correct, but candidates should be aware that, depending on the context, some quantitative aspects may be looked for, e.g. passing through the origin, having an intercept, asymptote or discontinuity at a particular value.

Sketch, when applied to diagrams, implies that a simple, freehand drawing is acceptable; nevertheless,

care should be taken over proportions and the clear exposition of important details. 16.

State implies a concise answer with little or no supporting argument, e.g. a numerical answer that can be obtained 'by inspection'.

17.

Suggest is used in two main contexts, i.e. either to imply that there is no unique answer, or to imply that candidates are expected to apply their general knowledge to a 'novel' situation, one that may be formally 'not in the syllabus'.

18.

What is meant by (the term(s) ... ) normally implies that a definition should be given, together with some relevant comment on the significance or context of the term(s) concerned, especially where two or more terms are included in the question. The amount of supplementary comment intended should be interpreted in light of the indicated mark value.

2.2 Chemistry 5072 Syllabus 2009

CHEMISTRY GCE ORDINARY LEVEL (Syllabus 5072) INTRODUCTION This syllabus is designed to place less emphasis on factual materials and greater emphasis on the

understanding and application of scientific concepts and principles. This approach has been adapted in

recognition of the need for students to develop skills that will be of long term value in an increasingly

technological world rather than focusing on large quantities of factual materials, which may have only short term

relevance. It is important that, throughout the course, attention should be drawn to: (i) (ii)

the finite life of the world's resources and hence the need for recycling and conservation; economic considerations in the chemical industry, such as the availability and cost of raw materials and energy;

(iii)

the social, environmental, health and safety issues relating to the chemical industry;

(iv)

the importance of chemicals in industry and in everyday life. 24

TKGS Science Department Handbook

It is envisaged that teaching and learning programmes based on this syllabus will feature a wide variety of

learning experiences designed to promote acquisition of expertise and understanding. Teachers are encouraged

to use a combination of appropriate strategies including developing appropriate practical works for their students

to facilitate a greater understanding of the subject.

AIMS These are not listed in order of priority. The aims are to: 1. provide, through well designed studies of experimental and practical chemistry, a worthwhile educational experience for all students, whether or not they go on to study science beyond this level and, in particular, to enable them to acquire sufficient understanding and knowledge to 1.1 become confident citizens in a technological world, able to take or develop an informed interest in matters of scientific import; 1.2 recognise the usefulness, and limitations, of scientific method and to appreciate its applicability in other disciplines and in everyday life; 1.3 be suitably prepared and stimulated for studies beyond Ordinary level in chemistry, in applied sciences or in science-dependent vocational courses. 2.

develop abilities and skills that 2.1 2.2

are relevant to the study and practice of science; are useful in everyday life;

2.3 2.4

encourage efficient and safe practice; encourage effective communication.

3.

develop attitudes relevant to science such as

3.1 3.2

accuracy and precision; objectivity;

3.3 3.4

integrity; enquiry;

3.5

initiative;

3.6

inventiveness. 4.

5.

stimulate interest in and care for the environment.

promote an awareness that

5.1

the study and practice of science are co-operative and cumulative activities, and are subject to social, economic, technological, ethical and cultural influences and limitations;

5.2

the applications of sciences may be both beneficial and detrimental to the individual, the community and the environment;

5.3

science transcends national boundaries and that the language of science, correctly and rigorously applied, is universal;

5.4

the use of information technology is important for communications, as an aid to experiments and as a tool for interpretation of experimental and theoretical results.

ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES A

Knowledge with Understanding 25

TKGS Science Department Handbook Students should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding in relation to: 1. 2.

scientific phenomena, facts, laws, definitions, concepts, theories; scientific vocabulary, terminology, conventions (including symbols, quantities and units contained in 'Signs, Symbols and Systematics 16-19', Association for Science Education, 2000);

3.

scientific instruments and apparatus, including techniques of operation and aspects of safety;

4.

scientific quantities and their determination;

5.

scientific and technological applications with their social, economic and environmental implications.

The subject content defines the factual knowledge that candidates may be required to recall and explain.

Questions testing those objectives will often begin with one of the following words: define, state, describe, explain

or outline. (See the Glossary of Terms.)

B

Handling Information and Solving Problems

Students should be able - in words or by using symbolic, graphical and numerical forms of presentation - to: 1.

locate, select, organise and present information from a variety of sources;

2.

translate information from one form to another;

3.

manipulate numerical and other data;

4.

use information to identify patterns, report trends and draw inferences;

5.

present reasoned explanations for phenomena, patterns and relationships;

6.

make predictions and propose hypotheses;

7.

solve problems.

These assessment objectives cannot be precisely specified in the subject content because questions testing

these objectives may be based on information which is unfamiliar to the candidates. In answering such

questions, candidates are required to use principles and concepts that are within the syllabus and apply them in

a logical, reasoned or deductive manner to a novel situation. Questions testing these objectives will often begin

with one of the following words: predict, deduce, suggest, calculate or determine. (See the Glossary of Terms). C

Experimental Skills and Investigations

Students should able to: 1.

follow a sequence of instructions; 26

TKGS Science Department Handbook 2.

use techniques, apparatus and materials;

3.

make and record observations, measurements and estimates;

4.

interpret and evaluate observations and experimental results;

5.

plan investigations, select techniques, apparatus and materials;

6.

evaluate methods and suggest possible improvements.

Weighting of Assessment Objectives Theory Papers (Papers 1 and 2) A

Knowledge with Understanding, approximately 55% of the marks with approximately 20% allocated to recall.

B

Handling Information and Solving Problems, approximately 45% of the marks.

School-Based Science Practical Assessment (SPA) (Paper 3) C Experimental Skills and Investigations, 100% of the marks.

SCHEME OF ASSESSMENT Theory Papers Candidates are required to enter for Papers 1, 2 and 3. Paper 1 2 3

Type of Paper Multiple Choice Structured and Free Response School-based Science Practical Assessment (SPA)

Paper 1 (1 h, 40 marks),

Duration 1h 1 h 45 min

—

Marks 40 80 96

Weighting 30% 50% 20%

consisting of 40 compulsory multiple choice items of the direct

choice type.

A copy of the Data Sheet will be printed as part of this Paper. Paper 2 (1 h 45 min, 80 marks),

consisting of two sections.

Section A will carry 50 marks and will consist of a variable

number of compulsory structured questions.

Section B will carry 30 marks and will consist of three

questions.

27

TKGS Science Department Handbook

The first two questions are compulsory questions, one of which will

be a data-based question requiring candidates to interpret, evaluate

or solve problems using a stem of information. This question will

carry 8-12 marks. The last question will be presented in an either/or

form and will carry 10 marks.

A copy of the Data Sheet will be printed as part of this Paper.

28

5072 CHEMISTRY (WITH SPA) O LEVEL (2009)

School-based Science Practical Assessment (SPA) Paper 3 (96 marks)

The School-based Science Practical Assessment (SPA) will be conducted to assess appropriate aspects of

objectives C1 to C6. SPA will take place over an appropriate period that the candidates are offering the subject.

The assessment of science practical skills is grouped into 3 skill sets: Skill set 1 - Performing and Observing Skill set 2 - Analysing Skill set 3 - Planning Each candidate is to be assessed only twice for each of skill sets 1 and 2 and only once for skill set 3. Weighting and Marks Computation of the 3 Skill Sets

The weighting and marks computation of the skill sets are as follows: Skill Set

No. of Assessments (a)

Max Marks per Assessment (b)

Weight (c)

Sub-total (a x b x c) 2 x 6 x 4 = 48

Weighting 50%

2 x 4 x 3 = 24 1 x 4 x 6 =24

25% 25%

Total Marks for SPA

Please refer to the SPA Information Booklet for more detailed information on the conduct of SPA.

The overall level of performance of each skill set (skill sets 1, 2 and 3) is the sum total of the level of performance

of each strand within the skill set.

29

5072 CHEMISTRY (WITH SPA) O LEVEL (2009)

CONTENT STRUCTURE

I. II.

Section EXPERIMENTAL CHEMISTRY ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND STOICHIOMETRY

III.

CHEMISTRY OF REACTIONS

IV.

PERIODICITY

V. VI.

ATMOSPHERE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1. 2. 3.

Topic Experimental Chemistry The Particulate Nature of Matter Formulae, Stoichiometry and the Mole

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Concept Electrolysis Energy from Chemicals Chemical Reactions Acids, Bases and Salts The Periodic Table Metals Air Organic Chemistry

SUBJECT CONTENT SECTION I: EXPERIMENTAL CHEMISTRY Overview

Chemistry is typically an experimental science and relies primarily on practical work. It is important for students

to learn the techniques of handling laboratory apparatus and to pay special attention to safety while working in

the laboratory. Accidents happened even to German chemist, Robert Bunsen, while working in the laboratory.

Robert Bunsen spent most of his time doing experiments in the laboratory and at the age of 25, he lost an eye in

a laboratory explosion due to the lack of proper eye protection.

In this section, students examine the appropriate use of simple apparatus and chemicals, and the

experimental techniques. Students need to be aware of the importance of purity in the electronic,

pharmaceutical, food and beverage industries, and be allowed to try out different methods of

purification and analysis in school science laboratories. Students should be able to appreciate the

need for precision and accuracy in making readings and also value the need for safe handling and

disposing of chemicals. ________________________________________________________________________ 30

5072 CHEMISTRY (WITH SPA) O LEVEL (2009)

1

Experimental Chemistry

Content 1.1

Experimental design

1.2

Methods of purification and analysis

1.3

Identification of ions and gases Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: 1.1

Experimental design

(a)

name appropriate apparatus for the measurement of time, temperature, mass and volume, including burettes, pipettes, measuring cylinders and gas syringes

(b)

suggest suitable apparatus, given relevant information, for a variety of simple experiments, including collection of gases and measurement of rates of reaction

1.2

Methods of purification and analysis

(a)

describe methods of separations and purification for the components of the following types of mixtures:

(i)

solid-solid

(ii)

solid-liquid

(iii)

liquid-liquid (miscible and immiscible) Techniques to be covered for separations and purification include:

(i)

use of a suitable solvent, filtration and crystallisation or evaporation

(ii)

sublimation

(iii)

distillation and fractional distillation

(iv)

use of a separating funnel

(v)

paper chromatography (b)

describe paper chromatography and interpret chromatograms including comparison with 'known' samples and the use of Rf values

(c)

explain the need to use locating agents in the chromatography of colourless compounds

(d)

deduce from the given melting point and boiling point the identities of substances and their purity

(e)

explain that the measurement of purity in substances used in everyday life, e.g. foodstuffs and drugs, is important 1.3 Identification of ions and gases

(f)

describe the use of aqueous sodium hydroxide and aqueous ammonia to identify the following aqueous cations: aluminium, ammonium, calcium, copper(II), iron(II), iron(III), lead(II) and zinc (formulae of complex ions are not required)

(g)

describe tests to identify the following anions: carbonate (by the addition of dilute acid and subsequent use of limewater); chloride (by reaction of an aqueous solution with nitric acid and aqueous silver nitrate); iodide (by reaction of an aqueous solution with nitric acid and aqueous lead(II) nitrate); nitrate (by reduction with aluminium and aqueous sodium hydroxide to ammonia and subsequent use of litmus paper) and sulfate (by reaction of an aqueous solution with nitric acid and aqueous barium nitrate)

(h)

describe tests to identify the following gases: ammonia (using damp red litmus paper); carbon dioxide (using limewater); chlorine (using damp litmus paper); hydrogen (using a burning splint); oxygen (using a glowing splint) and sulfur dioxide (using acidified potassium dichromate(VI))

SECTION II: ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND STOICHIOMETRY Overview For over 2 000 years, people have wondered about the fundamental building blocks of matter. As far back as 440 BC, the Greek Leucippus and his pupil Democritus coined the term atomos to describe the smallest particle of matter. It translates to mean something that is indivisible.

In the eighteenth century, chemist, John Dalton, revived the term when he suggested that each element was

made up of unique atoms and the atoms of an element are all the same. At the time, there were about 35 known

31

5072 CHEMISTRY (WITH SPA) O LEVEL (2009)

elements. This simple model could explain the millions of different materials around us. Differences between the

atoms give the elements their different chemical properties.

In this section, the idea of atoms and chemical bonding being the most important fundamental concept in

Chemistry is introduced. The knowledge of atomic structure opens the door for students to understand the world

of chemical reactions. Students are also introduced to the use of models and theories in the study of the

structures of atoms, molecules and ions, and the bonding in elements and compounds. Calculations involving

chemical formulae, reacting masses and volumes, and concentrations introduce students to the fundamentals of

stoichiometry.

2

The Particulate Nature of Matter Content

2.1

Kinetic particle theory

2.2

Atomic structure

2.3

Structure and properties of materials

2.4

Ionic bonding

2.5

Covalent bonding

2.6

Metallic bonding Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: 2.1

Kinetic particle

theory (a) (b)

describe the solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter and explain their interconversion in terms of the kinetic particle theory and of the energy changes involved describe and explain evidence for the movement of particles in liquids and gases (the treatment of Brownian motion is not required)

(c)

explain everyday effects of diffusion in terms of particles, e.g. the spread of perfumes and cooking aromas; tea and coffee grains in water

(d)

state qualitatively the effect of molecular mass on the rate of diffusion and explain the dependence of rate of diffusion on temperature 2.2 Atomic structure (a) (b)

state the relative charges and approximate relative masses of a proton, a neutron and an electron describe, with the aid of diagrams, the structure of an atom as containing protons and neutrons (nucleons) in the nucleus and electrons arranged in shells (energy levels)

32

5072 CHEMISTRY (WITH SPA) O LEVEL (2009)

(no knowledge of s, p, d and f classification will be expected; a copy of the Periodic Table will be

available in Papers 1 and 2) (c)

define proton (atomic) number and nucleon (mass) number

(d)

interpret and use symbols such as

(e)

define the term isotopes

(f) 2.3 (a)

1

6C

deduce the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons in atoms and ions given proton and nucleon numbers Structure and properties of materials describe the differences between elements, compounds and mixtures

(b)

compare the structure of simple molecular substances, e.g. methane; iodine, with those of giant molecular substances, e.g. poly(ethene); sand (silicon dioxide); diamond; graphite in order to deduce their properties

(c)

compare the bonding and structures of diamond and graphite in order to deduce their properties such as electrical conductivity, lubricating or cutting action

(d)

deduce the physical and chemical properties of substances from their structures and bonding and vice versa

(candidates will not be required to draw the structures)

2.4

Ionic bonding

(a)

describe the formation of ions by electron loss/gain in order to obtain the electronic configuration of a noble gas

(b)

describe the formation of ionic bonds between metals and non-metals, e.g. NaCI; MgC12

(c)

state that ionic materials contain a giant lattice in which the ions are held by electrostatic attraction, e.g. NaCI (candidates will not be required to draw diagrams of ionic lattices)

(d)

deduce the formulae of other ionic compounds from diagrams of their lattice structures, limited to binary compounds

(e)

relate the physical properties (including electrical property) of ionic compounds to their lattice structure

2.5

Covalent bonding

(a)

describe the formation of a covalent bond by the sharing of a pair of electrons in order to gain the electronic configuration of a noble gas

(b)

describe, using 'dot-and-cross' diagrams, the formation of covalent bonds between non-metallic elements, e.g. H2; O2; H2O; CH4; CO2

(c)

deduce the arrangement of electrons in other covalent molecules

(d)

relate the physical properties (including electrical property) of covalent substances to their structure and bonding

2.6

Metallic bonding

(a)

describe metals as a lattice of positive ions in a 'sea of electrons'

(b)

relate the electrical conductivity of metals to the mobility of the electrons in the structure

3

Formulae, Stoichiometry and the Mole Concept

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

state the symbols of the elements and formulae of the compounds mentioned in the syllabus

(b)

deduce the formulae of simple compounds from the relative numbers of atoms present and vice versa

(c)

deduce the formulae of ionic compounds from the charges on the ions present and vice versa

(d)

interpret chemical equations with state symbols

(e)

construct chemical equations, with state symbols, including ionic equations

(f)

define relative atomic mass, Ar 33

5072 CHEMISTRY (WITH SPA) O LEVEL (2009) (g)

define relative molecular mass, Mr, and calculate relative molecular mass (and relative formula mass) as the sum of relative atomic masses

(h)

calculate the percentage mass of an element in a compound when given appropriate information

(i)

calculate empirical and molecular formulae from relevant data 3

(j) calculate stoichiometric reacting masses and volumes of gases (one mole of gas occupies 24 dm at room temperature and pressure); calculations involving the idea of limiting reactants may be set

(The gas laws and the calculations of gaseous volumes at different temperatures and pressures are not

required.) 3

3

(k) apply the concept of solution concentration (in mol/dm or g/dm ) to process the results of volumetric experiments and to solve simple problems (Appropriate guidance will be provided where unfamiliar reactions are involved.) (l) calculate % yield and % purity SECTION III: CHEMISTRY OF REACTIONS Overview

Chemists like Humphry Davy and Svante Arrhenius played important roles in providing a comprehensive

understanding of what happens in chemical reactions. A new era of electrochemistry started when Humphry

Davy (1778-1829), a British chemist, built a powerful battery to pass electricity through molten salts. He

discovered elements, such as potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium, by liberating them from their molten

compounds. Swedish chemist, Svante Arrhenius, in 1887, proposed the theory that acids, bases, and salts in

water are composed of ions. He also proposed a simple yet beautiful model of neutralisation - the combination of

hydrogen and hydroxyl ions to form water.

In this section, students examine the chemical decomposition of substances by electrolysis,

characteristic properties of acids, bases and salts, and also their reactions with substances, the

factors affecting the rate of reaction and also the energy changes during a reaction. Students should

be able to appreciate the importance of proper laboratory techniques and precise calculations for

34

5072 CHEMISTRY (WITH SPA) O LEVEL (2009)

accurate results, and the importance of controlling variables in making comparisons. They should

also value the knowledge of the hazardous nature of acids/alkalis and the safe handling, storing and

disposing of chemicals. ________________________________________________________________________ 4 Electrolysis Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

describe electrolysis as the conduction of electricity by an ionic compound (an electrolyte), when molten or dissolved in water, leading to the decomposition of the electrolyte

(b)

describe electrolysis as evidence for the existence of ions which are held in a lattice when solid but which are free to move when molten or in solution

(c)

describe, in terms of the mobility of ions present and the electrode products, the electrolysis of molten sodium chloride, using inert electrodes

(d)

predict the likely products of the electrolysis of a molten binary compound

(e)

apply the idea of selective discharge based on (i)

cations: linked to the reactivity series (see 9.2)

(ii)

anions: halides, hydroxides and sulfates (e.g. aqueous copper(II) sulfate and dilute sodium chloride solution (as essentially the electrolysis of water))

(iii)

concentration effects (as in the electrolysis of concentrated and dilute aqueous sodium chloride) (In all cases above, inert electrodes are used.)

(f)

predict the likely products of the electrolysis of an aqueous electrolyte, given relevant information

(g)

construct ionic equations for the reactions occurring at the electrodes during the electrolysis, given relevant information

(h)

describe the electrolysis of aqueous copper(II) sulfate with copper electrodes as a means of purifying copper (no technical details are required)

(i) describe the electroplating of metals, e.g. copper plating, and state one use of electroplating (j) describe the production of electrical energy from simple cells (i.e. two electrodes in an electrolyte) linked to the reactivity series (see 9.2) and redox reactions (in terms of electron transfer)

5

Energy from Chemicals Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

describe the meaning of enthalpy change in terms of exothermic (AH negative) and endothermic (AH positive) reactions

(b)

represent energy changes by energy profile diagrams, including reaction enthalpy changes and activation energies (see 6.1(c),6.1(d))

(c)

describe bond breaking as an endothermic process and bond making as an exothermic process

(d)

explain overall enthalpy changes in terms of the energy changes associated with the breaking and making of covalent bonds

(e)

describe hydrogen, derived from water or hydrocarbons, as a potential fuel, reacting with oxygen to generate electricity directly in a fuel cell (details of the construction and operation of a fuel cell are not required)

6

Chemical Reactions Content 6.1

Speed of reaction

6.2

Redox Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: 6.1

Speed of reaction 35

5072 CHEMISTRY (WITH SPA) O LEVEL (2009) (a)

describe the effect of concentration, pressure, particle size and temperature on the speeds of reactions and explain these effects in terms of collisions between reacting particles

(b)

define the term catalyst and describe the effect of catalysts (including enzymes) on the speeds of reactions

(c)

explain how pathways with lower activation energies account for the increase in speeds of reactions

(d)

state that some compounds act as catalysts in a range of industrial processes and that enzymes are biological catalysts (see 5(b), 6.1(c) and 10(d))

(e)

suggest a suitable method for investigating the effect of a given variable on the speed of a reaction

(f) 6.2

interpret data obtained from experiments concerned with speed of reaction Redox

(a)

define oxidation and reduction (redox) in terms of oxygen/hydrogen gain/loss

(b)

define redox in terms of electron transfer and changes in oxidation state

(c)

identify redox reactions in terms of oxygen/hydrogen gain/loss, electron gain/loss and changes in oxidation state (d) describe the use of aqueous potassium iodide and acidified potassium dichromate(VI) in testing for oxidising and reducing agents from the resulting colour changes 7

Acids, Bases and Salts

Content 7.1

Acids and bases

7.2

Salts

7.3

Ammonia

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: 7.1

Acids and bases

(a)

describe the meanings of the terms acid and alkali in terms of the ions they produce in aqueous solution and their effects on Universal Indicator

(b)

describe how to test hydrogen ion concentration and hence relative acidity using Universal Indicator and the pH scale

(c)

describe qualitatively the difference between strong and weak acids in terms of the extent of ionisation

(d)

describe the characteristic properties of acids as in reactions with metals, bases and carbonates

(e)

state the uses of sulfuric acid in the manufacture of detergents and fertilisers; and as a battery acid (f)

-

describe the reaction between hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions to produce water, H+ + OH H2O, as neutralisation

(g)

describe the importance of controlling the pH in soils and how excess acidity can be treated using calcium hydroxide

(h)

describe the characteristic properties of bases in reactions with acids and with ammonium salts

(i)

classify oxides as acidic, basic, amphoteric or neutral based on metallic/non-metallic character

(j) classify sulfur dioxide as an acidic oxide and state its uses as a bleach, in the manufacture of wood pulp for paper and as a food preservative (by killing bacteria) 7.2

Salts

(a)

describe the techniques used in the preparation, separation and purification of salts as examples of some of the techniques specified in Section 1.2(a)

(methods for preparation should include precipitation and titration together with reactions of acids with

metals, insoluble bases and insoluble carbonates) (b)

describe the general rules of solubility for common salts to include nitrates, chlorides (including silver and lead), sulfates (including barium, calcium and lead), carbonates, hydroxides, Group I cations and ammonium salts

(c)

suggest a method of preparing a given salt from suitable starting materials, given appropriate information 36

5072 CHEMISTRY (WITH SPA) O LEVEL (2009) 7.3

Ammonia

(a)

describe the use of nitrogen, from air, and hydrogen, from cracking oil, in the manufacture of ammonia

(b)

state that some chemical reactions are reversible, e.g. manufacture of ammonia

(c)

describe the essential conditions for the manufacture of ammonia by the Haber process

(d)

describe the displacement of ammonia from its salts

SECTION IV: PERIODICITY Overview

The development of the Periodic Table started in the 1800s as chemists began to recognise similarities in the

properties of various elements and place them in families. The most famous and successful classification, widely

accepted by chemists, was published in 1869 by Dmitri Mendeleev, a Russian chemist. His Periodic Table

arranged the elements known at that time, in order of increasing atomic masses.

In this section, students examine the periodic trends and group properties of elements, occurrence of

metals, their properties, reactivity and uses. Students should be able to appreciate the development

of the Periodic Table and hence to envisage that scientific knowledge changes and accumulates over

time, and also the need for conserving some of the finite resources. _____________________________________

8

The Periodic Table Content

8.1

Periodic trends

8.2

Group properties

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: 8.1

Periodic trends

(a)

describe the Periodic Table as an arrangement of the elements in the order of increasing proton (atomic) number

(b)

describe how the position of an element in the Periodic Table is related to proton number and electronic structure

(c)

describe the relationship between group number and the ionic charge of an element

(d)

explain the similarities between the elements in the same group of the Periodic Table in terms of their electronic structure

(e)

describe the change from metallic to non-metallic character from left to right across a period of the Period Table

(f)

describe the relationship between group number, number of valency electrons and metallic/non-metallic character

(g)

predict the properties of elements in Group I and VII using the Periodic Table

8.2

Group properties 37

5072 CHEMISTRY (WITH SPA) O LEVEL (2009) (a)

describe lithium, sodium and potassium in Group I (the alkali metals) as a collection of relatively soft, low density metals showing a trend in melting point and in their reaction with water

(b)

describe chlorine, bromine and iodine in Group VII (the halogens) as a collection of diatomic non-metals showing a trend in colour, state and their displacement reactions with solutions of other halide ions

(c)

describe the elements in Group 0 (the noble gases) as a collection of monatomic elements that are chemically unreactive and hence important in providing an inert atmosphere, e.g. argon and neon in light bulbs; helium in balloons; argon in the manufacture of steel

(d)

describe the lack of reactivity of the noble gases in terms of their electronic structures

9

Metals Content

9.1

Properties of metals

9.2

Reactivity series

9.3

Extraction of metals

9.4

Recycling of metals

9.5

Iron

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: 9.1

Properties of metals

(a)

describe the general physical properties of metals as solids having high melting and boiling points, malleable, good conductors of heat and electricity in terms of their structure

(b)

describe alloys as a mixture of a metal with another element, e.g. brass; stainless steel

(c)

identify representations of metals and alloys from diagrams of structures

(d)

explain why alloys have different physical properties to their constituent elements

9.2

Reactivity series

(a)

place in order of reactivity calcium, copper, (hydrogen), iron, lead, magnesium, potassium, silver, sodium and zinc by reference to

(b)

(i)

the reactions, if any, of the metals with water, steam and dilute hydrochloric acid,

(ii)

the reduction, if any, of their oxides by carbon and/or by hydrogen

describe the reactivity series as related to the tendency of a metal to form its positive ion, illustrated by its reaction with (i)

the aqueous ions of the other listed metals

(ii)

the oxides of the other listed metals

(c)

deduce the order of reactivity from a given set of experimental results

(d)

describe the action of heat on the carbonates of the listed metals and relate thermal stability to the reactivity series

9.3

Extraction of metals

(a) describe the ease of obtaining metals from their ores by relating the elements to their positions in the reactivity series 9.4

Recycling of metals

(a)

describe metal ores as a finite resource and hence the need to recycle metals, e.g. recycling of iron

(b)

discuss the social, economic and environmental issues of recycling metals

9.5

Iron

(a)

describe and explain the essential reactions in the extraction of iron using haematite, limestone and coke in the blast furnace

(b)

describe steels as alloys which are a mixture of iron with carbon or other metals and how controlled use of these additives changes the properties of the iron, e.g. high carbon steels are strong but brittle whereas low carbon steels are softer and more easily shaped

(c)

state the uses of mild steel, e.g. car bodies; machinery, and stainless steel, e.g. chemical plants; cutlery; surgical instruments

(d)

describe the essential conditions for the corrosion (rusting) of iron as the presence of oxygen and water; prevention of rusting can be achieved by placing a barrier around the metal, e.g. painting; greasing; plastic coating; galvanising 38

5072 CHEMISTRY (WITH SPA) O LEVEL (2009) (e)

describe the sacrificial protection of iron by a more reactive metal in terms of the reactivity series where the more reactive metal corrodes preferentially, e.g. underwater pipes have a piece of magnesium attached to them

SECTION V: ATMOSPHERE Overview

Our atmosphere has been taken for granted in the past. In the last few decades, scientists and the general public

began to realise the adverse effects of pollutants on the air we breathe. It is now recognised that pollutants such

as sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and particulates released into the atmosphere as a result of energy

generation and increased use of motor vehicles, have serious health and environmental consequences.

In this section, the sources of air pollutants and their effects are examined. Students should be able

to value the knowledge of the hazardous nature of pollutants and the environmental issues related to

air pollution. _________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Air Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

describe the volume composition of gases present in dry air as 79% nitrogen, 20% oxygen and the remainder being noble gases (with argon as the main constituent) and carbon dioxide

(b)

name some common atmospheric pollutants, e.g. carbon monoxide; methane; nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2); ozone; sulfur dioxide; unburned hydrocarbons

(c)

state the sources of these pollutants as

(d)

(e)

(i)

carbon monoxide from incomplete combustion of carbon-containing substances

(ii)

nitrogen oxides from lightning activity and internal combustion engines

(iii)

sulfur dioxide from volcanoes and combustion of fossil fuels

describe the reactions used in possible solutions to the problems arising from some of the pollutants named in (b) (i)

the redox reactions in catalytic converters to remove combustion pollutants (see 6.1(d))

(ii)

the use of calcium carbonate to reduce the effect of 'acid rain' and in flue gas desulfurisation

discuss some of the effects of these pollutants on health and on the environment (i)

the poisonous nature of carbon monoxide

(ii)

the role of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide in the formation of 'acid rain' and its effects on respiration and buildings

(f)

discuss the importance of the ozone layer and the problems involved with the depletion of ozone by reaction with chlorine containing compounds, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

(g)

describe the carbon cycle in simple terms, to include (i)

the processes of combustion, respiration and photosynthesis

(ii)

how the carbon cycle regulates the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

39

5072 CHEMISTRY (WITH SPA) O LEVEL (2009) (h)

state that carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gases and may contribute to global warming, give the sources of these gases and discuss the possible consequences of an increase in global warming

SECTION VI: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Overview

In the nineteenth century, chemists believed that all organic chemicals originated in tissues of living organisms.

Friedrich Wohler, in 1828, challenged this belief and synthesised the organic compound urea, a compound found

in urine, under laboratory conditions. His work led other chemists to attempt the synthesis of other organic

compounds.

In this section, students examine the sources of fuels, some basic concepts of organic chemistry such as

homologous series, functional group, general formula and structural formula, and polymers. Students should be

able to identify and name unbranched alkanes, alkenes, alcohols and carboxylic acids. They should recognise

that materials such as plastics, detergents and medicines, and even the food that we eat are examples of organic

compounds. Students should be able to value the need for assessing the impacts of the use of synthetic

materials and the environmental issues related to the use of plastics.

11

Organic

Chemistry

Content 11.1 11.2

Fuels and crude oil Alkanes

11.3 11.4

Alkenes Alcohols

11.5 11.6

Carboxylic acids Macromolecules

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: 11.1

Fuels and crude oil

(a)

name natural gas, mainly methane, and petroleum as sources of energy

(b)

describe petroleum as a mixture of hydrocarbons and its separation into useful fractions by fractional distillation

(c)

name the following fractions and state their uses (i)

petrol (gasoline) as a fuel in cars 40

5072 CHEMISTRY (WITH SPA) O LEVEL (2009) (ii)

naphtha as feedstock for the chemical industry

(iii)

paraffin (kerosene) as a fuel for heating and cooking and for aircraft engines

(iv)

diesel as a fuel for diesel engines

(v)

lubricating oils as lubricants and as a sources of polishes and waxes

(vi)

bitumen for making road surfaces

(d)

state that the naphtha fraction from crude oil is the main source of hydrocarbons used as the feedstock for the production of a wide range of organic compounds

(e)

describe the issues relating to the competing uses of oil as an energy source and as a chemical feedstock

11.2

Alkanes

(a)

describe an homologous series as a group of compounds with a general formula, similar chemical properties and showing a gradation in physical properties as a result of increase in the size and mass of the molecules, e.g. melting and boiling points; viscosity; flammability

(b)

describe the alkanes as an homologous series of saturated hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2 draw the structures of branched and unbranched alkanes, C to C4, and name the unbranched alkanes, methane to butane

(c) (d)

define isomerism and identify isomers

(e)

describe the properties of alkanes (exemplified by methane) as being generally unreactive except in terms of burning and substitution by chlorine

11.3

Alkenes

(a)

describe the alkenes as an homologous series of unsaturated hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n

(b)

draw the structures of branched and unbranched alkenes, C2 to C4, and name the unbranched alkenes, ethene to butene

(c)

describe the manufacture of alkenes and hydrogen by cracking hydrocarbons and recognise that cracking is essential to match the demand for fractions containing smaller molecules from the refinery process

(d)

describe the difference between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons from their molecular structures and by using aqueous bromine

(e)

describe the properties of alkenes (exemplified by ethene) in terms of combustion, polymerisation and the addition reactions with bromine, steam and hydrogen

(f)

state the meaning of polyunsaturated when applied to food products

(g)

describe the manufacture of margarine by the addition of hydrogen to unsaturated vegetable oils to form a solid product

11.4

Alcohols

(a)

describe the alcohols as an homologous series containing the -OH group

(b)

draw the structures of alcohols, C to C4, and name the unbranched alcohols, methanol to butanol

(c)

describe the properties of alcohols in terms of combustion and oxidation to carboxylic acids

(d)

describe the formation of ethanol by the catalysed addition of steam to ethene and by fermentation of glucose

(e) 11.5

state some uses of ethanol, e.g. as a solvent; as a fuel; as a constituent of alcoholic beverages Carboxylic acids

(a)

describe the carboxylic acids as an homologous series containing the -CO2H group

(b)

draw the structures of carboxylic acids, methanoic acid to butanoic acid and name the unbranched acids, methanoic to butanoic acids

(c)

describe the carboxylic acids as weak acids, reacting with carbonates, bases and some metals

(d)

describe the formation of ethanoic acid by the oxidation of ethanol by atmospheric oxygen or acidified potassium dichromate(VI)

(e)

describe the reaction of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol to form an ester, e.g. ethyl ethanoate

(f)

state some commercial uses of esters, e.g. perfumes; flavourings; solvents

11.6

Macromolecules

(a)

describe macromolecules as large molecules built up from small units, different macromolecules having different units and/or different linkages

(b)

describe the formation of poly(ethene) as an example of addition polymerisation of ethene as the monomer 41

5072 CHEMISTRY (WITH SPA) O LEVEL (2009) (c)

state some uses of poly(ethene) as a typical plastic, e.g. plastic bags; clingfilm

(d)

deduce the structure of the polymer product from a given monomer and vice versa

(e)

describe nylon, a polyamide, and Terylene, a polyester, as condensation polymers, the partial structure of nylon being represented as O -C

O -C

OO -N-C-I H

â– N-

I

N

C

I

-N-I H

H

H and the partial structure of Terylene as O

O

OO

C-C-O-

C

-O-C-

II O -O-

(Details of manufacture and mechanisms of these polymerisations are not required) (f)

state some typical uses of man-made fibres such as nylon and Terylene, e.g. clothing; curtain materials; fishing line; parachutes; sleeping bags

(g)

describe the pollution problems caused by the disposal of non-biodegradable plastics

PRACTICAL GUIDELINES Scientific subjects are, by their nature, experimental. It is therefore important that the candidates carry out appropriate practical work to facilitate the learning of this subject. A list of suggested practical work is provided. 1.

Separation techniques including filtration, simple paper chromatography and distillation

2.

Measurements of temperature based on thermometers with 1 °C graduation

3.

Determination of melting point and boiling point

4.

Experiments involving the preparation of salts

5.

Experiments involving the solubility of salts

6.

Titration involving the use of a pipette, burette and an indicator such as methyl orange or screened methyl orange; full instructions and other necessary information will be given for titration other than acid/alkali and the use of other indicators

7.

Identification of ions and gases as specified in the syllabus

8.

Experiments involving displacement reactions

9.

Tests for oxidising and reducing agents as specified in the syllabus

10.

Experiments involving speed of reactions

11.

Experiments involving organic substances such as polymerisation and test for saturation

This is not intended to be an exhaustive list. Reference may be made to the techniques used in these experiments in the theory papers but no detailed description of the experimental procedures will be required.

42

TKGS Science Department Handbook

Test for anions anion 2carbonate (CO3 )

test add dilute acid

chloride (Cf) [in solution] acidify with dilute nitric acid, then add aqueous silver nitrate acidify with dilute nitric acid, then add iodide (I") [in solution] aqueous lead(II) nitrate add aqueous sodium hydroxide, then nitrate (NO3) [in aluminium foil; warm carefully solution] 2acidify with dilute nitric acid, then add sulfate (SO4 ) [in aqueous barium nitrate solution] Test for aqueous cations cation effect of aqueous sodium hydroxide aluminium (Al3+) white ppt., soluble in excess giving a colourless solution ammonium (NH4+) ammonia produced on warming calcium (Ca2+) white ppt., insoluble in excess 2 copper(II) (Cu +) light blue ppt., insoluble in excess

iron(II) (Fe2+) 3 iron(III) (Fe +) 2 lead(II) (Pb +) 2

zinc (Zn +)

green ppt., insoluble in excess red-brown ppt., insoluble in excess white ppt., soluble in excess giving a colourless solution white ppt., soluble in excess giving a colourless solution

test result effervescence, carbon dioxide produced white ppt. yellow ppt. ammonia produced white ppt.

effect of aqueous ammonia white ppt., insoluble in excess no ppt. light blue ppt., soluble in excess giving a dark blue solution green ppt., insoluble in excess red-brown ppt., insoluble in excess white ppt., insoluble in excess white ppt., soluble in excess giving a colourless solution

[Lead(II) ions can be distinguished from aluminium ions by the Test for gases gas ammonia (NH3) carbon dioxide (CO2)

test and test result turns damp red litmus paper blue gives white ppt. with limewater (ppt.

chlorine (C12) hydrogen (H2) oxygen (O2) sulfur dioxide (SO2)

dissolves with excess CO2) bleaches damp litmus paper "pops" with a lighted splint relights a glowing splint turns aqueous acidified potassium dichromate(VI) from orange to green

43

TKGS Science Department Handbook

NOTES FOR QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN CHEMISTRY PAPERS It is hoped that the glossary (which is relevant only to science papers) will prove helpful to candidates as a guide, i.e. it is neither exhaustive nor definitive. The glossary has been deliberately kept brief not only with respect to the number of terms included but also to the descriptions of their meanings. Candidates should appreciate that the meaning of a term must depend in part on its context. 1.

Calculate is used when a numerical answer is required. In general, working should be shown, especially where two or more steps are involved.

2.

Classify requires candidates to group things based on common characteristics.

3.

Comment is intended as an open-ended instruction, inviting candidates to recall or infer points of interest relevant to the context of the question, taking account of the number of marks available.

4.

Compare requires candidates to provide both similarities and differences between things or concepts.

5.

Construct is often used in relation to chemical equations where a candidate is expected to write a balanced equation, not by factual recall but by analogy or by using information in the question.

6.

Define (the term(s)...) is intended literally. Only a formal statement or equivalent paraphrase being required.

7.

Describe requires candidates to state in words (using diagrams where appropriate) the main points of the topic. It is often used with reference either to particular phenomena or to particular experiments. In the former instance, the term usually implies that the answer should include reference to (visual) 44

5072 CHEMISTRY (WITH SPA) O LEVEL (2009) observations associated with the phenomena. In the latter instance the answer may often follow a standard pattern, e.g. Apparatus, Method, Measurement, Results and Precautions.

In other contexts, describe and give an account of should be interpreted more generally, i.e. the

candidate has greater discretion about the nature and the organisation of the material to be included in

the answer. Describe and explain may be coupled in a similar way to state and explain. 8.

Determine often implies that the quantity concerned cannot be measured directly but is obtained by calculation, substituting measured or known values of other quantities into a standard formula.

9.

Discuss requires candidates to give a critical account of the points involved in the topic.

10.

Estimate implies a reasoned order of magnitude statement or calculation of the quantity concerned, making such simplifying assumptions as may be necessary about the points of principle and about values of quantities not otherwise included in the question.

11.

Explain may imply reasoning or some reference to theory, depending on the context.

12.

Find is a general term that may be variously interpreted as calculate, measure, determine etc.

13.

List requires a number of points, generally each of one word, with no elaboration. Where a given number of points is specified, this should not be exceeded.

14.

Measure implies that the quantity concerned can be directly obtained from a suitable measuring instrument, e.g. length, using a rule, or angle, using a protractor.

15.

Outline implies brevity, i.e. restricting the answer to giving essentials.

16.

Predict or deduce implies that the candidate is not expected to produce the required answer by recall but by making a logical connection between other pieces of information. Such information may be wholly given in the question or may depend on answers extracted from an earlier part of the question. Predict also implies a concise answer with no supporting statement required.

17.

Sketch, when applied to graph work, implies that the shape and/or position of the curve need only be qualitatively correct, but candidates should be aware that, depending on the context, some quantitative aspects may be looked for, e.g. passing through the origin, having the intercept, asymptote or discontinuity at a particular value.

In diagrams, sketch implies that a simple, freehand drawing is acceptable; nevertheless, care should be

taken over proportions and the clear exposition of important details. 18.

State implies a concise answer with little or no supporting argument, e.g. a numerical answer that can be obtained 'by inspection'.

19.

Suggest is used in two main contexts, i.e. either to imply that there is no unique answer, or to imply that candidates are expected to apply their general knowledge to a 'novel' situation, one that may be formally 'not in the syllabus'.

20.

What do you understand by/What is meant by (the term(s)...) normally implies that a definition should be given, together with some relevant comment on the significance or context of the term(s) concerned, especially where two or more terms are included in the question. The amount of supplementary comment intended should be interpreted in light of the indicated mark value.

SPECIAL NOTE Nomenclature

45

5072 CHEMISTRY (WITH SPA) O LEVEL (2009)

Students will be expected to be familiar with the nomenclature used in the syllabus. The proposals in "Signs,

Symbols and Systematics" (The Association for Science Education Companion to 16-19 Science, 2000) will

generally be adopted although the traditional names sulfate, sulfite, nitrate, nitrite, sulfurous and nitrous acids will

be used in question papers. Sulfur (and all compounds of sulfur) will be spelt with f (not with ph) in question

papers, however students can use either spelling in their answers.

3

It is intended that, in order to avoid difficulties arising out of the use of l as the symbol for litre, use of dm in place

of l or litre will be made.

In chemistry, full structural formulae (displayed formulae) in answers should show in detail both the relative

placing of atoms and the number of bonds between atoms. Hence, -CONH2 and -CO2H are not satisfactory as full

structural formulae, although either of the usual symbols for the benzene ring is acceptable. Units and significant figures

Candidates should be aware that misuse of units and/or significant figures, i.e. failure to quote units where

necessary, the inclusion of units in quantities defined as ratios or quoting answers to an inappropriate number of

significant figures, is liable to be penalised.

MATHEMATICAL REQUIREMENTS

46

5072 CHEMISTRY (WITH SPA) O LEVEL (2009)

Calculators may be used in all parts of the examination, providing they are in accordance with the regulations

stated in the "UCLES Handbook for Centres" (General Certificate of Education). Any calculator used must be on

the Singapore Examinations and Assessment Board list of approved calculators. Candidates should be able to: 1.

add, subtract, multiply and divide;

2.

use averages, decimals, fractions, percentages, ratios and reciprocals;

3.

recognise and use standard notation;

4.

use direct and inverse proportion;

5.

use positive, whole number indices;

6.

draw charts and graphs from given data;

7.

interpret charts and graphs;

8.

select suitable scales and axes for graphs;

9.

make approximate evaluations of numerical expressions;

10.

recognise and use the relationship between length, surface area and volume, and their units on metric scales;

11.

recognise and convert between appropriate units;

12.

solve equations of the form x = yz for any one term when the other two are known;

13.

comprehend and use the symbols/notations <, >, =, /, oc;

14.

comprehend how to handle numerical work so that significant figures are neither lost unnecessarily nor used beyond what is justifie

47

3

beryllium

II

4 24 Mg

9

88

87

89

57

*

59

232protactinium Th 91 90

58

3

61

238neptunium U 93 92

60

75

26 101 Ru

56 Fe

1

77

94

plutonium

62

samarium

95

americium

63

europium

28 106 Pd

59 Ni

96

64

gadolinium

65

97

98

californium

66

67

165 Ho

81

204 Tl

49

99

14 73 Ge

antimony

100

68

polonium

69

101

nobelium

ytterbium

169 Tm

83

209 Bi

51

33 122 Sb

selenium

15 75 As

71

175 Lu

85

53

35 127 I

17 80 Br

35.5 Cl

9

19 F

103

lawrencium

102

70

173 Yb

84

52

34 128 Te

16 79 Se

32 S

8

7 31 P

16 O 14 N

mendelevium

167 Er

82

207 Pb

50

32 119 Sn

germanium

31 115 In

einsteinium

162 Dy

80

201

48

30 112 Cd

13 70 Ga

V

phosphorus

28 Si

6

5 27 Al

12 C

IV

11 B

III

aluminium

65 Zn

dysprosium

159 Tb

79

47 197

cadmium

29 108

64 Cu

berkelium

157 Gd

78

195 Pt

46

palladium

192 Ir

45

27 103 Rh

59 Co

150 Sm 152 Eu

76

190 Os

44

ruthenium

186 Re

43

promethium

144 Nd

74

neodymium

141 Pr

73

184 W

42

25

technetium

24 96 Mo

molybdenum

181 Ta

41

Praseodymium

140 Ce

72

178 Hf

40

55 Mn

manganese

52 Cr

chromium

23 93 Nb

um

51 V

hydrogen

1

Group

The volume of one mole of any gas is 24 dm at room temperature and pressure (r.t.p.). 48

-103 Actinoid series

-71 Lanthanoid series

56

55

137 Ba

133 Cs

22 91 Zr

48 Ti

atomic number

Key relative atomic mass atomic symbol

zirconium

139 La

39

21 89 Y

lanthanum

38

um

45 Sc

scandium

20 88 Sr

37

19 85 Rb

potassium

23 Na 11 magnesium 12 40 Ca 39 K

I

The Periodic Table of the Elements

5072 CHEMISTRY (WITH SPA) O LEVEL (2009)

0

86

54

36 131 Xe

18 84 Kr

40 Ar

10

2 20 Ne

4

5072 CHEMISTRY (WITH SPA) O LEVEL (2009)

Colours of Some Common Metal Hydroxides aluminium hydroxide calcium hydroxide copper(II) hydroxide iron(II) hydroxide iron(III) hydroxide lead(II) hydroxide zinc hydroxide

white white light blue green red-brown white white

49

5072 CHEMISTRY (WITH SPA) O LEVEL (2009)

2.3

Physics 5058 Syllabus 2009

PHYSICS Ordinary Level (Syllabus 5058)

CONTENTS _______________________________________ Page NOTES

1

INTRODUCTION

2

AIMS

2

ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES

3

SCHEME OF ASSESSMENT

5

CONTENT STRUCTURE

6

SUBJECT CONTENT

7

SUMMARY OF KEY QUANTITIES, SYMBOLS AND UNITS

19

PRACTICAL GUIDELINES

20

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

21

NOTES Nomenclature

The proposals in 'Signs, Symbols and Systematics (The Association for Science Education Companion to 16-19

Science, 2000)' will generally be adopted. 3

It is intended that, in order to avoid difficulties arising out of the use of l as the symbol for litre, use of dm in place of l or litre will be made. Units, significant figures

Candidates should be aware that misuse of units and/or significant figures, i.e. failure to quote units where

necessary, the inclusion of units in quantities defined as ratios or quoting answers to an inappropriate number of

significant figures, is liable to be penalised. 50

5072 CHEMISTRY (WITH SPA) O LEVEL (2009)

Calculators

Any calculator used must be on the Singapore Examinations and Assessment Board list of approved

calculators.

INTRODUCTION

The 'O' level physics syllabus provides students with a coherent understanding of energy, matter, and their

interrelationships. It focuses on investigating natural phenomena and then applying patterns, models (including

mathematical ones), principles, theories and laws to explain the physical behaviour of the universe. The theories

and concepts presented in this syllabus belong to a branch of physics commonly referred to as classical

physics. Modern physics, developed to explain the quantum properties at the atomic and sub-atomic level, is

built on knowledge of these classical theories and concepts.

Students should think of physics in terms of scales. Whereas the classical theories such as Newton's laws of

motion apply to common physical systems that are larger than the size of atoms, a more comprehensive theory,

quantum theory, is needed to describe systems that are very small, at the atomic and sub-atomic scales, or that

move very fast, close to the speed of light. It is at this atomic and sub-atomic scale that physicists are currently

making new discoveries and inventing new applications.

It is envisaged that teaching and learning programmes based on this syllabus would feature a wide variety of

learning experiences designed to promote acquisition of scientific expertise and understanding, and to develop

values and attitudes relevant to science. Teachers are encouraged to use a combination of appropriate 51

5072 CHEMISTRY (WITH SPA) O LEVEL (2009)

strategies to effectively engage and challenge their students. It is expected that students will apply investigative

and problem-solving skills, effectively communicate the theoretical concepts covered in this course and

appreciate the contribution physics makes to our understanding of the physical world.

AIMS These are not listed in order of priority. The aims are to: 1. provide, through well-designed studies of experimental and practical Physics, a worthwhile educational experience for all students, whether or not they go on to study science beyond this level and, in particular, to enable them to acquire sufficient understanding and knowledge to

2.

1.1

become confident citizens in a technological world, able to take or develop an informed interest in matters of scientific importance;

1.2

recognise the usefulness, and limitations, of scientific method and to appreciate its applicability in other disciplines and in everyday life;

1.3

be suitably prepared and stimulated for studies beyond Ordinary level in Physics, in applied sciences or in science-dependent vocational courses.

develop abilities and skills that 2.1

are relevant to the study and practice of science;

2.2

are useful in everyday life;

2.3

encourage efficient and safe practice;

2.4

encourage effective communication. 3.

develop attitudes relevant to science such as

concern for accuracy and precision objectivity; integrity; enquiry; initiative; inventiveness. 4.

stimulate interest in and care for the local and global environment.

5.

promote an awareness that 5.1

the study and practice of science are co-operative and cumulative activities, and are subject to social, economic, technological, ethical and cultural influences and limitations;

5.2

the applications of sciences may be both beneficial and detrimental to the individual, the community and the environment;

5.3

science transcends national boundaries and that the language of science, correctly and rigorously applied, is universal;

5.4

the use of information technology (IT) is important for communications, as an aid to experiments and as a tool for the interpretation of experimental and theoretical results.

52

5072 CHEMISTRY (WITH SPA) O LEVEL (2009)

ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES ____________________________ A

Knowledge with Understanding

Students should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding in relation to: 1.

scientific phenomena, facts, laws, definitions, concepts, theories;

2.

scientific vocabulary, terminology, conventions (including symbols, quantities and units contained in 'Signs, Symbols and Systematics 16-19', Association for Science Education, 2000);

3.

scientific instruments and apparatus, including techniques of operation and aspects of safety;

4.

scientific quantities and their determination;

5.

scientific and technological applications with their social, economic and environmental implications.

The subject content defines the factual knowledge that candidates may be required to recall and explain.

Questions testing those objectives will often begin with one of the following words: define, state, describe,

explain or outline. (See the glossary of terms.) B

Handling Information and Solving Problems

Students should be able - in words or by using symbolic, graphical and numerical forms of presentation - to: 1.

locate, select, organise and present information from a variety of sources;

2.

translate information from one form to another;

3.

manipulate numerical and other data;

4.

use information to identify patterns, report trends and draw inferences;

5.

present reasoned explanations for phenomena, patterns and relationships;

6.

make predictions and propose hypotheses;

7.

solve problems.

These assessment objectives cannot be precisely specified in the subject content because questions testing

such skills may be based on information which is unfamiliar to the candidate. In answering such questions,

candidates are required to use principles and concepts that are within the syllabus and apply them in a logical,

reasoned or deductive manner to a novel situation. Questions testing these objectives will often begin with one

of the following words: predict, suggest, calculate or determine. (See the glossary of terms.) C

Experimental Skills and Investigations 53

5072 CHEMISTRY (WITH SPA) O LEVEL (2009) Students should able to: 1.

follow a sequence of instructions;

2.

use techniques, apparatus and materials;

3.

make and record observations, measurements and estimates;

4.

interpret and evaluate observations and experimental results;

5.

plan investigations, select techniques, apparatus and materials;

6.

evaluate methods and suggest possible improvements.

Weighting of Assessment Objectives Theory Papers (Papers 1 and 2)

A

Knowledge with Understanding, approximately 55% of the marks with approximately 20% allocated to recall.

B

Handling Information and Solving Problems, approximately 45% of the marks. School-

Based Science Practical Assessment (SPA) (Paper 3) C Investigations, 100% of the marks.

54

Experimental Skills and

5058 PHYSICS (WITH SPA) ORDINARY LEVEL 2009

SCHEME OF ASSESSMENT Candidates are required to enter for Papers 1, 2 and 3. Paper 1 (1 h, 40 marks), consisting of 40 compulsory multiple choice items of the direct Paper Type of Paper Duration Marks Weighting Multiple Choice 30% Structured and Free Response 1 h 45 min 50% School-based Science Practical Assessment (SPA) 20%

choice type. Theory papers Paper 2 (1 h 45 min, 80 marks),

consisting of two sections.

Section A will carry 50 marks and will consist of a variable number of

compulsory structured questions.

Section B will carry 30 marks and will consist of three questions. The

first two questions are compulsory questions, one of which will be a

data-based question requiring candidates to interpret, evaluate or

solve problems using a stem of information. This question will carry 8-

12 marks. The last question will be presented in an either/or form and

will carry 10 marks. School-based Science Practical Assessment (SPA) Paper 3 (96 marks)

The School-based Science Practical Assessment (SPA) will be conducted to assess appropriate aspects of

objectives C1 to C6. SPA will take place over an appropriate period that the candidates are offering the subject.

The assessment of science practical skills is grouped into 3 skill sets: Skill set 1 - Performing and Observing 55

5058 PHYSICS (WITH SPA) ORDINARY LEVEL 2009 Skill set 2 - Analysing Skill set 3 - Planning Each candidate is to be assessed only twice for each of skill sets 1 and 2 and only once for skill set 3. Weighting and Marks Computation of the 3 Skill Sets The overall level of performance of each skill set (skill sets 1, 2 and 3) is the sum total of the level of performance The weighting and marks computation of the skill sets are as follows: Skill Set

No. of Assessments (a)

Max Marks per Assessment (b)

Weight (c)

Sub-total (a x b x c) 2 x 6 x 4 = 48 50% 2 x 4 x 3 = 24 25% 1 x 4 x 6 = 24

Total Marks for SPA

25% 96

Please refer to the SPA Information Booklet for more detailed information on the conduct of SPA. of each strand within the skill set.

CONTENT STRUCTURE I. II.

III.

IV.

Section MEASUREMENT NEWTONIAN MECHANICS

THERMAL PHYSICS

WAVES

Topics 1. Physical Quantities, Units and Measurement 2.

Kinematics

3.

Dynamics

4.

Mass, Weight and Density

5.

Turning Effect of Forces

6.

Pressure

7.

Energy, Work and Power

8.

Kinetic Model of Matter

9.

Transfer of Thermal Energy

10.

Temperature

11.

Thermal Properties of Matter

12.

General Wave Properties

13.

Light

14.

Electromagnetic Spectrum 56

Weighting

5058 PHYSICS (WITH SPA) ORDINARY LEVEL 2009

V.

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM

15.

Sound

16.

Static Electricity

17.

Current of Electricity

18.

D.C. Circuits

19.

Practical Electricity

20.

Magnetism

21.

Electromagnetism

22.

Electromagnetic Induction

SUBJECT CONTENT SECTION I: MEASUREMENT Overview

In order to gain a better understanding of the physical world, scientists use a process of investigation commonly

known as the "scientific method". Galileo Galilei, one of the earliest architects of this method, believed that the

study of science had a strong logical basis that involved precise definitions of terms and a mathematical structure

to express relationships.

In this section, we examine how a small set of base physical quantities and units is used to describe all other

physical quantities. These precisely defined quantities and units, with accompanying order-of-ten prefixes (e.g.

milli, centi and kilo) can then be used to describe the interactions between objects in systems that range from

celestial objects in space to sub-atomic particles. 1.

Physical Quantities, Units and Measurement

Content •

Physical quantities

SI units

Prefixes

Scalars and vectors

Measurement of length and time

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: 57

5058 PHYSICS (WITH SPA) ORDINARY LEVEL 2009 (a)

show understanding that all physical quantities consist of a numerical magnitude and a unit (b) recall the following base quantities and their units: mass (kg), length (m), time (s), current (A), temperature (K), amount of substance (mol) (c) use the following prefixes and their symbols to indicate decimal sub-multiples and multiples of the SI units: nano (n), micro (p.), milli (m), centi (c), deci (d), kilo (k), mega (M) (d) show an understanding of the orders of magnitude of the sizes of common objects ranging from a typical atom to the Earth

(e)

state what is meant by scalar and vector quantities and give common examples of each

(f)

add two vectors to determine a resultant by a graphical method (g) describe how to measure a variety of lengths with appropriate accuracy by means of tapes, rules, micrometers and calipers, using a vernier scale as necessary

(h) describe how to measure a short interval of time including the period of a simple pendulum with appropriate accuracy using stopwatches or appropriate instruments SECTION II: NEWTONIAN MECHANICS Overview

Mechanics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of motion and its causes. Through a careful process

of observation and experimentation, Galileo Galilei discovered the flaws in Aristotle's ideas of the motion of

objects that dominated physics for about 2,000 years. Galileo's approach, which is now a standard procedure in

physics, involved studying an idealised system in which complicating factors (like friction) are absent, and then

transferring this understanding to a real physical process with its complexities and subtleties. But the greatest

contribution to the development of mechanics is from arguably the greatest physicist of all time, Isaac Newton.

Newton's three laws of motion and his law of universal gravitation, developed in the seventeenth century, have

been successfully applied to explain and predict motion of terrestrial as well as celestial objects. He showed that

nature is governed by a few special rules or laws that can be expressed in mathematical formulas. Newton's

combination of logical experimentation and mathematical analysis shaped the way science has been done ever

since.

58

5058 PHYSICS (WITH SPA) ORDINARY LEVEL 2009

In this section, we examine important concepts in mechanics which include speed, velocity, acceleration, force,

gravitational field and energy conversion and conservation. Analysis of the motion of an object is performed using

free-body and vector diagrams, graphical analysis as well as mathematical formulas. Examples of the effects of

forces introduced include the moment of a force and pressure. The law of conservation of energy and two

important physical quantities, work and power, are introduced to study and explain the interactions between

objects in a system. 2. Kinematics Content •

Speed, velocity and acceleration

Graphical analysis of motion

Free-fall

Effect of air resistance

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

state what is meant by speed and velocity

(b)

calculate average speed using distance travelled / time taken (c) state what is meant by uniform acceleration and calculate the value of an acceleration using change in velocity / time taken

(d)

interpret given examples of non-uniform acceleration

(e)

plot and interpret a distance-time graph and a speed-time graph

(f)

deduce from the shape of a distance-time graph when a body is: (i) (ii) (iii)

(g)

at rest moving with uniform speed moving with non-uniform speed

deduce from the shape of a speed-time graph when a body is: (i) at rest (ii) moving with uniform speed (iii) moving with uniform acceleration (iv) moving with non-uniform acceleration (h) calculate the area under a speed-time graph to determine the distance travelled for motion with uniform speed or uniform acceleration (i) state that the acceleration of free fall for a body near to the Earth is constant and is approximately 10 m/s2

(j) 3.

describe the motion of bodies with constant weight falling with or without air resistance, including reference to terminal velocity Dynamics

Content •

Balanced and unbalanced forces 59

5058 PHYSICS (WITH SPA) ORDINARY LEVEL 2009 •

Free-body diagram

Friction Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

describe the effect of balanced and unbalanced forces on a body

(b)

describe the ways in which a force may change the motion of a body (c) identify forces acting on an object and draw free body diagram(s) representing the forces acting on the object (for cases involving forces acting in at most 2 dimensions) (d) solve problems for a static point mass under the action of 3 forces for 2-dimensional cases (a graphical method would suffice) (e) recall and apply the relationship resultant force = mass x acceleration to new situations or to solve related problems

(f)

explain the effects of friction on the motion of a body

4.

Mass, Weight and Density

Content •

Mass and weight

Gravitational field and field strength

Density Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

state that mass is a measure of the amount of substance in a body

(b)

state that the mass of a body resists a change in the state of rest or motion of the body (inertia) (c) state that a gravitational field is a region in which a mass experiences a force due to gravitational attraction

(d)

define gravitational field strength g as gravitational force per unit mass (e) recall and apply the relationship weight = mass x gravitational field strength to new situations or to solve related problems

(f)

distinguish between mass and weight (g) recall and apply the relationship density = mass / volume to new situations or to solve related problems

5.

Turning Effect of Forces

Content •

Moments

Centre of gravity

Stability Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

describe the moment of a force in terms of its turning effect and relate this to everyday examples

(c)

(b) recall and apply the relationship moment of a force (or torque) = force x perpendicular distance from the pivot to new situations or to solve related problems state the principle of moments for a body in equilibrium

(d)

apply the principle of moments to new situations or to solve related problems (e) show understanding that the weight of a body may be taken as acting at a single point known as its centre of gravity

(f)

describe qualitatively the effect of the position of the centre of gravity on the stability of objects

60

5058 PHYSICS (WITH SPA) ORDINARY LEVEL 2009 6.

Pressure

Content •

Pressure

Pressure differences

Pressure measurement

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

define the term pressure in terms of force and area (b) recall and apply the relationship pressure = force / area to new situations or to solve related problems (c) describe and explain the transmission of pressure in hydraulic systems with particular reference to the hydraulic press

(d)

recall and apply the relationship pressure due to a liquid column = height of column x density of the liquid x gravitational field strength to new situations or to solve related problems

(e)

describe how the height of a liquid column may be used to measure the atmospheric pressure

(f)

describe the use of a manometer in the measurement of pressure difference

7.

Energy, Work and Power

Content •

Energy conversion and conservation

Work

Power Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a) show understanding that kinetic energy, elastic potential energy, gravitational potential energy, chemical potential energy and thermal energy are examples of different forms of energy (b)

state the principle of the conservation of energy

(c)

apply the principle of the conservation of energy to new situations or to solve related problems 2

(d) state that kinetic energy Ek = % mv and gravitational potential energy Ep = mgh (for potential energy changes near the Earth's surface) (e) apply the relationships for kinetic energy and potential energy to new situations or to solve related problems (f) recall and apply the relationship work done = force x distance moved in the direction of the force to new situations or to solve related problems (g) recall and apply the relationship power = work done / time taken to new situations or to solve related problems SECTION III:

THERMAL PHYSICS

Overview

Nearly all the energy we use come from the Sun. Solar energy provides an almost infinite source of heat which is

essential for plants and animals. Early scientists thought of heat as some kind of invisible, massless fluid called

"caloric" that flowed into objects when they are heated. This view, which endured for some time as it was

61

5058 PHYSICS (WITH SPA) ORDINARY LEVEL 2009

adequate for explaining many thermodynamic phenomena, was eventually proven wrong by the famous Joule

experiment. The results of this experiment showed that heat is a form of energy.

In this section, we examine how changes in temperature or state of matter are related to internal energy and heat

(or more precisely, thermal energy transfer). The kinetic model of matter is used to explain and predict the

physical properties and changes of matter in terms of the microscopic molecular interactions level. The different

processes of thermal energy transfer are introduced, together with the thermal properties, such as specific heat

capacity and latent heat, of matter. 8.

Kinetic Model of Matter

Content •

States of matter

Brownian motion

Kinetic model

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

compare the properties of solids, liquids and gases

(b)

describe qualitatively the molecular structure of solids, liquids and gases, relating their properties to the forces and distances between molecules and to the motion of the molecules

(c)

infer from Brownian motion experiments the evidence for the movement of molecules

(d)

describe the relationship between the motion of molecules and temperature

(e)

explain the pressure of a gas in terms of the motion of its molecules

(f)

recall and explain the following relationships using the kinetic model (stating of the corresponding gas laws is not required): (i) a change in pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant volume is caused by a change in temperature of the gas (ii) a change in volume occupied by a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure is caused by a change in temperature of the gas (iii) a change in pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature is caused by a change in volume of the gas

(g)

use the relationships in (f) in related situations and to solve problems (a qualitative treatment would suffice)

9.

Transfer of Thermal Energy

Content •

Conduction

Convection

Radiation

Learning Outcomes: 62

5058 PHYSICS (WITH SPA) ORDINARY LEVEL 2009 Candidates should be able to: (a) show understanding that thermal energy is transferred from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature (b) (c)

describe, in molecular terms, how energy transfer occurs in solids describe, in terms of density changes, convection in fluids (d) explain that energy transfer of a body by radiation does not require a material medium and the rate of energy transfer is affected by: (i) colour and texture of the surface (ii) surface temperature (iii) surface area

(e)

apply the concept of thermal energy transfer to everyday applications

10.

Temperature

Content •

Principles of thermometry

Thermocouple thermometers

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) explain how a physical property which varies with temperature may be used to define temperature scales and state examples of such properties (b)

explain the need for fixed points and state what is meant by ice point and steam point (c) discuss the action of a thermocouple thermometer, showing an understanding of its use for measuring high temperatures and temperatures which vary rapidly (knowledge of the Seebeck effect is not required)

11.

Thermal Properties of Matter

Content •

Internal energy

Specific heat capacity

Melting, boiling and evaporation

Specific latent heat Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a) describe a rise in temperature of a body in terms of an increase in its internal energy (random thermal energy) (b)

define the terms heat capacity and specific heat capacity (c) recall and apply the relationship thermal energy = mass x specific heat capacity x change in temperature to new situations or to solve related problems (d) describe melting/solidification and boiling/condensation as processes of energy transfer without a change in temperature (e)

(f)

explain the difference between boiling and evaporation

define the terms latent heat and specific latent heat (g) recall and apply the relationship thermal energy = mass x specific latent heat to new situations or to solve related problems (h)

explain latent heat in terms of molecular behaviour

(i)

sketch and interpret a cooling curve SECTION IV: WAVES Overview

63

5058 PHYSICS (WITH SPA) ORDINARY LEVEL 2009

Waves are inherent in our everyday lives. How we hear, see and communicate is due to the way waves travel

and transfer energy. Much of our understanding of wave phenomena has been accumulated over the centuries

through the study of light (optics) and sound (acoustics). In this section, we examine the nature of waves and

wave propagation and its uses by studying the properties of light, electromagnetic waves and sound, and their

applications in communication, home appliances, and medical and industrial use. 12.

General Wave Properties

Content •

Describing wave motion

Wave terms

Longitudinal and transverse waves Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

describe what is meant by wave motion as illustrated by vibrations in ropes and springs and by waves in a ripple tank

(b)

show understanding that waves transfer energy without transferring matter

(c)

define speed, frequency, wavelength, period and amplitude (d)

state what is meant by the term wavefront

(e)

recall and apply the relationship velocity = frequency x wavelength to new situations or to solve related problems

(f)

compare transverse and longitudinal waves and give suitable examples of each

13.

Light

Content •

Reflection of light

Refraction of light

Thin lenses Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

recall and use the terms for reflection, including normal, angle of incidence and angle of reflection

(b) state that, for reflection, the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection and use this principle in constructions, measurements and calculations (c)

recall and use the terms for refraction, including normal, angle of incidence and angle of refraction

(d) recall and apply the relationship sin i / sin r = constant to new situations or to solve related problems (e) define refractive index of a medium in terms of the ratio of speed of light in vacuum and in the medium (f)

explain the terms critical angle and total internal reflection (g) identify the main ideas in total internal reflection and apply them to the use of optical fibres in telecommunication and state the advantages of their use (h)

describe the action of a thin lens (both converging and diverging) on a beam of light 64

5058 PHYSICS (WITH SPA) ORDINARY LEVEL 2009 (i) (j) 14.

define the term focal length for a converging lens draw ray diagrams to illustrate the formation of real and virtual images of an object by a thin converging lens Electromagnetic Spectrum

Content •

Properties of electromagnetic waves

Applications of electromagnetic waves

Effects of electromagnetic waves on cells and tissue Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

state that all electromagnetic waves are transverse waves that travel with the same speed in vacuo and state the magnitude of this speed

(b)

describe the main components of the electromagnetic spectrum

(c)

state examples of the use of the following components: (i) radio waves (e.g. radio and television communication) (ii) microwaves (e.g. microwave oven and satellite television) (iii) infra-red (e.g. infra-red remote controllers and intruder alarms) (iv) light (e.g. optical fibres for medical uses and telecommunications) (v) ultra-violet (e.g. sunbeds and sterilisation) (vi) X-rays (e.g. radiological and engineering applications) (vii) gamma rays (e.g. medical treatment)

(d)

describe the effects of absorbing electromagnetic waves, e.g. heating, ionisation and damage to living cells and tissue

15.

Sound

Content •

Sound waves

Speed of sound

Echo

Ultrasound Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

describe the production of sound by vibrating sources (b) describe the longitudinal nature of sound waves in terms of the processes of compression and rarefaction (c) explain that a medium is required in order to transmit sound waves and the speed of sound differs in air, liquids and solids (d) describe a direct method for the determination of the speed of sound in air and make the necessary calculation

(e)

relate loudness of a sound wave to its amplitude and pitch to its frequency (f) describe how the reflection of sound may produce an echo, and how this may be used for measuring distances (g)

SECTION V:

define ultrasound and describe one use of ultrasound, e.g. quality control and pre-natal scanning ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM

Overview

For a long time, electricity and magnetism were seen as independent phenomena. Then in 1820, Hans Christian

Oersted announced that he had observed a compass needle being deflected by an electrical current in a nearby

65

5058 PHYSICS (WITH SPA) ORDINARY LEVEL 2009

wire. The exact relationship between an electric current and the magnetic field it produced was deduced mainly

through the work of Andre Marie Ampere. However, the final major discoveries in electromagnetism were made

by two of the greatest names in physics, Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell.

In this section, we examine the interaction and effects of electric charges; the relationship between current flow,

resistance, potential difference, charge, energy and power in electrical circuits; effects of magnetism and

applications of electromagnetism and electromagnetic induction. The concepts of electric and magnetic fields are

introduced as regions of space in which electric charges and magnets experience a force respectively. 16.

Static Electricity

Content •

Laws of electrostatics

Principles of electrostatics

Electric field

Applications of electrostatics

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

state that there are positive and negative charges and that charge is measured in coulombs

(b)

state that unlike charges attract and like charges repel

(c)

describe an electric field as a region in which an electric charge experiences a force (d) draw the electric field of an isolated point charge and recall that the direction of the field lines gives the direction of the force acting on a positive test charge

(e)

draw the electric field pattern between 2 isolated point charges

(f)

show understanding that electrostatic charging by rubbing involves a transfer of electrons

(g)

describe experiments to show electrostatic charging by induction

(h)

describe examples where electrostatic charging may be a potential hazard

(i)

describe an example of the use of electrostatic charging e.g. photocopier and laser printer

17.

Current of Electricity

Content •

Conventional current and electron flow

Electromotive force

Potential Difference

Resistance Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to:

(a)

state that current is a rate of flow of charge and that it is measured in amperes

(b)

distinguish between conventional current and electron flow 66

5058 PHYSICS (WITH SPA) ORDINARY LEVEL 2009 (c) recall and apply the relationship charge = current x time to new situations or to solve related problems (d) define electromotive force (e.m.f.) as the work done by a source in driving a unit charge around a complete circuit (e)

calculate the total e.m.f. where several sources are arranged in series (f) state that the e.m.f. of a source and the potential difference (p.d.) across a circuit component is measured in volts (g) define the p.d. across a component in a circuit as the work done to drive a unit charge through the component

(h)

state the definition that resistance = p.d. / current

(i)

apply the relationship R = V/I to new situations or to solve related problems

(j) describe an experiment to determine the resistance of a metallic conductor using a voltmeter and an ammeter, and make the necessary calculations (k) recall and apply the formulae for the effective resistance of a number of resistors in series and in parallel to new situations or to solve related problems (l) recall and apply the relationship of the proportionality between resistance and the length and cross-sectional area of a wire to new situations or to solve related problems (m) state Ohm's Law (n)

describe the effect of temperature increase on the resistance of a metallic conductor (0) sketch and interpret the I/ V characteristic graphs for a metallic conductor at constant temperature, for a filament lamp and for a semiconductor diode

(p)

show an understanding of the use of a diode as a rectifier

18.

D.C. Circuits Content

Current and potential difference in circuits

Series and parallel circuits

Potential divider circuit

Thermistor and light-dependent resistor

Use of cathode-ray oscilloscope Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

draw circuit diagrams with power sources (cell or battery), switches, lamps, resistors (fixed and variable), fuses, ammeters and voltmeters, bells, light-dependent resistors, thermistors and light-emitting diodes

(b)

state that the current at every point in a series circuit is the same and apply the principle to new situations or to solve related problems.

(c)

state that the sum of the potential differences in a series circuit is equal to the potential difference across the whole circuit and apply the principle to new situations or to solve related problems.

(d)

state that the current from the source is the sum of the currents in the separate branches of a parallel circuit and apply the principle to new situations or to solve related problems

(e)

state that the potential difference across the separate branches of a parallel circuit is the same and apply the principle to new situations or to solve related problems

(f)

recall and apply the relevant relationships, including R = V/I and those for current, potential differences and resistors in series and in parallel circuits, in calculations involving a whole circuit

(g)

describe the action of a variable potential divider (potentiometer)

(h)

describe the action of thermistors and light-dependent resistors and explain their use as input transducers in potential dividers

(1)

solve simple circuit problems involving thermistors and light-dependent resistors

(j) describe the use of a cathode-ray oscilloscope (c.r.o.) to display waveforms and to measure p.d.s and short intervals of time (detailed circuits, structure and operation of the c.r.o. are not required) (k) interpret c.r.o. displays of waveforms, p.d.s and time intervals to solve related problems 67

5058 PHYSICS (WITH SPA) ORDINARY LEVEL 2009 19.

Practical Electricity

Content •

Electric power and energy

Dangers of electricity

Safe use of electricity in the home Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the use of the heating effect of electricity in appliances such as electric kettles, ovens and heaters (b) (c) (d)

recall and apply the relationships P = VI and E = VIt to new situations or to solve related problems

calculate the cost of using electrical appliances where the energy unit is the kWh state the hazards of using electricity in the following situations: (i) damaged insulation (ii) overheating of cables (iii) damp conditions

(e)

explain the use of fuses and circuit breakers in electrical circuits and of fuse ratings

(f)

explain the need for earthing metal cases and for double insulation

(g)

state the meaning of the terms live, neutral and earth

(h)

describe the wiring in a mains plug

(i)

explain why switches, fuses, and circuit breakers are wired into the live conductor

20.

Magnetism

Content •

Laws of magnetism

Magnetic properties of matter

Magnetic field Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

state the properties of magnets

(b)

describe induced magnetism

(c)

describe electrical methods of magnetisation and demagnetisation

(d)

draw the magnetic field pattern around a bar magnet and between the poles of two bar magnets

(e)

describe the plotting of magnetic field lines with a compass

(f)

distinguish between the properties and uses of temporary magnets (e.g. iron) and permanent magnets (e.g. steel)

21.

Electromagnetism

Content •

Magnetic effect of a current

Applications of the magnetic effect of a current

Force on a current-carrying conductor

The d.c. motor Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

draw the pattern of the magnetic field due to currents in straight wires and in solenoids and state the effect on the magnetic field of changing the magnitude and/or direction of the current

(b)

describe the application of the magnetic effect of a current in a circuit breaker

68

5058 PHYSICS (WITH SPA) ORDINARY LEVEL 2009 (c)

describe experiments to show the force on a current-carrying conductor, and on a beam of charged particles, in a magnetic field, including the effect of reversing (i) the current (ii) the direction of the field

(d)

deduce the relative directions of force, field and current when any two of these quantities are at right angles to each other using Fleming's left-hand rule

(e)

describe the field patterns between currents in parallel conductors and relate these to the forces which exist between the conductors (excluding the Earth's field)

(f)

explain how a current-carrying coil in a magnetic field experiences a turning effect and that the effect is increased by increasing (i) the number of turns on the coil (ii) the current

(g)

discuss how this turning effect is used in the action of an electric motor

(h)

describe the action of a split-ring commutator in a two-pole, single-coil motor and the effect of winding the coil on to a soft-iron cylinder

22.

Electromagnetic Induction

Content •

Principles of electromagnetic induction

The a.c. generator

The transformer Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

deduce from Faraday's experiments on electromagnetic induction or other appropriate experiments: (i) that a changing magnetic field can induce an e.m.f. in a circuit (ii) that the direction of the induced e.m.f. opposes the change producing it (iii) the factors affecting the magnitude of the induced e.m.f.

(b)

describe a simple form of a.c. generator (rotating coil or rotating magnet) and the use of slip rings (where needed)

(c)

sketch a graph of voltage output against time for a simple a.c. generator

(d)

describe the structure and principle of operation of a simple iron-cored transformer as used for voltage transformations

(e)

recall and apply the equations VP / Vs = NP / Ns and VPIP = VsIs to new situations or to solve related problems (for an ideal transformer)

(f)

describe the energy loss in cables and deduce the advantages of high voltage transmission

SUMMARY OF KEY QUANTITIES, SYMBOLS AND UNITS Students should be able to state the symbols for the following physical quantities and, where indicated, state the units in which they are measured. Students should be able to define those items indicated by an asterisk (*). Quantity

speed*

ment of

Length

accelerati

force*

Area

on*

work

Volume

accelerati

done*

weight*

on of free

energy

Mass

fall

power*

time

force*

pressur

period*

m

density*

o

e*

69

5058 PHYSICS (WITH SPA) ORDINARY LEVEL 2009 Symbol I, h ... A

atmospheric pressure temperature

Unit km, m, cm, m

V

heat capacity

22

W

specific heat capacity*

m , cm

m, M

latent heat specific latent heat*

33

m , cm

t

N*

T

frequency*

kg, g, mg

p

wavelength*

h, min, s, ms s

u, v a

3

focal length angle of incidence

3

g/cm , kg/m km/h,

g

m/s, cm/s

angles of reflection, refraction

m/s

F, f

2

2

critical angle

m/s , N/kg N

potential difference*/voltage

W, E

Nm

current*

EP

J*

charge

p, P

J, kW h* W*

e.m.f.*

Pa*, N/m

resistance

e, T, t

CcL

2

use of millibar °C, K J/°C, J/K J/(g

I

°C), J/(kg K)

f

J J/kg, J/g Hz

X

m, cm m, cm

f irc

degree (°) degree (°) degree (°)

V I

V*, mV

q, Q

A, mA

ER

C, A s V Q.

PRACTICAL GUIDELINES Scientific subjects are, by their nature, experimental. It is therefore important that the candidates carry out appropriate practical work to support and facilitate the learning of this subject. A list of suggested practical work is provided below. •

Measurements of length, time interval, temperature, volume, mass and weight using the appropriate instruments

Determination of the density of solids and liquids

Determination of the value of free fall

Investigation of the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces

Verification and application of the principle of moments

Investigation of the factors affecting thermal energy transfer

Determination of heat capacities of materials and latent heat of substances 70

5058 PHYSICS (WITH SPA) ORDINARY LEVEL 2009 •

Verification and application of the laws of reflection

Determination of the characteristics of optical images formed by plane mirrors

Verification and application of the refraction of light through glass blocks

Verification and application of the principle of total internal reflection

Investigation of the properties of images obtained through a thin converging lens

Determination of the speed, wavelength and frequency of sound waves

Measurements of current and voltage by using appropriate ammeters and voltmeters

Determination of the resistance of a circuit element using appropriate instruments

Investigation of the magnetic effect of current in a conductor

Investigation of the effects of electromagnetic induction

This is not intended to be an exhaustive list. Reference may be made to the techniques used in these experiments in the theory papers but no detailed description of the experimental procedures will be required.

GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN PHYSICS PAPERS _________ It is hoped that the glossary will prove helpful to candidates as a guide, although it is not exhaustive. The glossary has been deliberately kept brief not only with respect to the number of terms included but also to the descriptions of their meanings. Candidates should appreciate that the meaning of a term must depend in part on its context. They should also note that the number of marks allocated for any part of a question is a guide to the depth of treatment required for the answer. 1.

Define (the term(s) ...) is intended literally. Only a formal statement or equivalent paraphrase, such as the defining equation with symbols identified, being required.

2.

Explain/What is meant by ... normally implies that a definition should be given, together with some relevant comment on the significance or context of the term(s) concerned, especially where two or more terms are included in the question. The amount of supplementary comment intended should be interpreted in the light of the indicated mark value.

3.

State implies a concise answer with little or no supporting argument, e.g. a numerical answer that can be obtained 'by inspection'.

4.

List requires a number of points with no elaboration. Where a given number of points is specified, this should not be exceeded.

5.

Describe requires candidates to state in words (using diagrams where appropriate) the main points of the topic. It is often used with reference either to particular phenomena or to particular experiments. In the former instance, the term usually implies that the answer should include reference to (visual) observations associated with the phenomena. The amount of description intended should be interpreted in the light of the indicated mark value.

6. 7.

Discuss requires candidates to give a critical account of the points involved in the topic. Predict or deduce implies that candidates are not expected to produce the required answer by recall but by making a logical connection between other pieces of information. Such information may be wholly given in the question or may depend on answers extracted in an earlier part of the question.

8.

Suggest is used in two main contexts. It may either imply that there is no unique answer or that candidates are expected to apply their general knowledge to a 'novel' situation, one that formally may not be 'in the syllabus'.

9.

Calculate is used when a numerical answer is required. In general, working should be shown.

10.

Measure implies that the quantity concerned can be directly obtained from a suitable measuring instrument, e.g. length, using a rule, or angle, using a protractor. 71

5058 PHYSICS (WITH SPA) ORDINARY LEVEL 2009 11.

Determine often implies that the quantity concerned cannot be measured directly but is obtained by calculation, substituting measured or known values of other quantities into a standard formula.

12.

Show is used when an algebraic deduction has to be made to prove a given equation. It is important that the terms being used by candidates are stated explicitly.

13.

Estimate implies a reasoned order of magnitude statement or calculation of the quantity concerned. Candidates should make such simplifying assumptions as may be necessary about points of principle and about the values of quantities not otherwise included in the question.

14. Sketch, when applied to graph work, implies that the shape and/or position of the curve need only be qualitatively correct. However, candidates should be aware that, depending on the context, some quantitative aspects may be looked for, e.g. passing through the origin, having an intercept, asymptote or discontinuity at a particular value. On a sketch graph it is essential that candidates clearly indicate what is being plotted on each axis. Sketch, when applied to diagrams, implies that a simple, freehand drawing is acceptable: nevertheless, care should be taken over proportions and the clear exposition of important details.

2.4

Science 5118, 5117, 5116 Syllabus 2009

72

5058 PHYSICS (WITH SPA) ORDINARY LEVEL 2009

2.4.1 Science ( Physics, Chemistry ) 5116 Syllabus 2009

SCIENCE GCE ORDINARY LEVEL 5116 SCIENCE (PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY) 5117 SCIENCE (PHYSICS, BIOLOGY) 5118 SCIENCE (CHEMISTRY, BIOLOGY)

AIMS ________________________________________________ These are not listed in order of priority.

The aims are to: 1. provide, through well designed studies of experimental and practical science, a worthwhile educational experience for all students, whether or not they go on to study science beyond this level and, in particular, to enable them to acquire sufficient understanding and knowledge to

2.

3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 4. 5.

1.1

become confident citizens in a technological world, able to take or develop an informed interest in matters of scientific import;

1.2

recognise the usefulness, and limitations, of scientific method and to appreciate its applicability in other disciplines and in everyday life;

1.3

be suitably prepared for studies beyond Ordinary level in pure sciences, in applied sciences or in science-dependent vocational courses.

develop abilities and skills that 2.1

are relevant to the study and practice of science;

2.2

are useful in everyday life;

2.3

encourage efficient and safe practice;

2.4

encourage effective communication.

develop attitudes relevant to science such as accuracy and precision; objectivity; integrity; enquiry; initiative; inventiveness. stimulate interest in and care for the environment. promote an awareness that 73

5058 PHYSICS (WITH SPA) ORDINARY LEVEL 2009 5.1

the study and practice of science are co-operative and cumulative activities, and are subject to social, economic, technological, ethical and cultural influences and limitations;

5.2

the applications of science may be both beneficial and detrimental to the individual, the community and the environment;

5.3

science transcends national boundaries and that the language of science, correctly and rigorously applied, is universal;

5.4

the use of information technology is important for communications, as an aid to experiments and as a tool for implementation of experimental and theoretical results.

ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES A

Knowledge with Understanding

Students should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding in relation to: 1.

scientific phenomena, facts, laws, definitions, concepts, theories;

2.

scientific vocabulary, terminology, conventions (including symbols, quantities and units contained in 'Signs, symbols and systematics 16-19', Association for Science Education, 2000);

3.

scientific instruments and apparatus, including techniques of operation and aspects of safety;

4.

scientific quantities and their determination;

5.

scientific and technological applications with their social, economic and environmental implications.

The subject content defines the factual material that candidates need to recall and explain. Questions testing

these objectives will often begin with one of the following words: define, state, describe, explain or outline. (See

the Glossary of Terms) B

Handling Information and Solving Problems

Students should be able - in words or by using other written, symbolic, graphical and numerical forms of

presentation - to: 1.

locate, select, organise and present information from a variety of sources;

2.

translate information from one form to another;

3.

manipulate numerical and other data;

4.

use information to identify patterns, report trends and draw inferences;

5.

present reasoned explanations for phenomena, patterns and relationships;

74

5116, 5117 & 5118 SCIENCE ORDINARY LEVEL 2009 C

Experimental Skills and Investigations

Students should be able to: 1.

follow a sequence of instructions;

2.

select and use techniques, apparatus and materials;

3.

make and record observations, measurements and estimates;

4.

interpret and evaluate observations and experimental results;

5.

plan investigations, select techniques, apparatus and materials;

6.

evaluate methods and suggest possible improvements. Weighting of Assessment Objectives Theory Papers (Papers 1, 2, 3 and 4)

A

Knowledge with Understanding, approximately 60% of the marks with approximately 30% allocated to recall.

B

Handling Information and Solving Problems, approximately 40% of the marks. Practical

Assessment (Paper 5) Paper 5 is designed to test appropriate skills in C, Experimental Skills and Investigations. In one or more of the questions in Paper 5, candidates will be expected to suggest a modification or an extension, which does not need to be executed. Depending on the context in which the modification/extension element is set, the number of marks associated with this element will be in the range of 10% to 20% of the total marks available for the practical test.

Candidates are required to enter for Paper 1, Paper 5 and two of Papers 2, 3 and 4. Paper 1 2 3 4 5

Type of Paper Multiple Choice Structured and Free Response (Physics) Structured and Free Response (Chemistry) Structured and Free Response (Biology) Practical Test

Duration 1h 1 h 15 min 1 h 15 min 1 h 15 min 1 h 30 min

Science (Physics, Chemistry), Syllabus 5116 Paper 1 will be based on the Physics and Chemistry sections of the syllabus. Paper 2 will be based on the Physics section of the syllabus. Paper 3 will be based on the Chemistry section of the syllabus. Paper 5 will be based on the Physics and Chemistry sections of the syllabus.

75

Marks 40 65 65 65 30

Weighting 20.0% 32.5% 32.5% 32.5% 15.0%

5116, 5117 & 5118 SCIENCE ORDINARY LEVEL 2009

SCHEME OF ASSESSMENT

Science (Physics, Biology), Syllabus 5117

Paper 1 will be based on the Physics and Biology sections of the syllabus.

Paper 2 will be based on the Physics section of the syllabus.

Paper 4 will be based on the Biology section of the syllabus.

Paper 5 will be based on the Physics and Biology sections of the syllabus.

Science (Chemistry, Biology), Syllabus 5118

Paper 1 will be based on the Chemistry and Biology sections of the syllabus.

Paper 3 will be based on the Chemistry section of the syllabus.

Paper 4 will be based on the Biology section of the syllabus.

Paper 5 will be based on the Chemistry and Biology sections of the syllabus. Theory papers Paper 1 (1 h, 40 marks)

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5116, 5117 & 5118 SCIENCE ORDINARY LEVEL 2009

This paper

multiple choice questions of the direct choice type providing approximately equal

consists of 40

coverage of the two appropriate sections of the syllabus.

compulsory

This paper will be set at the same time for all three syllabuses, 5116, 5117, 5118.

A copy of the Data Sheet will be printed as part of Paper 1 for syllabus 5116 and

5118. Paper 2 (1 h 15 min, 65 marks)

This paper consists of two sections.

Section A will carry 45 marks and will contain a number of compulsory structured

questions of variable mark value. Paper 3 (1 h 15 min, 65 marks) Section B will carry 20 marks and will contain three questions, each of 10 marks.

Candidates are required to answer any two questions. The questions will be based on the Physics section of the syllabus. Paper 4 (1 h 15 min, 65 marks)

This paper consists of two sections.

Section A will carry 45 marks and will contain a number of compulsory structured

questions of variable mark value.

Section B will carry 20 marks and will contain three questions, each of 10 marks.

Candidates are required to answer any two questions.

77

5116, 5117 & 5118 SCIENCE ORDINARY LEVEL 2009

The questions will

printed as part of this Paper. This paper consists of two sections.

be based on the Section A will carry 45 marks and will contain a number of compulsory structured Chemistry section questions of variable mark value. of the syllabus. A Section B will carry 20 marks and will contain three questions, each of 10 marks. copy of the Data Candidates are required to answer any two questions. Sheet will be The questions will be based on the Biology section of the syllabus. Practical assessment

Paper 5 (1 h 30 min, 30 marks) consisting of one or two compulsory questions on each of the two Sciences. The

Physics question(s) will be identical in Papers 5116 and 5117. The Chemistry and the Biology question(s) will,

likewise, be common to the respective papers. This Paper will be set at the same time for all three syllabuses,

5116, 5117, 5118. The use of reference material, other than the Chemistry Practical Notes, is not permitted. In one or both questions, candidates will be expected to suggest a modification or extension, which does not need to be executed.

PHYSICS SECTION INTRODUCTION

The 'O' Science (Physics) Syllabus provides students with a coherent understanding of energy, matter, and their

interrelationships. It focuses on investigating natural phenomena and then applying patterns, models (including

mathematical ones), principles, theories and laws to explain the physical behaviour of the universe. The theories and

78

5116, 5117 & 5118 SCIENCE ORDINARY LEVEL 2009

concepts presented in this syllabus belong to a branch of physics commonly referred to as classical physics. Modern

physics, developed to explain the quantum properties at the atomic and sub-atomic level, is built on knowledge of these

classical theories and concepts.

Students should think of physics in terms of scales. Whereas the classical theories such as Newton's laws of motion apply

to common physical systems that are larger than the size of atoms, a more comprehensive theory, quantum theory, is

needed to describe systems that are very small, at the atomic and sub-atomic scales, or that move very fast, close to the

speed of light. It is at this atomic and sub-atomic scale that physicists are currently making new discoveries and inventing

new applications.

It is envisaged that teaching and learning programmes based on this syllabus would feature a wide variety of learning

experiences designed to promote acquisition of scientific expertise and understanding, and to develop values and attitudes

relevant to science. Teachers are encouraged to use a combination of appropriate strategies to effectively engage and

challenge their students. It is expected that students will apply investigative and problem-solving skills, effectively

communicate the theoretical concepts covered in this course and appreciate the contribution physics makes to our

understanding of the physical world.

CONTENT STRUCTURE SECTION I. MEASUREMENT II. NEWTONIAN MECHANICS

1. 2. 3. 4.

79

Topics Physical Quantities, Units and Measurement Kinematics Dynamics Mass, Weight and Density

5116, 5117 & 5118 SCIENCE ORDINARY LEVEL 2009

III. THERMAL PHYSICS

IV. WAVES

V. ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

Turning Effect of Forces Pressure Energy, Work and Power Kinetic Model of Matter Transfer of Thermal Energy Thermal Properties of Matter General Wave Properties Light Electromagnetic Spectrum Sound Static Electricity Current of Electricity D.C. Circuits Practical Electricity Magnetism and Electromagnetism

SUBJECT CONTENT SECTION I: MEASUREMENT Overview

In order to gain a better understanding of the physical world, scientists use a process of investigation commonly known as

the "scientific method". Galileo Galilei, one of the earliest architects of this method, believed that the study of science had a

strong logical basis that involved precise definitions of terms and a mathematical structure to express relationships.

In this section, we examine how a small set of base physical quantities and units is used to describe

all other physical quantities. These precisely defined quantities and units, with accompanying order-

of-ten prefixes (e.g. milli, centi and kilo) can then be used to describe the interactions between objects

in systems that range from celestial objects in space to sub-atomic particles.______________________________

1.

Physical Quantities, Units and Measurement Content

Physical quantities

SI units

Prefixes

Scalars and Vectors

Measurement of length and time

Learning Outcomes:

80

5116, 5117 & 5118 SCIENCE ORDINARY LEVEL 2009 Candidates should be able to: (a)

show understanding that all physical quantities consist of a numerical magnitude and a unit

(b)

recall the following base quantities and their units: mass (kg), length (m), time (s), current (A), temperature (K)

(c)

use the following prefixes and their symbols to indicate decimal sub-multiples and multiples of the SI units: nano (n), micro milli (m), centi (c), deci (d), kilo (k), mega (M)

(d)

show an understanding of the orders of magnitude of the sizes of common objects ranging from a typical atom to the Earth

(e)

state what is meant by scalar and vector quantities and give common examples of each

(f)

add two vectors to determine a resultant by a graphical method

(g)

describe how to measure a variety of lengths with appropriate accuracy by means of tapes, rules, micrometers and calipers, using a vernier scale as necessary

(h)

describe how to measure a short interval of time including the period of a simple pendulum with appropriate accuracy using stopwatches or appropriate instruments SECTION II: NEWTONIAN MECHANICS Overview

Mechanics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of motion and its causes. Through a careful process of

observation and experimentation, Galileo Galilei discovered the flaws in Aristotle's ideas of the motion of objects that

dominated physics for about 2,000 years. Galileo's approach, which is now a standard procedure in physics, involved

studying an idealised system in which complicating factors (like friction) are absent, and then transferring this

understanding to a real physical process with its complexities and subtleties. But the greatest contribution to the

development of mechanics is from arguably the greatest physicist of all time, Isaac Newton.

Newton's three laws of motion and his law of universal gravitation, developed in the seventeenth century, have been

successfully applied to explain and predict motion of terrestrial as well as celestial objects. He showed that nature is

governed by a few special rules or laws that can be expressed in mathematical formulas. Newton's combination of logical

experimentation and mathematical analysis shaped the way science has been done ever since.

81

5116, 5117 & 5118 SCIENCE ORDINARY LEVEL 2009

In this section, we examine important concepts in mechanics which include speed, velocity, acceleration, force,

gravitational field and energy conversion and conservation. Analysis of the motion of an object is performed using free-

body and vector diagrams, graphical analysis as well as mathematical formulas. Examples of the effects of forces

introduced include the moment of a force and pressure. The law of conservation of energy and two important physical

quantities, work and power are introduced to study and explain the interactions between objects in a system.

2. Kinematics Content •

Speed, velocity and acceleration

Graphical analysis of motion

Free-fall

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

state what is meant by speed and velocity

(b)

calculate average speed using distance travelled / time taken

(c)

state what is meant by uniform acceleration and calculate the value of an acceleration using change in velocity / time taken

(d)

interpret given examples of non-uniform acceleration

(e)

plot and interpret a distance-time graph and a speed-time graph

(f)

deduce from the shape of a distance-time graph when a body is: (i) (ii) (iii)

at rest moving with uniform speed moving with non-uniform speed

(g)

deduce from the shape of a speed-time graph when a body is: (i) at rest (ii) moving with uniform speed (iii) moving with uniform acceleration (iv) moving with non-uniform acceleration

(h)

calculate the area under a speed-time graph to determine the distance travelled for motion with uniform speed or uniform acceleration

(i)

state that the acceleration of free fall for a body near to the Earth is constant and is approximately 10 m/s

3.

2

Dynamics Content

Balanced and unbalanced forces

Free-body diagram

Friction Learning Outcomes:

82

5116, 5117 & 5118 SCIENCE ORDINARY LEVEL 2009 Candidates should be able to: (a)

describe the effect of balanced and unbalanced forces on a body

(b)

describe the ways in which a force may change the motion of a body

(c)

identify forces acting on an object and draw free body diagram(s) representing the forces acting on the object (for cases involving forces acting in at most 2 dimensions)

(d)

recall and apply the relationship resultant force = mass x acceleration to new situations or to solve related problems

(e)

explain the effects of friction on the motion of a body

4.

Mass, Weight and Density Content

Mass and weight

Gravitational field and field strength

Density

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

state that mass is a measure of the amount of substance in a body

(b)

state that mass of a body resists a change in the state of rest or motion of the body (inertia)

(c)

state that a gravitational field is a region in which a mass experiences a force due to gravitational attraction

(d)

define gravitational field strength, g, as gravitational force per unit mass

(e)

recall and apply the relationship weight = mass x gravitational field strength to new situations or to solve related problems

(f)

distinguish between mass and weight

(g)

recall and apply the relationship density = mass / volume to new situations or to solve related problems

5.

Turning Effect of Forces Content

Moments

Centre of gravity

Stability

Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

describe the moment of a force in terms of its turning effect and relate this to everyday examples

(b)

recall and apply the relationship moment of a force (or torque) = force x perpendicular distance from the pivot to new situations or to solve related problems

(c)

state the principle of moments for a body in equilibrium

(d)

apply the principle of moments to new situations or to solve related problems

(e)

show understanding that the weight of a body may be taken as acting at a single point known as its centre of gravity

(f)

describe qualitatively the effect of the position of the centre of gravity on the stability of objects

6.

Pressure Content

83

5116, 5117 & 5118 SCIENCE ORDINARY LEVEL 2009 •

Pressure Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

define the term pressure in terms of force and area

(b)

recall and apply the relationship pressure = force / area to new situations or to solve related problems

7.

Energy, Work and Power Content

Energy conversion and conservation

Work

Power

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

show understanding that kinetic energy, elastic potential energy, gravitational potential energy, chemical potential energy and thermal energy are examples of different forms of energy

(b)

state the principle of the conservation of energy

(c)

apply the principle of the conservation of energy to new situations or to solve related problems

(d)

state that kinetic energy Ek = 1A mv2 and gravitational potential energy Ep = mgh (for potential energy changes near the Earth's surface)

(e)

apply the relationships for kinetic energy and potential energy to new situations or to solve related problems

(f)

recall and apply the relationship work done = force x distance moved in the direction of the force to new situations or to solve related problems

(g)

recall and apply the relationship power = work done / time taken to new situations or to solve related problems

SECTION III:

THERMAL PHYSICS

Overview

Nearly all the energy we use come from the Sun. Solar energy provides an almost infinite source of heat which is essential

for plants and animals. Early scientists thought of heat as some kind of invisible, massless fluid called "caloric" that flowed

into objects when they are heated. This view, which endured for some time as it was adequate for explaining many

thermodynamic phenomena, was eventually proven wrong by the famous Joule experiment. The results of this experiment

showed that heat is a form of energy.

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5116, 5117 & 5118 SCIENCE ORDINARY LEVEL 2009

In this section, we examine how changes in temperature or state of matter are related to internal energy and heat (or more

precisely, thermal energy transfer). The kinetic model of matter is used to explain and predict the physical properties and

changes of matter in terms of the microscopic molecular interactions level. The different processes of thermal energy

transfer are introduced.

8.

Kinetic Model of Matter Content

States of matter

Kinetic model Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

compare the properties of solids, liquids and gases

(b)

describe qualitatively the molecular structure of solids, liquids and gases, relating their properties to the forces and distances between molecules and to the motion of the molecules

(c)

describe the relationship between the motion of molecules and temperature

9.

Transfer of Thermal Energy Content

Conduction

Convection

Radiation

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

show understanding that thermal energy is transferred from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature

(b)

describe, in molecular terms, how energy transfer occurs in solids

(c)

describe, in terms of density changes, convection in fluids

(d)

explain that energy transfer of a body by radiation does not require a material medium and the rate of energy transfer is affected by: (i)

colour and texture of the surface

(ii)

surface temperature

(iii)

surface area

(e)

apply the concept of thermal energy transfer to everyday applications

10.

Thermal Properties of Matter Content

Internal energy

Melting, boiling and evaporation

Learning Outcomes:

85

5116, 5117 & 5118 SCIENCE ORDINARY LEVEL 2009 Candidates should be able to: (a)

describe a rise in temperature of a body in terms of an increase in its internal energy (random thermal energy)

(b)

describe melting/solidification and boiling/condensation as processes of energy transfer without a change in temperature

(c)

explain the difference between boiling and evaporation

SECTION IV: WAVES Overview Waves are inherent in our everyday lives. How we hear, see and communicate is due to the way waves travel and transfer energy. Much of our understanding of wave phenomena has been accumulated over the centuries through the study of light (optics) and sound (acoustics). In this section, we examine the nature of waves and wave propagation and its uses by studying the properties of light, electromagnetic waves and sound, and their applications in communication, home appliances, and medical and industrial use.

11.

General Wave Properties Content

Describing wave motion

Wave terms

Longitudinal and transverse waves

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

describe what is meant by wave motion as illustrated by vibrations in ropes and springs and by waves in a ripple tank

(b)

show understanding that waves transfer energy without transferring matter

(c)

define speed, frequency, wavelength, period and amplitude

(d)

state what is meant by the term wavefront

(e)

recall and apply the relationship velocity = frequency x wavelength to new situations or to solve related problems

(f)

compare transverse and longitudinal waves and give suitable examples of each

12.

Light Content

Reflection of light

Refraction of light

Thin converging lenses

Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

recall and use the terms for reflection, including normal, angle of incidence and angle of reflection

(b)

state that, for reflection, the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection and use this principle in constructions, measurements and calculations

(c)

recall and use the terms for refraction, including normal, angle of incidence and angle of refraction

(d)

recall and apply the relationship sin i / sin r = constant to new situations or to solve related problems

(e)

define refractive index of a medium in terms of the ratio of speed of light in vacuum and in the medium

86

5116, 5117 & 5118 SCIENCE ORDINARY LEVEL 2009 (f)

explain the terms critical angle and total internal reflection

(g)

describe the action of a thin converging lens on a beam of light

(h)

define the term focal length for a converging lens

(i)

draw ray diagrams to illustrate the formation of real and virtual images of an object by a thin converging lens

13.

Electromagnetic Spectrum Content

Properties of electromagnetic waves

Applications of electromagnetic waves Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

state that all electromagnetic waves are transverse waves that travel with the same speed in vacuo and state the magnitude of this speed

(b)

describe the main components of the electromagnetic spectrum

(c)

state examples of the use of the following components:

14.

(i)

radiowaves (e.g. radio and television communication)

(ii)

microwaves (e.g. microwave oven and satellite television)

(iii)

infra-red (e.g. infra-red remote controllers and intruder alarms)

(iv)

light (e.g. optical fibres for medical uses and telecommunications)

(v)

ultra-violet (e.g. sunbeds and sterilisation)

(vi)

X-rays (e.g. radiological and engineering applications)

(vii)

gamma rays (e.g. medical treatment)

Sound Content

Sound waves

Speed of sound

Echo Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a

describe the production of sound by vibrating sources

)

describe the longitudinal nature of sound waves in terms of the processes of compression and rarefaction

(b ) (c)

explain that a medium is required in order to transmit sound waves and the speed of sound differs in air, liquids and solids

(d

relate loudness of a sound wave to its amplitude and pitch to its frequency

) (e

describe how the reflection of sound may produce an echo, and how this may be used for measuring distances

)

SECTION V:

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM 87

TKGS Science Department Handbook Overview

The investigation of electric currents was triggered by a chance observation of an Italian biologist, Luigi Galvani.

Frog legs that he was preparing twitched when touched by a charged scalpel. This led to his discovery of the role

of electricity in living systems. It was only after the physicist, Allessandro Volta, invented the first type of battery

that the understanding of electricity developed rapidly. Perhaps the greatest achievements in this area came from

a German school teacher, Georg Simon Ohm. Ohm introduced the important quantities of voltage, current, and

resistance and discovered the relationship between them.

Magnetism was first observed when small pieces of iron, nickel and certain other metals were observed to be

attracted by a naturally occurring ore called lodestone. The Chinese were probably the first to discover that a

piece of lodestone will align itself North and South if suspended by a thread or floated on a piece of wood. This

led to the invention of the compass which is an indispensable navigation instrument used by scientists and

travellers.

In this section, we examine the interaction and effects of electric charges; the relationship between current flow,

resistance, potential difference, charge, energy and power in electrical circuits; effects of magnetism and

applications of electromagnetism. The concepts of electric and magnetic fields are introduced as regions of space

in which electric charges and magnets experience a force respectively.

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TKGS Science Department Handbook 15.

Static Electricity

Content •

Principles of electrostatics

Electric field

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

state that there are positive and negative charges and that charge is measured in coulombs

(b)

state that unlike charges attract and like charges repel

(c)

describe an electric field as a region in which an electric charge experiences a force

(d)

draw the electric field of an isolated point charge and recall that the direction of the field lines gives the direction of the force acting on a positive test charge

(e)

draw the electric field pattern between 2 isolated point charges

16.

Current of Electricity

Content •

Conventional current and electron flow

Electromotive force

Potential Difference

Resistance

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

state that current is a rate of flow of charge and that it is measured in amperes

(b)

distinguish between conventional current and electron flow

(c)

recall and apply the relationship charge = current x time to new situations or to solve related problems

(d)

define electromotive force (e.m.f.) as the work done by a source in driving a unit charge around a complete circuit

(e)

state that the e.m.f. of a source and the potential difference (p.d.) across a circuit component is measured in volts

(f)

define the p.d. across a component in a circuit as the work done to drive a unit charge through the component

(g)

state the definition that resistance = p.d. / current

(h)

apply the relationship R = V/I to new situations or to solve related problems

(i)

describe an experiment to determine the resistance of a metallic conductor using a voltmeter and an ammeter, and make the necessary calculations

(j) recall and apply the formulae for the effective resistance of a number of resistors in series and in parallel to new situations or to solve related problems (k) recall and apply the relationship of the proportionality between resistance and the length and cross-sectional area of a wire to new situations or to solve related problems

17.

D.C. Circuits

Content •

Current and potential difference in circuits

Series and parallel circuits

89

TKGS Science Department Handbook Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

draw circuit diagrams with power sources (cell or battery), switches, lamps, resistors (fixed and variable), fuses, ammeters and voltmeters

(b)

state that the current at every point in a series circuit is the same and apply the principle to new situations or to solve related problems

(c)

state that the sum of the potential differences in a series circuit is equal to the potential difference across the whole circuit and apply the principle to new situations or to solve related problems

(d)

state that the current from the source is the sum of the currents in the separate branches of a parallel circuit and apply the principle to new situations or to solve related problems

(e)

state that the potential difference across the separate branches of a parallel circuit is the same and apply the principle to new situations or to solve related problems

(f)

recall and apply the relevant relationships, including R = V/I and those for current, potential differences and resistors in series and in parallel circuits, in calculations involving a whole circuit

18.

Practical Electricity

Content •

Electric power and energy

Dangers of electricity

Safe use of electricity in the home Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

describe the use of the heating effect of electricity in appliances such as electric kettles, ovens and heaters

(b)

recall and apply the relationships P = VI and E = Vlt to new situations or to solve related problems

(c)

calculate the cost of using electrical appliances where the energy unit is the kWh

(d)

state the hazards of using electricity in the following situations (i)

damaged insulation

(ii)

overheating of cables

(iii)

damp conditions

(e)

explain the use of fuses and circuit breakers in electrical circuits and of fuse ratings

(f)

explain the need for earthing metal cases and for double insulation

(g)

state the meaning of the terms live, neutral and earth

(h)

describe the wiring in a mains plug

(i)

explain why switches, fuses, and circuit breakers are wired into the live conductor

19.

Magnetism and Electromagnetism

Content •

Laws of magnetism

Magnetic properties of matter

Magnetic field

Magnetic effect of a current

Application of the magnetic effect of a current

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Force on a current-carrying conductor Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to: (a)

state the properties of magnets

(b)

describe induced magnetism

(c)

describe electrical methods of magnetisation and demagnetisation

(d)

distinguish between the properties and uses of temporary magnets (e.g. iron) and permanent magnets (e.g. steel)

(e)

draw the magnetic field pattern around a bar magnet and between the poles of two bar magnets

(f)

describe the plotting of magnetic field lines with a compass

(g)

draw the pattern of the magnetic field due to currents in straight wires and in solenoids and state the effect on the magnetic field of changing the magnitude and/or direction of the current

(h)

describe the application of the magnetic effect of a current in a circuit breaker

(i)

describe experiments to show the force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field, including the effect of reversing (i) the current (ii) the direction of the field

(j)

deduce the relative directions of force, field and current when any two of these quantities are at right angles to each other using Fleming's left-hand rule

SUMMARY OF KEY QUANTITIES, SYMBOLS AND UNITS Students should be able to state the symbols for the following physical quantities and, where indicated, state the

units in which they are measured. Students should be able to define those items indicated by an asterisk (*). Quantity

Symbol

Unit

length

l, h...

km, m, cm, m

area

A

m2, cm2

volume

V

m3, cm3

weight

W

N*

mass

m, M

kg, g, mg

time

t

h, min, s, ms

period*

T

s

density*

p

g/cm3, kg/m3

speed*

u, v

km/h, m/s, cm/s

acceleration*

a

m/s2

acceleration of free fall

g

m/s2, N/kg

force*

F, f.

N

moment of force*

Nm

work done*

W, E

J*

energy

E

J, kWh*

power*

P

W*

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TKGS Science Department Handbook pressure*

p, P

atmospheric pressure

Pa*, N/m2 use of millibar

temperature

e, T

째C, K

frequency*

f

Hz

wavelength*

A

m, cm

focal length

f

m, cm

angle of incidence

i

degree (째)

angles of reflection, refraction

r

degree (째)

critical angle

c

degree (째)

potential difference*/voltage

V

V*, mV

current*

I

A, mA

charge

q, Q

C, As

e.m.f.*

E

V

resistance

R

Q

CHEMISTRY SECTION INTRODUCTION This syllabus is designed to place less emphasis on factual materials and greater emphasis on the understanding

and application of scientific concepts and principles. This approach has been adapted in recognition of the need

for students to develop skills that will be of long term value in an increasing technological world rather than

focusing on large quantities of factual materials, which may have only short term relevance. It is important that, throughout the course, attention should be drawn to: (i)

the finite life of the world's resources and hence the need for recycling and conservation;

(ii)

economic considerations in the chemical industry, such as the availability and cost of raw materials and energy;

(iii)

the social, environmental, health and safety issues relating to the chemical industry;

(iv)

the importance of chemicals in industry and in everyday life.

It is envisaged that teaching and learning programmes based on this syllabus will feature a wide variety of

learning experiences designed to promote acquisition of expertise and understanding. Teachers are encouraged

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to use a combination of appropriate strategies including developing appropriate practical works for their students

to facilitate a greater understanding of the subject.

CONTENT STRUCTURE I. II.

SECTION EXPERIMENTAL CHEMISTRY ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND STOICHIOMETRY

III.

CHEMISTRY OF REACTIONS

IV.

PERIODICITY

V. VI.

ATMOSPHERE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1. 2. 3.

Topic Experimental Chemistry The Particulate Nature of Matter Formulae, Stoichiometry and the Mole

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Concept Energy Changes Chemical Reactions Acids, Bases and Salts The Periodic Table Metals Air Organic Chemistry

SUBJECT CONTENT SECTION I:

EXPERIMENTAL CHEMISTRY

Overview

Chemistry is typically an experimental science and relies primarily on practical work. It is important for students to

learn the techniques of handling laboratory apparatus and to pay special attention to safety while working in the

laboratory. Accidents happened even to German chemist, Robert Bunsen, while working in the laboratory. Robert

Bunsen spent most of his time doing experiments in the laboratory and at the age of 25, he lost an eye in a

laboratory explosion due to the lack of proper eye protection.

In this section, students examine the appropriate use of simple apparatus and chemicals, and the experimental

techniques. Students need to be aware of the importance of purity in the electronic, pharmaceutical, food and

beverage industries, and be allowed to try out different methods of purification and analysis in school science

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laboratories. Students should be able to appreciate the need for precision and accuracy in making readings and

also value the need for safe handling and disposing of chemicals.

1.

Experimental Chemistry Content

1.1

Experimental design

1.2

Methods of purification and analysis

1.3

Identification of ions and gases

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: 1.1

Experimental design

(a)

name appropriate apparatus for the measurement of time, temperature, mass and volume, including burettes, pipettes, measuring cylinders and gas syringes

(b)

suggest suitable apparatus, given relevant information, for a variety of simple experiments, including collection of gases and measurement of rates of reaction

1.2

Methods of purification and analysis

(a)

describe methods of separations and purification for the components of the following types of mixtures: (i)

solid-solid

(ii)

solid-liquid

(iii)

liquid-liquid (miscible)

Techniques to be covered for separations and purification include: (i)

use of a suitable solvent, filtration and crystallisation or evaporation

(ii)

distillation and fractional distillation

(iii)

paper chromatography (b)

describe paper chromatography and interpret chromatograms

(c) 1.3

deduce from the given melting point and boiling point the identities of substances and their purity Identification of ions and gases

(d)

describe the use of aqueous sodium hydroxide and aqueous ammonia to identify the following aqueous cations: ammonium, calcium, copper(II), iron(II), iron(III), lead(II) and zinc (formulae of complex ions are not required)

(e)

describe tests to identify the following anions: carbonate (by the addition of dilute acid and subsequent use of limewater), chloride (by reaction of an aqueous solution with nitric acid and aqueous silver nitrate), nitrate (by reduction with aluminium and aqueous sodium hydroxide to ammonia and subsequent use of litmus paper) and sulfate (by reaction of an aqueous solution with nitric acid and aqueous barium nitrate)

(f)

describe tests to identify the following gases: ammonia (using damp red litmus paper), carbon dioxide (using limewater), chlorine (using damp litmus paper), hydrogen (using a burning splint), oxygen (using a glowing splint) and sulfur dioxide (using acidified potassium dichromate(VI))

SECTION II:

ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND STOICHIOMETRY

Overview

94

TKGS Science Department Handbook For over 2000 years, people have wondered about the fundamental building blocks of matter. As far back as 440 BC, the Greek Leucippus and his pupil Democritus coined the term atomos to describe the smallest particle of matter. It translates to mean something that is indivisible.

In the eighteenth century, chemist, John Dalton, revived the term when he suggested that each element was

made up of unique atoms and the atoms of an element are all the same. At the time, there were about 35 known

elements. This simple model could explain the millions of different materials around us. Differences between the

atoms give the elements their different chemical properties.

In this section, the idea of atoms and chemical bonding being the most important fundamental concept in

Chemistry is introduced. The knowledge of atomic structure opens the door for students to understand the world

of chemical reactions. Students are also introduced to the use of models and theories in the study of the

structures of atoms, molecules and ions, and the bonding in elements and compounds. Calculations involving

chemical formulae, reacting masses and volumes, and concentrations introduce students to the fundamentals of

stoichiometry.

2.

The Particulate Nature of Matter

Content 2.1

Kinetic particle theory

2.2

Atomic structure

2.3

Structure and properties of materials

2.4

Ionic bonding

2.5

Covalent bonding

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: 2.1

Kinetic particle theory

(a)

describe the solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter and explain their interconversion in terms of the kinetic particle theory and of the energy changes involved Atomic structure

2.2

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TKGS Science Department Handbook (a)

state the relative charges and approximate relative masses of a proton, a neutron and an electron

(b)

describe, with the aid of diagrams, the structure of an atom as containing protons and neutrons (nucleons) in the nucleus and electrons arranged in shells (energy levels) (no knowledge of s, p, d and f classification will be expected; a copy of the Periodic Table will be available in the examination)

(c)

(a)

define proton number (atomic number) and nucleon number (mass number) 12 6C

(d)

interpret and use symbols such as

(e)

define the term isotopes

(f)

deduce the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons in atoms and ions given proton and nucleon numbers

2.3

Structure and properties of materials

describe the differences between elements, compounds and mixtures 2.4

Ionic bonding

(a)

describe the formation of ions by electron loss/gain in order to obtain the electronic configuration of a noble gas

(b)

describe the formation of ionic bonds between metals and non-metals, e.g. NaCZ; MgCZ2

(c)

relate the physical properties (including electrical property) of ionic compounds to their lattice structure

2.5

Covalent bonding

(a)

describe the formation of a covalent bond by the sharing of a pair of electrons in order to gain the electronic configuration of a noble gas

(b)

describe, using 'dot and cross' diagrams, the formation of covalent bonds between non-metallic elements, e.g. H2, O2, H2O, CH4 and CO2

(c)

deduce the arrangement of electrons in other covalent molecules

(d)

relate the physical properties (including electrical property) of covalent substances to their structure and bonding

3.

Formulae, Stoichiometry and the Mole Concept Learning

Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

state the symbols of the elements and formulae of the compounds mentioned in the syllabus

(b)

deduce the formulae of simple compounds from the relative numbers of atoms present and vice versa

(c)

deduce the formulae of ionic compounds from the charges on the ions present and vice versa

(d)

interpret chemical equations with state symbols

(e)

construct chemical equations, with state symbols, including ionic equations

(f)

define relative atomic mass, Ar

(g)

define relative molecular mass, Mft and calculate relative molecular mass (and relative formula mass) as the sum of relative atomic masses

(h)

calculate stoichiometric reacting masses and volumes of gases (one mole of gas occupies 24 dm3 at room temperature and pressure); calculations involving the idea of limiting reactants may be set (The gas laws and the calculations of gaseous volumes at different temperatures and pressures are not required.)

(i)

apply the concept of solution concentration (in mol/dm3 or g/dm3) to process the results of volumetric experiments and to solve simple problems (Appropriate guidance will be provided where unfamiliar reactions such as redox are involved. Calculations on % yield and % purity are not required. )

SECTION III:

CHEMISTRY OF REACTIONS 96

TKGS Science Department Handbook Overview

Chemists like Svante Arrhenius played an important role in providing a comprehensive understanding of what

happens in chemical reactions. In 1887, the Swedish chemist, Svante Arrhenius proposed the theory that acids,

bases, and salts in water are composed of ions. He also proposed a simple yet beautiful model of neutralisation -

the combination of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions to form water.

In this section, students examine the chemical characteristic properties of acids, bases and salts, and also their

reactions with substances, the factors affecting the rate of reaction and also the energy changes during a

reaction. Students should be able to appreciate the importance of proper laboratory techniques and precise

calculations for accurate results, and the importance of controlling variables in making comparisons. They should

also value the knowledge of the hazardous nature of acids/alkalis and the safe handling, storing and disposing of

chemicals.

4.

Energy Changes

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

describe the term exothermic as a process or chemical reaction which transfers energy, often in the form of heat, to the surroundings and may be detected by an increase in temperature, e.g. the reaction between sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid

(b)

describe the term endothermic as a process or chemical reaction which takes in energy, often in the form of heat, from the surroundings and may be detected by a decrease in temperature, e.g. the dissolving of ammonium nitrate in water

5.

Chemical Reactions

Content 5.1

Speed of reaction

5.2

Redox

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to:

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TKGS Science Department Handbook 5.1

Speed of reaction

(a)

describe the effect of concentration, pressure, particle size and temperature on the speeds of reactions and explain these effects in terms of collisions between reacting particles

(b)

interpret data obtained from experiments concerned with speed of reaction

5.2

Redox

(a)

define oxidation and reduction (redox) in terms of oxygen/hydrogen gain/loss

(b)

define redox in terms of electron transfer and changes in oxidation state

(c)

describe the use of aqueous potassium iodide and acidified potassium dichromate(VI) in testing for oxidising and reducing agents from the resulting colour changes 6. Acids, Bases and Salts Content

6.1

Acids and bases

6.2

Salts

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: 6.1

Acids and bases

(a)

describe the meanings of the terms acid and alkali in terms of the ions they produce in aqueous solution and their effects on Universal Indicator

(b)

describe how to test hydrogen ion concentration and hence relative acidity using Universal Indicator and the pH scale

(c)

describe the characteristic properties of acids as in reactions with metals, bases and carbonates

(d)

describe the reaction between hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions to produce water, H+ + OH neutralisation

(e)

describe the importance of controlling the pH in soils and how excess acidity can be treated using calcium hydroxide

(f)

describe the characteristic properties of bases as in reactions with acids and with ammonium salts

(g)

classify oxides as acidic, basic, amphoteric or neutral based on metallic/non-metallic character

6.2

Salts

(a)

describe the techniques used in the preparation, separation and purification of salts as examples of some of the techniques specified in Section 1.2(a)

-

H2O as

(methods for preparation should include precipitation and titration, together with reactions of acids with

metals, insoluble bases and insoluble carbonates) (b)

suggest a method of preparing a given salt from suitable starting materials, given appropriate information

SECTION IV: PERIODICITY Overview

The development of the Periodic Table started in the 1800s as chemists began to recognise similarities in the

properties of various elements and place them in families. The most famous and successful classification, widely

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accepted by chemists, was published in 1869 by Dmitri Mendeleev, a Russian chemist. His periodic table

arranged the elements known at that time, in order of increasing atomic masses.

In this section, students examine the periodic trends and group properties of elements, occurrence of metals,

their properties, reactivity and uses. Students should be able to appreciate the development of the Periodic Table

and hence to envisage that scientific knowledge changes and accumulates over time, and also the need for

conserving some of the finite resources.

7.

The

Periodic

Table

Content 7.1

Periodic trends

7.2

Group properties

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: 7.1

Periodic trends

(a)

describe the Periodic Table as an arrangement of the elements in the order of increasing proton number (atomic number)

(b)

describe how the position of an element in the Periodic Table is related to proton number and electronic structure

(c)

explain the similarities between the elements in the same group of the Periodic Table in terms of their electronic structure

(d)

describe the change from metallic to non-metallic character from left to right across a period of the Periodic Table

(e)

describe the relationship between group number, number of valency electrons and metallic/non-metallic character

(f)

predict the properties of elements in Group I and Group VII using the Periodic Table

7.2

Group properties

(a)

describe lithium, sodium and potassium in Group I (the alkali metals) as a collection of relatively soft, low density metals showing a trend in melting point and in their reaction with water

(b)

describe chlorine, bromine and iodine in Group VII (the halogens) as a collection of diatomic non-metals showing a trend in colour, state and their displacement reactions with solutions of other halide ions

(c)

describe the lack of reactivity of the elements in Group 0 (the noble gases) in terms of their electronic structures

8. Metals Content

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TKGS Science Department Handbook 8.1

Properties of metals

8.2

Reactivity series

8.3

Extraction of metals

8.4

Recycling of metals

8.5

Iron

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: 8.1

Properties of metals

(a)

describe the general physical properties of metals as solids having high melting and boiling points, being malleable and good conductors of heat and electricity

(b)

describe alloys as a mixture of a metal with another element, e.g. brass; stainless steel

(c)

identify representations of metals and alloys from diagrams of structures

8.2

Reactivity series

(a)

place in order of reactivity calcium, copper, (hydrogen), iron, lead, magnesium, potassium, silver, sodium and zinc, by reference to the reactions, if any, of the metals with water, steam and dilute hydrochloric acid

(b) 8.3

deduce the order of reactivity from a given set of experimental results Extraction of metals

(a) describe the ease of obtaining metals from their ores by relating the elements to their positions in the reactivity series 8.4

Recycling of metals

(a)

describe metal ores as a finite resource and hence the need to recycle metals, e.g. the recycling of iron

(b)

discuss the social, economic and environmental issues of recycling metals

8.5

Iron

(a)

describe and explain the essential reactions in the extraction of iron using haematite, limestone and coke in the blast furnace

(b)

describe the essential conditions for the corrosion (rusting) of iron as the presence of oxygen and water; prevention of rusting can be achieved by placing a barrier around the metal, e.g. painting; greasing; plastic coating

SECTION V: ATMOSPHERE Overview

Our atmosphere has been taken for granted in the past. In the last few decades, scientists and the general public

began to realise the adverse effects of pollutants on the air we breathe. It is now recognised that pollutants such

as sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and particulates released into the atmosphere as a result of energy

generation and increased use of motor vehicles, have serious health and environmental consequences.

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In this section, the sources of air pollutants and their effects are examined. Students should be able to value the

knowledge of the hazardous nature of pollutants and the environmental issues related to air pollution.

9. Air Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

describe the volume composition of gases present in dry air as 79% nitrogen, 20% oxygen and the remainder being noble gases (with argon as the main constituent) and carbon dioxide

(b)

name some common atmospheric pollutants, e.g. carbon monoxide; methane; nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2); ozone; sulfur dioxide; unburned hydrocarbons

(c)

state the sources of these pollutants as:

(d)

(i)

carbon monoxide from incomplete combustion of carbon-containing substances

(ii)

nitrogen oxides from lightning activity and internal combustion engines

(iii)

sulfur dioxide from volcanoes and combustion of fossil fuels

discuss some of the effects of these pollutants on health and on the environment: (i)

the poisonous nature of carbon monoxide

(ii)

the role of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide in the formation of 'acid rain' and its effects on respiration and buildings ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

SECTION VI: Overview

In the nineteenth century, chemists believed that organic chemicals originated in tissues of living organisms.

Friedrich Wohler, in 1828, changed this belief and synthesised the organic compound, urea, a compound found in

urine, under laboratory conditions. His work led other chemists to attempt synthesis of other organic compounds.

In this section, students examine the sources of fuels, some basic concepts of organic chemistry like homologous

series, functional group, general formula and structural formula, and polymers. Students should be able to identify

and name unbranched alkanes, alkenes, alcohols and carboxylic acids. They should recognise that materials

such as plastics, detergents and medicines, and even the food that we eat are examples of organic compounds.

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TKGS Science Department Handbook

Students should be able to value the need for assessing the impacts of the use of synthetic materials and the

environmental issues related to the use of plastics. 10.

Organic Chemistry

Content 10.1

Fuels and crude oil

10.2

Alkanes

10.3

Alkenes

10.4

Alcohols

10.5

Carboxylic acids

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: 10.1

Fuels and crude oil

(a)

name natural gas, mainly methane, and petroleum as sources of energy

(b)

describe petroleum as a mixture of hydrocarbons and its separation into useful fractions by fractional distillation

(c)

name the following fractions and state their uses : (i) petrol (gasoline) as a fuel in cars (ii) naphtha as feedstock for the chemical industry (iii) paraffin (kerosene) as a fuel for heating and cooking and for aircraft engines (iv) diesel as a fuel for diesel engines (v) lubricating oils as lubricants and as a source of polishes and waxes (vi) bitumen for making road surfaces Alkanes

10.2 (a)

describe an homologous series as a group of compounds with a general formula, similar chemical properties and showing a gradation in physical properties as a result of increase in the size and mass of the molecules, e.g. melting and boiling points; viscosity; flammability

(b)

describe the alkanes as an homologous series of saturated hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2

(c)

draw the structures of unbranched alkanes, C1 to C3 and name the unbranched alkanes, methane to propane

(d)

describe the properties of alkanes (exemplified by methane) as being generally unreactive except in terms of burning and substitution by chlorine Alkenes

10.3 (a)

describe the alkenes as an homologous series of unsaturated hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n

(b)

draw the structures of unbranched alkenes, C2 to C3 and name the unbranched alkenes, ethene to propene

(c)

describe the manufacture of alkenes and hydrogen by cracking hydrocarbons and recognise that cracking is essential to match the demand for fractions containing smaller molecules from the refinery process

(d)

describe the difference between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons from their molecular structures and by using aqueous bromine

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TKGS Science Department Handbook (e)

describe the properties of alkenes (exemplified by ethene) in terms of combustion and the addition reactions with bromine and hydrogen

(f)

state the meaning of polyunsaturated when applied to food products

(g)

describe the manufacture of margarine by the addition of hydrogen to unsaturated vegetables oils to form a solid product

(h)

describe the formation of poly(ethene) as an example of addition polymerisation of ethene as the monomer

(i)

state some uses of poly(ethene) as a typical plastic, e.g. plastic bags; clingfilm

(j)

deduce the structure of the addition polymer product from a given monomer and vice versa

(k)

describe the pollution problems caused by the disposal of non-biodegradable plastics

10.4

Alcohols

(a)

describe the alcohols as an homologous series containing the -OH group

(b)

draw the structures of unbranched alcohols, C1 to C3 and name the unbranched alcohols, methanol to propanol

(c)

describe the properties of alcohols in terms of combustion and oxidation to carboxylic acids

(d)

describe the formation of ethanol by fermentation of glucose

10.5

Carboxylic acids

(a)

describe the carboxylic acids as organic acids containing the -CO2H group

(b)

describe the formation of ethanoic acid by the oxidation of ethanol by atmospheric oxygen or acidified potassium dichromate(VI)

103

5116, 5117 & 5118 SCIENCE ORDINARY LEVEL 2009

Test for anions anion

2-

carbonate (CO3 ) chloride (CO [in solution] -

test result effervescence, carbon dioxide produced white ppt. acidify with dilute nitric acid, then add aqueous silver nitrate ammonia produced add aqueous sodium hydroxide, then aluminium foil; warm carefully white ppt. acidify with dilute nitric acid, then add add dilute acid

nitrate (NO3 ) [in solution] 2sulfate (SO4 ) [in solution] aqueous barium nitrate Test for aqueous cations cation effect of aqueous sodium hydroxide ammonium (NH4+) ammonia produced on warming 2 calcium (Ca +) white ppt., insoluble in excess 2 copper(II) (Cu +) light blue ppt., insoluble in excess 2

iron(II) (Fe +) 3 iron(III) (Fe +) 2 lead(II) (Pb +) 2

zinc (Zn +)

green ppt., insoluble in excess red-brown ppt., insoluble in excess white ppt., soluble in excess giving a colourless solution white ppt., soluble in excess giving a colourless solution

effect of aqueous ammonia no ppt. light blue ppt., soluble in excess giving a dark blue solution green ppt., insoluble in excess red-brown ppt., insoluble in excess white ppt., insoluble in excess white ppt., soluble in excess giving a colourless solution

Test for gases ammonia (NH3) carbon dioxide (CO2) chlorine (CZ2) hydrogen (H2) oxygen (O2) sulfur dioxide (SO2)

test and test result turns damp red litmus paper blue gives white ppt. with limewater (ppt. dissolves with excess CO2) bleaches damp litmus paper "pops" with a lighted splint relights a glowing splint turns aqueous acidified potassium dichromate(VI) from orange to green

104

5116, 5117 & 5118 SCIENCE ORDINARY LEVEL 2009

NOTES FOR QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

105

beryllium

39 K

45 Sc

22 91 Zr

139 La 178 Hf 57 * 72 Ac

56

Ra

88

55

Fr

87

X

b

b = proton (atomic) number

X = atomic symbol

Key a = relative atomic mass a

89 f *58-71 Lanthanoid series f90-103 Actinoid series

actinium

lanthanum

137 Ba

133 Cs

40

39

91

protactinium

Pa

59 92

Np 93

neptunium

60 238 U

61

78

195 Pt

46

94

plutonium

Pu

62 -

95

157 Gd

96

65 Zn

81

204 T2

49

31 115 In

Cf

66

97

98

californium

65 Bk

dysprosium

106

Es

67

99

-

165 Ho

82

einsteinium

-

antimony

207 Pb

50

32 119 Sn

polonium

100 101

nobelium

Md

69

ytterbium

169 Tm

84

Po

52

34 128 Te

mendeleviu

Fm

68

167 Er

83

209 Bi

51

33 122 Sb

selenium

0

71

103

Lr

175 Lu

86

Rn

54

36 131 Xe

84 Kr

18

40 Ar

10

2 20 Ne

4 He

lawrencium

102

No

70

173 Yb

85

At

53

35 127 I

80 Br

16 79 Se

17

32 S

31 P 15 75 As

9 35.5 Cl

8

19 F

VII

7

VI

16 O

V

14 N

phosphorus

73 Ge

14

28 Si

6

12 C

IV

germanium

13 70 Ga

III

159 Tb 162 Dy

berkelium

Cm

64

5 27 Al

11 B

aluminium

29 30 108 112 Cd Ag cadmium 48 47 197 201 Hg Au 80 79

64 Cu

gadolinium

Am

63 ericium

europium

150 Sm 152 Eu

77

28 106 Pd

59 Ni

palladium

192 Ir

45

27 103 Rh

59 Co

samarium

-

Pm

76

promethium

144 Nd

75

190 Os

44

ruthenium

186 Re

43

26 101 Ru

56 Fe

1

1 H

Group

The volume of one mole of any gas is 24 dm3 at room temperature and

90

58 232 Th

141 Pr

74

Tc

praseodymiu mneodymium

140 Ce

73

184 W

42

25

technetium

24 96 Mo

molybdenu m

181 Ta

41

23 93 Nb

hydrogen

55 Mn

manganese

52 Cr

chromium

51 V

vanadium

48 Ti

yttriumzirconium

21 89 Y

scandium

38

20 88 Sr

40 Ca

37

strontium

19 85 Rb

potassium

II

4 24 Mg

9 Be

23 Na 11 magnesium 12

3

7 Li

I

The Periodic Table of the Elements

5116, 5117 & 5118 SCIENCE ORDINARY LEVEL 2009

5116, 5117 & 5118 SCIENCE ORDINARY LEVEL 2009

Colours of Some Common Metal Hydroxides

Calcium hydroxide Copper(II) hydroxide Iron(II) hydroxide Iron(III) hydroxide Lead(II) hydroxide Zinc hydroxide

white light blue green red-brown white white

107

BIOLOGY SECTION INTRODUCTION _______________________________________

This syllabus is designed to have less emphasis on factual materials, but a much greater emphasis

on the understanding and application of scientific concepts and principles. This approach has been

adopted in recognition of the need for students to develop skills that will be of long-term value in an

increasingly technological world, rather than focusing on large quantities of factual material, which

may have only short-term relevance.

It is envisaged that teaching and learning programmes based on this syllabus will feature a wide

variety of learning experiences designed to promote inquiry. Teachers are encouraged to use a

combination of appropriate strategies in teaching topics in this syllabus. The assessment will be

specifically intended to test skills, comprehension and insight in familiar and unfamiliar contexts.

CONTENT STRUCTURE THEMES I. PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY

II. MAINTENANCE AND REGULATION OF LIFE PROCESSES

1. 2. 3. 4.

Topics Cell Structure and Organisation Movement of Substances Biological Molecules Animal Nutrition

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Plant Nutrition Transport in Flowering Plants Transport in Humans Respiration Co-ordination and Response

108

III. CONTINUITY OF LIFE

IV. MAN AND HIS ENVIRONMENT

10. 11. 12. 13.

Reproduction Molecular Genetics Inheritance Organisms and their Environment

SUBJECT CONTENT ___________________________________ THEME I:

PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY

A basic characteristic of life is the hierarchy of structural order within the organism. Robert Hooke (1635-

1703), one of the first scientists to use a microscope to examine pond water, cork and other things, was the

first to refer to the cavities he saw in cork as "cells", Latin for chambers. Subsequent scientists developed

Hooke's discovery of the cell into the Cell Theory on which modern Biology is built upon. The Cell Theory

states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells, and that those cells have arisen from pre-

existing cells.

In this section, we study two key principles of biology. The first principle is the correlation of structure

to function. This is illustrated by how each part of the cell is suited for its intended function.

The second principle is that specialisation results in the division of labour which enables the cell to

effectively carry out a number of vital life processes. A strong foundation in the principles of biology

will pave the way for students to master the content in the subsequent topics. _____________________________

1. Cell Structure and Organisation Content â&#x20AC;˘

Plant and Animal Cells

â&#x20AC;˘

Specialised Cells, Tissues and Organs Learning Outcomes:

109

Candidates should be able to: (a)

identify organelles of typical plant and animal cells from diagrams, photomicrographs and as seen under the light microscope using prepared slides and fresh material treated with an appropriate temporary staining technique:

chloroplasts

cell membrane

cell wall

cytoplasm

cell vacuoles (large, sap-filled in plant cells, small, temporary in animal cells)

nucleus

(b)

identify the following organelles from diagrams and electronmicrographs:

mitochondria

ribosomes

(c)

state the functions of the organelles identified above.

(d)

compare the structure of typical animal and plant cells.

(e)

state, in simple terms, the relationship between cell function and cell structure for the following:

absorption - root hair cells

conduction and support - xylem vessels

transport of oxygen - red blood cells

(f)

differentiate cell, tissue, organ and organ system.

Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems 2.

Movement of

Substances Content •

Diffusion

Osmosis

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

define diffusion and describe its role in nutrient uptake and gaseous exchange in plants and humans.

(b)

define osmosis and describe the effects of osmosis on plant and animal tissues.

Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems.

3.

Biological

Molecules Content •

Water and Living Organisms

Carbohydrates, Fats and Proteins

Enzymes

110

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

state the roles of water in living organisms.

(b)

describe and carry out tests for

(c)

starch (iodine in potassium iodide solution)

reducing sugars (Benedict's solution)

protein (biuret test)

fats (ethanol emulsion)

state that large molecules are synthesised from smaller basic units •

glycogen from glucose

polypeptides and proteins from amino acids

lipids such as fats from glycerol and fatty acids

(d)

explain enzyme action in terms of the 'lock and key' hypothesis.

(e)

investigate and explain the effects of temperature and pH on the rate of enzyme-catalysed reactions.

Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems. THEME II: MAINTENANCE AND REGULATION OF LIFE PROCESSES

Life is sustained through the integrated organisation of the whole organism. In humans, the maintenance

and regulation of life processes include nutrition, transport, respiration, excretion, homeostasis and co-

ordination and response. The key overarching theme in the study of the organ systems is the correlation

between form and function.

4.

Animal

Nutrition Content •

Human Alimentary Canal

Chemical Digestion

Absorption and Assimilation

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

describe the functions of main regions of the alimentary canal and the associated organs: mouth, salivary glands, oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, pancreas, gall bladder, liver, ileum, colon, rectum, anus, in relation to ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion of food, as appropriate.

111

(b)

describe digestion in the alimentary canal, the functions of a typical amylase, protease and lipase, listing the substrate and end-products.

(c)

state the function of the hepatic portal vein as the route taken by most of the food absorbed from the small intestine.

(d)

state the role of the liver in: •

the metabolism of glucose

the metabolism of amino acids and the formation of urea

the breakdown of alcohol

Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems.

5.

Plant

Nutrition Content •

Leaf Structure

Photosynthesis

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

identify the cellular and tissue structure of a dicotyledonous leaf, as seen in cross-section under the microscope and state their functions: •

distribution of chloroplasts - photosynthesis

stomata and mesophyll cells - gaseous exchange

vascular bundles - transport

(b)

state the equation, in words only, for photosynthesis.

(c)

describe the intake of carbon dioxide and water by plants.

(d)

state that chlorophyll traps light energy and converts it into chemical energy for the formation of carbohydrates and their subsequent storage.

(e)

investigate and state the effect of varying light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration and temperature on the rate of photosynthesis (e.g. in submerged aquatic plants).

(f)

briefly explain why most forms of life are completely dependent on photosynthesis.

Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems.

6.

Transport in Flowering

Plants Content •

Water and Ion Uptake

T

ranspiration and Translocation Learning Outcomes:

Candidates should be able to:

112

(a)

identify the positions of xylem vessels and phloem in sections of a typical dicotyledonous stem and leaf, under the light microscope, and state their functions.

(b)

relate the structure and functions of root hairs to their surface area, and to water and ion uptake.

(c)

state that transpiration is the loss of water vapour from the stomata.

(d)

briefly explain the movement of water through the stem in terms of transpiration pull.

(e)

describe • the effects of variation of air movement, temperature, humidity and light intensity on transpiration rate •

(f)

how wilting occurs

define the term translocation as the transport of food in the phloem tissue.

Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems.

7.

Transport in

Humans Content •

Circulatory System

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

name the main blood vessels to and from the heart, lungs, liver and kidney.

(b)

state the functions of blood •

red blood cells - haemoglobin and oxygen transport

white blood cells - phagocytosis, antibody formation and tissue rejection

platelets - fibrinogen to fibrin, causing clotting • plasma - transport of blood cells, ions, soluble food substances, hormones, carbon dioxide, urea, vitamins, plasma proteins

(c)

relate the structure of arteries, veins and capillaries to their functions.

(d)

describe the structure and function of the heart in terms of muscular contraction and the working of valves. (Histology of the heart muscle, names of nerves and transmitter substances are not required).

(e)

describe coronary heart disease in terms of the occlusion of coronary arteries and list the possible causes, such as diet, stress, smoking, and the possible preventative measures.

Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems. 8.

Respirat

ion Content •

Human Gaseous Exchange

Aerobic Respiration

Anaerobic Respiration

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

identify on diagrams and name the larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli and associated capillaries and state their functions in human gaseous exchange.

113

(b)

state the characteristics of, and describe the role of, the exchange surface of the alveoli in gaseous exchange.

(c)

describe the effect of tobacco smoke and its major toxic components - nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide, on health.

(d)

define and state the equation, in words only, for aerobic respiration in humans.

(e)

define and state the equation, in words only, for anaerobic respiration in humans.

(f)

describe the effect of lactic acid in muscles during exercise.

Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems.

9.

Co-ordination and Response

Content •

Receptors - Eye

Nervous System - Neurones (Reflex Action)

Effectors - Endocrine Glands Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to:

(a)

state the relationship between receptors, the central nervous system and the effectors.

(b)

state the principal functions of component parts of the eye in producing a focused image of near and distant objects on the retina.

(c)

describe the pupil reflex in response to bright and dim light.

(d)

outline the functions of sensory neurones, relay neurones and motor neurones.

(e)

define a hormone as a chemical substance, produced by a gland, carried by the blood, which alters the activity of one or more specific target organs and is then destroyed by the liver.

(f)

state what is meant by an endocrine gland, with reference to the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas.

(g)

outline how the blood glucose concentration is regulated by insulin and glucagon.

Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems. THEME III:

CONTINUITY OF LIFE

The many aspects of form and function that we have examined in this syllabus can be viewed in the widest

context as various adaptations aimed at ensuring reproductive success. Reproduction is vital for the survival

of species across generations. In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick developed the model for

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), a chemical that had then recently been deduced to be the physical carrier of

114

inheritance. In this section, we examine how genes interact to produce hereditary characteristics in the

offspring. This section focuses on understanding the processes involved in the continuity of life and how

genetic information is passed from one generation to the next.

10. Reproduction Content •

Asexual Reproduction

Sexual Reproduction in Plants

Sexual Reproduction in Humans

Sexually Transmitted Diseases Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to:

(a)

define asexual reproduction as the process resulting in the production of genetically identical offspring from one parent.

(b)

define sexual reproduction as the process involving the fusion of nuclei to form a zygote and the production of genetically dissimilar offspring.

(c)

state the functions of the sepals, petals, anthers and carpels.

(d)

outline the process of pollination.

(e)

describe the growth of the pollen tube and its entry into the ovule followed by fertilisation.

(f)

identify on diagrams of the male reproductive system and give the functions of: testes, scrotum, sperm ducts, prostate gland, urethra and penis.

(g)

identify on diagrams of the female reproductive system and give the functions of: ovaries, oviducts, uterus, cervix and vagina.

(h)

briefly describe the menstrual cycle with reference to the alternation of menstruation and ovulation, the natural variation in its length, and the fertile and infertile phases of the cycle, with reference to the roles of estrogen and progesterone only.

(i)

briefly describe fertilisation and early development of the zygote simply in terms of the formation of a ball of cells which becomes implanted in the wall of the uterus.

(j) discuss the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and methods by which it may be controlled. Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems. 11. Molecular Genetics Content •

The Structure of DNA

115

T

he Role of DNA in Protein Synthesis Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

outline the relationship between genes, chromosomes, and DNA.

(b)

state the structure of DNA in terms of the bases, sugar and phosphate groups found in each of the nucleotides.

(c)

state the rule of complementary base pairing.

(d)

state that DNA is used to carry the genetic code (Details of translation and transcription are not required).

(e)

state that each gene •

is a sequence of nucleotides, as part of a DNA molecule

controls the production of one polypeptide

Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems. 12. Inherita nce Content •

The Passage of Information from Parent to Offspring

The Nature of Genes and Alleles, and their Role in Determining

Monohybrid Crosses

Variation

the Phenotype

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

define a gene as a unit of inheritance and distinguish clearly between the terms gene and allele.

(b)

describe the difference between continuous and discontinuous variation and give examples of each.

(c)

explain the terms dominant, recessive, homozygous, heterozygous, phenotype and genotype.

(d)

predict the results of simple crosses with expected ratios of 3:1 and 1:1, using the terms homozygous, heterozygous, F1 generation and F2 generation.

(e)

state why observed ratios often differ from expected ratios, especially when there are small numbers of progeny.

(f)

describe the determination of sex in humans - XX and XY chromosomes.

(g)

describe mutation as a change in the structure of a gene such as in sickle cell anaemia, or in the chromosome number such as the 47 chromosomes in a condition known as Down Syndrome.

(h)

name radiation and chemicals as factors which may increase the rate of mutation.

Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems.

116

5116, 5117 & 5118 SCIENCE ORDINARY LEVEL 2009

THEME IV:

MAN AND HIS ENVIRONMENT

All living organisms are part of a complex network of interactions called the web of life. This section focuses

on the interrelationships among living things. These include two major processes. The first is the cycling of

nutrients, as illustrated by the carbon cycle. The second major process is the flow of energy from sunlight to

organisms further down the food chain.

13. Organisms and their Environment Content •

Energy Flow

Food Chains and Food Webs

Carbon Cycle

Effects Of Man on the Ecosystem

Environmental Biotechnology

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a)

Briefly describe the non-cyclical nature of energy flow,

(b)

establish the relationship of the following in food webs: producer; consumer; herbivore; carnivore; decomposer, food chain, trophic level

(c)

describe energy losses between trophic levels and infer the advantages of short food chains.

(d)

interpret pyramids of numbers and biomass.

(e)

explain the importance of the carbon cycle.

(f)

evaluate the effects of

water pollution by sewage

pollution due to insecticides including bioaccumulation up food chains and impact on top carnivores.

(g)

outline the roles of microbes in sewage disposal as an example of environmental biotechnology.

117

(h)

discuss reasons for conservation of species with reference to the maintenance of biodiversity, management of fisheries and management of timber production.

Use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems.

GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN SCIENCE PAPERS It is hoped that the glossary (which is relevant only to science papers) will prove helpful to candidates as a

guide, i.e. it is neither exhaustive nor definitive. The glossary has been deliberately kept brief not only with

respect to the number of terms included but also to the descriptions of their meanings. Candidates should

appreciate that the meaning of a term must depend in part on its context.

1. Calculate is used when a numerical answer is required. In general, working should be shown, especially where two or more steps are involved. 2.

Classify requires candidates to group things based on common characteristics. 3. Comment is intended as an open-ended instruction, inviting candidates to recall or infer points of interest relevant to the context of the question, taking account of the number of marks available. 4. Compare requires candidates to provide both similarities and differences between things or concepts. 5. Construct is often used in relation to chemical equations where a candidate is expected to write a balanced equation, not by factual recall but by analogy or by using information in the question. 6. Define (the term(s)...) is intended literally. Only a formal statement or equivalent paraphrase being required. 7. Describe requires candidates to state in words (using diagrams where appropriate) the main points of the topic. It is often used with reference either to particular phenomena or to particular experiments. In the former instance, the term usually implies that the answer should include reference to (visual) observations associated with the phenomena. In the latter instance the answer may often follow a standard pattern, e.g. Apparatus, Method, Measurement, Results and Precautions.

In other contexts, describe and give an account of should be interpreted more generally, i.e. the

candidate has greater discretion about the nature and the organisation of the material to be

included in the answer. Describe and explain may be coupled in a similar way to state and explain.

118

8. Determine often implies that the quantity concerned cannot be measured directly but is obtained by calculation, substituting measured or known values of other quantities into a standard formula. 9.

Discuss requires candidates to give a critical account of the points involved in the topic. 10. Estimate implies a reasoned order magnitude statement or calculation of the quantity concerned, making such simplifying assumptions as may be necessary about the points of principle and about values of quantities not otherwise included in the question.

11.

Explain may imply reasoning or some reference to theory, depending on the context.

12.

Find is a general term that may be variously interpreted as calculate, measure, determine etc. 13. List requires a number of points, generally each of one word, with no elaboration. Where a given number of points is specified, this should not be exceeded. 14. Measure implies that the quantity concerned can be directly obtained from a suitable measuring instrument, e.g. length, using a rule, or angle, using a protractor.

15.

Outline implies brevity, i.e. restricting the answer to giving essentials. 16. Predict or deduce implies that the candidate is not expected to produce the required answer by recall but by making a logical connection between other pieces of information. Such information may be wholly given in the question or may depend on answers extracted from an earlier part of the question. Predict also implies a concise answer with no supporting statement required. 17. Sketch, when applied to graph work, implies that the shape and/or position of the curve need only be qualitatively correct, but candidates should be aware that, depending on the context, some quantitative aspects may be looked for, e.g. passing through the origin, having the intercept, asymptote or discontinuity at a particular value.

In diagrams, sketch implies that a simple, freehand drawing is acceptable; nevertheless, care

should be taken over proportions and the clear exposition of important details. 18. State implies a concise answer with little or no supporting argument, e.g. a numerical answer that can be obtained 'by inspection'. 19. Suggest is used in two main contexts, i.e. either to imply that there is no unique answer, or to imply that candidates are expected to apply their general knowledge to a 'novel' situation, one that may be formally 'not in the syllabus'. 20. What do you understand by/What is meant by (the term(s)... ) normally implies that a definition should be given, together with some relevant comment on the significance or context of the term(s) concerned, especially where two or more terms are included in the question. The amount of supplementary comment intended should be interpreted in light of the indicated mark value.

SPECIAL NOTE Nomenclature

119

Students will be expected to be familiar with the nomenclature used in the syllabus. The proposals in "Signs,

Symbols and Systematic^' (The Association for Science Education Companion to 16-19 Science, 2000) and

the recommendations on terms, units and symbols in 'Biological Nomenclature (2000)' published by the

Institute of Biology, in conjunction with the ASE, will generally be adopted although the traditional names

sulfate, sulfite, nitrate, nitrite, sulfurous and nitrous acids will be used in question papers. Sulfur (and all

compounds of sulfur) will be spelt with f (not with ph) in question papers, however students can use either

spelling in their answers.

3

It is intended that, in order to avoid difficulties arising out of the use of l as the symbol for litre, use of dm in

place of l or litre will be made.

In chemistry, full structural formulae (displayed formulae) in answers should show in detail both the relative

placing of atoms and the number of bonds between atoms. Hence, -CONH2 and -CO2H are not satisfactory

as full structural formulae, although either of the usual symbols for the benzene ring is acceptable. Units, significant figures

120

Candidates should be aware that misuse of units and/or significant figures, i.e. failure to quote units where

necessary, the inclusion of units in quantities defined as ratios or quoting answers to an inappropriate

number of significant figures, is liable to be penalised. Calculators

Any calculator used must be on the Singapore Examinations and Assessment Board list of approved

calculators.

PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT

Scientific subjects are, by nature, experimental. It is therefore important that an assessment of a candidate's

knowledge and understanding of Science should include a component relating to practical work and

experimental skills. This assessment is provided in Paper 5, as a formal practical test, and is outlined in the

Scheme of Assessment. Paper 5

Practical Test

Physics Practical Test Candidates may be asked to carry out exercises based on: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)

measurements of lengths with appropriate accuracy by means of tapes, rules, micrometers and callipers, using a vernier as necessary; measurements of time intervals, including the period of a simple pendulum, by means of clocks and stopwatches; measurements of temperature by using appropriate thermometers; measurements of mass and weight by using appropriate balances; measurements of the volume of a liquid or solid by using a measuring cylinder; determination of the density of a liquid, of a regularly and irregularly shaped solid, which sinks in water; the principle of moments;

121

(h) (i)

determination of the position of the centre of gravity of a plane lamina; the law of reflection; (j) determination of the position and characteristics of an optical image formed by a plane mirror or a thin converging lens; (k) the refraction of light through glass blocks; (l) measurements of current and voltage by using appropriate ammeters and voltmeters; (m) determination of the resistance of a metallic conductor using a voltmeter and an ammeter.

This is not intended to be an exhaustive list. Reference may be made to the techniques used in these

experiments in the theory papers, but no detailed description of the experimental procedures will be

required. Chemistry Practical Test Candidates may be asked to carry out exercises based on: (a)

(b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)

quantitative experiments involving the use of a pipette, burette and an indicator such as methyl orange or screened methyl orange; if titrations other than acid/alkali are set, full instructions and other necessary information will be given; speeds of reaction; measurements of temperature based on thermometers with 1 째C graduations; problems of an investigatory nature, possibly including suitable organic compounds; simple paper chromatography; filtration; tests for oxidising and reducing agents as specified in the syllabus; identification of ions and gases as specified in the syllabus.

This question paper will contain Notes For Qualitative Analysis for the use of candidates in the examination. Candidates may also be required to perform simple calculations. Biology Practical Test 1. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)

The practical examination is designed to test candidates' abilities to: follow carefully a sequence of instructions within a set time allowance; use familiar and unfamiliar techniques to record their observations and make deductions from them; recognise and observe features of familiar and unfamiliar biological specimens, record their observations and make deductions about functions of whole specimens or their parts; make clear line drawings of the specimens provided, indicate magnification and to label familiar structures; interpret unfamiliar data and draw conclusions from their interpretations; design/plan an investigation to solve a problem; comment on a procedure used in an experiment and suggest an improvement;

122

(h)

(j)

employ manipulative skills in assembling apparatus, in using chemical reagents and in using such instruments as mounted needles, scalpels and razor blades, forceps and scissors; (i) observe reactions, read simple measuring instruments and perform simple arithmetical calculations; measure to an accuracy of 1 mm, using a ruler. 2.

Candidates may be asked to carry out simple physiological experiments, involving tests for food substances (specifically reducing sugars with Benedict's solution, starch using iodine solution, protein using the Biuret test and fats using the ethanol emulsion test), enzyme reactions, hydrogen carbonate indicator solution, cobalt(II) chloride paper etc. It is expected that glassware and instruments normally found in a laboratory (e.g. beakers, test-tube racks, funnels, thermometers, droppers and so on) should be available for these experiments.

3.

Candidates may be asked to carry out simple physiological experiments, involving the use of the above mentioned instruments 1(h) on plant or animal materials. Accurate observations of these specimens will need a hand lens of not less than x6 magnification for each candidate.

4.

The material set will be closely related to the subject matter of the syllabus, but will not necessarily be limited to the particular types mentioned therein. In order to assist their own practical work, and to supply possible examination specimens, schools are asked to build up a reference collection of material.

5.

When planning practical work, teachers should make sure that they do not contravene any school, education authority, or government regulations which restrict the sampling, in educational establishments, of urine, saliva, blood or other bodily secretions and tissues.

123

Biology

3.1

(Staff Morale)

Staff Engagement (Staff involvement in school improvement )

Key Areas

• Address teachers’ concerns

4. Seek teachers’ views

3. Contribute suggestions at department meeting and on own accord (On going)

Teachers

Teachers

HOD

• learning (Nov) and sharing of good 2. HOD gives timely feedback practices / encouragement to teachers to share good practices • eWSS (On contribution going) s

Resources EPMS file

Strategies ( with time-frame )

1. HOD conducts • Work Review • target setting with twice a year teachers (Jan) • Mid-year work review (July) • Year-end work review

Targets

Department : Science Biology/ Sc(Biology) Strategic Thrust : A Nurturing and Caring Community of Learners

Work Plan

3

Teachers

Subject coordinator

Teacher Climate Survey

HOD

Review Area Owners Teachers/ HOD

eWSS records

Teacher Climate Survey

Teachers’ Work Review document

Data Source

Positive feedback from Teacher Climate survey

2 suggestions per teacher

Positive feedback from Teacher Climate survey

Evidence of success Reporting officer and teacher comments after mid-year and year-end review

124

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Targets through buzzing sessions / dept meetings

Strategies ( with time-frame )

4. Carry out lesson • Lesson observations and feedback observation ( Term 1-3) / Peer Coaching 5. Conduct peer coaching and self-reflection for the experienced teachers (Term 1-3)

3. Conduct sharing by each teacher on effective teaching strategies / learning after attending courses

Staff 1. Conduct scheduled • Monthly Development & buzzing buzzing on Fridays to Training discuss matters related to sessions (Develop ‘O’ level Biology curriculum Competent (Term 1-3). Staff and • Professional 2. Conduct buzzing where Identification of sharing teachers share their Strategic teaching packages or Competencies ) resources (Term 1-3)

Key Areas

Subject Notes of discussion / coordinator teacher questionnaire

Data Source

Review Area Owners

Senior teachers

SH

Teachers

Positive feedback from Teacher Climate survey SH / teachers

RO / teachers

Feedback report by SH/ Teacher portfolio

Work Review with teachers

Positive

Positive feedback from teacher questionnaire

Positive teacher reflection

Positive feedback from teacher questionnaire

Evidence of success

Notes of Subject discussion / coordinator teacher questionnaire

Teacher Teaching Level resources by questionnaire coordinator teachers

Teaching resources

Resources

Department : Science Biology/ Sc(Biology) Strategic Thrust : A Nurturing and Caring Community of Learners

125

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

6. Encourage teachers to build up their professional portfolios (on going)

Strategies ( with time-frame )

2. 7 key areas to include in the SOW: − Curriculum Differentiation (10% of lessons) − Cooperative Learning − Habits of Mind − Aesthetics (in line with ST 3)

1. Provide opportunities for students to be actively engaged by adopting the inquiry approach.

8. Attend training in accordance to the needs of teachers 9. Apply relevant learning in teaching

• Relevant training workshops / 7. Identify training needs of dept / individual teachers courses

Targets

Student • Student Engagement engaging (Recognition approaches and Affirmation, in lessons and Conducive Learning Environment )

Key Areas

Teachers

Various training agencies

Resources

Department : Science Biology/ Sc(Biology) Strategic Thrust : A Nurturing and Caring Community of Learners

TRAISI Record/ Work Review document

Pupil survey

Biology teachers

Data Source

Biology teachers

Biology teachers

Review Area Owners

Positive feedback from pupil survey

Evidence of success feedback from teachers Positive feedback by teachers during work review

126

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Targets − ICT (30% of lessons) − Integration across subjects − NE integration

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Resources Data Source

Department : Science Biology/ Sc(Biology) Strategic Thrust : A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Key Areas

Department : Science Biology/ Sc(Biology) Strategic Thrust : A Nurturing and Caring Community of Learners Review Area Owners

Evidence of success

127

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

2. Monitoring academic performance ( Monitor and Review Effectiveness )

1. Monitoring Academic Performance Setting exam targets

Key Areas

Train pupils in answering GCE ‘O’ Level Exam. Questions starting with the simple to the application kind of questions after each sub-topic. Give short essay questions of different questioning style for practice. Immediate feedback would be given too.

2.2

Give out practical worksheets / practical exercise from workbook and past year papers and SPA resource package for reinforcement after each topic. (on-going)

2.1

Sec 4 Pure Biology Mid-yr MSG : 3.5 Prelims MSG : 3.0 GCE ‘O’ Level MSG : 2.2 Mid Yr - 85% passes - 20% distinctions Prelims - 90 % passes - 40% distinctions O’s 100% passes 60% distinction

- 85 % passes - 25 % distinctions Overall results - 85 % passes - 20 % distinctions - MSG: 3.0;

1.1 Draw up Schemes of Work that include activities, assignments and resources which infuse, SPA training, IT, NE, CL, HOM and Thinking Skills into lessons. The Sec 3 Scheme of Work includes lessons to be conducted during the extended Sec 3 study period in Term IV. 1.2 Administer the following assessment: Term 1 & 3 – one structured CA each term Term 1 to 3 – regular short formative tests, practical tests and alternative mode of assessment Term 2 – Mid-year examination

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Pupils will be able to attain the following targets: Sec 3 Pure Biology Mid Yr - 85% passes - 20% distinctions End of Yr

Targets

Teachers

Past GCE ‘O’ Level Exam. questions

Practical Workbooks, MOE SPA resources

Biology ‘O’ level syllabus 5094, Five Years Series

Resources

Exam Analysis Results

Exam Analysis Results

Data Source

Biology

Biology teachers

Biology teachers

Positive feedback by teachers on quality of answers by pupils

Meeting / surpassing the exam targets

128

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009 Review Area Evidence of Owners success

Key Areas

Science (Biology) Mid-yr MSG : 4.0 Prelims MSG : 3.0 GCE ‘O’ Level MSG : 1.8 Mid Yr - 85% passes - 20 % distinctions Prelims - 90 % passes - 40% distinctions O’s 100% passes 60% distinction

Targets

Monitor the performance of weaker pupils and conduct structured remedial lessons fortnightly for weaker students.

2.4

Design appropriate ‘O’ Level SPA teaching and learning practicals

2.6

Monitor attendance of pupils for scheduled remedial

Sec 4 Monitor the results for CAs, midyear examination and prelims

Check that pupils complete all assignments (on-going)

2.5

Sec 4 –starts in Term 1 Week 2 based on 2008 final term Biology results

Sec 3 Term 1 – starts after the results of first CA

Mark written assignments accurately so as to give effective feedback to pupils. (on-going)

2.3

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Termly Analysis Results

SPA resources on MOE intranet

Biology Teachers

FYS / remedial worksheets

Resources

Department : Science Biology/ Sc(Biology) Strategic Thrust : A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Termly Analysis Results

Data Source teachers

Review Area Owners

Regular attendance of pupils for remedial lessons

Improvement of results for pupils who have attended remedial lessons

Evidence of success

129

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

4. Alternative

3. Varied pedagogical approaches (Varied and Integrated pedagogical approaches )

Key Areas

SPA assessment for Sec 3s

Targets

3.5 Train pupils to summarise main points for Biology topics by using graphic organisers such as concept maps, mind maps and flow chart. (on-going) 4.1 ‘O’ Level SPA assessment to begin in

3.4 Use questioning techniques with higher order thinking questions.(on-going)

3.3 Design student-centred lessons by using Cooperative Learning strategies e.g. Jigsaw method, group discussions, presentations, memory game (on-going).

3.2 Develop process skills by conducting investigative practical work in pairs or individual students each week (on-going).

3.1 Conduct SPA teaching and learning for SPA ‘O’ Level Skills

Strategies ( with time-frame )

SPA assessment

Teacher examples, Biology and Comprehensive Biology Worknook

Teacher lesson plans

Comprehensive Biology for ‘O’ Level and Biology Insights Practical Workbook

SPA resources on MOE intranet and Biology Insights practical workbook

Resources

Department : Science Biology/ Sc(Biology) Strategic Thrust : A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Marks of assessments

Lesson observation report

e-record book of teachers

e-record book of teachers

MOE SPA assessment package

MOE intranet

Data Source

Sec 3 Biology teachers

Biology teachers

Review Area Owners

100% of pupils scores at least

Feedback from teachers of students ability to handle higher order thinking questions through the survey

Through pupils’ and science teachers’ survey

Evidence of success

130

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

6. Integration of subjects

30% IT-based lessons in Biology lessons

Creating comic strips

assessment modes (Varied and Integrated pedagogical approaches )

5. Integration of IT (Optimise use of teaching and learning resources )

Targets

Key Areas

6.1 Relate everyday experiences in Biology teaching. (on-going)

5.4 Purchase suitable IT media resources e.g. CD-ROMs on botany (plant anatomy and physiology)

Software distributors

Practical activity in Workbook

5.2 Incorporate the use of dataloggers in practical lessons 5.3 Incorporate the use of Internet as a resource for students’ research work and in classroom activities. (on-going)

CD-ROMs e.g. Adam- The Inside Story; Ultimate Human Body, Air Com.

package

Resources

5.1 Conduct pair or group work using interactive CD-ROMs and worksheets (on-going)

4.2 To start early in term 2 and present after mid yr exam.

term 4 for sec 3s and completed by term 3 for Sec 4s

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Department : Science Biology/ Sc(Biology) Strategic Thrust : A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Feedback by teachers in survey

Feedback Report by teachers

Pupils’ and teachers’ survey results

Sec 3 SOW

Survey of IT usage

Marks of assessments

Data Source

Biology teachers

Biology teachers

Biology teachers

Sec 3 Biology teachers

Biology teachers

Sec 3 Biology teachers

Review Area Owners

Using the resources purchased in lessons Positive feedback for Pupils’ Survey

Positive feedback by teachers in survey and review of URLs

Incorporating the use of dataloggers in the lesson plan.

Achievement of target: 35 % IT-based lessons in Biology

level 1 for SPA ‘O’ Level.

Evidence of success

131

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Partnership with Dunman Secondary School East Zone Learning Centre

To help the weaker pupils to improve in their results

8. Differentiated teaching & learning ( Provide

Targets

7. Partnerships ( Partnership with external organizations )

(Varied and Integrated pedagogical approaches )

Key Areas

8.1 Grouping of combine science pupils from 4/1 and 4/3

7.1 Students will utilize facilities provided by Dunman Sec for any projects they undertake

6.3 Encourage interested pupils to take part in the enrichment/research programme or competitions organised by tertiary institutions. â&#x20AC;˘ Biotechnology Fair Competition / Greenwave Competition/Tan Kah Kee Young Inventors Award

6.2 Incorporate the study of life sciences into the Sec 4 curriculum : Sec 4 : Bacterial Transformation

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Mrs Ngin

Dunman Secondary School East Zone Learning Centre

Resources

Department : Science Biology/ Sc(Biology) Strategic Thrust : A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Analysis of results

SH monitoring partnership

SH monitor activities participated in 2009

Sec 4 SOW

Data Source

Mrs Ngin

SH

Biology teachers

Review Area Owners

Improvement in results after the banding

Pupils taking on projects after their workshops

Participation of competitions

Positive feedback by pupils

Questions

Evidence of success

132

Tanjong Katong Girlsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; School Work Plan 2009

9. Staff Training to build capacity (Develop Competent Staff and Identification of Strategic Competencies )

differentiated teaching and learning )

Key Areas

Targets

9.1 Training in courses that are relevant to the teaching and learning of Biology. E.g. problem-based learning, and seminars, Biology O Level marking

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Courses subjected to availability in 2008

Resources

Department : Science Biology/ Sc(Biology) Strategic Thrust : A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

TRAISI training record

Data Source

SH

Review Area Owners

Teachers attending courses of relevance to the teaching of Biology

Evidence of success

133

Tanjong Katong Girlsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; School Work Plan 2009

Chemistry

Targets

Staff Developme nt & Training

EPMS file

1. HOD conducts • target setting with teachers (Jan) • Mid-year work review (July) • Year-end work review (Nov)

3 Each teacher contribute at lease 2 suggestions at department meeting and at individual level

1. Conduct formal and informal • 1 formal and sharing sessions on Tuesdays 1informal / Fridays using protected time sharing session to discuss matters related to per term Chemistry curriculum (Term 13)

• eWSS contributions

Notes of discussion

Teacher

Experienced

Teacher Climate Survey

Teacher Climate Survey

Teachers’ Work Review document

Data Source

Teachers Relevant books/maga zines/articles / internet

Teachers

HOD

Resources

Strategies ( with time-frame )

• learning and 2. HOD gives timely feedback / sharing of good encouragement to teachers to practices share good practices (On going)

Staff • Work Review Engagemen twice a year t

Key Areas

Department : Science Subject: Chemistry / Science (Chemistry) Strategic Thrust 1 : A Nurturing and Caring Community of Learners

3.2

Level

Subject coordinator

Teachers

HOD

Review Area Owners Teachers/ HOD

134

Positive feedback from teacher reflection

2 suggestions per teacher

Positive feedback from Teacher Climate survey

Evidence of success Positive feedback from teacher

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Key Areas

• Relevant training workshops / courses

• Pathway for lesson observation

• Professional sharing

Targets

.7. Attend training in accordance

6. Identify training needs of dept / individual teachers. Dept training on Inquiry Approach and Authentic Assessment (2 days in Term 1)

5. Conduct peer coaching and self-reflection for the experienced teachers (Term 1-3)

Various training agencies

Senior teachers

HOD

3. Conduct sharing by each teacher on effective teaching strategies / learning after attending courses (Term 2) 4. Carry out lesson observations and feedback ( Term 1-3) - Observation HOD/SH

Teachers

teachers

Resources

2. Conduct buzzing where experienced teachers guide teachers teaching the subject for the first time on the approach to a new topic (Term 1-3)

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Department : Science Subject: Chemistry / Science (Chemistry) Strategic Thrust 1 : A Nurturing and Caring Community of Learners

Traisi

Work Review with teachers

Feedback report by HOD/ Teacher portfolio

Notes of discussion / teacher questionnair e

questionnair e

Data Source

Teachers

HOD / teachers

HOD / teachers

Subject coordinator

Review Area Owners coordinator

135

Positive feedback by

Positive feedback from teachers

Positive feedback from Teacher Climate survey

Positive feedback from teacher

Evidence of success Positive feedback from teacher reflection

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Targets

• Identify students’ needs and better support their learning and development

Student • Student Engagemen engaging t approaches in lessons

Key Areas

3. Include 7 key areas in the SOWs • Curriculum Differentiation (10% of lessons) • Cooperative Learning • Habits of Mind • Aesthetics (in line with ST 3) • ICT (30% of lessons) • Integration across subjects

2. FMs and subject teachers work closely with Level Coordinators to proactively address concerns/ issues of the cohort.

1. Provide opportunities for students to be actively engaged in learning by adopting the inquiry approach

to the needs of teachers and teachers to apply relevant learning in teaching

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Pupil survey

Pupil survey

Level Coordinators

Record/ Work Review document

Data Source

Teachers

Resources

Department : Science Subject: Chemistry / Science (Chemistry) Strategic Thrust 1 : A Nurturing and Caring Community of Learners

Teachers

HOD/ teachers

Review Area Owners

136

Meeting KPIs for each areas

Positive feedback from pupil survey

Evidence of success teachers during work review

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Key Areas

Targets â&#x20AC;˘ NE integration

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Resources

Department : Science Subject: Chemistry / Science (Chemistry) Strategic Thrust 1 : A Nurturing and Caring Community of Learners

Data Source

Review Area Owners

137

Evidence of success

Tanjong Katong Girlsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; School Work Plan 2009

Monitoring academic performance

Key Areas

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Set examination 1. Target setting: targets: • Conduct target setting Sec 3: with Sec 4 classes Pure Chemistry (Jan ) Mid-year Exam • Review targets after Mid% dist % pass year and Prelim Exam 45% 90% (July, Sept) Final-year Exam % dist % pass 2. Prepare students for the 20 % 80 % GCE ‘O’ level Examinations in order to attain the exam Sec 4 Pure targets: Chem: • Train pupils to answer Mid-year Exam GCE ‘O’ level past year % dist % pass exam papers. (Jan – 20% 70% Oct ) • Mark written work of Prelim Exam students and provide % dist % pass feedback to students 40% 90% (Jan – Oct) • Conduct regular short ‘O’ level Exam formative tests and MSG: 2.2 termly Sec 4 common tests (Jan – Oct) • Go over common Sec 4 Sc Chem: mistakes from markers’

Targets Notes of meeting with teachers

Exam results

‘O’ level syllabus, Ten Year Series, Exercises from textbooks, printed worksheets, Examiners’ Report

Subject Coordinator /HOD

HOD

Review Data Source Area Owners

Teachers

Resources

Department : Science Subject: Chemistry / Science(Chemistry) Strategic Thrust 2 : A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

138

Positive feedback by teachers

Evidence of success Meeting / surpassing exam targets

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Key Areas report by Cambridge examiners (Jan –

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Resources

Oct) SPA booklet by MOE • Conduct structured revision lessons in the afternoon in Term 2 & 3 Implement ‘O’ for Sec 4 students level SPA Chemistry 2. Implement ‘O’ level SPA for practical Sec 3 and 4 students. workbooks • Introduce the 3 skills of SPA and the generic mark scheme at Sec 3 SPA (Term 1) assessment file • Train students on by MOE practical skills by conducting practical work for relevant topics • Carry out ‘O’ level assessment: Sec 3 - Skill 1 & 2 expt at the Monitor pupil end of Sec3 ( Nov performance by 2009) Subject • level Sec 4 • class - Skill 1 & 2 expt in Sec4 analysis / List of under Carry out follow(March performers up action form 2009)

Mid-year Exam MSG: 4.5 Prelim Exam MSG: 3.5 ‘O’ level Exam MSG: 1.9

Targets

Department : Science Subject: Chemistry / Science(Chemistry) Strategic Thrust 2 : A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Sec 3 level coordinator

Subject teachers/ Subject Coordinator /HOD

Feedback report by teachers

Attendance list of remedial lessons & results of CAs &

Review Data Source Area Owners

139

Improvement in performance of pupils identified for remedial

‘To what extent are your pupils prepared for SPA?’

Positive feedback from teachers for Question

Evidence of success

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Key Areas

underperforming classes and students

Targets

4. Conduct Post Test

3. Identify students who are under- performing to attend remedial lessons Sec 4 (Jan 2009) Sec 3 (after CA 1 of 2008) • Conduct remedial lessons for the identified students. (every fortnight ) • Group students for Sec 4 Pure Chemistry remedial students into 3 groups to handle manpower constraint. • Monitor the attendance and performance of pupils in remedial lessons. ( Jan – Sept ) • Carry out follow-up action for classes/ pupils who are underperforming (Jan -Oct)

- Skill 3 expt in Sec 4 (June 2009)

Strategies ( with time-frame )

PTR forms

Resources

Department : Science Subject: Chemistry / Science(Chemistry) Strategic Thrust 2 : A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Notes of meeting with teachers

examinations

Subject teachers/ HOD

Review Data Source Area Owners

140

Positive feedback by teachers

Evidence of success

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Varied pedagogical approaches

Key Areas

Strategies ( with time-frame )

2. Organise enrichment activities to support teaching and learning of Chemistry: Sec 3 Guided tour to Marina

Reflection (PTR) to help students identify and focus to improve on their weakness (after common tests) Streamline 1 Employ teaching pedagogical strategies with emphasis approaches with on Inquiry Approach and clear learning include: outcomes. • Lecture-demonstration Wherever approach possible, • Predict, Observe, linkage is made Explain (POE) approach to other • Cooperative learning subjects. approach • Concept mapping / graphic organising approach • Mini-research / problem solving approach to carry out differentiated teaching

Targets

External Tour Organiser

Teaching packages developed by teachers

Resources

Department : Science Subject: Chemistry / Science(Chemistry) Strategic Thrust 2 : A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Pupil survey after each activity

Teacher reflection

Pupil Survey Results

Teachers

HOD

Review Data Source Area Owners

141

Meeting achievement target

Positive pupil feedback after each activity.

Positive teacher reflection

Evidence of success

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Alternative assessment modes

Key Areas

Devise and employ alternative modes of assessment in addition to

Top 3 positions or Merit awards

Achievement target: 55 % distinctions 15% credits

Targets (Term 3)

1. Carry out an assessment on practical skills using video for Sec 4 students: • Subject teachers capture students’ practical work during daily practical, edit

3. Identify top 1 % students to participate in science competitions: • Australian National Chemistry Quiz (International) • Rio Tinto Science competition (International) • Chemistry Quiz at NUS : Fact or Fantasy (National) • Chemistry Communication Challenge (National)

Sec 4 Chemistry workshop on topics related to organic chemistry by Singapore Polytechnic (Term 1)

Barrage

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Video clips of students practical work Students’ template for good skills and

Organiser of Competition

Singapore Polytechnic

Resources

Department : Science Subject: Chemistry / Science(Chemistry) Strategic Thrust 2 : A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Feedback Report by teachers

Results of the competition

Subject coordinator

Teacher in charge

Review Data Source Area Owners

142

Responses from students’ scripts Positive feedback by teachers / students

Meeting top 3 positions or Merit awards

Meeting target % distinctions and credits

Evidence of success

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Integration of IT

Key Areas

Integrate 30 % IT in Chemistry lessons

formative tests and common tests.

Targets

3. Train students to conduct experiments using data loggers:

2. Train practical skills for SPA using IT: • Sec 3 and 4 subject teachers collaborate to work on videos of practical skills • Students use these videos to critique their own practical skills

1. Conduct lessons using IT eg resources from the Internet, Powerpoint slides, CD ROMs, digital media resources prepared by ETD and the interactive whiteboard.

and use video clip as assessment for students to identify good skills and areas for improvement (titration skills) (Term 2)

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Pascal dataloggers/ Training

The Internet, purchased CD ROMs, resources by ETD Contribution by teachers, online resources for whiteboard lessons

areas for improvement

Resources

Department : Science Subject: Chemistry / Science(Chemistry) Strategic Thrust 2 : A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Pupil Survey Results/ Feedback Report by teachers

Survey of IT usage by Science Dept / Pupil Survey Results/ Feedback Report by teachers

Subject Coordinator

HOD / Subject Coordinator

Subject Head of IT (Term 4)

Review Data Source Area Owners

143

Achieving the target of 30 % usage of IT in lessons

Evidence of success

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Relate the learning of Chemistry with • Geography • Social Studies • National Education

Integration of subjects

Differentiated Cater to the learning needs teaching & of students of learning different abilities

Targets

Key Areas

1. Band students according to ability for effective revision during Intensive Revision before Mid Year exam (Apr/May) and Block periods after Prelim Exam (Sept)

Teachers

External Tour Organiser

Internet

1. Align the topic on Environment Chemistry to be taught at the same time as geography. 2. Organise visits to Marina Barrage as part of National Education

Resources contributed by teachers

manuals

Resources

4. Expand the use of Edulearn as the school e-portal: • Design e-learning lessons (quizzes, crossword puzzles) to be made accessible through the e-portal ( Term 1 and 2)

Sec 3 topic on neutralisation Sec 4 topics on rate of reaction ( Terms I and 2 )

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Department : Science Subject: Chemistry / Science(Chemistry) Strategic Thrust 2 : A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Feedback Report by teachers

Pupil survey

Feedback Report by teachers

Pupil Survey / Feedback Report by teachers

Subject coordinator / HOD

HOD / Subject Coordinator

HOD / Subject Coordinator

HOD / Subject Coordinator

Review Data Source Area Owners

144

Positive feedback from teachers

Positive feedback from pupils

Positive feedback from teachers

Evidence of success

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Targets

Equip teachers with relevant

Staff Training Engage to build teachers in capacity professional sharing / buzzing

Key Areas

1. Organise buzzing sessions among teachers to share / work on • smooth implementation of SPA • effective teaching strategies / approaches • learning after attending

Teachers Relevant books/ magazines/ Articles

Existing resources/ Relevant books & materials from courses attended

3. Reflect strategies, tasks and worksheets for differentiated teaching in SOWS. Curriculum differentiation to be categorized into 3 levels: (Nov 2008) Level 1 – product (differentiated worksheets) Level 2 – pedagogy (differentiated approach) Level 3 – content (extension of content for greater challenge) Notes of meeting / Feedback Report by teachers

SOWs

Feedback Report by teachers

Teachers

2. Channel students who are weaker in the subject to do Combined Science (Chem) at the end of Sec 3

Level coordinators

Level Coordinators/ Subject Coordinator

HOD

Review Data Source Area Owners

Resources

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Department : Science Subject: Chemistry / Science(Chemistry) Strategic Thrust 2 : A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

145

Positive feedback from teachers

Positive feedback from teachers

Evidence of success Positive feedback from teachers

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Key Areas

skills

Targets

2. Teachers to attend training on the inquiry approach to teaching and learning of Chemistry / other relevant training (Term 1)

relevant courses / workshops • readings from relevant books / articles from magazines or Internet • strategies to address misconceptions and reduce common mistakes made by students • preparing and building of teaching resources eg, SPA video clips

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Relevant workshops

Resources

Department : Science Subject: Chemistry / Science(Chemistry) Strategic Thrust 2 : A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Traisi record of teachers

Teachers/ HOD

Review Data Source Area Owners

146

Positive feedback from teachers

Evidence of success

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Incorporate aesthetics related activities in the teaching and learning of Science

Provide opportunities for students to appreciate

Appreciation of the aesthetics

Targets

Opportunities for aesthetics expression in the subjects

Key Areas

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Resources Data Source

Review Area Owners

Evidence of success

Department : Science Subject: Lower Sec Science Strategic Thrust 3: A Learning Environment Rich in Aesthetics (visual art, music, drama, dance, design, photography)

147

Tanjong Katong Girlsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; School Work Plan 2009

Key Areas

aesthetics related activities in the teaching and learning of Science

Targets

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Resources Data Source

Review Area Owners

Evidence of success

Department : Science Subject: Lower Sec Science Strategic Thrust 3: A Learning Environment Rich in Aesthetics (visual art, music, drama, dance, design, photography)

148

Tanjong Katong Girlsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; School Work Plan 2009

Physics

Targets

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Staff 1. HOD conducts • Work Review Engagemen twice a year • target setting with teachers t (Jan) (Increase • Mid-year work review (July) staff • Year-end work review involvement (Nov) in school improvemen • learning and t sharing of good 2. HOD gives timely feedback / ) practices encouragement to teachers to share good practices • eWSS (On going) contributions 3. Contribute suggestions at department meeting and on own accord Staff 1. Conduct buzzing sessions on • Fortnight Developme Tuesdays / Fridays to discuss buzzing nt & matters related to Physics sessions Training curriculum (Term 1-3) (Develop Competent 2. Conduct buzzing where Staff and experienced teachers guide Identificatio • Professional teachers teaching the subject n of sharing for the first time on the Strategic

Key Areas

Level coordinator

feedback report by teachers

Experienced teachers

HOD / SH

HOD

149

Positive teacher reflections

Positive teacher reflections

2 suggestions per teacher

Positive feedback from Teacher Climate survey

Review Area Evidence of Owners success Teachers/ Reporting officer and HOD teacher comments after mid-year and year-end review

Subject coordinator

eWSS records

Teacher Climate Survey

Teachers’ Work Review document

Data Source

Notes of Teachers discussion Relevant books/maga zines/articles

Teachers

HOD

EPMS file

Resources

Department : Science Subject: Physics / Science (Physics) Strategic Thrust 1 : A Nurturing and Caring Community of Learners

3.3

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Competenci es )

Key Areas

• Relevant training workshops / courses

• Lesson observation / Peer Coaching

Targets

7. Identify training needs of dept / individual teachers. Dept training on Inquiry Approach

6. Encourage teachers to build up their professional portfolios (on going)

5. Conduct peer coaching and self-reflection for the experienced teachers (Term 1-3)

4. Carry out lesson observations and feedback ( Term 1-3) (a) Observation HOD/SH (b) Peer Observation (c) Video observation

3. Conduct sharing by each teacher on effective teaching strategies / learning after attending courses and teachers to apply relevant learning in teaching. (Term 2)

approach to a new topic (Term 1-3)

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Various training agencies

Traisi Record/ Work Review

Work Review with teachers

Teachers

HOD / teachers

150

Positive feedback by teachers during work review

Positive feedback from teachers

Positive feedback from Teacher Climate survey HOD / teachers

Feedback report by HOD/ Teacher portfolio

HOD/ ST

Senior teachers

Positive teacher reflections

Subject coordinator

Evidence of success

Notes of discussion

Data Source

Review Area Owners

Teachers

Resources

Department : Science Subject: Physics / Science (Physics) Strategic Thrust 1 : A Nurturing and Caring Community of Learners

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Targets

Student Engagemen • Student t engaging (Review the approaches in level of lessons student engagemen • Identify t in lessons) students’ needs and better support their learning and development

Key Areas

4. 7 key areas to address: − Curriculum Differentiation (10% of lessons) − Cooperative Learning − Habits of Mind − Aesthetics (in line with ST 3) − ICT (30% of lessons) − Integration across subjects − NE integration

3. FMs and subject teachers work closely with Level Coordinators to proactively address concerns/ issues of the cohort

2. Provide opportunities for students to be actively engaged in learning by adopting the inquiry approach

and Authentic Assessment (2 days in Term 1)

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Level Coordinators

Level Coordinators

Teachers

Resources

Department : Science Subject: Physics / Science (Physics) Strategic Thrust 1 : A Nurturing and Caring Community of Learners

Lesson observation reports

Pupil survey Quality School Experience (QSE) survey Pupil survey

document

Data Source

Teachers

Level Coordinators

HOD/ teachers

Review Area Owners

151

Meeting KPIs for each areas

Positive feedback from pupil survey

MRI above national average

Evidence of success

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

152

Tanjong Katong Girlsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; School Work Plan 2009

Targets

Sc Phy % dist 87.5% % pass 100 % MSG: 1.9

‘O’ level Exam % dist 71.9% % pass 100 % MSG: 2.2

Strategies (with time frame)

‘O’ level Exam % dist % pass

Mark assignments accurately so that effective feedback is given

Design worksheets to include higher order thinking questions to test the concepts of students.

2. Prepare students for the GCE ‘O’ Level Examinations: • Train pupils to answer ‘O’ level questions especially the application questions. Questions starting with the simple to the application kind of questions after each sub-topic. Give short essay questions of different questioning style for practice. Immediate feedback would be given too.

1. Target setting: • Conduct target setting with Sec 4 classes (Jan) • Review targets after Mid-year and Prelim Exam (July, Sept)

Prelim Exam % dist % pass 40 % 95 % MSG: 2.8

Sec 4: Pure Physics Mid-year Exam % dist %pass 40 % 90 % MSG: 3.0

Final-year Exam % dist % pass 25 % 80 %

Physics Exam Monitoring Targets: academic performance (Monitor and Sec 3: Pure Physics Review Effectiveness Mid-year Exam % dist % pass ) 20 % 80 %

Key Areas Exam Analysis Results

Data Source

153

Positive value added for the subject

Review Area Evidence of Owners Success Meeting / surpassing Subject Coordinator / the exam targets Teachers

GCE ‘O’ Exam results Subject coordinator Level syllabus, Ten Year Series and printed worksheets , Examiners’ report, Exercises from textbooks

Teachers

Resource s

Department : Science Subject: Physics Strategic Thrust 2: A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Key Areas

‘O’ Level Exam MSG: 1.9

Prelim Exam MSG: 3.5

Sec 4: Science Physics Mid-year Exam MSG: 4.5

40 % 95 % MSG: 2.2

Targets

Topics in physics (i) Highlight important keywords and key concepts to students. (ii) Students to be briefed on the acceptable presentation skills in units, significant figures and graphing skills (on-going) (iii) All pupils will use the syllabus printed in the beginning of the year. Before the start of a new topic,

Train students in definition of terms and formulas. After which a compilation of the students’ work will be shared (on going)

Go through common mistakes from markers’ report by Cambridge examiners

Conduct peer marking session and share good answers from students (on-going)

to the pupils.

Strategies (with time frame)

Resource s

Department : Science Subject: Physics Strategic Thrust 2: A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Data Source

Review Area Evidence of Owners Success

154

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Key Areas

Monitor student performance by o level o class Carry out followup action for under-performing classes and students

Targets

(ii)

To have at least 1 assignment on 2 tier MCQ approach to identify students’ misconceptions and correct their alternative conceptions accordingly

Exercises/Assignments (i) Questions to be classified according to the concepts taught in each topic. Students will be taught to solve these questions with appropriate problem solving skills (on-going)

Sec 3 Starts after the results of first CA

2. Identify and monitor the performance of weaker pupils and conduct structured remedial lessons fortnightly

students are asked to read the SIOs found in the syllabus (on-going)

Strategies (with time frame)

Subject analysis / List of under performers

Resource s

Department : Science Subject: Physics Strategic Thrust 2: A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Attendance list of remedial lessons & results of CAs & examination s

Data Source

Subject Coordinators & Teachers

155

Improvement in performance of pupils identified for remedial

Review Area Evidence of Owners Success

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Key Areas

Implement ‘O’ level SPA

Targets

Carry out follow-up action for under-performing classes and students. (Jan.- Oct)

Monitor attendance and progress of remedial pupils. (Jan.- Oct)

Train weaker pupils to answer class assignments that they do not understand. (Jan Oct)

Identify the difficult topics faced by students and address the problems during remedial classes

A common pool of topical exercises will be used /compiled for students to use during remedial lessons/ for their self-study (Jan – Oct)

Sec 4 –starts in Term 1 Week 2 based on 2008 final term Physics results

Strategies (with time frame)

SPA

PTR forms

Resource s

Department : Science Subject: Physics Strategic Thrust 2: A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Feedback report by

Notes of meeting with teachers

Data Source

Teachers/ Subject

Subject coordinator

156

Through pupils’ and science teachers’

Positive feedback by teachers

Review Area Evidence of Owners Success

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Varied

Key Areas

Streamline

Targets Conduct Post Test Reflection (PTR) to help students identify and focus to improve on their weakness (after common tests)

resource file/package

Resource s

Carry out ‘O’ level assessment: Sec 3 - Skill 1 & 2 expt at the end of Term 3 Sec 3 ( Nov 2009) Sec 4 - Skill 1 & 2 expt in Sec4 (March 2009) - Skill 3 expt in Sec 4 (July 2009)

• Set up a common pool of resources for teaching of SPA skills 1. Employ teaching strategies with

3. Implement ‘O’ level SPA for Sec 3 & 4 students. • Introduce the 3 skills of SPA and the generic mark scheme at SPA Sec 3 (Term 1) assessment • Train students on practical skills by conducting practical work for file by MOE relevant topics

Strategies (with time frame)

Department : Science Subject: Physics Strategic Thrust 2: A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP) Review Area Evidence of Data Source Owners Success teachers Coordinator/ survey HOD

157

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

pedagogical approaches (Varied and Integrated pedagogical approaches)

Key Areas

pedagogical approaches with clear learning outcomes. Wherever possible, linkage is made to other subjects.

Targets

Use suitable Physics apparatus and models to explain concepts

emphasis on Inquiry Approach and include: − Co-operative learning approach − Curriculum Differentiation − Habits of Mind − Aesthetics (in line with ST 3) − ICT − Integration across subjects − NE integration − Teacher-demonstrations − Pupil-centred activities − use of analogies in everyday life − Lecture-demonstration approach − Predict-Observe-Explain (POE) approach − Mini-research / problem solving approach to carry out differentiated teaching − Concept mapping/graphic organizing approach − Case study from newspaper/magazines/the Internet (on-going)

Strategies (with time frame)

Teaching packages developed by teachers

Science journals/ Internet/ CD ROMs/ Physics demonstrat ion set, Newspaper s

Resource s

Department : Science Subject: Physics Strategic Thrust 2: A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Pupil Survey results

Feedback Report by teachers

Data Source Teachers/ HOD

158

Positive feedback from teachers and students

Review Area Evidence of Owners Success

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Devise and employ alternative modes of assessment in addition to formative and common tests.

Incorporate 30%

Integration of

Targets

Alternative assessment mode (Varied and Integrated pedagogical approaches )

Key Areas

Relate Physics concepts to some natural phenomena e.g. lightning and applications in home and industry e.g. Use of endoscope in hospital and also ultra-sound in industry, photocopying machine. (Jan Sept) Other learning institutions

Resource s

Pupil survey after each activity

Data Source

1. Conduct lessons using ICT eg

The

Survey of IT

Train pupils to summarise main points of a topic by using graphic organizers/ mind maps/ flow charts (Jan – Oct) ‘O’ Level SPA assessment to begin in SPA Marks of term 4 for sec 3s and completed by assessmen assessments term 3 for Sec 4s t package

and to stimulate thinking (e.g. Van De Graff Generator for Static Electricity. Brownian motion apparatus for molecular theory)

Strategies (with time frame)

Department : Science Subject: Physics Strategic Thrust 2: A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

SH of IT

Teachers

Teachers / Subject Coordinator/ HOD

159

Meeting target of 30

100% of pupils scores at least level 1 for SPA ‘O’ Level

Positive feedback from teachers and students

Review Area Evidence of Owners Success

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

IT (Optimise use of teaching and learning resources )

Key Areas

ICT in Physics lessons.

Targets

3. Expand the use of Edulearn eportal: • Re-package the current ICT resources for Sec 3 & 4 and upload over the e-portal (Term 4) • Design e-learning lessons (quizzes, crossword puzzles) to be made accessible through

2. Train students to conduct experiments using data loggers: • Sec 3 topic on heat • Sec 4 topic on sound

resources from the Internet, Powerpoint slides, CD ROMs, digital media resources prepared by ETD

Strategies (with time frame)

Resources contributed by teachers

Multilog training manuals

Internet/ CD ROMs, Multilog training manuals

Resource s

Department : Science Subject: Physics Strategic Thrust 2: A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Feedback Report by teachers Pupil Survey result

Subject Coordinator

160

Positive feedback by teachers and students

Review Area Evidence of Data Source Owners Success % usage in lessons usage by Meeting ICT baseline HOD Science (end of Term standards Dept/ Pupil Survey IV) results/ Feedback report by teachers Subject Pupil Survey Coordinator results/ feedback report by teachers

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Relate the learning of Physics with Chemistry, Social Studies, National Education and Mathematics

Partner with relevant learning institution for the learning of Physics

Partnerships (Partnership with external organization s)

Targets

Integration of subjects (Varied and Integrated pedagogical approaches )

Key Areas

Encourage interested pupils to take part in the enrichment programme or competitions organised by tertiary institutions.

Participate in relevant activities organized by institutions of higher learning eg NUS, NTU or the Polytechnics

Incorporate NE in the following topics: calculation of cost of electricity

• Introduce URLs on interesting topics related to Physics • Draw the common skills and links in the following topics with Chemistry and Math: Kinematics, Kinetic Theory of Matter, Static Electricity– composition of a nucleus, Straight Line Equations, Straight Line Graphs

the e-portal

Strategies (with time frame)

Positive feedback from teachers and students HOD (end of Term IV) Feedback report by teachers Institutions of higher learning

161

Meeting achievement target

Positive feedback from teachers

Teacher in charge

Teachers

Results of competition /pupil survey after each activity

Feedback report by teachers

Data Source

Review Area Evidence of Owners Success

Organizer of competitio n

Textbook

Resource s

Department : Science Subject: Physics Strategic Thrust 2: A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Differentiated teaching & learning (Provide differentiated teaching and learning )

Key Areas

Adopt different approaches to help students of different abilities to learn physics

Targets

Teachers

Teachers

2. Band students according ability (Sec 4/8 & 4/9) for effective revision during block periods after Prelim Exam (Sept) 3. Channel students who are weaker in the subject to do Combine Science (Phy) at the end of Sec 3 4. Identify top 1 % students to participate in Science competitions E.g. Physics Olympiad competition & PET rocket competitions.

Teachers

Teachers

Resource s

1. Adopt different approaches for classes of different abilities: • To include simple, comprehension type of questions for practice and drilling for: classes that are academically weak. • For classes that are academically better/strong, exercises will include at least 1 challenging question on analysis and application of concepts type

Strategies (with time frame)

Department : Science Subject: Physics Strategic Thrust 2: A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

CA/ exam results

Sec 3 end of year exam results

Prelim results

Subject coordinator

Subject coordinator

Subject coordinator

162

Meeting target to achieve top 3 positions / merit awards

Improvement in results

Improvement in results

Review Area Evidence of Data Source Owners Success Positive feedback Subject Feedback Coordinator / from teachers and report by students teachers and HOD students

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Staff training to build capacity (Develop Competent Staff and Identification of Strategic Competencie s)

Key Areas

Equip teachers with relevant skills

Engage teachers in professional sharing / buzzing

Targets

2. Organise buzzing sessions among teachers to share / work on • smooth implementation of SPA • effective teaching strategies / approaches • learning after attending relevant courses / workshops • readings from relevant books / articles from magazines or Internet • strategies to address misconceptions and reduce common mistakes made by students

1. Teachers to attend relevant training on: • Physics by inquiry and misconceptions in physics courses

Strategies (with time frame)

Teachers Relevant books/ magazines / Articles

NIE / MOE training branch

Resource s

Department : Science Subject: Physics Strategic Thrust 2: A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Notes of meeting / Feedback Report by teachers

Subject coordinators

163

Positive feedback from teachers

Review Area Evidence of Data Source Owners Success Teachers TRAISI Positive feedback records of from teachers teachers

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Lower Secondary Science

Staff Development & Training (Develop Competent Staff and Identification of Strategic Competencies )

Staff Engagement (Staff involvement in school improvement )

Key Areas 5. HOD conducts • target setting with teachers (Jan) • Mid-year work review (July) • Year-end work review (Nov)

Strategies ( with time-frame )

• Scheduled buzzing sessions

• eWSS contributions

1. Conduct formal and informal buzzing on Tuesdays/Fridays to discuss matters related to LSS curriculum e.g. SPA assessment, marking of CA, emphasis of important points for teaching of new concepts and e-learning approach. (Term 1-3)

7. Contribute suggestions at department meeting / buzzing sessions and on own accord at eWSS (On-going)

• learning and 6. HOD gives timely feedback / sharing of good encouragement to teachers to practices share good practices (On- going)

• Work Review twice a year

Targets

Department : Science Subject: Lower Secondary Science Strategic Thrust 1: A Nurturing and Caring Community of Learners

3.4

Positive feedback from teacher reflection

Subject coordinator Notes of discussion Teachers, relevant reference materials

2 suggestions per teacher

Teachers

eWSS records

Positive feedback from Teacher Climate survey

Teachers

HOD

Teacher Climate Survey

HOD

Evidence of success Positive feedback from teacher

Teachers’ Work Review document

Data Source

Review Area Owners Teachers/ HOD

EPMS file

Resources

164

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Key Areas

• Relevant training

• Lesson observation / Peer coaching

• Professional sharing

Targets Experienced teachers

Teachers

HOD

Experienced teachers

Senior teachers

3. Conduct sharing by each teacher on effective teaching strategies / learning after attending courses /sharing of teaching packages developed by teachers (Semester 1 & 2) 4. Carry out lesson observations and feedback - Observation by HOD (Term 1-3) 5. Experienced teachers coach untrained teachers / peer coach relief teachers (Term 1-3)

6. Encourage teachers to build up their professional portfolios (On-going)

Resources

2. Conduct buzzing where experienced teachers guide teachers teaching the subject for the first time on the approach to a new topic (Term 1-3)

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Department : Science Subject: Lower Secondary Science Strategic Thrust 1: A Nurturing and Caring Community of Learners

Work Review

Work Review with teachers

Feedback report by HOD

Notes of discussion / teacher questionnaire

Teacher questionnaire

Data Source

RO / Teachers

Experienced teachers / teachers

HOD / teachers

Subject coordinator

Review Area Owners Level coordinator

Positive feedback from teachers

Positive feedback from teacher reflections

Positive feedback from Teacher Climate survey

Positive feedback from teacher reflection

Evidence of success Positive feedback from teacher reflection

165

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Student Engagement (Review the level of student engagement in lessons)

Key Areas

Pupil Survey

Lesson Observation Reports / SEM reports

Level Coordinators

Level Coordinators

2. FMs and subject teachers work closely with Level Coordinators to proactively address concerns/ issues of the cohort. (Term 1-4) 3. Include 7 key areas in the LSS SOWs:

• Identify students’ needs and better support their learning and development

• Curriculum Differentiation (10% of lessons)

Pupil survey

Teachers

Various training agencies

8. To attend training in accordance to the needs of teachers and teachers to apply relevant courses in teaching (Term 1-4) 1. Provide opportunities for students to be actively engaged in learning by adopting the inquiry approach (Term 1-4)

TRAISI Record / Work Review

Various training agencies

TRAISI Record / Work Review

Data Source

7. Identify training needs of dept / individual teachers. Dept training on Inquiry Approach and Authentic Assessment (2 days in Term 1)

Resources

• Student engaging approaches in lessons

workshops / courses

Targets

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Department : Science Subject: Lower Secondary Science Strategic Thrust 1: A Nurturing and Caring Community of Learners

Positive feedback by teachers during work review Positive feedback from pupil survey

Meeting KPIs for each areas

Meeting KPIs for each areas

HOD/ teachers

Teachers

Teachers

Positive feedback by teachers during work review

Evidence of success

Teachers

HOD / Teachers

Review Area Owners

166

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Targets • Cooperative Learning • Habits of Mind • Aesthetics (in line with ST 3) • ICT (30% of lessons) • Integration across subjects • NE integration (On-going)

Resources

Monitoring academic performance

Key Areas

Set examination targets for final term examination

Targets

1. Target setting: • Set different targets for differentiated teaching.

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Teachers/ PSLE science grades / Past

Resources

Department : Science Subject: Lower Secondary Science Strategic Thrust 2: A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Key Areas

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Department : Science Subject: Lower Secondary Science Strategic Thrust 1: A Nurturing and Caring Community of Learners

Examination Analysis Results

Data Source

Data Source

Review Area Owners Subject coordinator/ Teachers

Review Area Owners

Evidence of success Meeting the targets set

Evidence of success

167

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

(Monitor and Review Effectiveness )

Key Areas

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Sec 1: • Review targets after Final-year Exam termly CA (end of each % dist % pass term) 40% 100% (1/1) 30% 95% (other 2. Prepare students for classes) tests/examinations to attain Target: 92% the set targets: scores at least 60 • Bring out common marks misconceptions and correcting them in the Sec 2: course of teaching a topic. Final-year Exam (on-going) % dist % pass • Train students on 45% 100% (2/1) answering skills especially 40% 95% (other those involving higher classes) order thinking skills. (onTarget: 92% going) scores at least 60 • Select questions to include marks higher order thinking questions to test the application of concepts. (on-going) • Design additional challenging worksheets/ questions to include higher order thinking skills/use different pedagogical approach to stretch the

Targets

(Termly printouts)

Feedback Report from teachers / Pupil Survey / Exam results

Students’ workbook, printed worksheets from Teacher’s Resource File, Past Years’ Exam papers

Data Source cohorts’ performance

Resources

Department : Science Subject: Lower Secondary Science Strategic Thrust 2: A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Subject coordinator/ Level coordinator / SH / teachers

Review Area Owners

Positive feedback from pupils and teachers

Evidence of success

168

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Key Areas

Targets

higher ability students of 1/1 & 2/1 (A-star science classes). Highlight important words and key concepts to give students a better focus when discussing challenging questions. (ongoing) Mark assignments accurately so that effective feedback is given to the students. (on-going) Conduct sessions for sharing of good answers from students. (on-going) Conduct sessions to get peers to evaluate students’ answers as a form of peer teaching (on-going) Carry out drill and practice for reinforcement of definitions, formulae and concepts. (on-going) Share with the class about the class performance after each term (using the Subject Analysis Results)

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Resources

Department : Science Subject: Lower Secondary Science Strategic Thrust 2: A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Data Source

Review Area Owners

Evidence of success

169

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Key Areas

Monitor student performance by: - level - class

Targets

3. Identify weak pupils for remedial class (Term 1-3): Sec 1 – based on CA 1 marks (starts late Term 1) Sec 2 – based on 2008 SA 2 (starts Term 1 week 2) • Conduct remedial lessons for the weaker students on a weekly basis • Monitor the attendance of remedial students and to take follow-up action for those absent. • Identify the difficult concepts/topics faced by students and address the problems during remedial classes. • Encourage weaker students to clarify doubts for topics that they do not understand. • Monitor the progress of the remedial students for tests and daily work.

and to help class set targets for next term. (Termly)

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Subject Analysis Printouts

Resources

Department : Science Subject: Lower Secondary Science Strategic Thrust 2: A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Attendance list for remedials/ Results of CAs & examinations

Data Source

Subject Coordinator / Teachers

Review Area Owners

At least 1 grade improvement in performance of students identified

Evidence of success

170

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Varied pedagogical approaches (Varied and Integrated pedagogical approaches )

Key Areas

5. Identify weaker classes and to alert next subject teacher to take note for Semester 2 changeover of teachers

Teaching packages designed by teachers, handouts from courses/ workshops, ‘A Guide to Teaching and Learning of Lower Secondary

Subject Analysis printouts / Teachers

Feedback Report by teachers / Pupil Survey results

Feedback reports from teachers

Notes of meeting with teachers

4. Conduct Post Test Reflection to help students identify their weakness and focus to improve on the next assessment. (after each common test) Post Test Reflection Forms

Data Source

Resources

Strategies ( with time-frame )

1. Use a variety of teaching Streamline methodologies that pedagogical include : approaches with clear learning • Curriculum Differentiation outcomes. o A-star science classes Wherever • Cooperative Learning possible, linkage is o Write-pair-share made to other o Rally Robin subjects. o Round Robin • Habits of Mind • Aesthetics • ICT

Targets

Department : Science Subject: Lower Secondary Science Strategic Thrust 2: A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Teachers / SH / HOD

Level coordinator / Teachers

Teachers

Review Area Owners

Positive feedback from teachers and students

Teachers’ reflections

Positive feedback from teachers

Evidence of success

171

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Key Areas

Targets

External vendors /

Science’ (from MOE), Practical workbooks & worksheets

• Integration across subjects • NE integration • Inquiry approach o Sec 1: Factors affecting the period of a pendulum (Term 1) o Sec 2: Mystery Spongee (Term 1) • concept mapping & graphic organizing approach • lecture-demonstration approach • Show & Tell • Use of analogies in daily life • POE – Predict, Observe & explain strategy • Fun activities: o Sec 1: A series of inquiry-based activities (Term 1) o Sec 2: An Eggcellent Demonstration on Osmosis’ (Term 3) 2. Conduct enrichment activities to support the teaching and learning of

Resources

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Department : Science Subject: Lower Secondary Science Strategic Thrust 2: A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Pupil survey

Data Source

Teachers-incharge /

Review Area Owners

Positive feedback

Evidence of success

172

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Key Areas

Targets

• Singapore Amazing Flying Machine (Term 1-2)

Various competition organizers

learning organizations / Science Centre / Teachers

Science. • Infusion of life science lessons into curriculum: o Sec 1: Extraction of DNA from Broccoli (Term 1) o Sec 2: Culturing Decomposers on Agar Plate (Term 3) • Scienzation Day for all sec 1 students (16th Mar) • Workshops organized by Singapore Science Centre and / or East Zone Life Science Centres 3. Identify top students / students inclined in science to participate in science competitions: • Rio Tinto Big Science Competition (Term 3)

Resources

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Department : Science Subject: Lower Secondary Science Strategic Thrust 2: A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Results of competition / students’ certificates

Data Source

Teachers’ incharge

Review Area Owners Subject coordinator / Level coordinator

Any award in

Meeting target % distinctions and credits

Evidence of success from teachers and students

173

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

2. Use the AsknLearn as a platform for teaching and

1. Conduct IT lessons through the use of Internet, PowerPoint, CD ROMs, video clips, applets, CPS & Interactive White Board (Term 1-3)

Alternative assessment modes (Varied and Integrated pedagogical approaches )

Integration of IT Integrate 30 % IT (Optimise use of in LSS lessons teaching and learning resources )

• Tan Kah Kee Young Inventors’ Award Competition

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Teach and assess practical skills in alignment with the ‘O’ level SPA. Carry out SPA assessment for: • Sec 1 - Skill 1.1-1.3 (Term 3) • Sec 2 - Skill 1.2, 1.3 & 2.2 (Term 2)

Targets

Design and carry out at least 1 alternative modes of assessment in addition to formative and common tests.

Key Areas

The Internet, purchased CD ROMs, IT lessons developed by teachers, AsknLearn, ETD, Internet, Practical

SPA training materials, Assessment Guidelines

Resources

Department : Science Subject: Lower Secondary Science Strategic Thrust 2: A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

At least one alternative mode of assessment carried out for each level

Achieving the target of 30 % usage of IT in lessons

SH of IT/ HOD Survey results of IT usage by Science dept

Any award / recognition in various categories

Evidence of success various categories

Subject Coordinator / SH

Review Area Owners

Marks showing level of performance of students

Data Source

174

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Integration of subjects (Varied and

Key Areas

Relate the learning of Science with: • Home

Targets

Pascal dataloggers/ Training manuals

3. Conduct experiments using data-loggers. • identify appropriate sensors and conduct experiments using data loggers • Sec 1: Force & Temperature sensors (‘Forces’ & ‘Heat Transmission’) (Term 3) Sec 2: pH, light & temperature sensors (‘Ecology’) (Term 3) Textbooks

workbooks

learning • design e-learning lessons to be uploaded (Sec 1: ‘Classification of Materials’ (Term 2) & ‘Particulate Model of Matter’ (Term 4) ) • build up shared resources on the portal

1. Relate science concepts learnt with examples of how concepts are applied

Resources

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Department : Science Subject: Lower Secondary Science Strategic Thrust 2: A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Feedback from teachers

Pupil Survey Results/ Feedback Report by teachers

Data Source

Teachers

Subject coordinator / Teachers

Review Area Owners

Positive feedback from teachers

Students’ work

Evidence of success

175

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Integrated pedagogical approaches )

Key Areas

• •

Strategies ( with time-frame ) in other subjects: Sec 1: • Formation and expansion of gases in baking (Term 3) • Infuse NE message no. 4 in the teaching of water scarcity and desalination of sea water (Term 2) • Conversion of units, formulae for area and volume of regular shapes and concept of straight line graphs (Term 3) Sec 2: • Importance of different types of nutrients in a balanced diet and digestion of food (Term 3) • Infuse NE message no. 4 in the teaching of water scarcity and reverse osmosis. (Term 3) • Sexuality education in ‘Birth Control and STIs’ (Term 3) • Draw the common skills

Targets

Economics National Education LEGACY Mathematics

Resources

Department : Science Subject: Lower Secondary Science Strategic Thrust 2: A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Data Source

Review Area Owners

Evidence of success

176

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

1. Allocate Sec 1 pupils who are strong in Science to the same class (1/1) during Sec 1 class allocation of classes (Jan) 2. Create protected periods within the time table for teachers to develop resources for curriculum differentiation (Jan)

Collaborate with external organizations

Group higher ability students in Science

Develop a differentiated curriculum for higher ability students

Partnerships (Partnership with external organizations )

Differentiated teaching & learning (Provide differentiated teaching and learning )

1. Participate in relevant activities organized by institution of learning such as Singapore Science Centre, East Zone Life Science Centre or the Polytechnics

learnt in processing of results obtained (eg. finding average, drawing and interpreting graphs, accuracy of answers with units expected (Term 13)

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Targets

Key Areas

Registration forms

Data Source

HOD

Time-table of teachers involved

PSLE Science Feedback from teachers grades, and students/ HOD Exam results of 1/1 and 2/1

Learning institutions

Resources

Department : Science Subject: Lower Secondary Science Strategic Thrust 2: A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

HOD

Subject coordinator/ HOD

Teachers/ Subject Coordinator

Review Area Owners

Positive feedback from teachers

Exam targets set for 1/1 and 2/1 achieved

Positive feedback from teachers

Evidence of success

177

Tanjong Katong Girlsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; School Work Plan 2009

Targets

Staff Training to Engage teachers in build capacity professional

Key Areas

Teachers

Assigned teachers

4. Teachers to adopt a more challenging approach for higher ability students (On-going) 5. Plan and conduct additional enrichment programme (Science Quest Programme) for 1/1 and 2/1 to develop their potential (Term 1-3) • Class 1/1 – ‘Learning thru Play’ (Inquiry Lessons based on toy automobiles) • Class 2/1 – Competitions-based research related to life sciences Relevant teachers /

Internet, science reference materials

3. Incorporate challenging and higher order thinking activities and questions into the scheme of work (Term 1-3)

1. Organise buzzing sessions among teachers to share /

Resources

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Department : Science Subject: Lower Secondary Science Strategic Thrust 2: A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Notes of meetings /

Science Quest Programme SOWs / letters to parents

Feedback from teachers and students

SOWs, worksheets

Data Source

Subject coordinator

Assigned teachers

Teachers

Review Area Owners Teachers / Subject coordinator

Positive feedback

competitions)

Photographs of students ‘at work’, achievements at various stages of the progammes (e.g. awards won or recognition given at

Positive feedback from teachers and students

Evidence of success Worksheets in Teacher’s Resource File

178

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

sharing / buzzing

(Develop Competent Staff and Identification of Strategic Competencies )

Strategies ( with time-frame )

work on (Term 1-3) • smooth implementation of Equip teachers SPA assessments with relevant skills • effective teaching strategies / approaches • learning after attending relevant courses / workshops • readings from relevant books / articles from magazines or Internet • strategies to address misconceptions and reduce common mistakes made by students • use of dataloggers, CPS or interactive whiteboard for new teachers • conducting life science experiments for new teachers • standardizing marking schemes for assessments 2. Teachers identify their training needs & attend relevant courses (Ongoing)

Targets

Key Areas

feedback by teachers

Records of teacher training (TRAISI)

Training courses by SEAB, MOE, NIE or

Data Source books / magazines / articles

Resources

Department : Science Subject: Lower Secondary Science Strategic Thrust 2: A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

Teachers

Review Area Owners

Positive feedback from teachers

Evidence of success from teachers

179

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Targets

Strategies ( with time-frame ) external vendors

Resources Data Source

Review Area Owners

Evidence of success

Opportunities for aesthetics

Key Areas

Incorporate aesthetics

Targets

Sec 2: 1. Students role-play the

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Worksheets, Students

Resources Data Source Studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; answers in

Review Area Owners Teachers

Evidence of success Positive feedback from

Department : Science Subject: Lower Secondary Science Strategic Thrust 3: A Learning Environment Rich in Aesthetics (visual art, music, drama, dance, design, photography)

Key Areas

Department : Science Subject: Lower Secondary Science Strategic Thrust 2: A Robust, Vibrant Progressive Curriculum (IP and non-IP)

180

Tanjong Katong Girlsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; School Work Plan 2009

Provide Sec 2: opportunities 1. Students to put their understanding of the basic for students to atomic structure into a 3-D appreciate model. Imagination and aesthetics creativity required (Term 1) related activities in the teaching and learning of Science

Appreciation of the aesthetics (Nurture & showcase talents in aesthetics )

behaviour of particles in 3 different states of matter (Term 1)

related activities in the teaching and learning of Science

expression in the subjects (Aesthetics integration into curriculum )

Strategies ( with time-frame )

Targets

Key Areas

Practical worksheets, Students

Resources

Studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; handiwork

Data Source their worksheets

Teachers

Review Area Owners

Positive comments from student response

Evidence of success teachers

Department : Science Subject: Lower Secondary Science Strategic Thrust 3: A Learning Environment Rich in Aesthetics (visual art, music, drama, dance, design, photography)

181

Tanjong Katong Girlsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; School Work Plan 2009

Biology 5094 Chemistry 5072

4.1 4.2

TOPIC

Redox

Redox

1

1-2

(e) define redox in terms of changes in oxidation state (f) identify redox reactions in terms of changes in oxidation state (g) describe the use of aqueous potassium iodide, acidified potassium dichromate(VI) in testing for oxidising and reducing agents from the resulting colour changes

(a) define oxidation and reduction ( redox ) in terms of oxygen/hydrogen gain/loss (b) identify redox reactions in terms of hydrogen/oxygen gain/loss (c) define redox in terms of electron transfer (d) identify redox reactions in terms of electron,gain/loss

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

Curriculum Differentiation (key topics, projects, no. of lessons) Cooperative Learning (state strategy) HOM (state the habit) Aesthetics (state the form eg rap, song ) ICT (state the ICT code) Integration (state the subject) NE(state the message)

WEE K

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Strategic Focus (2009) C2HAI2N

Scheme of Work

4

-Practice 1 Printed Worksheet Ex 10.3 , 10.4 -Practice 1 Workbook Worksheet 9 Pg 74 – 81 2 Textbook Ex 13 pg 225 -226

-Practice 1 Printed Worksheet Ex 10.1 2 Printed Worksheets Ex 10.2

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES

HOM (Persisting ) CL (Write – pairshare) Curriculum Diff (level 1) Differentiated worksheets

(Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS

2

1

No of pds

182

RESOURCES

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Identification of ions and gases

Identification of ions and gases

3

TOPIC

2-3

WEE K

(b) Describe tests to identify the following anions: carbonate (by reaction with dilute acid and subsequent use of limewater); chloride (by reaction of an aqueous solution with nitric acid and aqueous silver nitrate); iodide (by reaction of an aqueous solution with nitric acid and with aqueous lead(II) nitrate); nitrate (by reduction with aluminium and aqueous sodium hydroxide to ammonia and subsequent use of litmus paper) and sulphate (by reaction of an aqueous solution with nitric acid and aqueous barium nitrate

Ammonia ( using damp red litmus paper ) , carbon dioxide ( using limewater ) , chlorine ( using damp litmus paper ) , hydrogen ( using burning splint ) , oxygen ( using glowing splint ) and sulphur dioxide ( using acidified potassium dichromate (VI) )

(a) Describe tests to identify the following gases:

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

Workbook Worksheet 8 Pg 68-73 QA [Pg 72 Q10 for triple science classes only] SPA TASK 2 Practical : QA Experiment 19 ( Pg 117 – 120 ): Confirmatory Tests For Anions

Assignment

SPA TASK 1 Practical : QA Experiment 17 ( Pg 107 – 112 ) : Testing For Gases IT Lesson

Assignment

IT Lesson

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES (Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS No of pds

183

Chemistry Matters Practical Book

PowerPoint Slides Worksheet / Chemistry TYS

PowerPoint Slides Worksheet / Chemistry TYS Chemistry Matters Practical Book

RESOURCES

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Reactivity series

Properties of metals

Metals

Identification of ions and gases

4-5 CNY week

6

TOPIC

WEE K

lead, magnesium, potassium, silver, sodium and zinc by reference to: (i) the reactions, if any, of the metals with: water or steam; dilute hydrochloric acid (ii) the reduction, if any, of their oxides by carbon and/ or with hydrogen

(a) place in order of reactivity calcium, copper, (hydrogen), iron,

melting points, malleable, good conductors of heat and electricity in terms of their structure (b) describe alloys as a mixture of a metal with another element eg brass; stainless steel (c) identify representations of metals and alloys from diagrams of structures (d) explain why alloys have different physical properties to their constituent elements

(a) describe the general physical of metals as solids having high

(c ) To find out the action of heat on some common substances

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

SPA TASK 4 Practical: VA Experiment 8 (Pg 67 -70 ) Volumetric Analysis IV : Redox Titration

Assignment

Assignment SPA TASK 3 Practical: QA Experiment (Printed Worksheet) Action of heat on common substances IT Lesson

IT Lesson

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES (Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS No of pds

184

Chemistry Matters Practical Book

Chemistry TYS

Selected pictures and video clips from CD ROM The Chemistry Set and GCSE Chem 1

Worksheet / Chemistry TYS

PowerPoint Slides

RESOURCES

Tanjong Katong Girlsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; School Work Plan 2009

Metals Reactivity series

Metals Extraction of metal

Metals Iron

8

9

TOPIC

7

WEE K

relating the elements to their positions in the reactivity series (b) describe metal ores as a finite resource and hence the need to recycle metals discuss the social, economic and environmental advantages and disadvantages of recycling metals (a) describe and explain the essential reactions in the extraction of iron using haematite, limestone and coke in the blast furnace (b) describe steels as alloys which are a mixture of iron with carbon or other metals and how controlled use of these additives changes the properties of the iron, eg high carbon steels are strong but brittle whereas low carbon steels are softer and more easily shaped (c ) state the uses of mild steel (eg car bodies; machinery) and stainless steel (eg chemical plant; cutlery; surgical instruments)

Assignment SPA TASK 7 Practical: VA (Printed Worksheet): Redox Titration

IT Lesson

SPA TASK 6 Practical: VA (Printed Worksheet): Redox Titration

Assignment SPA TASK 5 Practical: QA (Printed Worksheet) Test for Redox Reagents

metal to form its positive ion, illustrated by its reaction with: (i) the aqueous ions of the other listed metals (ii) the oxides of the other listed metals (c) deduce the order of reactivity from a given set of experimental results listed metals and relate thermal stability to the reactivity series

(a) describe the ease of obtaining metals from their ores by

IT Lesson

(b) describe the reactivity series as related to the tendency of a

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES

ICT(M)

(Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS No of pds

185

SPA Resource Package

Chemistry TYS

Science Series II: Materials CDROM

LJ Rasanayagam, Practical Chemistry for ‘O’ Level Volume 2

Chemistry TYS

CD ROM GCSE Chem 3:

RESOURCES

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Metals Iron

TOPIC

1

reactions Speed of reaction

TERM II

10

WEE K

(a) *describe the effect of concentration, pressure, particle size and temperature on the speeds of reactions and explain these effects in terms of collisions between reacting particles (b) define the term catalyst and describe the effect of catalysts (including enzymes) on the speeds of reaction (c) Explain how pathways with lower activation energies account for the increase in speeds of reactions (d) state that some compounds act as catalysts in a range of industrial processes and that enzymes are biological catalyst

(d) describe the essential conditions for the corrosion (rusting) of iron as the presence of oxygen and water; prevention of rusting can be achieved by placing a barrier around the metal (eg painting; greasing; plastic coating; galvanising) (e) describe the sacrificial protection of iron by a more reactive metal in terms of the reactivity series where the more reactive metal corrodes preferentially (eg underwater pipes have a piece of magnesium attached to them)

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

Practical: SPA Assessment Skill 1&2 S/12/1

SPA TASK 8 Practical: QA (Printed Worksheet) To determine unknown cation and anion

[pg 92 Q10 for triple science classes only ]

Workbook Worksheet 10 Pg 82 – 93

Assignment

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES

( Practical )

Rusting :Sacrificial protection

CD(2) Approach:

(Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS No of pds

186

SPA Assessment Package

Exploring Chemistry CD ROM Chapter 4 ( or new Interactive Resource )

LJ Rasanayagam, Practical Chemistry for ‘O’ Level Volume 2

Chemistry TYS

RESOURCES

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Chemical reactions Speed of reaction

Chemical reactions Speed of reaction

3

TOPIC

2

WEE K

(g) suggest a suitable method for investigating the effect of a given variable on the speed of a reaction (h) *interpret data obtained from experiments concerned with speed of reaction

(e) suggest a suitable method for investigating the effect of a given variable on the speed of a reaction (f) *interpret data obtained from experiments concerned with speed of reaction

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

[pg 133 Q14-15 for triple science classes only ]

SPA TASK 10 Practical : (Printed Worksheet) Using Data-Loggers to investigate the effect of temperature on the speed of reaction Workbook Worksheet 14 Pg 122 – 134

SPA TASK 9 Practical : Rate of reaction (Printed Worksheet) To study the effect of temp on rate of reaction

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES (Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS No of pds

187

Practical Worksheet

LJ Rasanayagam, Practical Chemistry for ‘O’ Level Volume 2 Expt 12 : To study the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and dil HCl

RESOURCES

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

4

WEE K

Atmosphere and Environment Air

TOPIC

describe the volume composition of gases present in dry air as 79% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, with the remainder being noble gases (with argon as the main constituent) and carbon dioxide name some common atmospheric pollutants ( carbon monoxide, methane, nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2), ozone, sulphur dioxide , unburnt hydrocarbons ) (c ) state the source of each of these pollutants (i) carbon monoxide from the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing substances (ii) nitrogen oxides from lightning activity and internal combustion Engines (iii) sulphur dioxide from volcanoes and combustion of fossil fuels Describe the reactions used in possible solutions to the problems arising from some of the pollutants named in (b) (i) The redox reactions in catalytic converters to remove combustion pollutants (ii) The use of calcium carbonate to reduce the effect of ‘acid rain’ and in flue gas desulphurisation

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

SPA TASK 11 SPA Skill 3 Training Plan an experiment to study the effect of concentration on rate of reaction

Assignment

Online leasson Co-operative Learning

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES (Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS No of pds

188

SPA Resource Package

Chemistry TYS

http://www.gov.s g/feedback http://www.moe. edu.sg

RESOURCES

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

9-10

SPA Skill 3 Training: Planning and Feedback

Mid-Year Exam – Review

8

(e) discuss some of the effects of these pollutants on health and on the environment (i) the poisonous nature of carbon monoxide (ii) the role of nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide in the formation of ‘acid rain’ and its effects on respiration and buildings (f) discuss the importance of ozone layer and the problems involved with the depletion of ozone by reaction with chlorine containing compounds, chlorofluorocarbons ( CFCs) (g) describe the carbon cycle in simple terms. To include (i) the processes of combustion, respiration and photosynthesis (ii) how the carbon cycle regulates the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (h) state that carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gases and may contribute to global warming, give the source of these gases and discuss the possible consequences of an increases in global warming Revision for Mid-Year Exam

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

Mid-Year Exam

Atmosphere and Environment Air

TOPIC

6-7

5-6

4-5

WEE K

SPA TASK 12 SPA Skill 3: SPA Planning only

Workbook Worksheet 16 Pg 140 – 145 [pg144 Q7-9 for triple science classes only

Practical : SPA Skill 3 Training Rate of Reaction: To carry out the planned experiment

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES (Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS No of pds

189

LJ Rasanayagam, Practical Chemistry for ‘O’ Level Volume 2 Expt 14 : To study the effect of mass of catalyst on the rate of reaction

TKGS

http://qlink.quee nsu.ca/`41rm4

http://www.epa.g ov/docs/acidrain/ so2emis

http://www.epa.g ov/acidrain/stude nt

RESOURCES

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Rate of reaction

TOPIC

1

Electrolysis

TERM III

JUNE VAC ATIO N

WEE K

(a) *describe electrolysis as the conduction of electricity by ionic compound (an electrolyte), when molten or dissolved in water, leading to the decomposition of the electrolyte (b) *describe electrolysis as evidence for the existence of ions which are held in a lattice when solid but which are free to move when molten or in solution (c) describe, in terms of the mobility of ions present and the electrode products, the electrolysis of molten sodium chloride, using inert electrodes (d) predict the likely products of the electrolysis of a molten binary compound

SPA Assessment

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

IT lesson on electrolysis I

SPA Skill 3 Assessment: Printed Question Paper

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES (Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS No of pds

190

Electrochemistry

CD ROM:

SPA Assessment Package

RESOURCES

Tanjong Katong Girlsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; School Work Plan 2009

2

WEE K

Electrolysis

TOPIC

(e) Apply the idea of selective discharge based on cations: linked to the reactivity series anions: halides, hydroxide and sulphates (e.g. aqueous copper(II) sulphate and dilute sodium chloride solution (as essentially the electrolysis of water) concentration effects (as in the electrolysis of concentrated and dilute aqueous sodium chloride) (in all cases above, inert electrodes are used) (f) predict the likely products of the electrolysis of an aqueous electrolyte, given relevant information (g) construct ionic equations for the reactions occurring at the electrodes during the electrolysis given relevant information (h) *describe the electrolysis of purified aluminium oxide dissolved in molten cryolite as the method of extraction of aluminium (i) *describe the electrolysis of aqueous copper (II) sulphate with copper electrodes as a means of purifying copper ( no technical details are required) (j) *describe the electroplating of metals eg copper plating, and state one use of electroplating (k) describe the production of electrical energy from simple cells (ie two electrodes in an electrolyte) linked to the reactivity Series and redox reaction

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

(Practical)

Workbook Worksheet 11

** Triple Science classes to carry out expt on simple cell using different electrolytes and metals, measure the potential difference set up hence deduce the relative reactivity of the unknown metals

[ Pg 94 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 102 [pg 102 Q7 for triple science classes only ]

CD(2) Approach Simple Cell : To find out the relative reactivity of metals

(Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS

IT Lesson on electrolysis II

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES

No of pds

191

CD ROM: Exploring Chemistry

RESOURCES

Tanjong Katong Girlsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; School Work Plan 2009

3

WEE K

Introduction to Organic ChemistryFuels and Crude oil

TOPIC

(a) Name natural gas, mainly methane, and petroleum as sources of energy (b) Describe petroleum as a mixture of hydrocarbons and its separation into useful fractions by fractional distillation (c ) Name the following fractions and state their uses: o Petrol (gasoline) as a fuel in cars o Naphtha as feedstock for the chemical industry o Paraffin (kerosene) as a fuel for heating and cooking and for aircraft engines o Diesel as a fuel for diesel engines o Lubricating oils as lubricants and as a source of polishes and waxes o Bitumen for making road surfaces State the naphtha fraction from crude oil is the main source of hydrocarbons used as the feedstock for the production of a wide range of organic compounds Discuss the issues relating to the competing uses of oil as an energy source and as a chemical feedstock

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

Workbook Worksheet 17 Pg 146 – 152

Assignment

IT Lesson

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES (Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS No of pds

192

Chemistry TYS

Powerpoint slides: Introduction to Organic Chemistry

RESOURCES

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Organic Chemistry Alkanes

Organic Chemistry Alkenes

4-5

TOPIC

3-4

WEE K

(a) describe the alkenes as an homologous series of unsaturated hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n (b) *draw the structures of branched and unbranched alkenes, C2 to C4 and name the unbranched alkenes, ethene to butene (c) describe the manufacture of alkenes and hydrogen by cracking hydrcarbons and recognise that cracking is essential to match the demand for fractions containing smaller molecules from the refinery process (d) describe the difference between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons from their molecular structures and by using aqueous bromine (e) describe the properties of alkenes in terms of combustion, polymerisation and the addition reactions with bromine, steam and hydrogen (f) state the meaning of polyunsaturated as applied to food products (g) describe the manufacture of margarine by the addition of hydrogen to unsaturated vegetable oils to form a solid product

terms and substitution by Chlorine

(a) describe a homologous series as a group of compounds with a general formula, similar chemical properties and showing a gradation in physical properties as a result of increase in the size and mass of the molecules, eg melting and boiling points; viscosity; flammability (b) describe the alkanes as an homologous series of saturated hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2 (c) *draw the structures of branched and unbranched alkanes, C1 to C4 and name the unbranched alkanes, methane to butane (d) define isomerism and identify isomers (e) describe the properties of alkanes (exemplified by methane) as being generally unreactive in

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

Workbook Worksheet 19 Pg 159 – 166 [pg 165 Q10-11 for triple science classes only ]

Assignment

IT Lesson

Workbook Worksheet 18 Pg 153 – 158 [pg 158 Q12 for triple science classes only

Assignment

IT Lesson

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES (Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS No of pds

193

Chemistry TYS

CD ROM : Carbon Chemistry

Chemistry TYS

CD ROM : Carbon Chemistry

RESOURCES

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Organic Chemistry Alcohols

Organic Chemistry Carboxylic acids

7

TOPIC

6

WEE K

–OH group (b) *draw the structures of alcohols, C1 to C4 and name the unbranched alcohols, methanol to butanol (c) describe the properties of alcohols in terms of combustion and oxidation to carboxylic acids (d) describe the formation of ethanol by the catalysed addition of steam to ethene and by fermentation of glucose (e) state some uses of ethanol, eg as a solvent; as a fuel; as a constituent of alcoholic beverages (a) describe the carboxylic acids as an homologous series containing the –COOH group (b) *draw the structures of carboxylic acids, methanoic acid to butanoic acid and name the unbranched acids, methanoic to butanoic acids (c) describe the carboxylic acids as weak acids, reacting with carbonates, bases and some metals (d) describe the formation of ethanoic acid by the oxidation of ethanol by atmospheric oxygen or acidified potassium dichromate(VI) (e) describe the reaction of ethanoic acid with ethanol to form the ester, ethyl ethanoate (f) state some commercial uses of esters, eg perfumes; flavourings; solvents

(a) describe the alcohols as a homologous series containing the

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

Workbook Worksheet 20 Pg 167 – 177 [pg 176 Q20-21 for triple science classes only ]

Assignment

Practical Tr Demo: • Fermentation of glucose • Oxidation of alcohol • Making of Esters

IT Lesson

Assignment

IT Lesson

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES (Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS No of pds

194

Chemistry TYS

LJ Rasanayagam, Practical Chemistry for ‘O’ Level Volume 1

CD ROM : Carbon Chemistry

Chemistry TYS

CD ROM : Carbon Chemistry

RESOURCES

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

8

WEE K

Organic Chemistry Macromolecule s

TOPIC

C N

C H

N C

O

C O

C

O C

O C O

O O

H

N

(Details of manufacture and mechanisms of these polymerisations are not required.) (f) state some typical uses of man-made fibres such as nylon and Terylene, e.g. clothing; curtain materials; fishing line; parachutes; sleeping bags (g) describe the pollution problems caused by the disposal of non-biodegradable plastics

O

O

H

C N

O

and the partial structure of Terylene as

H

O

O

(a) *describe macromolecules as large molecules built up from small units, different macromolecules having different units and/or different linkages (b) describe the formation poly(ethene) as an example of addition polymerisation as ethene as the monomer (c) state some uses of poly(ethene) as a typical plastic, eg plastic bags, clingfilm (d) deduce the structure of the polymer product from a given monomer and vice versa (e) describe nylon, a polyamide, and Terylene, a polyester, as condensation polymers, the partial structure of nylon being represented as

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

Workbook Worksheet 21 Pg 178- 186 [ pg 185 Q12-13 for triple science classes only ]

Assignment

IT Lesson

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES (Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS No of pds

195

Chemistry TYS

CD ROM: Carbon Chemistry

RESOURCES

Tanjong Katong Girlsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; School Work Plan 2009

Preliminary Examinations Preliminary Examinations Feedback/ Block Period Revision Sec 4 Study Leave ‘O’ Level Examination

1

2-4

5-6

7-10

TERM IV

Preliminary Examination

10

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

Revision for Prelim Exam

TOPIC

9

WEE K

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES (Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS No of pds

196

Other Schools’ Prelim Papers

Chemistry TYS TKGS Past Year Prelim Papers

CD ROM: Carbon Chemistry

RESOURCES

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Experimental Chemistry

Identification of ions and gases (gases)

2

TOPIC

1

WEE K

(a) describe tests to identify the following gases: ammonia (using damp red litmus paper), carbon dioxide (using limewater), chlorine (using damp litmus paper), hydrogen (using a burning splint), oxygen (using a glowing splint) and sulphur dioxide (using acidified potassium dichromate(VI))

a) Introduction to Qualitative Analysis - Practical technical techniques and observations (b) observing colour and investigating solubility substances.

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

Physics 5058 Science 5116 / 5118

TERM : 1

4.3 4.4

FT 1 (Week 2)

Assignment

Teacher’s demonstration of skills QA Practical : Test for gases (Wk 2)

QA Practical: Colours and solubilities of salts (Wk 1) IT Lesson - Video clips on gas tests

Practical : Teacher Demo on basic skills & techniques

Presentation of overview of QA

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES

1

1

CL (Think-PairShare) on 3 gas tests that was taught by teacher earlier on

2

No of pds

ICT (M)

ICT (M)

(Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS

197

Worksheet: Identification of ions and gases / Chemistry TYS

QA book : Test for gases

Worksheet : Colour and solubility of salts http://www.cresce nt.edu.sg/crezlab/ Webpages/GasAna lysisLab2.htm#

Powerpoint slides on QA

RESOURCES

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Identification of ions and gases

5

TOPIC

Identification of ions and gases (anions)

4 (CNY wk)

WEE K

Identification of ions and gases (cations)

TOPIC

3

WEE K

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

(a) to test for anions (b ) to find out the action of heat on some common substances

(c) describe tests to identify the following anions: carbonate (by the addition of dilute acid and subsequent use of limewater), chloride (by reaction of an aqueous solution with nitric acid and aqueous silver nitrate), nitrate (by reduction with aluminium and aqueous sodium hydroxide to ammonia and subsequent use of litmus paper) and sulphate (by reaction of an aqueous solution with nitric acid and aqueous barium nitrate)

(b) describe the use of aqueous sodium hydroxide and aqueous ammonia to identify the following aqueous cations: ammonium, calcium, copper(II), iron(II), iron(III), lead(II) and zinc (formulae of complex ions are not required)

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES

CA 1

QA Practical : Effect of heat on a solid (Wk 5)

QA Practical : Test for anions (Wk 5)

Teacher’s demo on flame tests Video clips on flame tests

Revision on ionic equations to reinforce on understanding of ppt formed. (AgCl, BaSO4)

Teacher’s demonstration of skills QA Practical : Test for cations (Wk 3)

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES

(Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS

CL (Write-PairShare) on 3 anions tests that was taught by teacher earlier on

ICT (M)

CL (Think-PairShare)

(Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS

No of pds

1

1

No of pds

198

RESOURCES

Worksheet : Effect of heat on as solid

QA book : Test for anions

Notes on flame tests

Worksheet: Test for cations

RESOURCES

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

7

Metals

6

Metals Reactivity series

Properties of metals

TOPIC

WEE K

(a) place in order of reactivity calcium, copper, (hydrogen), iron, lead, magnesium, potassium, silver, sodium and zinc, by reference to the reactions, if any, of the metals with water, steam and dilute hydrochloric acid (b) deduce the order of reactivity from a given set of experimental results

(a) describe the general physical properties of metals as solids having high melting and boiling points, being malleable and good conductors of heat and electricity (b) describe alloys as a mixture of a metal with another element, e.g. brass; stainless steel (c) identify representations of metals and alloys from diagrams of structures

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

199

Discover Chemistry Workbook : Worksheet 10 – Metals

Discover Chemistry Workbook : Worksheet 10 – Metals

http://www.ch em.iastate.edu /group/Greenb owe/sections/p rojectfolder/flas hfiles/redox/ho me.html

Selected pictures and video clips from CD ROM The Chemistry Set and GCSE Chem 1

RESOURCES

Assignment

2

No of pds

Worksheet

ICT (M)

(Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS

VA Practical Titration - Finding concentration of sulphuric acid

Assignment

video clips/ animations to show properties of metals

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Metals Recycling of metals

Metals Iron

9

10

TERM : 2

Metals Extraction of metal

TOPIC

8

WEE K

(a) describe and explain the essential reactions in the extraction of iron using haematite, limestone and coke in the blast furnace (b) describe the essential conditions for the corrosion (rusting) of iron as the presence of oxygen and water; prevention of rusting can be achieved by placing a barrier around the metal, e.g. painting; greasing; plastic coating

(a) describe metal ores as a finite resource and hence the need to recycle metals, e.g. the recycling of iron (b) discuss the social, economic and environmental issues of recycling metals

(a) describe the ease of obtaining metals from their ores by relating the elements to their positions in the reactivity series

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

Assignment

QA Practical: To identify the substance X, Y and Z IT - Flash animations

Assignment

ICT (M)

1

200

Discover Chemistry Workbook : Worksheet 10 – Metals Chemistry TYS

Briggs resources Science Series II: Materials CDROM

QA book

Discover Chemistry Workbook : Worksheet 10 – Metals Test it Question 7, 8 Pg 84 – 85

Worksheet

RESOURCES

Practical: Displacement of metals from salt solutions (Wk 8)

No of pds

Discover Chemistry Workbook : Worksheet 10 – Metals

(Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS

Assignment

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

1 -2

WEE K

Speed of reaction

Chemical reactions

TOPIC

(b) interpret data obtained from experiments concerned with speed of reaction

(a) describe the effect of concentration, pressure, particle size and temperature on the speeds of reactions and explain these effects in terms of collisions between reacting particles

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

FT 2 (Week 2)

Assignment

Practical: Effect of particle size on speed of reaction (Wk 2) Practical: Effect of concentration on speed of reaction (Wk 2)

IT – video to show effect of concentration and particle size on rate, relating to collision theory

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES ICT (M)

(Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS

2

No of pds

201

Discover Chemistry Workbook : Worksheet 13 – Speed of Reaction Chemistry TYS QA book

Worksheet s

Exploring Chemistry CD ROM Chapter 4 ( or new Interactive Resource ) http://www.bbc.co .uk/schools/gcsebit esize/chemistry/ch emicalreactions/5e nzymesrev1.shtml http://www.chemg uide.co.uk/physical /basicrates/catalyst .html

Video tape – The Speed of Chem Change 541 SPE READ@TN

RESOURCES

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Organic Chemistry Fuels and crude oil

4

5

Atmosphere Air

TOPIC

3

WEE K

2

Revision for Mid-Year Exam

unburned hydrocarbons (c) state the sources of these pollutants as: (i) carbon monoxide from incomplete combustion of carboncontaining substances (ii) nitrogen oxides from lightning activity and internal combustion engines (iii) sulphur dioxide from volcanoes and combustion of fossil fuels (d) discuss some of the effects of these pollutants on health and on the environment: (i) the poisonous nature of carbon monoxide (ii) the role of nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide in the formation of ‘acid rain’ and its effects on respiration and buildings (a) name natural gas, mainly methane, and petroleum as sources of energy (b) describe petroleum as a mixture of hydrocarbons and its separation into useful fractions by fractional distillation (c) name the following fractions and state their uses : (i) petrol (gasoline) as a fuel in cars (ii) naphtha as feedstock for the chemical industry (iii) paraffin (kerosene) as a fuel for heating and cooking and for aircraft engines (iv) diesel as a fuel for diesel engines (v) lubricating oils as lubricants and as a source of polishes and waxes (vi) bitumen for making road surfaces

(a) describe the volume composition of gases present in dry air as 79% nitrogen, 20% oxygen and the remainder being noble gases (with argon as the main constituent) and carbon dioxide (b) name some common atmospheric pollutants, e.g. carbon monoxide; methane; nitrogen oxides (NO and NO ); ozone; sulphur dioxide;

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

QA Practical 2002 Paper (Wk 4)

Assignment

Video to show fractional distillation process of crude oil

QA Practical : 2001 Paper

Assignment

Digital images on sources and effects of air pollutants

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES

ICT (M) NE msg 6: The role of petrochemical industries in the economy of Singapore

NE msg 5 : Awareness of regional problem of air pollution

ICT (M)

(Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS

1

1

No of pds

202

Chemistry TYS / TKGS Mid Year Papers

QA book

Discover Chemistry Workbook: Worksheet 15 – An Introduction to organic Chemistry

http://science.ho wstuffworks.com/ oil-refining4.htm

Video clip – Fractional distillation of crude oil

QA book

Discover Chemistry Workbook: Worksheet 14: the Atmosphere and Environment / Chemistry TYS

Oxygen PowerPoint slides

RESOURCES

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

WEE K

TOPIC

TERM : 3

3

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

unbranched alkanes, methane to propane (d) describe the properties of alkanes (exemplified by methane) as being generally unreactive except in terms of burning and substitution by chlorine

1

(c) draw the structures of unbranched alkanes, C to C and name the

2n+2

Organic Chemistry Alkanes

9 - 10 n

(a) describe a homologous series as a group of compounds with a general formula, similar chemical properties and showing a gradation in physical properties as a result of increase in the size and mass of the molecules, e.g. melting and boiling points; viscosity; flammability

Organic Chemistry Alkanes

8

(b) describe the alkanes as an homologous series of saturated hydrocarbons with the general formula C H

Sec 4 Mid-Year Exam

7

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES Sec 4 Mid-Year Exam

TOPIC

6

WEE K

(Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS

No of pds

203

RESOURCES

QA book

QA Practical : 2004 Paper (Wk 10)

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES

QA book

3 Dimensional models, Worksheet: Models of organic molecules

Powerpoint slides: Introduction to Organic Chemsitry

RESOURCES

QA Practical : 2003 Paper (Wk 9) 1

1

No of pds

Discover Chemistry Workbook: Worksheet 16 – Alkanes

HOM (metacognition)

CL (Think-PairShare) HOM (Interdependent thinking)

(Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS

Assignment

Students work in pairs 3D Models to form molecules of simple organic compounds

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

3

1-2

WEE K

Organic Chemistry Alkenes

TOPIC

n

2n

2

3

(f) state the meaning of polyunsaturated when applied to food products (g) describe the manufacture of margarine by the addition of hydrogen to unsaturated vegetables oils to form a solid product (h) describe the formation of poly(ethene) as an example of addition polymerisation of ethene as the monomer (i) state some uses of poly(ethene) as a typical plastic, e.g. plastic bags; clingfilm

(c) describe the manufacture of alkenes and hydrogen by cracking hydrocarbons and recognise that cracking is essential to match the demand for fractions containing smaller molecules from the refinery process (d) describe the difference between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons from their molecular structures and by using aqueous bromine (e) describe the properties of alkenes (exemplified by ethene) in terms of combustion and the addition reactions with bromine and hydrogen

unbranched alkenes, ethene to propene

(b) draw the structures of unbranched alkenes, C to C and name the

(a) describe the alkenes as an homologous series of unsaturated hydrocarbons with the general formula C H

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

2006 Paper for Practical Test: (Wk 2)

Video clip to teach concept of addition polymerisation / making and uses of polyethene OR Activity using paper clips joining up to form long chain

QA Practical : 2005 Paper (Wk 2)

Tr Demo - Test for unsaturation in hydrocarbons OR Video to show unsaturation in alkenes

Video to show cracking and its importance/

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES

ICT (M)

ICT (M)

ICT (M)

(Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS

1

No of pds

204

Test paper

http://www.tvo. org/iqm/plastic /animations.ht ml#

http://www.lstlc w.edu.hk/t9544 /animation/ad d_polymerizatio n/add_poly.ht ml

QA book

http://www.lstlc w.edu.hk/t9544 /animation/cra cking/cracking. htm

Video tape â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The World of Chemistry Series : The Age of Polymers 547.7 WOR (READ@TN)

RESOURCES

Tanjong Katong Girlsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; School Work Plan 2009

3

unbranched alcohols, methanol to propanol (c) describe the properties of alcohols in terms of combustion and oxidation to carboxylic acids (d) describe the formation of ethanol by fermentation of glucose

1

(a) describe the alcohols as an homologous series containing the -OH group (b) draw the structures of unbranched alcohols, C to C and name the

Organic Chemistry Alcohols

5

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES (j) deduce the structure of the addition polymer product from a given monomer and vice versa (k) describe the pollution problems caused by the disposal of nonbiodegradable plastics

TOPIC

4

WEE K

Assignment

Tr demo Fermentation of glucose

Assignment

QA Practical : 2007 Paper (Wk 4)

Practice on deducing/ drawing the structure of monomer or polymer

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES CL (Write-PairShare)

(Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS No of pds

205

Discover Chemistry Workbook: Worksheet 18 – Alcohols and Carboxylic Acids

http://it.spcolle ge.edu:8500/e dtech/instructor Resources/RLO/ RLO_Objects/st aticRLO/gener al/chemAlchols /

Discover Chemistry Workbook: Worksheet 17 – Alkenes Chemistry Worksheet : Fermentation of glucose

QA book

RESOURCES

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Sec 4 Preliminary Exam

9

TERM : 4

General Revision

Sec 4 Preliminary Exam

group (b) describe the formation of ethanoic acid by the oxidation of ethanol by atmospheric oxygen or acidified potassium dichromate(VI)

8

10 (Wk 10 - Trs’ Day )

2

(a) describe the carboxylic acids as organic acids containing the CO H

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

Revision for Preliminary Exam

Organic Chemistry Carboxylic acids

TOPIC

7

6

WEE K

QA book

QA Practical : 2000 Paper (Wk 6)

206

Discover Chemistry Workbook: Worksheet 18 – Alcohols and Carboxylic Acids / Chemistry TYS

RESOURCES

Assignment

No of pds

Worksheet : Oxidation of alcohols

(Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS

Tr Demo Oxidation of alcohol

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

Preliminary Examinations Feedback/ Block Period Revision

Study Leave ‘O’ Level Written Examination

2-3

4-5

6-10

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES Sec 4 Preliminary Exam

TOPIC

1

WEE K

Last QA Practical 2008 (Wk 2)

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES (Curriculum Diff, CL, HOM, Aesthetics, ICT, Integration, NE)

STRATEGIC FOCUS No of pds

207

QA book

RESOURCES

Tanjong Katong Girls’ School Work Plan 2009

208

Tanjong Katong Girlsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; School Work Plan 2009

5

5.1

Laboratory Matters Science Laboratory Manual

(BACK SIDE OF FRONT COVER)

Š Copyright 2006 Curriculum Planning and Development Division. This publication is not for sale. FOR RESTRICTED CIRCULATION ONLY. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without the prior permission of the Ministry of Education, Singapore.

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations For all Primary and Secondary Schools, Junior Colleges and Centralised Institutes in Singapore

Science Unit, Sciences Branch Curriculum Planning and Development Division Ministry of Education

Published Published by Curriculum Planning and Development Division Ministry of Education 1 North Buona Vista Drive MOE Building Singapore 138675 December 2006

While every effort has been made to acknowledge copyright holders of materials reproduced, we have been unsuccessful in some instances. To these copyright holders, we offer our sincere apologies and hope that they will take our liberty in good faith. We welcome any information that will enable us to acknowledge the copyright holders/owners concerned. ISBN 981-05-7292-1

~ 212 ~

PREFACE Laboratory work and investigations are an integral part of effective science teaching and learning. >? the last few years, students and teachers in schools have been engaging in experiments and activities beyond those which are 'traditional' or routine. Some schools have established specialised laboratories such as photonics laboratories, nanoscience laboratories and Science and Technology Centres. There are also schools offering science research subjects that engage students in more in-depth and complex investigations. >? the light of the increased variety of science activities in schools, there was a need to review existing laboratory safety regulations and recommend safety measures to mitigate the potential risks that could arise. A working committee was commissioned in June 2006, comprising practioners from schools and professionals from the institutions of higher learning, government ministries and government agencies. The committee reviewed current regulations and guidelines on safety in science laboratories found in the P r i nc i p al ' s Ha n d b o o k , Sc i e nc e D e p ar tm e n t H a n d b o ok and the Li f e S c i e nc es L a b o r at or y S a f et y G ui d e l i n es . The result of the review is this handbook on S c h o ol S c i e nc e L a b o r at or y S af ety R e g ul ati o ns , which has incorporated both the general science and Life Sciences safety regulations. This handbook guides teachers and laboratory staff on safe working practices in school science laboratories. The regulations are written to assist teachers and laboratory staff in developing appropriate procedures for safe work on a range of laboratory activities. This would include activities that are guided by the curriculum as well as extension or specialised investigations. No publication, however, can completely describe the procedures for ensuring safety under all conditions. Teachers have to exercise professional judgement and take precautions when dealing with less familiar procedures, equipment, hazardous chemicals and microorganisms. Although many science laboratory and prudent safety measures can

activities present potential hazards, reasonable greatly reduce the likelihood of accidents. The Sc i e nc e L a b o r at o r y S af et y R e g ul a ti o n s aims to support teachers in their role of teaching and learning while ensuring that laboratories are safe and conducive for science learning and investigation.

~ 213 ~

WORKING COMMITTEE FOR THE REVIEW OF LABORATORY SAFETY REGULATIONS CHAIRPERSON Mdm Poon Chew Leng Deputy Director, Sciences Curriculum Planning and Development Division (CPDD) Ministry of Education

MEMBERS Dr Paul Chiew King Tiong Deputy Director (Veterinary Public Health) Veterinary Public Health Service Agri-Food & Veterinary Authority of Singapore

MrChooi Khee Wai Dean of Chemistry Anglo-Chinese School (Independent)

Mr Go Heng Huat Deputy Director (Risk Assessment and Occupational Safety and Health Management) Occupational Safety and Health Specialist Department Ministry of Manpower

Associate Professor Koh Chong Lek Head DNA Centre@NIE National Institute of Education Nanyang Technological University

Mrs Koh Siok Im Section Head School of Chemical & Life Sciences Singapore Polytechnic

Mr Lee Siew Lin Head of Department (Science) Innova Junior College

Mrs Michelle Lim Head of Department (Science) Seng Kang Primary School

Mrs LimWoon Foong Head of Department (Science) River Valley High School

Dr Ling Ai Ee Head Biosafety Branch Ministry of Health

Ms Quek Hui Leng Facility Manager Environmental Health Institute National Environment Agency

Mr Saravanan I/0 Gunaratnam Manager Office of Safety, Health & Environment National University of Singapore

DrSe ThoeSu Yun Deputy Head Biosafety Branch Ministry of Health

Mrs Tan Ai Chin Director of Research studies Science and Technology Centre Hwa Chong Institution

Ms Jeanne Teh Hsiao Chuin Teacher Raffles Junior College

Assistant Professor Zaher Judeh Chairman, Safety Committee School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering Nanyang Technological University

SECRETARIAT Curriculum Planning Officers, CPDD, Ministry of Education Mr Cheong Tien Beng

Mr Oliver Chia Kiat Say

Mr Derek Tan Kok Hwee

Mr Jason Tan Chong Lee

~ 214-

RESOURCE PANEL The working committee would like to acknowledge the input from our resource panel:

Mrs Judina Cheong Principal Montfort Junior School Mdm Lim Hong Peng Principal Temasek Secondary School

Associate Professor Lim Tit Meng Vice Dean Faculty of Science National University of Singapore Mr David Miklos Executive Director Dolan DNA Learning Centre, USA Dr Tan Kok Keng Chief Operating Officer Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory Limited National University of Singapore Associate Professor Walter Hunziker Chairman, Safety Committee Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology Dr Lim Kah Leong Head Neurodegeneration Research Lab National Neuroscience Institute Mdm Low Khah Gek Principal Victoria Junior College

Assistant Professor Sow Chorng Haur Faculty of Science National University of Singapore Professor Paul Teng Piang-Siong Dean Graduate Programmes and Research Office National Institute of Education Nanyang Technological University

~ v~

CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1.

General laboratory safety regulations.................................................................................. 1

1.2.

Role of science teachers in the laboratory........................................................................... 2

1.3.

Role of school laboratory technicians .................................................................................. 3

2. PROPER AND SAFE USE OF OF LABORATORY EQUIPMENT EQUIPMENT 2.1.

General operations .............................................................................................................. 4

2.2.

Safety in using electrical equipment .................................................................................... 4

2.3.

Glassware ........................................................................................................................... 5

2.4.

Sharp objects....................................................................................................................... 6

2.5.

High temperature equipment ............................................................................................... 6

2.6.

2.7.

2.5.1.

Autoclaves............................................................................................................

6

2.5.2.

Hot bead sterilisers................................................................................................ 7

2.5.3.

Hot plates and isomantles ..................................................................................... 7

2.5.4.

Incubators.............................................................................................................. 8

2.5.5.

Ovens - conventional and microwave ovens ........................................................

8

2.5.6.

Thermocyclers (Polymerase chain reaction machines) ........................................

8

2.5.7.

Water baths ........................................................................................................... 9

Centrifuges and mixers ......................................................................................................

9

2.6.1.

Centrifuges/Micro-centrifuges ............................................................................... 9

2.6.2.

Vortex mixers ........................................................................................................ 10

Other equipment ................................................................................................................. 10 2.7.1.

Electrophoresis chambers...................................................................................... 10

2.7.2.

Biosafety cabinets ................................................................................................. 10

2.7.3.

Laminar flow cabinets ........................................................................................... 11

2.7.4.

High power laser devices ...................................................................................... 11

2.7.5.

Ultraviolet transilluminators ................................................................................... 12

3. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 3.1.

Moving and transporting hazardous materials in the school ................................................ 13

3.2.

Microorganisms .................................................................................................................... 13 3.2.1.

Risk classification of microorganisms .................................................................... 14

3.2.2.

Handling of microorganisms in the laboratory ....................................................... 16

~ 216 ~

3.2.3.

Culturing microorganisms in the laboratory ............................................................ 18

3.2.4.

Recombinant DNA involving microorganisms ....................................................... 19

3.2.5.

Storage and labelling of microorganisms and culture media .................................. 20

3.2.6.

Handling and storage of tissue and body fluids ....................................................

3.2.7.

Disposal of biological materials ............................................................................. 22

3.2.8.

NACLAR guidelines on the use of vertebrate animals........................................... 24

21

3.3. Chemicals............................................................................................................................... 25 3.3.1.

Classification of hazardous chemicals................................................................... 25

3.3.2.

Labelling of hazardous chemicals ......................................................................... 26

3.3.3.

Handling of commonly used chemicals in the laboratory....................................... 26

3.3.4.

General guidelines for storing chemicals............................................................... 28

3.3.5.

Commonly used hazardous chemicals in Life Sciences experiments............................................................................................................ 30

3.3.6.

Disposal of chemicals............................................................................................ 32

4. FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL 4.1.

Fire prevention .................................................................................................................... 34

4.2.

Fire control .......................................................................................................................... 35 4.2.1.

Clothing or hair on fire ........................................................................................... 35

4.2.2.

Explosion................................................................................................................ 35

4.2.3.

Fire........................................................................................................................ 35

4.3.

Fire-fighting ......................................................................................................................... 35

4.4.

Fire extinguishers ...............................................................................................................

36

5. ACCIDENTS AND EMERGENCIES EMERGENCIES 5.1.

Accidents in the laboratory..................................................................................................

5.2.

Emergency response contact list ......................................................................................... 37

5.3.

Biological spills ...................................................................................................................

5.4.

37

37

5.3.1.

Dealing with microorganism spills ......................................................................... 37

5.3.2.

Decontamination of microorganism spills.............................................................. 38

5.3.3.

Dealing with specific accidents involving microorganisms .................................... 39

5.3.4.

First aid after exposure to microorganisms ........................................................... 40

Chemical spills ..................................................................................................................... 40 5.4.1.

Dealing with chemical spills .................................................................................. 40

5.4.2.

Minor chemical spills ............................................................................................. 40

5.4.3.

Major chemical spills ............................................................................................. 41

~ 217 ~

5.4.4. Dealing with accidents involving chemicals ............................................................... 41 5.5.

5.6.

Other emergencies ............................................................................................................. 42 5.5.1.

Fainting ................................................................................................................. 42

5.5.2.

Electrical injury ...................................................................................................... 43

5.5.3.

Heat burns and scalds........................................................................................... 43

5.5.4.

Cuts and bleeding ................................................................................................. 43

5.5.5.

Gas poisoning ....................................................................................................... 44

Reporting and recording of incidents................................................................................... 44 5.6.1.

Importance of reporting ......................................................................................... 44

5.6.2.

Incident investigation ............................................................................................. 44

6. ASSESSMENT OF RISKS IN IN SCHOOL SCIENCE LABORATORIES LABORATORIES 6.1.

Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 45

6.2.

Hazards and risks................................................................................................................ 45

6.3.

Conducting risk assessments .............................................................................................. 45 6.3.1.

Identifying and analysing safety and health hazards associated with work ............................................................................................................... 45

6.3.2.

Evaluating the risks involved................................................................................. 46

6.3.3.

Prioritising measures to control hazards and reduce risks .................................... 47

REFERENCES

ANNEXES A Methods of treatment of materials and apparatus contaminated in Life Sciences experiments

B Microorganisms allowed for use in school laboratory work C Classification of microorganisms by risk group in relation to category of laboratory D Commonly used chemicals in school laboratory experiments E Sample parental consent form - use of human cheek cells for school science laboratory experiments

F Ethidium bromide/polyacrylamide checklist G Sample template - contact list for emergencies H Assessment of risks for school science laboratories I

Sample format - risk assessment template for school science laboratory activities

~ 218 ~

Chapter 11ntroduction

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. General laboratory safety regulations 1.1.1.

School laboratories should be safe environments for students to carry out scientific experiments and investigations. Accidents can be avoided if safety regulations are conscientiously observed and enforced. It is important that all students, especially those entering the laboratory for the first lesson in the year, be briefed on laboratory safety prior to carrying out laboratory work.

1.1.2.

The following general laboratory safety regulations apply to all laboratory activities. When younger students are concerned, closer supervision by teachers would be required. a.

Students must not teacher is present.

b.

Laboratory storerooms bounds to all students.

c.

Long hair should laboratory work.

d.

Eating and drinking are prohibited in laboratories.

e.

Students should always work thoughtfully and Practical jokes and other acts of carelessness prohibited!

f.

Students should seek clarification from instructions for an experiment are not Students should not proceed with an experiment if in doubt.

g.

Safety goggles injury to the eyes.

h.

Protective gloves and hazardous materials.

i.

Hands must always be thoroughly washed before laboratory, regardless of whether or not gloves are worn.

j.

k.

I.

m.

enter

be

or

work

and

tied

must

be

back

laboratories

preparation

to

worn

clothing

in

must

avoid

rooms

any

whenever

be

unless

are

interference

out

with

the teacher if thoroughly understood.

is

when

any

handling

leaving

the

Equipment used to handle or transfer hazardous materials must be inspected for leaks, cracks and other forms of damage before use. Damaged equipment, breakages, accidents should be immediately reported to the teacher.

and

spillage

Electrical wirings must be kept away from naked flames and heaters. Areas around electrical equipment should be kept dry and where appropriate, kept far from water. Unlabelled chemicals should not containers should be reported to the teacher.

~ 219 ~

be

of

purposefully. are strictly

there

worn

a

used.

Unlabelled

risk

of

Chapter 11ntroduction

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

?.

Chemicals or other materials specifically directed by the teacher.

o.

Students should not take apparatus or laboratory without the permission of a teacher.

p.

Unauthorised experiments are prohibited.

q.

Pipetting should always never by mouth.

r.

Sharps (such as needles, razors or pins) should not be discarded in waste-bins or trash bags. Instead, a sturdy container should be used for sharp waste objects.

be

must

carried

For activities that involve materials (like chemicals or need to be taken. These will subsequent sections.

never

out

be

tasted

chemicals

using

a

unless

out

pipette

of

the

aid

and

specific procedures, equipment or microorganisms), additional measures be described in greater detail in the

1.1.3.

All laboratories regulations.

1.1.4.

Students must be alerted on the locations and use of safety devices such as emergency eye-washers, showers, first-aid boxes and fire extinguishers in the laboratory.

1.1.5.

It is important for all students to be briefed on the appropriate actions they should take concerning accidents or fire, students must know the evacuation route in the event of emergencies such as fire. The evacuation route must be prominently displayed in each laboratory.

should

clearly

display

the

general

laboratory

safety

1.2. Role of science teachers in the the laboratory 1.2.1.

Science teachers play an important role and conducive for learning and investigation.

1.2.2.

The following list guides teachers laboratory safety. Teachers should:

on

in

making

their

roles

a.

Brief students on laboratory safety during lesson in the year. The briefing should laboratory safety regulations in section 1.1. ;

b.

Demonstrate laboratory;

c.

Give clear instructions, highlighting precautions to be taken by students where students begin their laboratory work;

d.

Be present in the laboratory working in the laboratory; and

good

safety

~220~

practices

at

all

at

times

laboratories

safe

pertaining

to

the first laboratory cover the general

all

times

particular appropriate,

when

in

the

safety before

students

are

Chapter 11ntroduction

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

e.

Record and report all incidents that occur in the laboratory. A log book should be maintained for laboratory incidents.

1.2.3.

Before carrying out any laboratory work, teachers must ensure that the apparatus and materials are safe for use. When viewing a demonstration (especially those that have potential risks), students should be kept at a safe distance or view the demonstration through a safety screen where appropriate.

1.2.4.

Teachers are not trained fire-fighters useful for teachers to be familiar with:

or

paramedics.

However,

a.

Basic first aid;

b.

Fire prevention and control measures; and

c.

Procedures for handling spills and proper disposal of materials.

it

is

1.3. Role of school laboratory technicians 1.3.1.

1.3.2.

School laboratory technicians report to the HOD (Science) and science teachers in the day-to-day running of science laboratories. They contribute to a safe working environment in the laboratory by: a.

Maintaining laboratory good working conditions;

b.

Checking that safety devices in the laboratory, such emergency eye-washers, showers and fire extinguishers working;

c.

Inspecting gas and water repair or maintenance work;

d.

Ensuring labelled;

e.

Maintaining a record or file of the Material Safety and Sheets (MSDS) that accompany purchased chemicals. also section 3.3.1. 3.3 on classification of hazardous chemicals.

f.

Maintaining a stock book and breakage ordering of replacements where necessary;

g.

Replenishing first aid supplies; and

h.

Briefing laboratory attendants on laboratory safety.

that

equipment,

materials

materials

systems

such

as

and

and

specimens

initiating

chemicals

properly

to

Data See

initiate

Laboratory technicians also perform other duties assigned by HOD (Science) and science teachers, which may be related to general safety in science laboratories.

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as are

necessary

are

record

in

the the

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

Chapter 2 Proper and safe use of laboratory equipment

2. PROPER AND SAFE USE OF LABORATORY EQUIPMENT 2.1. General operations a.

Teachers or trained laboratory technicians must demonstrate proper and safe use of all equipment, especially if students are using the equipment for the first time. Reference should be made to the instruction manual accompanying the equipment before using.

b.

Instruction manuals accompanying the equipment must be properly filed and made accessible to all teachers and technicians. It would be helpful for key steps and safety measures to be posted on or next to the equipment. This would facilitate quick reference and alert users on important operation points.

c.

Students must not be allowed to operate any equipment without the supervision of a teacher or trained technician. Equipment must not be left in operation without any supervision.

d.

Equipment should not be moved around excessively so as to minimise damage, which could lead to malfunctioning and potential risks to users. The power supply must be turned off before moving any equipment.

e.

All equipment should be returned to its original state after use. Where appropriate, equipment should be switched off at the end of the day.

f.

Equipment meant for Life Sciences activities any other purposes to avoid contamination.

should

not

be

used

for

2.2. Safety in using electrical equipment a.

All mains of electrical apparatus are potentially lethal. It is very important to maintain any equipment and its accompanying cables in good condition.

b.

Electrical faults often cause fires. Electrical equipment should be inspected and tested regularly, including its earthing (grounding). All laboratory electrical equipment should be earthed, preferably through 3-prong plugs. Double-insulated devices with 2-prong plugs may require separate earthing. Equipment that is intended to be earthed should never be used without an earth earth connection. An earth-free supply may become live as a result of an undetected fault.

c.

Circuit breakers protect wiring from overheating and thus prevent fires. Earth fault interrupters protect against electric shock. These devices provide additional protection. However, they should not be relied upon as the first line of defence against electrocution.

d.

Switches hands.

or

electrical

cables

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must

never

be

handled

with

wet

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

Chapter 2 Proper and safe use of laboratory equipment

e.

Voltages may vary in different countries. Singapore uses a 230V outage. Care should always be taken to ensure that fuses of the correct rating are used.

f.

Teachers and students hazardous situations:

h.

be

aware

of

i.

Wet or moist surfaces near electrical equipment.

ii.

Long electrical cables (which may cause tripping).

iii.

Damaged insulation on cables.

iv.

Overloading of circuits when using adapters.

V.

g.

should

the

following

potentially

Sparks from equipment near flammable substances and vapours.

vi.

Electrical equipment left on and unattended.

vii.

Use of the wrong type of fire extinguisher on electrical fires (water or foam instead of carbon dioxide).

The following steps should been found to be faulty:

be

taken

when

using

equipment

i.

Turn off the main switch.

ii.

Unplug the equipment from the electric socket.

iii.

Clearly label the equipment with a hazard warning such as "FAULTY EQUIPMENT, DO NOT USE".

iv.

Send the equipment for repair. Do not try to repair it yourself.

Maintenance must be teachers or students.

carried

out

by

qualified

personnel

and

that

not

has

by

2.3. Glassware a.

Glassware should be stored or assembled in a secure manner. Do not store glassware too high or with heavy apparatus.

b.

Chipped or broken glassware should never be used.

c.

Broken glassware should be carefully discarded, puncture-proof container meant for sharp objects.

d.

Glassware should be used for its intended design and purpose. For example, conical flasks and beakers may be used to contain liquids for heating, whereas volumetric flasks should not be used to heat liquids.

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for

and convenient

example,

using

a

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

Chapter 2 Proper and safe use of laboratory equipment

2.4. Sharp objects Some examples of sharp objects and hypodermic syringe needles.

or

sharps

include:

scalpel

blades,

knives

a.

Care should be taken when handling instruments with pointed ends or sharp edges. It is advisable for these instruments to be kept in a safe storage box when not in use.

b.

Scalpel blades must never be pushed into the handle by hand. This should be done using a pair of forceps. Used blades must always be removed with the aid of forceps or blade removers and disposed of immediately.

c.

If it is necessary to re-sheath hand-held during the operation.

d.

Discard sharps carefully using a puncture-proof container.

e.

For pointers on disposing experiments, see Annex A.

a

needle,

contaminated

the

sharps

sheath

used

must

in

Life

not

be

Sciences

2.5. High temperature equipment 2.5.1. Autoclaves a.

Autoclaves can be dangerous unless properly used and serviced. Laboratory staff or teachers should be adequately trained in their use and be aware that there are procedural differences among different makes and models.

b.

Students must not operate autoclaves.

c.

Autoclaves should be located in a well-ventilated room. For safety against explosions, autoclaves should be positioned beside solid walls and not partitions.

d.

Foreign objects or substances must not be placed directly into the chamber. Instead, baskets or buckets must be used for loading.

e.

Before use, the exhaust bottle must be filled with water to at least the "LOW WATER LEVEL" mark if applicable. Users should refer to the manual accompanying the autoclave for model-specific operating instructions.

f.

Heat-proof autoclave.

g.

Autoclave bags should be partially and to allow for steam circulation.

gloves

should

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be

worn

when

filling

opened

to

or

emptying

prevent

an

bursting

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

Chapter 2 Proper and safe use of laboratory equipment

>R.

Flasks and tubes used in an autoclave should not be sealed with rubber or silicon caps to avoid bursting. Caps on screwcap bottles should be loosened prior to autociaving. Bottles, flasks and beakers must be loaded in an upright position.

i.

The chamber lid must be securely sealed before the autoclave power is switched on. Failure to do so may cause steam to escape and this may injure the user.

j.

Users must not touch the autoclave or go near the chamber lid immediately after sterilisation. The pressure gauge should indicate room pressure before opening the autoclave. Caution should be exercised when opening the autoclave lid after sterilisation in view of possible residual pressure which may expel hot water or steam.

k.

Safety checks and certification must must be carried out on all autoclaves at least once a year by licensed service providers accredited by the Ministry of Manpower (MOM). Please refer to the Internet site maintained by MOM for more information. The site can be accessed via the hyperlink at: http://intranet.moe.gov.sg/science/labsafety/labsafety.htm

2.5.2. Hot bead sterilisers a.

Items to be sterilised such as forceps and streaking loops must only be immersed for a few seconds and not left in contact with the hot beads for prolonged periods.

b.

Other apparatus which may steriliser should be cleared away.

c.

Flammable substances must be kept away from the steriliser.

obstruct

the

user

when

using

the

2.5.3. Hot plates and isomantles isomantles a.

Hot plates and isomantles must never be left unattended.

b.

Flammable substances such as alcohol should not be warmed or heated directly on a hot plate. A water or steam bath should be used.

c.

When using hot plates or isomantles, always assume the equipment is hot as there may be no visible signs (for example, a red glow or an operation light) to indicate that it is on. It is advisable to put a sign such as 'HOT SURFACE - PLEASE BE CAREFUL', next to the equipment.

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School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

Chapter 2 Proper and safe use of laboratory equipment

2.5.4.

2.5.5.

Incubators a.

Incubators should not be operated in an containing flammable vapours. Greater caution exercised when handling volatile samples or organic solvents.

b.

The temperature setting applied must temperature range specified for the incubator.

c.

Materials or containers placed in the incubator clearly labelled (for example, date, time and contents).

d.

Items should be removed after incubation to avoid overcrowding of the incubator.

the appropriate duration of and possible contamination

e.

The incubator should example, monthly.

and

be

cleaned

environment should be

adhere

disinfected

to

the

should

be

regularly,

for

Ovens - conventional and microwave ovens a.

Metal components or parts must not be used microwave oven. Containers used must be microwave-safe.

b.

Heat-proof gloves must be worn when moving items in or out of ovens for protection against burns. When heated in a microwave oven, liquids may undergo super-heating and cause scalding owing to the 'hot water eruption' phenomenon.

c.

Bottles or any container used for boiling liquids in a microwave oven should not be closed too tightly. For example, when melting agarose gel or microbiological media in a microwave oven, a small gap should be left between the cover and the container so as to avoid pressure accumulation due to hot air expansion.

d.

Ovens must monthly.

e.

Ovens must not be used for heating food.

f.

Microwave radiation may interfere with the functioning of pacemakers. Persons with pacemaker implants should not go near a microwave oven in view of possible stray microwave radiation.

be

cleaned

and

disinfected

regularly,

for

in

a

example,

2.5.6. Thermocyclers (Polymerase chain reaction machines) a.

A

thermocycler should be positioned in such a way that there is no obstruction to any of its air vents for the purpose of heat dissipation.

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School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

Chapter 2 Proper and safe use of laboratory equipment

b.

The lid must be closed before starting an operation and should not be opened while the thermocycler is in operation.

c.

Care should be exercised to avoid touching the top of reaction vessels and the surfaces of the heated lid assembly (in particular the inner surface) as they can be very hot immediately after operation. Refer to the thermocycler instruction manual for model-specific information.

2.5.7. Water baths a.

Any bath fluids other than water should not be used. The water bath should be filled to at least half the height of the inner chamber before use.

b.

A "HIGH TEMPERATURE, DO NOT TOUCH" sign should be displayed to alert users if the temperature setting is higher than

60 째c.

c.

For water baths that rely on liquid-in-bulb thermometers for temperature measurements, extra caution should be taken to avoid breaking the thermometer in the bath.

d.

The water bath must be regularly, for example, monthly.

emptied,

cleaned

and

disinfected

2.6. Centrifuges and mixers 2.6.1. Centrifuges/MicroCentrifuges/Micro-centrifuges a.

Users must ensure that the tubes are balanced (for example, using dummy tubes or tubes filled with an appropriate amount of water) and the rotor secured in the spindle. NonNon-standard tubes must never be used. Two examples of correct loading of tubes are shown below:

Two tubes

Three tubes

b.

The centrifuge/micro should never be moved centrifuge/microentrifuge/micro-centrifuge while it is in operation. The safety catches must be in place to prevent the opening of the centrifuge/micro-centrifuge lid while the rotor is moving.

c.

>? the event of a power failure or if the machine stops suddenly, the main power supply must be switched off. The rotor must be allowed to come to rest before opening the lid.

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School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

Chapter 2 Proper and safe use of laboratory equipment

d.

Care must be taken to the centrifugation process.

avoid

inhaling

aerosols

generated

from

e.

After use, the centrifuge/micro-centrifuge must be cleaned and the rotor stored if appropriate. Any condensation should be wiped off from the centrifuge bowl. The lid should be left open to allow any moisture to evaporate.

2.6.2. Vortex mixers a.

The vortex mixer must not be used next to any breakable item as it causes vibration.

b.

If flammable chemicals like that ignition sources are absent.

c.

Care must be taken to avoid inhaling aerosols generated by the mixing. Users should also ensure that the contents do not spill out of the container when the vortex mixer is used.

alcohol

are

being

mixed,

ensure

2.7. Other equipment 2.7.1.

2.7.2.

Electrophoresis chambers a.

Sufficient buffer in the chamber must be operating the apparatus for gel electrophoresis. to ensure that there are no leaks in the chamber.

b.

Electrodes must be connected to their the metal components must not be touched.

present while It is important

respective

sockets

and

Biosafety cabinets a.

The work surface, side walls and inner back of a biosafety cabinet should be decontaminated before starting work, for example, using 70% isopropyl alcohol. Apparatus and materials should be surface-decontaminated before placing them inside the working area of the cabinet.

b.

The working area should not be overcrowded. Air circulation at the rear plenum must not be blocked. The glass-viewing panel of the biosafety cabinet must not be opened when the cabinet is in use. All work should be carried out in the middle or rear part of the working surface where visibility is convenient through the viewing panel.

c.

Bunsen burners must not buoyancy effect due to the affect containment.

be used flame will

in the cabinet. distort the airflow

Please also see section 2.7.3. on laminar flow cabinets.

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The and

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

Chapter 2 Proper and safe use of laboratory equipment

2.7.3. Laminar flow cabinets a.

At a glance, a laminar flow cabinet may be mistaken for a biosafety cabinet as both are similar in many ways. A laminar flow cabinet protects samples inside the working area from external airborne contamination. It does not protect the user against contamination that may arise from working on the sample. If in doubt on the differences, refer to the specifications in the instruction manual that comes with the equipment.

b.

Biohazardous activities should never be carried out in the laminar flow cabinet as it offers no protection to the user. The laminar flow cabinet should never be used as a fume cupboard or for storing biohazardous materials.

c.

Ultraviolet (UV) lamps are a feature the presence of fluorescent lighting noticeable that the UV lamp is on. it is a good practice to ensure that before using the laminar flow cabinet.

of or To the

laminar flow cabinets. >? sunlight, it may not be prevent accidental burns, UV lamp is switched off

Please also see section section 2.7.2. on biosafety cabinets.

2.7.4. High power laser devices a.

High power lasers (Class 3b and Class 4) may be part of specialised school science laboratory equipment such as optical tweezers. Optical tweezers make use of a focused laser beam to manipulate microscopic objects through the gradient force that arises from the interaction between the beam and the microscopic objects.

b.

Lasers are classified according to the power of the emitted light. The classification for commercially purchased lasers can usually be found on the equipment. c. Proper eyewear (for example, laser shields) must be worn. These offer protection against accidental exposure to stray or diffused reflection of laser beams. Protective eyewear is designed to filter out specific wavelengths which are characteristic of certain types of laser beams. It is very important to check and use the appropriate protective eyewear.

d.

Never look directly into the path of a laser beam even when using protective eyewear as some may only offer partial protection.

e.

Warning signs should be attached to prominently displayed at the location used.

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the laser equipment and where the equipment is

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

Chapter 2 Proper and safe use of laboratory equipment

f.

High power laser devices come Radiation Protection (Non-Ionising 1 1991 . The Regulations specify that:

under the control of the Radiation, NIR) Regulations

i.

Licences are required for the possession and use of high power laser apparatus; and

ii.

Personnel operating NIR equipment must be adequately trained, possess an operating license and have special knowledge on the safe use of lasers.

g.

According to the Health Sciences Authority, owners of NIR irradiating apparatus need to apply for an N2 licence for each of the NIR apparatus. If the NIR apparatus is a Class 3b or Class 4 laser, personnel using the laser will have to apply for an N3 licence.

h.

Please see the Internet website maintained by the Centre of Radiation Protection, Health Sciences Authority for updated information. The site can be accessed via the hyperlink at: http://intranet.moe.gov.sg/science/labsafety/labsafety.htm

2.7.5. Ultraviolet transilluminators a.

An ultraviolet (UV) transilluminator should be fitted with a UV blocking cover. The UV light source must not be viewed directly and steps must be taken to protect the eyes and skin from UV exposure. For example, laboratory coats and gloves should be worn to provide added protection against skin burns.

b.

The UV blocking cover whenever the UV light is shield or visor must be used.

c.

Switch off the ultraviolet lamp immediately after use. Avoid touching the equipment surface as it may be hot, especially after long use.

should be in a closed position turned on. Alternatively, a full face

1 The Regulations can be found on the website maintained by the Health Sciences Authority, Centre for Radiation Protection. See section 2.7.4. h. for the hyperlink to this site.

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Chapter 3 Hazardous materials

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

3. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 3.1. Moving Moving and transporting hazardous materials in the school a.

Risks often arise from the careless handling of that are not properly contained during transport or movement.

b.

Trolleys should be used to transport heavy exercised when lifting heavy items on or off 2.5 litre bottle of acid or alkali should be lifted hand under the base. A heavy duty carrier should be used for transporting bottles.

c.

Crowded locations in the school, such as the canteen corridors should be avoided in the route of movement materials.

d.

All hazardous materials must be properly labelled and packaged before transporting. The packaging should provide containment in the event of an accident. Please see sections 3.2.5. and hazardous materials.

3.3.2 for

hazardous

materials

items. Caution must be trolleys. For example, a with two hands, with one or the original packaging

more

information

and common of hazardous

on

labelling

3.2. Microorganisms Preamble There is a wide range of microorganisms which includes protozoans, fungi, algae, bacteria, and viruses. Some pose low risks to individuals and the community, whilst others are known to cause human diseases. The National Institutes of Health (NIH), Centres for Disease Control and 2 and World Health Organisation (WHO) in their Prevention (CDC) assessment and management of risks posed by microorganisms, provide definitions and categorisations of Risk Groups (RG) for microorganisms and the associated Biological Safety Level (BSL) containment. It must be noted that the guidelines were written in the context of research laboratories and hospital facilities, with the BSL recommendations being regarded as a minimum set of practices. Guidelines for biosafety therefore need to take into consideration the entire environment that the BSL laboratories are situated in. For example, biosafety precautions go beyond the laboratories to the entire hospital and research centre environment where the laboratories are normally situated. While there are slight differences in definitions and categorisations across the three organisations, the overall thrust is for all potential hazards and processes to be taken into account so as to mitigate risks to laboratory users when handling microorganisms. The school environment poses additional risks in microorganisms. >? schools, we are dealing with minors to appreciate the potential risks involved when working on microorganisms.

2

The NIH and CDC are organisations based in the United states of America.

~ 231-

the handling who are less

of able

Chapter 3 Hazardous materials

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

Unlike full-time adult researchers, who are required to be very disciplined in implementing safety measures on a regular basis in laboratories, students in schools are minors and are more likely to compromise on safety. The density of student traffic in the school environment adds to the complexity of containment. >? particular, the risks posed by Risk Group II (RG-II) and higher categorisation microorganisms demand the need for greater expertise and caution. Risk Group II microorganisms are pathogens that can cause human disease. Under normal circumstances, these microorganisms are unlikely to pose a serious hazard, but can infect handlers who for example, have low immunity or an open wound. Examples of RG-II microorganisms include human herpes, hepatitis and rubella viruses. >? addition, the use of fresh tissue or blood/body fluids obtained from humans and vertebrates have also been linked to risks of causing disease as these may host human pathogens. Overall, having considered the need to strike a balance in enabling schools to explore a wide range of investigations and experiments involving microorganisms and the safety of staff and students, MOE has decided that:

Schools must restrict work involving microorganisms to those Risk Group I listed in Annex B while ensuring Biosafety Biosafety Level containment and practising proper disposal;

The use of human or cultures in schools is prohibited; and

The use of human or animal blood/blood products is prohibited.

vertebrate/mammalian

cell

and

in 1

tissue

3.2.1. Risk classification of microorganisms microorganisms The following microorganisms: a.

section

is

an

elaboration

of

the

risk

classification

All microorganisms should be treated as potential human pathogens. Human pathogens are classified into four Risk Groups, I to IV (IV being the most dangerous), based on the following factors: i.

Pathogenicity of the agent (that is, the degree of harm the agent has on humans).

ii.

Infectiousness of the dose.

iii.

Mode of transmission of the agent.

iv.

Host range of the agent.

V.

Availability of effective preventive measures; and

vi.

Availability of effective treatment.

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of

Chapter 3 Hazardous materials

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

b.

This classification also determines the type of laboratories that should be used, ranging from those which can be adequately handled by teaching and research laboratories to those which require maximum containment laboratory facilities.

c.

The risk levels of microorganisms in Risk Groups I to IV 3 and the types of laboratories capable of handling them are given below. Examples of microorganisms in each of the risk groups can be found in Annex c. Risk Group I These microorganisms are of low risk to the individual and the community. They are unlikely to cause diseases in healthy individuals. These microorganisms can be handled in teaching laboratories, including those in schools. Risk Group Group II These microorganisms are of moderate risk to the individual but of low risk to the community. They can cause human diseases but under normal circumstances, are unlikely to be a serious hazard to laboratory users, the community, livestock, or the environment. Laboratory exposures rarely cause infection leading to serious disease. Effective treatment and preventive measures are available and the risk of the disease spreading is limited. The handling of Risk Group II microorganisms requires laboratories with appropriate biosafety cabinets. Risk Group III These microorganisms are of high risk to the individual but of low risk to the community. They usually cause human diseases but do not ordinarily spread by casual contact from one individual to another, and can be treated by anti-microbial agents. The handling of Risk Group III microorganisms requires special containment facilities available in diagnostic or research laboratories. Risk Group IV These microorganisms are of high risk to the individual and the They usually produce very serious human community. diseases, often unbeatable, and may be readily transmitted from one individual to another or from animal to human or viceversa, directly or indirectly, or by casual contact. The handling of Risk Group IV microorganisms requires maximum containment laboratories.

d.

3

The Ministry of Health (MOH) is the regulatory authority for the import of human pathogens in Singapore. The import of

Adapted from the World Health Organisation publication,

(2004).

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Laboratory Biosafety Manual, 3rd edition

Chapter 3 Hazardous materials

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

microorganisms of Risk Groups II to IV (or Schedule 1, 2, 4 biological agents) 4 require permits from the Biosafety Branch, MOH. Pathogens of zoonotic origin (which could cause disease in humans and animals) are co-regulated by MOH and Agri-Food & Veterinary Authority of Singapore (AVA). e.

Schools must restrict work involving microorganisms to those in Risk Group I that are listed in Annex B.

3.2.2. Handling of microorganisms in the laboratory a.

Microorganisms are a potential hazard to persons performing microbiological experiments. Working with microorganisms requires special handling, storage and disposal techniques.

b.

All work must be supervised by a trained teacher or qualified supervisor. Teachers and students must be aware of the importance of safety precautions associated with microbiological experiments and must ensure the use of proper aseptic handling techniques at all times. The teacher should exercise professional judgement when deciding whether teacher demonstration for a particular procedure is to be used over students working on individual experiments.

c.

Teachers must be aware of the hazards infectious/pathogenic microorganisms and sources. Occurrences of accidental infections may be caused by the following:

presented by the their possible laboratory-acquired

i.

Hand-to-mouth operations such as chewing, sucking, licking labels or mouth pipetting. These should be strictly prohibited during microbiological experiments. Pipette fillers should be used when transferring liquid cultures by pipettes.

ii.

Entry of microorganisms from dissecting instruments through cuts body. All cuts on the body surface water-proof dressing before experiments.

used glassware and and scratches on the should be covered with starting microbiological

iii. Contact and exposure to spills of microbial cultures. Airborne contaminants entering the body through the respiratory tract via inhalation of the aerosols 5 formed above the microbial cultures. iv. Accidental syringe inoculation or sprays from syringes.

4

Guidelines on the Import, Transport, Handling and Disposal of Human Pathogens for Diagnosis, Scientific Research and Industrial Uses in Singapore (2004), for Please refer to the MOH publication,

more information. 5 Fine droplets of water containing cells and/or spores of microorganisms that are released into the air can be formed whenever liquid surfaces are broken or materials are crushed. The resulting particles, which are very minute, are easily carried by air currents and can penetrate the respiratory system.

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Chapter 3 Hazardous materials

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

d.

All work surfaces should be swabbed with a cloth/absorbent towel soaked in an appropriate disinfectant (refer to Annex D, D i s i nfec t a n ts ) before and after all microbiological operations and sufficient time should be allowed for the disinfection to occur.

e.

Liquid disinfectants and germicidal agents generally have limited effectiveness. For complete sterilisation, all apparatus used in microbiological experiments must be autoclaved.

f.

Specially designed bins provided by licensed waste collectors must be used for the disposal of used pipette tips and syringes after autoclaving.

g.

Microorganisms should never be isolated from potentially dangerous sources such as polluted water, human mucus, pus and faeces. Blood agar culture media should never be used. Only known microorganisms from recognised suppliers should be used for inoculation. Microorganisms of unknown pathogenicity or from unknown sources should not be brought into a school laboratory without proper precautions and authorisation.

h.

An investigation using unknown microorganisms that are unlikely to cause disease in humans or animals may be treated as a BSL-1 study and carried out in a school science laboratory under the following conditions: i.

The microorganism is cultured in a other standard non-breakable container) and sealed.

plastic

ii.

The experiment involves only procedures in which the Petri dish remains sealed throughout the experiment (such as counting the organisms or colonies).

iii. The sealed Petri dish is disposed of in the manner under the supervision of the teacher laboratory technician.

Petri

appropriate or trained

iv. A culture must not be opened for identification, subculturing or isolation. >? this context, the culture should be treated as containing RG-II or higher risk level microorganisms. Working with this culture is therefore prohibited in the school. Please refer cultures.

to

section

3.2.7.

for

information

~ 235-

on

disposing

microbial

dish

(or

Chapter 3 Hazardous materials

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

3.2.3. 3.2.3. Culturing microorganisms in the laboratory a.

All work involving microbial using aseptic techniques.

b.

Microbial cultures may sometimes be contaminated by microorganisms that may be potentially pathogenic. Cultures should always be handled with caution.

c.

Microbial cultures used for class inspection should be kept in the sealed containers in which they are grown to prevent contamination and infection. The containers should be autoclaved before disposal.

d.

When culturing bacteria, it is Petri dishes be used. After the be autoclaved before disposal.

e.

for If it is necessary for students to open cultures the cultures must first be killed. This can be examination, done by placing a filter paper moistened with 40% (v/v) ?Rethanal (formalin) solution in the culture dish, in an inverted position, 24 hours before the examination. Eye protection, gloves, masks or face protection and careful handling are necessary.

f.

A pipette should never be used to bubble air through liquid cultures or contaminated liquid. One should also not blow liquid out of the pipette forcefully. Both of these actions will produce microbial aerosols. Contaminated pipettes should be immersed in a germicidal solution immediately after use and then autoclaved.

g.

During the inoculation of cultures, precautions must be taken to prevent the contamination of persons and work surfaces as well as the contamination of the culture media with unwanted microorganisms.

h.

Culture media, Petri dishes, pipettes, droppers used in the inoculation process should be sterilised by autoclaving before use.

i.

Inoculating loops and spreaders should be sterilised before and after inoculation. They can be sterilised by immersing in 70% (v/v) alcohol first, followed by flame heating. Use of individually wrapped sterile spreader and loops are encouraged. The mouths of all containers, tubes, flasks and McCartney bottles should also be heat sterilised using a flame after removing the caps and before the caps are replaced. This should be done with caution and away from flammable materials.

j.

cultures

should

be

recommended that disposable experiment, the dishes should

and glass rods pre-sterilised or

The film held by an inoculating loop used for microorganisms may break and contaminate Any action that might result in producing a microbial aerosol

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performed

the the

transfer of atmosphere.

Chapter 3 Hazardous materials

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

must be avoided, for example, jerky motion, shaking the loop and agitating the liquid. A contaminated loop, when placed immediately into a flame for sterilisation, may also produce an aerosol through volatilisation. To prevent aerosol production, use disposable loops. k.

The lids of Petri dishes should be opened only just enough to allow the inoculating tool to be manipulated and for as short a time as possible.

I.

Petri dishes should be incubated in avoid condensation dripping onto cultures.

an

inverted

position

to

m. During incubation, the lid of the Petri dish should be secured to the base with tape or paraffin film so that the lid cannot be accidentally removed. ?.

Yeast cultures generate considerable quantities dioxide gas. Therefore, the incubation containers plugged with cotton wool to allow excess gas to escape.

of carbon should be

3.2.4. Recombinant DNA involving microorganisms a.

All recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology studies involving RG-I microorganisms and RG-I host vector systems may be conducted in a BSL-1 laboratory under the supervision of a trained teacher or qualified scientist. Examples include cloning of DNA in Es c h er i c hi a c ol i K-12, S a c c h ar o my c e s c e r ev i s i a e , and B a c i l l us s u bti l i s host-vector systems, students must be properly trained in standard microbiological practices before starting work.

b.

Work involving host-vector systems with as vectors may be conducted in a plasmids under the supervision of a trained teacher or qualified scientist.

c.

Biological expression systems are vectors and host cells that fulfil a number of criteria that make them safe to use. A good example of a biological expression system suitable for use in schools is plasmid pUC18 (or derivatives thereof), which is c ol i frequently used as a cloning vector in combination with E. K-12 cells. The pUC18 plasmid and its derivatives have been entirely sequenced. More importantly, all genes required for efficient transfer to other bacteria have been deleted from the precursor plasmid pBR322 providing significant containment, c ol i K-12 is a strain that is, the plasmid is non-conjugative. E. E. coli strains that lacks the genes known to render some E. c ol i K-12 cannot permanently pathogenic. Furthermore, colonise the gut of healthy humans or animals. Thus, most routine genetic engineering experiments can be performed E. coli K-12/pUC18 at BSL-1 provided the inserted safely in foreign DNA sequences do not require a higher BSL.

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nonnon-conjugative BSL-1 laboratory,

Chapter 3 Hazardous materials

d.

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

Work involving the following are prohibited when: i.

ii.

The expression of DNA pathogenic organisms (which may the genetically modified organism); Inserted DNA sequences example, during preparation pathogenic microorganisms;

are of

sequences increase

the

derived from virulence of

not well characterised, genomic DNA libraries

for from

iii. Gene products have potential pharmacological activity; and iv. Recombinants other human, involved. These BSL-1.

conditions

containing plant or

would

DNA animal

warrant

coding toxins

biosafety

levels

for oncogenes (including viruses)

higher

or are

than

3.2.5. Storage and labelling of microorganisms and culture media a.

It is unwise to store microorganisms in schools for any length of time except perhaps to maintain cultures for future microbiological work. Such microorganisms should be sub-cultured every three months or so. Aseptic techniques must be used each time.

b.

Prepared culture media should be properly sterilised by autoclaving to prevent possible contamination by spores of pathogenic bacteria from the atmosphere. Once sterilised by autoclaving, the culture media may be stored for several months in tightly-sealed screw-capped bottles.

c.

For long-term storage, powder or tablets.

d.

All containers containing microorganisms must be properly labelled. Petri dishes containing microbial cultures must be clearly labelled, for example, with permanent ink. The following should be included on the label:

culture

media

should

i.

Name of the microorganism and culture medium.

ii.

Date of start of culture.

iii.

Date of completion of culture.

iv.

Name of student and teacher.

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be

stored

as

dry

Chapter 3 Hazardous materials

e.

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

All containers for microorganisms must display the biohazard symbol. The international biohazard symbol is:

Infectious substance f.

The above biohazard symbol should also be displayed Petri-dishes containing microorganisms are stored. example, the symbol could be displayed on an incubator.

where For

3.2.6. Handling and storage of tissue and body fluids a.

Studies involving fresh tissue, blood or body fluids obtained from humans or vertebrates are prohibited in schools as these may contain microorganisms and have the potential of causing disease. i.

Any study involving higher categorisation schools.

ii.

Studies involving human or products should be considered as are therefore prohibited in schools.

body fluids which biological agents

contain RG-2 RG is prohibited

animal BSL-2 BSL

or in

blood/blood and studies

b.

Studies involving human or and tissue cultures should also studies and are prohibited in schools.

c.

Studies involving human breast milk of unknown origin, unless certified free of HIV and Hepatitis c, should be considered as BSL-2. Studies involving domestic animal milk may be considered as BSL-1.

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vertebrate/mammalian cell BSL-2 be considered as BSL

Chapter 3 Hazardous materials

d.

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

The following types of tissues do not need to be treated as potentially hazardous biological agents: i.

Plant tissue.

ii.

Human cheek cells DNA is easily obtained from human cheek cells, for example, through a mouth wash. Extraction of human cheek cells should be done from healthy individuals. Individuals who are unwell (for example, having a cough, cold or fever) should not perform the procedure. The procedure must be designed to minimise possible risks of transmission of infective agents between individuals (for example, having students work only with their own DNA samples). Parental consent must be sought if any genetic work is to be done using human cheek cells. cells. Annex E provides a sample of a consent form that may be used.

typing

Culturing of human cheek cells is prohibited. iii.

Meat or meat by-products restaurants, or packing houses.

obtained

from

food

stores,

iv. Hair. V.

Teeth that have been sterilised to kill any blood borne pathogen that may be present (Chemical disinfection or autoclaving at 121 c for 20 minutes is recommended).

vi.

Fossilised tissue or archaeological specimens.

vii. Prepared fixed tissue slides.

3.2.7. Disposal of biological materials a.

Laboratory waste must be decontaminated so that it will leave the laboratory premises or be recycled without posing significant health risks. Annex A illustrates the various methods of treatment of contaminated materials and apparatus.

b.

Reusable glassware (for example, flasks and pipettes) laboratory coats that are not heat sensitive should autoclaved. Items that are heat sensitive should be disinfected.

c.

All biohazardous waste (for example, agar plates, plastic pipettes, glass slides), including biological liquid waste should be autoclaved or disinfected. After decontamination, if the waste contains toxic chemical waste, it should be collected and disposed of by an NEA-licensed toxic chemical waste collector.

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and be

Chapter 3 Hazardous materials

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

If the disinfected waste contains no toxic chemicals, it can be disposed of as normal waste. Using an autoclave d.

Contaminated apparatus or materials should be placed in a doubled-layered autoclave bag (1 bag inside another to prevent leakage into the autoclave) and heat sterilised. Heat sterilisation at 121 째c for 20 minutes should be adequate in most cases.

Using disinfectants e.

Contaminated apparatus and materials should be soaked in either 10% (v/v) Lysol or 15 to 20% (v/v) chlorine bleach for at least 15 minutes. For contaminated liquid cultures, household bleach (5.25% (V/v) sodium hypochlorite) should be added up to a concentration of 10% (v/v) and left to stand for 1 hour.

f.

Contaminated sharp or pointed objects (for example, needles, disposable pipettes, glass slides, cover slips, ?Ricropipette tips, razor blades, scalpel, broken glass) should be properly disposed of into specially designed bins provided by an NEA-licensed biohazardous waste collector.

g.

Dead animals collection by disposal.

h.

It is not necessary to disinfect materials that have come into contact with DNA and restriction enzymes (for example, from gel electrophoresis). These materials can be disposed of as normal waste.

should be a licensed

properly packed and frozen until biohazardous waste collector for

A list of licensed waste collectors can be obtained from the Internet website maintained by the National Environment Agency (NEA). The hyperlink to this site can be found at: http://intranet.moe.gov.sg/science/labsafety/labsafety.htm http://intranet.moe.gov.sg/science/labsafety/labsafety.htm

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Chapter 3 Hazardous materials

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

3.2.8. NACLAR guidelines on the use of vertebrate animals a.

The Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority (AVA) has introduced licensing requirements to regulate the care and use of animals for research. From 15 November 2004, the Animals and Birds (Care and Use of Animals for Scientific Purposes) Rules came into effect requiring any research facility that uses animals for scientific purposes to apply for a licence from AVA. The research facility must comply with Guidelines set by the National Advisory Committee for Laboratory Animal Research (NACLAR) before being issued a licence. The Guidelines cover all live fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.

b.

Schools are not licensed to deal with a large number of animals used frequently for testing. If and when students work on investigations involving animals, they are to do so in the context of participation in the Singapore Science & Engineering Fair or attachments to universities or A*STAR research institutes. >? these cases, the projects would have to be reviewed and approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).

c.

Schools should raise the awareness of staff and students to the importance of care, concern and respect for animal life as provided in the NACLAR Guidelines. The philosophy of the Guidelines is for careful and due consideration to be given to the care and use of animals for scientific purposes. The following will be important points for schools to note: i.

The purpose of and responsible purposes.

ii.

The key is to always examine whether there is a justifiable scientific purpose and value for using animals. The following "3 R'I" Principles of the NACLAR guidelines are useful to note: • •

the Guidelines is to promote the humane care and use of animals for scientific

R e pl ac e the need for animal use by alternative means. R e d uc e the number of animals used to an unavoidable minimum.

R efi n e investigation procedures to minimise the impact on animals.

For more information on the NACLAR please Guidelines, refer to the Internet site maintained by AVA. The site can be accessed via the hyperlink at: http://intranet.moe.gov.sg/science/labsafety/labsafety.htm

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Chapter 3 Hazardous materials

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

3.3. Chemicals 3.3.1. Classification of hazardous chemicals a.

Chemicals may be corrosive, toxic or harmful by inhalation, skin absorption or ingestion. > ? the following sections, some hazardous chemicals commonly encountered in the laboratory are described and the appropriate precautions outlined.

b.

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) accompany all (MSDS) commercially available chemicals and contain information necessary for the safe handling of hazardous or potentially hazardous chemicals. Some examples of the types of information provided by an MSDS for a chemical include: i.

The product name, chemical name and formula;

ii.

Physical and chemical properties;

iii. Hazard identification chemical, adverse overexposure; and

-

types health

of hazard(I) effects and

posed by symptoms

iv. Measures to deal with spillage or accidental release. Specific MSDS for chemicals may also Internet. Some hyperlinks can be found at:

be

obtained

from

the

http://intranet.moe.gov.sg/science/labsafety/labsafety.htm

c.

d.

Classifications Oxidising Flammable Corrosive Irritant Mutagenic Carcinogenic

Some chemicals show acute effects upon contact and may cause irritation or corrosion after short-term exposure. Chemicals like heavy metals may have high chronic toxicity. Others may be carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic (damaging to the embryo or foetus). Examples of these chemicals available in some school laboratories are ethidium bromide, methanal (formaldehyde) and chloroform. A summary of some broad hazard classifications and corresponding effects is given in the table below. Effects Flammable properties even when not in contact with other combustible materials Low flash point Can cause skin burns Can cause significant skin inflammation Can cause heritable genetic damage Can cause cancer

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the of

Chapter 3 Hazardous materials

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

3.3.2. Labelling of hazardous chemicals a.

b.

Reagent bottles for hazardous appropriate warning labels. Labels on chemicals should bear the following information i.

Identity of the chemical, generic chemical name

ii.

Hazard warning in words information regarding the reactivity of the chemical equipment required.

These hazard labels wherever appropriate.

which

should

Oxidising

may

chemicals should carry the storage containers of

be

a

trade

name

or

or symbols, which provide health hazard, flammability, and the personal protective

be

prominently

displayed

Flammable

Harmful or Irritant

3.3.3. Handling of commonly used chemicals in the laboratory laboratory a.

The following measures should be observed when handling hazardous chemicals:

Toxic

Explosive

i.

Care should be taken in selecting protective equipment to ensure that it is fitting and appropriate for protection against the hazardous chemical.

ii.

Work area involving hazardous designated and labelled.

chemicals

should

be

clearly

iii. All work surfaces should be covered with stainless steel or plastic trays, dry absorbent plastic-backed paper or other impervious material in order to contain any spills. Please see section 5.4 on chemical spills.

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Chapter 3 Hazardous materials

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

iv.

Procedures that involve volatile chemicals or may result in the release of airborne contaminants should be performed in a chemical fume cupboard. This includes the weighing of hazardous chemicals.

V.

Hands must chemicals.

be

thoroughly

washed

after

any

contact

with

Concentrated acids b.

Proper protective equipment (protective gloves, safety goggles and laboratory coats) must be worn when handling concentrated acids. Work should be carried out in a fume cupboard. Any contact of the chemical with the skin should be washed with plenty of water immediately.

c.

When diluting acids, always add the acid slowly to water, never water to the acid. Mixing with water produces heat, which may result in splashes or the formation of hazardous mists.

Concentrated ammonia d.

Work involving concentrated ammonia must be performed in a fume cupboard as ammonia vapour is highly pungent, severely irritating and tear-inducing. Proper protective equipment must be worn.

e.

Bottles containing concentrated ammonia should with care as pressure may accumulate inside the bottles.

be

opened

Hydrogen peroxide f.

Hydrogen peroxide is a strong oxidiser. Although pure hydrogen peroxide is fairly stable, it decomposes into water and oxygen (which in turn supports combustion) when heated above about 80째c. It also decomposes in the presence of catalysts like most metals and acids'

g.

It is advisable to put on gloves and safety goggles when handling hydrogen peroxide as it irritates the skin and can cause eye burns.

Metals - mercury h.

Mercury can be found in liquid-in-bulb thermometers. Mercury must not be used as a chemical in school laboratories. The vapour is poisonous in concentrations as low as 1 ppm.

i.

Mercury spills usually arise from broken mercury-filled thermometers. Spills should be cleared by the teacher or a laboratory staff member. Mercury droplets can be collected, for example, using a capillary tube or dropper. Any remaining traces of mercury should be covered with sulphur to produce a

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Chapter 3 Hazardous materials

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

non-volatile salt of the metal which should be disposed toxic solid waste. Note that salts of mercury are also toxic.

of

as

Metals - sodium, lithium and potassium j.

These metals react violently when exposed to moisture and should therefore be stored in oil, in a cool and dry environment. The metals should only be purchased when required for use. Do not store the metals for long periods in the laboratory as superoxides of the metals may form and explode when subject to friction or shock.

Organic chemicals k.

>? general, organic chemicals are flammable and often carcinogenic. Gloves and safety goggles must be worn when handling organic chemicals. Naked flames and ignition sources must be kept away from organic chemicals. Work should be performed in a fume cupboard or a well-ventilated area.

A list of commonly used chemicals in school laboratory experiments together with more information on the handling, storage and disposal of these chemicals is given in Annex D.

3.3.4. General guidelines for storing chemicals chemicals a.

Good housekeeping, regular inspection as well as clear and exact labelling are essential for minimising accidents resulting from the storage of chemicals. The following precautions should be closely observed when storing chemicals: i.

Chemicals should be stored in a cool and well-ventilated place. Chemicals, especially hazardous chemicals, should be stored for easy access by laboratory staff. It is not advisable to store chemicals on high shelves.

ii.

Chemical stores should be examined regularly and checked for its expiry date. Chemicals that show signs of deterioration or are redundant must be disposed of according to established procedures. Refer to the MSDS accompanying each chemical for information on disposal procedures.

should be stored according to hazard iii. Chemicals classification (for example, oxidising, flammable, corrosive and explosive) rather than according to alphabetical order. Incompatible classes of chemicals must be physically separated from each other, for example, by placing them on different shelves or by using a secondary container.

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Chapter 3 Hazardous materials

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Flammable chemicals b.

Flammable chemicals should not be stored on open shelves but should instead be stored in a place where there is no likelihood of ignition from a naked flame. It is advisable to store flammable chemicals in a fire resistant metal cabinet. Flammable chemicals should never be left exposed.

c.

Flammable liquids (for example, alcohol, diethyl ether and propanone) should be stored in a cool place away from heat sources and direct sunlight. Their containers should not be completely filled.

d.

Highly flammable volatile liquids must be labelled "HIGHLY FLAMMABLE" and should not be stored in refrigerators because vapour from flammable liquids may potentially ignite due to electrical sparks from the refrigerator.

e.

Flammable solids must be kept dry or in suitable "immersion" liquids. For example, sodium in paraffin and phosphorus in water. Sodium perchlorate is unstable and potentially explosive when it comes into contact with combustible materials. These flammable solids should be clearly labelled.

Unstable chemicals f.

Unstable chemicals should be stored in a fire resistant cabinet, away from heat and moisture, and regularly inspected.

g.

It is always advisable to keep only a minimum sufficient for current use. Two examples is for chemicals are chlorates(V) and peroxides.

metal

amount that of unstable

Moisture-absorbing chemicals h.

Chemicals which readily absorb moisture must be kept in tightly sealed containers or desiccators. Some examples are, aluminium chloride, calcium chloride, phosphorus(V) chloride, phosphorus(V) oxide, sodium peroxide and thionyl chloride.

Acids and alkalis i.

Main stocks of concentrated sulphuric, nitric and hydrochloric acids, ammonia, and inflammable liquids should be stored as near to floor level as possible.

Incompatible hazard classes of chemicals j.

Incompatible chemicals refer to chemicals that can possibly react violently with each other to produce heat, flammable products or toxic products.

k.

The following table shows two lists of chemicals commonly found in school laboratories. The chemicals in List A are incompatible with those in List B.

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Chapter 3 Hazardous materials

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

List A Organic Flammable Flammable Poison Acid Acid Acid Organic acid Water reactive

I.

List B Oxidiser Oxidiser Poison Corrosive Base Cyanide Sulphide Oxidising acid Aqueous solution

For a comprehensive list of incompatible chemicals, please refer to the Guidelines on Prevention and Control of Chemical that can be obtained from the Ministry of Hazards Manpower Internet website. The hyperlink to this site can be found at: http://intranet.moe.gov.sg/science/labsafety/labsafety.htm

3.3.5. Commonly used hazardous chemicals in Life Sciences experiments The handling procedures for some commonly Life Sciences experiments are described below.

used

hazardous

chemicals

in

Ethidium bromide (EtBr) a.

Students are not allowed to handle EtBr.

b.

Schools should use the suggested checklist in Annex F to ensure that teachers and laboratory technicians meet the necessary criteria before they are allowed to work with EtBr in laboratories.

c.

EtBr, especially in powder form, is mutagenic. It should also be regarded as a possible carcinogen and reproductive toxin. >? solution form, EtBr poses a hazard at concentrations of equal or more than 0.1% (V/v), that is, about 1 mg/ml. EtBr would be less hazardous at concentrations lower than 0.1% (V/V). d. The use of EtBr in its powder form is prohibited. It is strongly recommended that schools purchase and use a pre-mixed 5 mg/ml solution from a supplier. This 5 mg/ml stock

~248~

Chapter 3 Hazardous materials

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

solution can then be diluted to make a staining solution with a final concentration of 1 |0,g/ml (approximately 0.0001 %). e.

Preparation of EtBr solutions must be fume cupboard to prevent exposure by inhalation.

f.

Protective gloves must always be worn when preparing and using EtBr solutions. The use of EtBr should also be limited to a restricted sink area. The area should be marked out clearly and made out of bounds to students.

g.

All contaminated gloves and staining solutions should be disposed of according to accepted laboratory procedures. Electrophoresis buffers and other solutions that come into contact with EtBr should be treated with activated charcoal before disposal. Please see section 3.3.6.d. d. on disposal procedures related to EtBr.

conducted

in

a

Notes of staining of DNA The following chart shows some examples of DNA staining techniques. Where possible, schools should explore using safer alternatives to EtBr such as Methylene blue or SYBR Safe. Care must also be exercised when using these alternatives. Staining of DNA using rhemiralc

other than EtBr Ethidium bromide (EtBr) methods Soaking gels in EtBr

SYBR safe

Methylene blue

Adding a drop of EtBr when casting gels

An alternative method for the staining of DNA Instead of soaking gels in a solution of EtBr, a drop of EtBr solution could be added to the gel before it is polymerised. Generally, 2 ILL> of 5 mg/ml EtBr should be used for every 100 ml of gel. This method allows the DNA to be stained directly in the gel and reduces the risk of EtBr contamination. The gel should subsequently be discarded as solid waste.

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Chapter 3 Hazardous materials

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

Polvacrylamide/acrylamide >R.

Students Students are not allowed to handle polyacrylamide.

i.

Schools should use the suggested checklist in Annex F to ensure that teachers and laboratory technicians meet the necessary criteria before they are allowed to work with polyacrylamide in laboratories.

j.

Acrylamide and bisacrylamide are neurotoxins. The and use of acrylamide and bisacrylamide in purchase powder form to prepare polyacrylamide are strictly prohibited. Schools are permitted to handle and use only precast polyacrylamide (gel) from a reliable supplier.

k.

Appropriate impermeable gloves should protect the skin when handling polyacrylamide.

always

be

worn

to

Ethanol I.

Ethanol is a flammable liquid and its vapour can travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and cause a "flash back". Ethanol vapour also forms explosive mixtures with air at concentrations of 4 to 19% (by volume).

m. Quantities greater than 1 litre should be stored in tightly sealed metal containers in areas separate from oxidisers. Ethanol should not come into contact with strong oxidisers and peroxides as this may result in fires and explosions. Tris powder ?.

A

mask must always be avoid inhaling Tris powder.

worn

over

the

nose

and

mouth

to

3.3.6. Disposal of chemicals a.

The Environmental Public Health (Toxic Industrial strial Waste) Indu 6 to be collected Regulations require certain chemical waste for disposal by licensed toxic chemical waste collectors approved by the National Environment Agency (NEA). A list of licensed toxic chemical waste collectors can be found at the Internet site maintained by NEA. The site can be accessed via the hyperlink at: http://intranet.moe.gov.sg/science/labsafety/labsafety.htm

6

The list of Toxic Industrial/Chemical Waste (under Schedule 1) is stated in Appendix 6 of the National

Environment Agency's

Code of Practice on Pollution Control (amended in 2004). ~250~

Chapter 3 Hazardous materials

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

Y.

Chemical waste from laboratories includes used chemicals, expired laboratory chemicals, used oil and coolant, used organic solvent and ethidium bromide waste. Organic waste must be separated from aqueous waste. Waste organic solvents used in DNA extraction, for example, phenol, chloroform and isoamyl-alcohol are to be collected in clearly labelled chemical waste bottles, separating phenol-chloroform waste from alcohol waste.

c.

All chemical waste bottles NEA-licensed toxic waste collectors.

d.

Special care must be taken for the disposal of the following:

should

be

disposed

of

by

Ethidium bromide i.

Electrophoresis buffer waste contaminated with EtBr has to be treated with activated carbon bags (for example, Bio101 EtBr Green Bags) overnight before discharging into a dilution tank.

ii.

Agarose gels and EtBr Green bags contaminated with EtBr dyes should be collected in a biohazard bag (doublebagged) and disposed of by a licensed toxic chemical waste collector.

Polyacrylamide i.

The used precast forms of polyacrylamide should be collected in a biohazard bag and disposed of by a licensed toxic chemical waste collector.

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Chapter 4 Fire prevention and control

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

4. FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL CONTROL 4.1. Fire prevention a.

Combustible materials, potentially explosive substances, fuel sources, electrical supplies, and reactions evolving large amounts of heat and mechanical energy constitute the main fire hazards within the laboratory.

b.

There should be an awareness of properties of substances. Highly reactive hazard in the laboratory setting.

c.

Many commonly used organic solvents have properties that constitute a serious fire hazard. The following are common hazards of organic solvents: i.

the physical and chemicals constitute

chemical a major

Low flash point The fl as h p o i n t is the lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off vapour in sufficient quantity to ignite with air when a spark or flame is applied. For example, the flash point of ethanol (ethyl alcohol) is 13째c.

ii.

Ease of ignition of vapour Vapour-air mixtures can be ignited by a very electrical energy such as a static discharge, the contacts, or even the shorting of small dry cell batteries.

iii.

small amount of sparking of relay

Properties in confined spaces Volatile solvents kept in confined spaces readily vaporise to produce an air/vapour mixture that is explosive. For example, ethanol, diethyl ether and propanone at percentages as low as one or two percent of vapour in air are explosive. These solvents should be kept in a well-ventilated area.

iv.

Spills If the spill of the flammable substance is large, Civil Defence Force recommends the immediate the area and notification of the Singapore Civil Defence Force.

d.

Gases such as hydrogen, methane, and propane hazards because of the ease of their ignition and concentration of explosive gas/air mixtures.

e.

Precautions similar oxygen as well.

to

those

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of

flammable

gases

should

the Singapore evacuation of

pose wide

be

explosion limits of

taken

for

Chapter 4 Fire prevention and control

4.2.

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

Fire control Clothing or hair on fire

4.2.1.

4.2.2.

a.

Water is the most effective extinguisher on an individual.

remedy.

Never

use

a

fire

b.

A fire blanket should be used to smother the fire by wrapping the blanket around the burning individual.

Explosion

The following measures should be followed in the event of an explosion in the laboratory:

4.2.3.

4.3.

a.

Extinguish all burners and heaters.

b.

Stop adding reagents.

c.

Evacuate present.

d.

Assist the injured by giving the necessary first aid.

e.

Follow the school's protection procedures.

the

room

immediately

fire

since

evacuation

toxic

gases

procedures

or

may

be

in-place

Fire a.

The first concern and responsibilities of teachers should evacuate students from the fire area. The potential from the fire must be determined immediately.

b.

If there is a possibility that the fire might spread or present a danger to the students in the room, the fire alarm must be sounded and the main office notified.

c.

If working with biohazardous materials when the fire alarm rings, cap all bottles of media, cells, etc., and leave the room, closing the door behind you.

Fire fighting a. i.

The following procedures should be followed in dealing with fires: For small fires, for example, fires contained within a beaker, test tube, or other small container, smother with an incombustible mat or an appropriate cover. Small fires may also be put out using a bucket of sand.

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be to danger

Chapter 4 Fire prevention and control

b.

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

ii.

For larger fires, cool the physical area immediately surrounding the fire with an extinguisher to prevent the flames from spreading. Then, extinguish the base of the blaze and smother the scattered remains of the fire. Please see section 4.4. for some examples of types of fire extinguishers.

iii.

For electrical fires, turn off the main switch or pull the plug if it can be safely done. Do not use water to extinguish the fire.

As teachers are not professional fire fighters, help should be where necessary, from the Singapore Civil Defence Force to fires.

4.4. Fire extinguishers a.

Fire extinguishers should be regularly inspected and maintained. The shelf-life should also be noted.

b.

Types and uses of fire extinguishers:

Type

To b e us e d f o r

NOT t o b e us e d f or

Water

Paper, wood fabric

Electrical fires, flammable liquids, burning metals Alkali metals, paper

C02 Dry powder Foam

c.

Flammable liquids and gases, electrical fires Flammable liquids and gases, alkali metals, electrical fires Flammable liquids

Electrical fires

The following four steps are generally applicable to operating a fire extinguisher - P ul l , A i m , S q u e ez e and S w e e p (PASS) p - Pull out the safety device of the fire extinguisher. A - Aim the nozzle at the base of the fire. I - Squeeze the top lever of the fire extinguisher. I - Sweep the discharge over the entire area of the fire.

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sought control

Chapter 5 Accidents and emergencies

5. ACCIDENTS

School Science Laboratory Safety Regulations

AND EMERGENCIES EMERGENCIES

5.1. Accidents in the laboratory a.

If an accident occurs in a laboratory, the teacher in the laboratory or laboratory staff should take reasonable and appropriate measures to contain the situation. Teachers and laboratory staff should also know and use the school's standard operational procedure in the event of emergencies.

b.

First aid and emergency procedures could save lives. The 7 guidelines listed below can help laboratory users respond to emergencies. i.

Remain calm.

ii.

Do not move the casualty unless he or she is in immediate danger.

iii.

Call for a doctor or an ambulance.

iv.

Initiate life saving measures if required.

general medical

5.2. Emergency response contact list a.

Each laboratory should have an emergency response contact list. The list should be located near the exit of the laboratory and near a telephone. An example of the information that could be included in the list is given in Annex G.

5.3. Biological spills 5.3.1. Dealing with microorganism spills

7

a.

When pursuing investigations involving microorganisms, I schools are restricted to using the Group Risk microorganisms listed in Annex B.

b.

Students must be reminded microorganisms to their teacher.

c.

Microorganism spills should be cleaned up immediately by the teacher or laboratory staff. > ? addition, other laboratory users must be alerted or warned of the spill.

d.

Appropriate personal protective equipment (laboratory coat, disposable gloves, safety goggles and footwear) should be used for all decontamination and clean-up operations. This will minimise contact with contaminated surfaces and protect the eyes and skin surfaces from exposure to spilled materials.

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