Cleantech Corridor 2010 Competition
The Cleantech Corridor book documents the Los Angeles Cleantech Corridor and Green District Competition, an open ideas competition hosted by SCI‐Arc and The Architect's Newspaper in Fall 2010.
--�-------------------------------------------���������������������--���������������������� SCI-Arc Cleantech Corridor An Open Ideas Competition Edited by David Bergman and Peter Zellner Credits Editors: David Bergman, Peter Zellner Design and Photography: Seth Ferris Photography Archive: USC Libraries Special Collections All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopy, recording or any other information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission from the Southern California Institute of Architecture. Copyright �2011 SCI-Arc Southern California Institute of Architecture 960 East 3rd Street Los Angeles, CA 90013 Acknowledgements The Los Angeles Cleantech Corridor & Green District Competition is sponsored by the Southern California Institute of Architecture and The Architect's Newspaper. The competition is presented by the Community Redevelopment Agency of the City of Los Angeles, City of Los Angeles, Department of Cultural Affairs, Quercus Trust, and Latham & Watkins LLP. Competition partners include the Mayor of the City of Los Angeles' Office of Economic and Business Policy, Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Clean Tech LA, and U.S. Green Building Council, Los Angeles Chapter. We would especially like to extend our gratitude to our jury for their time and commitment to this project. We thank Stan Allen, Hsinming Fung, Cris B. Liban, Michael Maltzan, Dennis McGlade, Romel Pascual, Nikolas Patsaouras and Donald Spivack. This project is made possible in part by a grant from the City of Los Angeles, Department of Cultural Affairs. Contents -----------------------------------------------------About SCI-Arc 6 -----------------------------------------------------About the Future Initiatives Program 7 -----------------------------------------------------Competition Credits 9 -----------------------------------------------------The Exception is the Rule 11 Eric Owen Moss -----------------------------------------------------The Self Sustaining City 13 Sam Lubell -----------------------------------------------------Cleantech Discussion 15 David Bergman and Peter Zellner -----------------------------------------------------Competition Jury Commentary 25 -----------------------------------------------------Industrial Los Angeles 1900�1935 33 -----------------------------------------------------Industrial Los Angeles 2011 49 -----------------------------------------------------Professional Winners 75 -----------------------------------------------------Student Winners 115 -----------------------------------------------------Selected Entries 133 6 About SCI-Arc Eric Owen Moss Director Hsinming Fung Director of Academic Affairs Hernan Diaz Alonso Graduate Programs Chair John Enright Undergraduate Program Chair The Southern California Institute of Architecture is dedicated to educating architects to imagine and shape the future. It is an independent, accredited institution offering undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate programs in architecture. SCI-Arc's faculty is composed of approximately 80 esteemed architects, theorists, writers, and artists renowned for confronting conventional architecture and education. Studio interaction is open and intensive. Students are rigorously challenged to re-examine assumptions, and to create, explore, and provoke the boundaries of architecture. Through public lectures, panel discussions, events, and gallery exhibitions, SCI-Arc embraces its connection to the community, and establishes an intimate relationship to both Los Angeles and its 500 students, many of whom choose to study here from countries worldwide. Attracting local and international students, faculty, and members of the interested public inside and outside of architecture, SCI-Arc is at once a school and a forum for cultural discourse. Located in an open space building that runs a quarter-mile long and stands over 30 feet high, SCI-Arc's studios are spacious and bright. Originally built in 1907, the Santa Fe Freight Depot was eventually phased from use, and the building remained vacant through the 1990s. Covered in years layered by graffiti artists, it wore the beginnings of an emerging Arts District, which would gradually infuse and renew the eastside of downtown Los Angeles. Sensing the strength of its pulse, SCI-Arc made it home in 2000. Today SCI-Arc is a lively and integral part of a historic and future-tense cultural center, surrounded by a diversity of residential options, urban infrastructure, and attractions. 7 About the Future Initiatives Program David Bergman Coordinator Peter Zellner Coordinator SCI-Arc Future Initiatives (SCIFI) is a one-year post-professional degree program leading to a Master of Design Research (M.DesR) in City Design, Planning, and Policy. Open to applicants with a professional degree in architecture or a bachelor's degree or equivalent in any field, the program requires attendance in the fall, spring, and summer terms. SCIFI is focused on promoting innovation within design, policy, and planning in response to the economic, social, and environmental futures of global cities and regions. Future Initiatives is dedicated to supporting investigations into the impacts of urban and planning policy, transnational financial markets, real estate speculation, and socio-economic globalization on the evolution of local urban fabrics. SCIFI provides an integrated curricular focus on urban issues of scale. It is positioned as a local, national, and international center for the discussion of urban futures, contingent and variable planning strategies, and the development of advanced tools for urban research and design. Combining intensive research into the near-term future of cities with the use of current open-source design tools, SCIFI aims to invent new ways of modeling and testing variable urban design scenarios. Working over three sequenced terms, SCIFI students develop solutionseeking urban research and urban design methods/techniques/processes grounded in the study of the history of the city, urban and regional development methods, city planning, and city management tools. Students integrate skills from across SCI-Arc's programs including design technologies, cultural studies, and hard technology applications. The SCIFI program is calibrated to incrementally build research skills, urban design expertise, and unique strategic thinking about cities and urban regions. By working from the unique, local, and particular, to the large, global, and generic, SCIFI students gain expertise in the subject of city-making through a comprehensive, nuanced understanding of a city's history and design across scales. This careful sequencing of context and city-scale-based teaching, merged with intensive workshop-based learning, is intended to inculcate increased control over the subject of city formation, paralleled by a growing mastery of new urban research methodologies and urban design tools. SCIFI culminates in the production of thesis design or research projects. Working with core and visiting faculty, students generate deliverables that form the basis of a dissertation-quality research portfolio. The goal is for students to apply these experiences as part of an ongoing dialogue with the city formation process. 9 Competition Credits Competition Organizers Hsinming Fung Director of Academic Affairs, SCI-Arc Principal, Hodgetts+Fung Sam Lubell California Editor, Architect's Newspaper Peter Zellner Future Initiatives Program Coordinator, SCI-Arc Principal, ZELLNERPLUS David Bergman Future Initiatives Program Coordinator, SCI-Arc Principal, Metropolitan Research and Economics (MR+E) Competition Panelists David Bergman Future Initiatives Program Coordinator, SCI-Arc Principal, Metropolitan Research and Economics (MR+E) Ralph Bertram Bertram-Boincean-Danielak Hsinming Fung Director of Academic Affairs, SCI-Arc Principal, Hodgetts+Fung Mia Lehrer Principal, Mida Lehrer + Associates Sam Lubell California Editor, Architect's Newspaper Eric Owen Moss Director, SCI-Arc Principal, Eric Owen Moss Architects Romel Pascual Deputy Mayor, City of Los Angeles Thomas Series Director, Labtop Architects Antonio Villaraigosa Mayor, City of Los Angeles Peter Zellner Future Initiatives Program Coordinator, SCI-Arc Principal, ZELLNERPLUS Competition Jury Stan Allen Dean of the School of Architecture, Princeton University Principal, Stan Allen Architects Hsinming Fung Director of Academic Affairs, SCI-Arc Principal, Hodgetts+Fung Cris B. Liban, D.Env., P.E. Environmental Compliance and Services Department Manager, Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority Sam Lubell California Editor, Architect's Newspaper Michael Maltzan Principal, Michael Maltzan Architecture Dennis McGlade President/Partner OLIN, RLA, FASLA Romel Pascual City of Los Angeles Deputy Mayor, Energy and Environment Nikolas Patsaouras Past president of the Board of the Water and Power Commissioners Former board member of the MTA Donald Spivack Deputy Chief of Operations and Policy, Community Redevelopment Agency of the City of Los Angeles Programming Events August 9, 2011 Competition Announcement September 15, 2011 Registration Deadline September 30, 2011 Submission of Entries October 5, 2011 Jury Convened October 9, 2011 Announcement of Winners and Panel Discussion October 9�27, 2011 Exhibition of selected entries 11 The Exception is the Rule Eric Owen Moss Director, SCI-Arc "Cleantech Corridor" sounds like a public relations slogan. It's not. Rather, it suggests the prospect of a entirely re-imagined planning conception for Los Angeles. The Cleantech Corridor on the east perimeter of downtown is precedent setting, step one. Does the city have the will and the capacity to establish that precedent? Heretofore unseen design objects continue to add to the lexicon of experimental Los Angeles architecture. The pro forma is to speculate on form, space, and material we don't yet recognize. We want the exception to rule the rules. But, to date, the same can't be said of the sporadic city planning discourse on the re-conception of infrastructure-zoned Los Angeles. Horizontality �ber alles is the enduring LA planning pro forma. Take off from JFK heading west, and you're immediately over LA. Will the future of the city suggest the city of the future, or simply a re-do of what we've already done? Looking east from the quarter mile long SCI-Arc, across Santa Fe, over the railroad tracks, on to the erstwhile LA river with power grid towers lining its concrete banks, next to the disheveled and largely abandoned 1940's ex-manufacturing and industrial zone, the 134 freeway running north/south, and finally the largely Hispanic Boyle Heights perimeter--SCI-Arc looks out on all that. And that's quintessential LA City: no green, no housing, and the four defining infrastructure components--river, tracks, power grid, freeways-- city, long zoned by water, power, train, and automobile consultants. Anti-urban, urban Los Angeles whose primary organizational structure, intended or not, is largely a consequence of technically defined civil engineering decisions that, over many years, continue to obligate sociological, political, economic, and cultural lives. A city facing backwards, whose human prospect is consistently subordinated to a misplaced technocracy. A recent Los Angles City Planning Director asked me [rhetorically] why should the train engineers continue to design the city? Why indeed? So SCI-Arc sponsored an examination of the prospects for an urban revolution in Los Angeles, subsuming the divisive infrastructure on the edge of downtown with alternative planning conceptions of the SCI-Arc to Boyle Heights Zone. Infrastructure, no longer divisive, but as the foundation for a re-imagined city--the Cleantech Corridor. Perhaps in planning, as in architecture, the planning future of Los Angeles promises the conceptual city of the future. 13 The Self Sustaining City Sam Lubell, Editor The Architect's Newspaper Inventive new uses for mushroom shapes, a river that acts as a community center and energy hub instead of as a storm drain, and districts that breathe and recycle. The winning competitors in the Cleantech Corridor and Green District competition were asked to rethink and redesign the 2,000-acre development zone on the eastern edge of downtown Los Angeles, which the city has set aside for cleantech manufacturing and related uses. Many, including LA Mayor Villaraigosa, have said that the district will be the hub of the city's future economy. The winning professional scheme, "Project Umbrella" revolves around large Mushroom-like structures called solar evaporators that would not only serve as memorable symbols for the area, but via a system of black water treatment and clean water dispersal, would transform large parts of the city grid into greener and more attractive public spaces. The second professional prize went to a scheme called LABTOP, which removes cars from the area through a local rail line and creates a system of lightweight housing on top of the area's existing warehouses. Third prize went to a scheme developed by a team including Buro Happold and Mia Lehrer & Associates that created integrated systems for energy creation (including solar arrays and hydroelectric power), waste management, transportation, and water runoff. The winning student design went to "Messy Tech," developed by a team from the University of Virginia School of Architecture. The project seeks to maximize the area's inherent "messy" jumble of uses and infrastructures and to develop a system of energy generation, water treatment, and circulation corridors to create a vibrant and green new neighborhood. In a time when the city, and the country, are facing severe environmental problems and struggling to find new sources of economic revitalization in the prolonged downturn, the Cleantech corridor should provide a model for the next phase of US urban development. Progress is already being made. Since the competition, the city has named local firm John Friedman Alice Kimm Architects to design their cleantech manufacturing center: 75,000 square feet of office and demonstration space for cleantech research and development companies, located inside an existing masonry building. 15 Cleantech Discussion A discussion on the Cleantech Corridor Competition between David Bergman and Peter Zellner, Coordinators of SCI-Arc's Future Initiatives Program. Peter Zellner In the context of the Future Initiatives program, this is now the second competition that we've run on a subject related to urbanization and development in Los Angeles. Our first competition, held last year, was transit focused (A NEW INFRASTRUCTURE: Innovative Transit Solutions for Los Angeles) and, of course, this one is focused on the subject of the Cleantech Corridor. I think it would be interesting if we could start our conversation by trying to frame some of the issues we tried to address in setting up the competition in the context of other planning and land use initiatives in and around Downtown LA and along the LA river. Perhaps then, we can begin to touch on why it would be necessary or interesting for architects to actually participate in and comment on a process that is quite often, nominally, run by engineers or bureaucrats. David Bergman I think it's important to place all of this in some context, which is to try and understand, first of all, what Cleantech is and why it should necessarily have any physical expression in the city. So, if we talk about Cleantech as a cluster of economic activities that involve using sustainable technologies that are, at their core, innovative in nature--such that there is a focus on the development of new technologies, processes, and techniques--then the Cleantech Corridor should become a center for innovation. The productive milieu matters significantly, and if it is only a type of industrial activity that may be perfectly clean, but there's nothing about it that's particularly innovative or new, then why do it? For example, storage and warehousing of equipment that could be deployed for alternative energy industries, solar panels, or some routinized productions--something that is already a mature industry that doesn't require any new significant technological breakthroughs like, say, wind turbine maintenance and repair � wouldn't seem interesting. Those would all sort of qualify, from the economic development standpoint, as adding clean technology jobs to the economy of Southern California, but don't really get at the opportunity that seems to be implicit in district development. There's a role for design here. PZ I think what's interesting, of course, is that this is where you and I, I think, importantly, read the same situations through very different lenses. I understand where you're going with this--that there are forms of urbanization that don't need architects or quite often don't employ architecture because it is, as you noted, routinized. Therefore, it becomes a subject of a generic urban language, let's say, which is then applied to source facilities or warehousing facilities or industrial facilities. But, one thing we should remind ourselves, of course, is that's only the attitude within the North American context. You know, if you go to Europe, you would find architects being commissioned to take on exactly these sorts of building types and developing unique solutions for mundane programs. Walter van Dijk of NL Architects recently spoke at SCI-Arc and demonstrated how even the most banal things like a waste treatment plant can be given to an architect and receive a kind of aesthetic or, let's say, architectural--not even aesthetic, we should strike that word--can be given architectural meaning. I think that at the crux of this, of this 16 Cleantech Corridor competition, is the question, "Why does architecture matter in the context of any form of large scale urban development?" In my mind, the answer would be that architecture matters because it shows that we can give attention to the things that we live around and in. And so, whether it's a warehouse or it's a co-generation plant, these things actually are architectural opportunities. I think our culture has forgotten that much of the great architecture of the nineteenth century was actually designed for very quotidian, industrial uses. Yet, what's challenging is that architecture at the scale of something like the Cleantech Corridor is always brought to the table as dressing. This is not a lament; it's just a kind of observation. We ran the competition because the tendency is for these things to be looked at from a macroscopic point of view, a macro economic view. And I think what you're saying is, at least in the initial discussion, what implications are on the ground. DB This is why the Cleantech Corridor seems interesting to me, as opposed to any other subject that we could have chosen. It does strike me that, on the level of planning the district at a macro scale to the micro scale, of thinking about an architectural language at the level of the individual project or structure, there's an opportunity here for architecture to really contribute by adding value and catalyzing transformation. And that is what the brief of our Cleantech competition is--a challenge to the general community. That is to say: let's take this strip of the city that has, historically, had an industrial function, but because of the condition of the existing fixed capital stock, has not been particularly well suited to contemporary industrial activities. We then to step back and to say, "What is it about this place? Why is it logical for this to be a locus of activity for these Cleantech industries? What can catalyze and make that happen?" I think this is where we enter into the discourse from our program and though SCI-Arc, to say that design can have an integral role in that transformation, so that it's logical. PZ I agree with you, but I think it's not only that, it's really that it flows both ways. I think that architects, by and large, don't understand the macroeconomic mechanisms that drive the city and therefore tend to be at the very end of the urban development cycle. Therefore, we don't participate, let's say, as deliverers of an architectural resolution to a particular urban problem, until everything has been kind of set in place. And so, the architect is generally strapped into, for lack of a better word, a kind of gilding-the-lily function in city-making, sort of dolling-up something that already has a particular dimensional, functional, and economic quality or logic. And that's why, when one goes out to the Inland Empire, so much of the retail distribution center, malls and housing developments have no architecture per se. They're just very large functioning pieces of a kind of big circuit. DB Right. They're a kind of infrastructure in themselves, without any kind of cultural or architectural intention. PZ Right, or at least none that we know of. But what I'm trying to get at is that what's interesting about our program at SCI-Arc, in the context of staging public competitions, is our ability to weld an understanding of a worldview that might be germane to the Cleantech Corridor's economic performance to an architectural understanding or vision of the city that quite often doesn't want to have to assign only an economic value to things. It wants to assign cultural value to those things. 17 Bergman and Zellner Discuss the Competition DB That's just why I think Cleantech is so interesting because, at this moment in our development as an economy, as the industrialized world faces another one of its periodic crises; as we are challenged to start thinking about alternative energy, sustainable technologies, and reformulating the manufacturing process and the process of production and consumption, really, there's a role for architecture and design to step into the conversation and demonstrate how the tools, perspectives, and attitudes of design professionals can, in fact, lead urban transformation in a specific place. That is to say, if I am a potential Cleantech tenant or somebody who would use or occupy this Cleantech space, I suppose there's any number of places within Southern California, let alone the rest of the North American economy or the global economy, where I could do this production. There's no reason I couldn't be down in Wilmington or Harbor City, which has very similar character with newer industrial building stock than in the Cleantech Corridor. PZ Let me ask a question then. Let's then be very specific now, because the competition was staged around particular piece of the fabric of the city of Los Angeles that has been, let's say, considered a territory for redevelopment for quite some time, for several decades. The L.A. River and its environs have had numerous redevelopment strategies thrown at them to them for over a quarter century. Cleantech is just one of many ideas, maybe the latest, for the area. So, maybe what's interesting is to specifically talk about the nature of the Cleantech Corridor zone as it is extant today. And then, perhaps, we can segue from a kind of reading of what's there, to a reading of what the Cleantech Corridor might bring to the City. The competition entries offer some very different alternate futures for that site; some futures that don't track necessarily with the official story. DB Absolutely. The logic of the official story, might lead to redevelopment of the Cleantech zone into an industrial park that's competitive with industrial parks in Tustin, or Santa Clarita for that matter, or anywhere else such as Shanghai or Guadalajara, anywhere in the world. So, the question is: what is it about a place that means that Cleantech is logical in this location? PZ Well, without being entirely suspicious of, let's say, the process, it seems that Los Angeles is still struggling, as a city, to come to terms with its role in the world and in this new century, because it has never been the greatest industrial center in the world nor in the United States. But, that said, there has always been an aspect of industrial activity that has been relevant to its economy and, therefore, LA has generated some of the corridors that you described. I guess the question is: why Cleantech Downtown now? DB And that's a good question. There's a cynical answer. Do we want to talk about the cynical answer? PZ Sure. I think it is worth it, briefly. What's the cynical answer? DB The cynical answer is that it's some face-saving after the loss of an expected project. PZ Well, no. I think there's an even more cynical answer which is nothing seems to work as of late. Let's try this on: A `new suit for a "new" man' sort of thing. My guess is that the logic behind the Cleantech Corridor is underpinned by a lot of very wishful thinking. 18 Cleantech Corridor DB Absolutely, so let's even step further back, which is to say that if there is wishful thinking going on, why limit that wishful thinking to being: A. On the scale of what is immediately recognizable in sort of a suburban, industrial condition; and B. easily achievable elsewhere--anywhere throughout the United States. Why limit that wishful thinking to a mundane victory, when we could call it a Cleantech Corridor if we got a concrete tilt-up that had a wind turbine assembly plant on the site; maybe licensing the technology from a Chinese company with parts that are imported from around the industrialized world, and screwed together in Southern California adding two hundred and fifty jobs? Is that a Cleantech victory? In the current environment, the answer might be "Yes, it is," but I think the challenge of our program--the challenge of our institution, SCI-Arc--is to ask the question that forces people to think about bigger victories--to think about an alternative future for the city beyond what's immediately recognizable. That's where our competition was successful, where we were able to have those kinds of discussions. Because in the corridors of decision making and in the world of plan implementers, economic developers, property owners, speculative developers, and investors, vision isn't always on the table. PZ Sure. I think that the real-politik in Los Angeles continues to be that planning is an ad-hoc developer-driven process. It is a parcel-by-parcel, project-byproject, developer-by-developer driven city. LA never really had vivid slices of imagination made real in the form of great urban planning or the utopian planning of places like Brasilia or even the scale of and kind of infrastructural implementation that we see in China and the Near East today. That said, I think one of the interesting qualities of Los Angeles, of course, is that it is the outcome of a very laissez faire and democratic series of procedures that have produced a pretty fascinating landscape: a really interesting admixture of some great things, some not so great things and lot of kind of, you know, crap, the functional mechanisms that interlace it all together. That's where the competition gets interesting; when it starts from the realization that the official procedures, which seem so orderly and, let's say, intentional, in no way actually ever want to take into account the chaos that's right outside our doors. This is why I'm always interested in the topic of planning in LA. When you read about the kind of intense effort that goes into the production of urbanism in Los Angles, whether it's in the EIR reviews or the public processes of some other sort, nobody ever questions the fact that if you look out the window, the outcomes aren't as convincing as the rhetoric of the procedures. We have a lot of great individual pieces of architecture. We have very few great boulevards, if any; and you know, we don't do infrastructure so well as an architectural undertaking either. But that said, I think that's what makes the place special. To some degree, it makes our program and it's situation in this locale interesting, in the sense that we have asked competitors to look at these conditions with open eyes and to attempt to kind of forge a new way of working that isn't cynical; that isn't, let's say, about being compromised... DB So, with that, do we want maybe to discuss a little bit about some of the winning entries? Do we want to go through them? PZ We should, but what I would say before we get into the projects is that, in thinking about the competition entries, I'd like to offer a sort of rubric or framework for the winning projects. We can debate whether this framework works or not, but it seems to me that some projects fall into a kind ecological urbanism and that is a category. Other projects seem much more interested in engaging the kind of mechanics of Cleantech and the implications that these might have on architectural solutions. That, then, is another category of work. 19 Bergman and Zellner Discuss the Competition Two further categories, both equally make-believe but by different degrees, include one that might be focused on the kind of macro-economic and urban impacts of Cleantech as a vehicle for radical transformation of the landscape. Finally, there is a category of total fantasy, in which we found a real willingness to re-imagine the world, not just the Cleantech Corridor, and architecture itself in very different terms. Those are some of the different categories. We can cut them down or we can work them as we wish, but I just wanted to see if we could capture what was awarded a prize as well as frame some of the entries that did not win, but which we have included in the publication. DB I think that's a very good set of categories to think about. I would add two more, or say the following: maybe these are subcategories within the ones that you've identified. I really saw, from the successful entries, two basic strategies. The first is the development of a performative infrastructure, so that there's an infrastructural investment that does a particular task in a new or innovative way that adds value to that portion of the city. The second approach is an amenity-based approach; that is to say, a design intervention that creates an amenitized environment that makes it more plausible or attractive for these Cleantech activities to occur. These strategies are both evident in the winning entry because it was particularly successful at combining a performative infrastructure in the form of the evaporative mushrooms and having them, essentially, metabolize a streetscape where one presently doesn't exist; thereby creating a focus of differentiation within the city. It becomes plausible to imagine that the types of economic activities that we want to stimulate--the types of social activities that are the goal of the rejuvenation of this corridor of the city, or maybe it's even not a rebirth, maybe it's initial birth--can be allowed to happen. I think this is really the root of the success of that particular entry; it creates an infrastructural system and produces amenities for the city. In this case, it is a machine that mitigates an environmental deficit, and, in turn, creates new public zones in the urban environment. PZ Well, the first place entry clearly takes the position that ecologically derived urbanism can be catalytic in the sense that, in a chemical way, you could add this component to this system, combine it with this resource, which in this case is waste, and it would, literally, allow a new urbanism to blossom. That's pretty fascinating, no? Whereas the second place entry is really much more about a series of retrofits to an existing landscape and it focuses much more on new architectural opportunities without really attending too carefully to, let's say, the eco-technological aspects of Cleantech. DB Absolutely. PZ The second place scheme doesn't seem invested in actually describing what would happen inside of these containers, but rather says this is an opportunity to allow the program of Cleantech to act as a kind of spur for the renovation of the district using, I think, quite traditionally attractive architectural techniques and elements. DB The strategy of the second place entry focuses entirely on the amenity side and the creation of social conditions by installing public art, by painting the streets, by creating exciting urban spaces... PZ By bringing in elephants. 20 Cleantech Corridor DB That's right, and, literally throwing in, yeah, a pink elephant that creates a sort of exuberant chaos that is a hallmark of Los Angeles urbanism. The approach that they're demonstrating is very much rooted in the understanding of Los Angeles as a city, as a cultural place, and the phenomena of life in the city. It doesn't necessarily need to produce Cleantech. PZ Right. Ironically, this entry was produced by a team based in Paris which, without offending the French too much, is a city that hasn't really produced much in an industrial way in quite some time. Paris produces culture and congestion. And so, it's funny, well I mean in some ways, well, it's not funny--it's probably telling that this would be their solution. The L.A. based team in third place actually manages to combine some of all of these tendencies. It does seem to try to derive a kind of urban language from the program. But it's interesting that the language kind of waivers between a kind of technocratic expression in the hard parts, which are bridges and other pieces of transit and mobility retrofit, and a soft language, which is the green infill which would presumably grow in place once the more skeletal components had been kind of soldered onto the landscape. DB If the second place was about fixing and creating the social environment through the Cleantech Corridor, the third place entry really does place an important emphasis on the traditional physical infrastructures of the city. The third place scheme is primarily a project that is interested in the river and it makes an argument that if you fix the river, you fix the adjacent lands. In fixing the river, you create the conditions to have all of the outcomes that are stated in the brief of Cleantech and the performance that we expect of Cleantech to come about. And so, if we look at it, I think, in some respects it is almost held, not in opposition, but in contrast to the second place one, which is really about creating sort of interesting and groovy social environments that people are going to want to be in. And taking that kind of approach to another one that's talking about making physical investments, once those physical investments take place, the rest of the city can fill in, in a much more beneficial or legible manner. PZ Sure. I wanted to mention two of the honorable mentions before we try and wrap this up. One project is by Escher GuneWardena Architecture. In looking at it now, I realize that there's another theme or category in the entries at work here and that is kind of attempt at social engineering through urbanism. The other entry I wanted to mention is by Andrew Zago, but we'll get to that in a second. Escher saw the Cleantech Corridor as more than just infrastructure--they argued for a "...geographic and social economic connector between currently disparate parts of the city." They didn't go into much more specificity, but I think it's very clear that from their diagrams that they are drawing a series of rhythms across the river to connect East Los Angeles to Downtown. And, interestingly, if you recall the scheme, they implant a series of living units that seem like mid-rise social housing along the river. In their scheme, there's a series of kind of very minimally described prototypes for high-rise living on the East bank of the river. I think that is pretty fascinating. DB There are arguments for and against industrial activities being co-located with residential uses. Traditional planning sees them as creating incompatibilities that, over time, will either denude the value of the residential location or interfere with the ability of industrial activity to take place. They're making an argument, and it's an intriguing one--that, in fact, these are not incompatible uses. And it's almost a notion of bringing residential life into the 21 Bergman and Zellner Discuss the Competition district, first, as a strategy for seeding an economic transformation of the industrial activities that take place. In some respects, it's a reaction to the chronic issue of urbanism in Los Angeles, which always has problems with housing availability, a real and serious social problem, and the second of fragmentation. So, they are using the Cleantech Corridor to bridge physical and social fragmentation between East Los Angeles and Downtown LA. PZ One thing I think that their scheme recognizes, and maybe it's just not mentioned as explicitly in some of the other schemes, is that the promise of clean technology is two fold. One innovation is that it doesn't pollute the environment, but the other is also that it would change forever the idea that certain uses that are nominally industrial are antithetical to residential uses or just, you know, urban life in general. DB Right. And there's a particular argument that's interesting about that because you're talking about a very early mode of production at the beginning of the development of capitalism, of the cottage based production. And there's been a lot of discussion about the electronic cottage, but what's interesting about it is that technology, like rapid prototyping, like computer assisted design, all of these whole-speed technologies that we use, robotics etc., really are allowing for the return of cottage-type production, but with a twist. What ultimately killed cottage production was the genius of capitalism. The great innovation of capitalism was the social division of labor. Under capitalism, everybody has a specific task in production; those tasks require different skills, and, as a result, that's the beginning of wage labor, and wage differentiation. But what we're seeing now, at the beginning of the twentyfirst century, is a collapsing of that social division of labor. That social division of labor in the twentieth-century city in North America expressed itself, spatially, very clearly; and this suggests that in the twenty-first century, we may see a collapsing of that spatial division of labor. PZ Well, if I may just interject, that division of labor, according to Marx and Engels, produced this sort of false consciousness that led to other sorts of revolutions. In other words, because of the sort of alienation that they tell us capitalism produces in cultures and in social groups; the distancing of production, you know, from consumption, we end up with divides classes and divided cities. 19th century capitalism produced class structures that made cities like Liverpool what they were, very Dickensian. And so, in some ways, it's very interesting to reflect on the fact that the localization of design, implementation or production and consumption into one spot, I think, promises to make all cities very different. They may end up being much more Medieval, very localized nodes within a global chain. It does end up suggesting that the distributed network of information that's everyone on the planet, is in some ways, also strangely is isolating. You would imagine that some point with a completely functional Cleantech Corridor would mean that you would never have to outsource anything again. DB That's right. The social implications of it are that the distinctions blur between who is capital, who is labor, who owns the product. The commodity that's produced and consumed becomes blended and unclear. I do think that is something that we're seeing in the beginning of the twenty-first century. We're seeing it very strongly here in Los Angeles and in the urban environment. And it's expressing itself in a real strong desire for more kinds of live/ work spaces, but we haven't really thought about them at the district level. Live/work space, I suppose maybe at the level of the arts district; is in some romantic notion that's happening at that scale. But really, to start thinking 22 Cleantech Corridor about live/work, as opposed to being a niche, as to being the next wave of accommodating both living space and production space within the city is something new. Now, whether it's Cleantech or something else, almost isn't. PZ Right. That might take us, then, to the final professional entry, an Honorable Mention, by Andrew Zago. Interestingly, Zago Architects saw the competition as an opportunity to pursue other ideas about what Cleantech could integrate or be combined with in the city; and, specifically, they brought in transit. In this instance, a high-speed real complex was added to the corridor to offer a "contemporary reinterpretation of Baroque urbanism.";what they call a "series of heavy clouds which renew new creative hubs for experimental work in the arts." And, finally, the scheme adds a center for new art. It's curious also that the rest of the Zago scheme tries to recombine the urban fabric. You may recall that there is a kind of hieroglyphic urban system, a housing system that extends along the banks of the river and touches parts of the corridor. This is a sort of insular urbanism. Zago's agenda in his project was to, in some ways, ignore the technical and sociological--well, maybe not sociological, but, let's say, environmental or more overtly environmental aspects of the brief as we set it--and really just to work on the problem of Los Angeles. And so he calls the project "Los Angeles Interrupted." DB This was a successful project and, as in most competitions, I think, produced a successful project, at least one, that ignores the brief. And it goes on to make a compelling argument that is visually coherent and arresting. It makes a meaningful comment about broader issues without directly addressing any of the requirements or ideas that are tied to Cleantech per se. It's essentially a cultural development argument with a train station, but I think what allowed this to move forward was the elegance of the argument as it is presented visually. PZ This is exactly why a critical voice would say this is exactly what architects don't get about cities and city making--that it is not about form, that Cleantech it is not a design opportunity as much as an economic development opportunity, and therefore the Zago scheme would not be considered realistic. But, I would argue that Zago's approach is absolutely the correct response because it allows us loop back to the beginning of our conversation. The reason we ran this competition was to solicit ideas that moved beyond the kind of routine functionalizing effort as urbanism. You know, the due diligence language of the engineer, for lack of a better word, and the developer and the industrialist as city design. Really thinking out how the program of clean technology could be transformative as it is applied to the city of Los Angeles is crucial. The idea that the Cleantech initiative could leave behind, for future generations I would suppose, some evidence of an interaction between the cultural, sociological, economic and political forces at work in the city would be the value of the exercise. One could argue that all great cities known for their architecture were produced in periods of rapid social or capital growth. But the ones that stick out the most, Paris and its train stations for instance, are the ones that took the opportunity to move beyond the kind of nominally functional problem of how to bring infrastructures of some sort into the city. The cultures that matter as urban centers thought about the sort of social places, the amenities that you mentioned, that make cities great. My point is that the goal of this competition was to really ask, as we did with the transit competition, some important questions about what the role and value of design--urban design, architectural design--are, within the development of things that are usually treated as a kind of question of, you know, doing the right math, essentially. 23 Bergman and Zellner Discuss the Competition DB Right. And I think that the challenge of the Cleantech Corridor goes back to the question of why is there a Cleantech Corridor? Why is the initiative here and not someplace else in the city of Los Angles? Why isn't it in the Mid Cities Corridor Redevelopment area? Why not at Harbor Gateway? And the answer is that it is of some political expediency and the direction of some development efforts. And I think we need to get out in front of that ordinary process and say that this is actually a real opportunity to be transformative; and it requires a set of values that are expressed culturally through the design process, that have the ability to make the Cleantech Corridor something entirely different. And it needs to happen in this place as opposed to elsewhere, and it needs to be reflective of this moment in our cultural development. Even infrastructure can have the ability to tell you an awful lot about the culture that produces it through all of its elements. Even in Los Angeles, where we have this idea that it's all engineering, you just need to go to look at the Fourth Street Bridge behind our school to understand that the cultural values of the society that produced the Fourth Street Bridge were telling a different story much more than just simply dealing with crossing a river--a span crossing a void in the geometry of the earth. I think now is our moment at the beginning of the twenty first century to take seriously what our cultural values are and imprint those on our infrastructural and public environments. PZ Well, touch�. I think we should end it there, David. That's very poetic and very beautiful. (Laughter) That's exactly forty-five minutes, you know that? DB Oh, that's good. 25 Competition Jury Commentary The Cleantech Corridor Jury was convened on October 5, 2010 in SCI-Arc's Library to review over 70 entries from 11 countries. The jury was made up of Stan Allen, Dean of the School of Architecture, Princeton University and Principal, Stan Allen Architects; Hsining Fung, Director of Academic Affairs, SCI-Arc and Principal, Hodgetts+Fung; Cris B. Liban, D.Env., P.E. Environmental Compliance and Services Department Manage, Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority; Michael Maltzan, Principal, Michael Maltzan Architecture; Dennis McGlade, President/Partner OLIN, RLA, FASLA; Romel Pascual, City of Los Angeles Deputy Mayor, Energy and Environment; Nikolas Patsaouras, Past president of the Board of the Water and Power Commissioners, Former board member of the MTA; and Donald Spivack, Deputy Chief of Operations and Policy, Community Redevelopment Agency of the City of Los Angeles. The jury session was moderated by David Bergman and Peter Zellner, coordinators of the Future Initiatives program and Sam Lubell, Editor of the Architect's Newspaper. What follows are excerpts from the wrap-up and final commentary session of the four-hour-long jury session. Peter Zellner SCI-Arc, specifically its Future Initiatives program, in collaboration with the Architect's Newspaper, ran the Cleantech Corridor Competition as an ideas competition. This competition, effectively our second attempt to generate interest around large scale urban issues in Los Angeles, followed our first public competition, entitled "A NEW INFRASTRUCTURE: Innovative Transit Solutions for Los Angeles," which focused on the passage of Measure R, a half-cent sales tax in Los Angeles County that will provide as much as $40 billion for transit-related projects across the City of Los Angeles over the next 30 years. The goal of these Open Ideas Competitions is two-fold. One is to bring large scale urban design issues into the public discourse as well as to the school. The second is disciplinary, in the sense that we feel the competitions have a function in terms of the teaching of architecture. At SCI-Arc, we feel we have a certain obligation to try and drive that discourse forward and not simply to accept urban planning solutions for LA, which, while politically viable, don't really innovate. So, with regards to this jury, I think part of our job is to effectively curate the winners. And I feel that if you think in those terms, there does seem to be a pretty good consensus that the whole Umbrella scheme--which is somewhat utopian--is the first place winner; collectively, the three winners we have chosen really cover many of the opportunities the Cleantech Corridor presents that you would want out there for public discussion, given the issues that are on the table. We're putting forward one scheme, the winner, which is innovation and technology driven, but is almost working with the city as a very large piece of street furniture. Then we're picking another scheme, the second place entry, which steps back and takes a comprehensive 26 Cleantech Corridor view of the site as a whole. Finally, we have supported another plan, in third place, that operates in a middle ground as a reworking sort of street corners, infrastructure and local architectures, taking a kind of strategic view of it all and then making it all very imageable. In conclusion, I just wanted to say one thing on behalf of the school. SCIArc's mission today is expanding and I really think, for me, that's what's interesting about this discussion. In my mind--and this is my opinion as an architect--the aggregate urban design and planning at the scale of the Cleantech Corridor cannot only be about economics and infrastructure, planning the city from 10,000 feet and never touching the ground. It has to be recognizable to the public as being in their interests, and this is where architecture comes in and I think where SCI-Arc can innovate. I think that to get traction on something like this, you have to get the public excited, and to do that, you have to actually understand what the cultural implications are. What sort of culture does the Cleantech Corridor build--an urban culture or just an economic plan? Is this a new sort of social condition or just more warehouse district with a fancy name? How does it affect people? That is where architecture may enter the discussion and where SCI-Arc--because we are literally at the center of the Cleantech Corridor--may be able to leverage its skills and knowledge for a better urban plan. Because we will now be permanently situated in the neighborhood, we will be the direct benefactors of a good Cleantech Corridor plan that supports a more diverse approach. I think that's ultimately why we wanted to stage this competition. We feel strongly--or at least David Bergman and I feel strongly--that SCI-Arc, in some ways, should participate and have a voice in this matter because, as a school of architecture, because as architects, we can translate things that are very abstract general plans and master plans into viable urban forms. All that said, I still don't quite understand or get what Cleantech really is, from an urban design point of view, or what it might mean for LA beyond the usual generic definitions. So, maybe we've started to bring a definition to it here in LA. However, I think it's clear that initiatives like the Cleantech Corridor create opportunities to show how cities like LA will evolve in this century. That, for me, is crucial in the end. I think that, ultimately, the technical challenges associated with the Cleantech Corridor can be resolved through good engineering and intelligent planning. However, what SCI-Arc can begin to put on the table is the form of the urban culture and the architecture that the Initiative should drive. Nikolas Patsaouras From the beginning, I was going to the practical, the do-able, the pragmatic, the code based approach. And, as you know, I was involved with the Steel Cloud (1989, Asymptote Architecture's winning design entry for a habitable living monument over the Hollywood Freeway). However, that got burned, because the design was truly futuristic. So maybe, you know, as the Greeks say, if it's a bird, there's no way out of the yogurt (laughter). So I was coming into this jury, seeking a practical do-able approach. But, as you may have noticed, I came around. I am very, very happy with the results because for those of you who know me, you know that I am a risk taker and that I like the wow factor. And so, I feel that both entries, the first place and the second place entries, will provoke debate and they will provoke conversation. I am very, very happy. I was not, from the beginning, prepared to vote for one or two, but I voted because I believe that the public will embrace the designs, and it will help define, as you said, what the Cleantech Corridor is. I think the public, including me from the beginning, thought it meant a 27 Jury Commentary number of buildings for engineers and scientists to conduct their work. This competition sought a different line of what the Cleantech Corridor is. Donald Spivack I'm very happy to have been part of this because, number one, it was a very good jury in terms of the breadth of disciplines that are represented, and two, it's extremely timely--particularly from the perspective of the city and redevelopment agency in terms of trying to make something happen in this area. It will clearly contribute to being able to get a focus on this part of the city. I think one of the important things is that, while there is no clear definition as to what a Cleantech Corridor is or what Cleantech really represents, there is the opportunity to begin that conversation as to what would help make an area get on the map as a Cleantech Corridor, without having to have that definition. One of the things that this will do, in combination with the parallel work that's coming out of the Urban Land Institute, is provide the opportunity to bring more attention to it and to get more dialogue on this part of the city, which is a part of the city that long has been ignored by, among others, the city and is now poised to start getting the attention that it really should have been getting for many, many years. The infrastructure in the area has been ignored. Building stock in the area has been ignored, and these are both problems to deal with, but which are also opportunities. So, we are in a position where we can start to do some innovative things, and what the competition helps to do is put on table some things to provoke thought about how to be innovative in this community. The one that got the first prize, I think, has a lot going for it in terms of being something that certainly can have attention paid to it. It's different. It's nothing people have seen before. It is something that can attract attention. It can generate--and I think it will--a lot of different opinions, which would be helpful because it will help to get this area on the map. At the same time, it's something that addresses a number of things that are important to Los Angeles, among the top of these being water quality and water purification. Since this really is something that is driven by water quality and water purification, it certainly is important to the whole sustainability issue that we're trying to deal with here. And yet, it's at a scale where it can be done in a relatively small amount of space, which makes it a lot more doable than some of the other things that would be very large scale or would require a lot of land acquisition to be able to provide. It also is the kind of thing that could be anchored with other types of investments. You could do it in the creation of a small public open space. You can do it in the creation of a small market area, such as the area where the Incubator is now being placed. It can be done in connection with some fairly minor, but transportation based, plans as a way of getting some kind of a hub into the area. So, from the perspective of it being iconic, from the perspective of it being small enough to be doable, and from the perspective of it being very different and attention getting, this will help to bring the whole issue of the Cleantech Corridor to the table. This is in contrast to the second and third place ones, one of which is kind of a mix between things that are, to some degree, iconic and to some degree, kind of comprehensive to the area. The other one is a series of probably very doable things that tie into one another, but more from a perspective of longrange plan. So this is something that could be quite immediate and could fit into the context of some of the other schemes that really do address longerterm plans. One of the advantages of the second place scheme is that it also has a feature in it that builds on the existing fabrics of the neighborhood. It works with the existing street system. It works with the mix of uses that are in 28 Cleantech Corridor the area. The third place scheme has going for it, among other things, the fact that it clearly recognizes and ties into the adjacent parts of the city. That makes it possible for people in adjacent neighborhoods to see a connection from the work that is coming out of today as to how it affects other neighbors. Plus, it includes a phasing scheme that allows people to start thinking about some specific items that might also be doable in a relatively short term. So, looking at the top three, there are a number of features about all of them that should attract attention, that could get people to start talking about and thinking about what to do in this community and can, therefore, move the attention to the Cleantech Corridor of the Los Angeles River and the neighborhoods that include the older portions of Downtown in a direction of, hopefully, some positive movement. Stan Allen It's been a pleasure to be here, and it's always good to have an excuse to come to Los Angeles. I'm here as somebody who has some expertise in questions of architecture and urbanism, but not somebody who could claim to know the real details of the site and all of the planning issues that are involved. And to some degree, that's an advantage and to some degree, a disadvantage. I think the first thing I would want to say is that I think that the organizers and the partner organizations really deserve a lot of credit. There's a lot of, I think, very important, very innovative thinking behind the proposition of this competition. We've had 30 years at least just to think about what we do with the Post Industrial American city. For too long, we have sort of defaulted to this notion that knowledge industries should step in when industry leaves, and, with all sort of due respect to Richard Florida, that the vision of the city that comes out of that, I don't know that it's really sustainable in the long run. So, it seems to me to go back and think that, on the one hand, yes, you're going to embrace the new technologies and new manufactured technologies. You're going to embrace green technology, but you're still going to put manufacturing back into the American city. That, to me, is really the reason to be optimistic because it's a different vision of the city. It's a vision of the city that says cities are places that make things as well as simply places for consumption. So, in that sense, I think it's the very fact that this competition and the discussion and debate around it exists that is a really positive thing for a new vision of the future of the city. To come to the specifics of the projects, it's always easy to say what you miss. As we look through the range of projects, it does seem to me that the river, which is such an asset to this part of the city, was probably not given as much attention as it could have been. I was also missing a kind of strategic element to the projects, the recognition that cities change incrementally over time, and we have to work strategically and locate areas where you put your investments; you put your interventions and then you look at catalytic effect of those interventions over time. There's another thing about the entries that I should note, just collectively. There was nothing I really hated, and that worries me a bit. I don't know. Maybe I'm getting soft in my old age, but when you put a call out, you just hope that there's somebody out there doing something so wacky and wild and outrageous and over the top that you're just going to say, "No, no. that is impossible, just impossible." I actually didn't see any of that, but maybe that just speaks to the mood of the discipline right now. But, at the end of the day, a competition is not judged necessarily from what's left out but the quality of the main entries, and I think we can move forward very confidently with the three that we've picked out. I think what gets me excited about the three that 29 Jury Commentary we've picked, if you look at them collectively, they begin to map out the different territories where we, as architects, landscape architects and planners and urbanists can really make a difference in the city. The first one is very sort of immediate and imageable and hands-on. It could be implemented fairly quickly and have a very direct local impact, that then hopefully, over time, would transform larger parts of the city. The second one I would describe as more tactical. That is to say, it's making intelligent use of the available resources on the ground and repurposing them and pushing them to the next level, while the third one steps back and provides a strategic overview. So, seen together, this seems to be a pretty progressive agenda for what the disciplines of architecture, urban design, and landscape can be in the future. Michael Maltzan One of the things that did strike me about this competition was that it's a very difficult scale. Many of the projects struggled with that. I think that was because they had two possibilities in the brief: either approaching the project as an architectural project, more specifically local in its scale, or to approach it as comprehensive, almost classic, urban planning. But, I think there's also a quality to the site that is particular to Los Angeles, especially given the scale of the city. It's a very specific scale, and it has potential to be both of those things, architecture and urban planning. Because of that, it demands some resolution of both of those scales. It can't exist just as a more abstracted and distant view of the city from an urban planning standpoint. It can't really be solely and specifically an architectural project--it has to find some way of producing both of those scales--both the comprehensive approach to a district and an urbanism given many complexities and qualities of the site. A project like this does require some level of imageability, which is generally more in the realm of architecture--at least it's one of the things that architecture does very well; it has the ability to represent. The blending of those two scales and the ability to represent that complexity was present in the most successful of the projects. Stan touched on manufacturing and industry as the underlying provocation for this project and this is a very interesting thing--that commerce, at the level of industry, is a program type that we have not really thought of very much in terms of urban design. But, I would add that creative industry is something that is very particular to many new cities, especially cities like Los Angeles that can't depend much anymore on large multinational corporations like the aerospace industry. This competition allows us to think about what cities can no longer depend on, and that gives a new set of possibilities, it seems to me, to think about what industry and commerce means now. I was surprised about, and I'm not sure if it's a criticism or not, but I didn't discover anything that I strongly disliked or that was "ugly" or ungainly in a provocative way. I do think that Los Angeles continues to be one of the most important laboratories when thinking about creative approaches, progressive approaches to urbanism, and what that means to me is that it is a place in which the unexpected can and should be a part of the conversation. I do think that there is a possibility proposing not just an imageable or a comprehensive urbanism, but that there should be room for a provocative approach to what the problems of this city are, not only in terms where we find ourselves right now, but in terms of what would be a future vision of the city. And even in the top three, I would say there was a level of pragmatism that existed in all of those schemes, and I think that there's room for projects that might dispense with pragmatism. There's room for that kind of project as well. 30 Cleantech Corridor Sam Lubell This is just amazing. You've really been an excellent jury. Looking at some of these schemes ourselves, you brought up a number of issues that we hadn't thought about--for instance, talking about things like the boundaries of the Cleantech Corridor and how they don't necessarily have to be as fixed as we might think. I would not have thought about that if this jury had not raised that point. Some other issues that the jury raised seem worth stating here. One would be phasing: what it means to build over time and what the Cleantech Corridor might be in 10, 20, 30 years. Another issue raised was whether to think of the site as tabula rasa or to work with the existing buildings. Another interesting point was the contrast between understanding the value of practical schemes versus an extremely wacky approach, how those might differ. The last thing I wanted to say was something unrelated. It was that besides the top three, there were some ideas that I noted that I thought might be worth just remembering. One of the ideas that pushed the envelope was a kind of rolling carpet, a green space that kind of meandered out and became a focal point that connected the whole area. I thought it was really smart. So, it's good to think in terms of other sorts of categories. David Bergman There certainly were other categories that came out through this discussion. Provisionally, they were: change the infrastructure; change how buildings operate; change the relationship of the district to the city. Those were the three broad strategies that come out to me on my--on our--initial pass through. And I think even just developing strategy at that level is an important conversation into the civic process because we're going to need to make a strategic choice as to what we emphasize, as opposed to just letting it develop out in a least cost, laissez-faire manner. There were a number of them that said--you know, including, for example, the--one of our honorable mentions, the Infiltration scheme, we said, "Okay. We're going to change it so that there's now a water storage infrastructure that becomes a function of the green tech district." And others are more based on the performance of specific buildings in terms of their sustainability and putting design features. Cris B. Liban I just wanted to say that, it has been a privilege to serve with this group of jury members. And, you know, it's important that we spent a great deal of time going through all the different projects in detail. Just hearing some of the comments on the top winners, it's great that there is so much focus on integrating the environment in a very innovative and revolutionary way. Being at Metro also provides a different perspective on how these projects can possibly work their way through our own efforts on sustainability. I came to this discussion as an engineer looking for new implementable ideas, and if I think about many of the entries, many are doable projects. You know, they're not just pie in the sky ideas that you can only accomplish with lots of money. Finally, I would like to say here that the competition entries, especially the winner, set an example for sustainable projects that promote renewable cities, and renewable urban strategies. That is something that our agency wants to further engage. 31 Jury Commentary Dennis McGlade I found the competition to be very interesting on many levels . The Los Angeles River is the reason why Los Angeles is here, and I find it very interesting that 21st Century industry is relocating on its banks . A bit of disappointment in most of the entries is that most of them didn't make a note of the river. It is a historical continuity of Los Angeles to the place--through geological time, not just cultural time. I think the competition also raised the issue of what does the new city look like in the United States and in the world? How does it look different than what we were familiar with as children? And it also gets to what do new parks look like? What do parks do besides give us emotional and psychological comfort, you know recreation and restoration? What do they do for other the living systems and the physical systems of how the planet works on a bigger scale? Many years ago, I was graduate with Ian McHarg. I think it'd be very gratifying to him to see how much of the conversation about the planning and architecture in the last ten years has snowballed to issues of sustainability in a natural environment and conservation and restoration. And that was pretty much in the forefront of most of the entries that we had today. So it was very good. Lately many people have been wondering if California's arc of new ideas is setting. They used to say it happened in California ten or 15 years before the rest of the country. I don't think it is setting because we opened an office here. We think it's still about ten or 15 years ahead of the rest of the country. And I think this whole idea of looking at industry as a regeneration of urban growth and not just service industry or intellectual property is good. In Philadelphia now, it's basically we either have hotels or we have universities and medical schools. There's nothing else in the city anymore. So I like this idea of technology as industry and making it clean technology that generates the type of employment, the type of salaries, and the type of education that the industry brings to the city will help grow the middle class in the city. I don't think of the Cleantech industry as being solely a producer of hi-tech gizmos only. It will also offer consultant services. I see it employing engineers, landscape architects, and architects who consult throughout the country dealing with issues of remediation of river systems and things like that. Industrial Los Angeles 1900�1935 34 Cleantech Corridor 35 Industrial Los Angeles 1900�1935 Aerial view of Los Angeles showing Alameda Street, 7th Street, 9th Street, and San Pedro Street, 1939 �California Historical Society 36 Cleantech Corridor 6th Street Viaduct spanning the Los Angeles River, 1900 �California Historical Society 37 Industrial Los Angeles 1900�1935 Birdseye view of downtown Los Angeles, showing natural gas storage tanks �California Historical Society 38 Cleantech Corridor 39 Industrial Los Angeles 1900�1935 Bridge at 4th Street and Lorena Street in Los Angeles �University of Southern California 40 Cleantech Corridor Los Angeles Furniture Mart, 2155 E. Seventh St., 1958 �University of Southern California 42 Cleantech Corridor 43 Industrial Los Angeles 1900�1935 View of the bed of the Los Angeles River near 7th Street �California Historical Society 44 Cleantech Corridor 45 Industrial Los Angeles 1900�1935 Aerial view of Union Terminal Market, downtown Los Angeles, 1930-1935 �University of Southern California 46 Cleantech Corridor 47 Industrial Los Angeles 1900�1935 Panoramic view of Los Angeles, showing 6th Street, Figueroa Street and Flower Street, 1916 �University of Southern California Industrial Los Angeles 2011 51 Industrial Los Angeles 2011 Southbound rail way tracks below 3rd Street bridge 52 Cleantech Corridor 53 Industrial Los Angeles 2011 Los Angeles River from 4th Street bridge 55 Industrial Los Angeles 2011 7th Street Bridge faceing west with view of downtown Los Angeles 56 Cleantech Corridor Underside of 7th Street bridge looking southeast 58 Cleantech Corridor 59 Industrial Los Angeles 2011 Metropolitan Transportation Authority Bus Depot at Alameda Street and 7th Street 60 Cleantech Corridor 61 Industrial Los Angeles 2011 American Apparel factory at Alameda Avenue and 7th Street 62 Cleantech Corridor Lot at Santa Fe Avenue 63 Industrial Los Angeles 2011 Powerlines at Santa Fe Avenue 64 Cleantech Corridor 65 Industrial Los Angeles 2011 Metropolitan Transportation Authority Headquarters and LA County Jail from 1st Street and Santa Fe Avenue 66 Cleantech Corridor Truck depot at Mateo Street 67 Industrial Los Angeles 2011 Toy Factory Loft Building at Mateo Street and Industrial Street 68 Cleantech Corridor Los Angeles Unified School District bus depot and Homeboy Industries from Chinatown Gold Line Station 70 Cleantech Corridor 71 Industrial Los Angeles 2011 Truck garage adjacent to Toy Factory Loft Building at Mateo Street 72 Cleantech Corridor 73 Industrial Los Angeles 2011 SCI-Arc at intersection of Santa Fe Avenue and East 3rd Street Professional Winners 76 Cleantech Corridor 77 Umbrella First Place Constantin Boincean Ralph Bertram Aleksandra Danielak Project Umbrella sets out to reinterpret and enrich Los Angeles's existing infrastructure by implementing a point-based renewal strategy that will gradually transform the city grid into a greener and more attractive public space. Mushroom-like structures named `solar evaporators' tap into the city's sewage, collecting and clarifying the black water originating from the surrounding blocks. The clear water is distributed and released into the streets through a process of evaporation and condensation, triggering a transformation of the conventional streets into a network of lush, cultivated landscapes. Green webs spreading out from the evaporators generate incentives for new, sustainable developments within and around them. The central urban plazas become focal points within a gradual process of transformation that will affect the way people will see, use, and experience their city. They are platforms for new types of social activity and form nodes within an elaborate transportation network that will stimulate the use of public and nonmotorized modes of transportation as a new means of exploring the future city of LA. Strategy In order to successfully convey a proposal for an urban renewal project on a city-wide scale, it is necessary first to outline, however briefly, the focus and appropriate boundaries for the Umbrella proposal. It assumes that, in a near future, regulatory measures as well as technical advances will inevitably boost the overall sustainability of the buildings within the city, and therefore, the city as a whole. Additionally, considering that large scale restructuring operations of existing urban tissue are resource wasting and unselective processes, deeming them unsustainable by nature, the only valid approach would be one that can grow from within the city's existing configuration. The LA grid ties together all urban activities and could be a backbone for urban developments of any kind, including sustainable urban renewal. That is why project Umbrella sets out to reinterpret and enhance the city's existing public infrastructure, preparing it for a sustainable future that stimulates an alternative use of the city. The Umbrella project therefore is an acupunctural, rather than a fullblown urban renewal strategy, which will slowly implement, rather than force, the conditions necessary to create a sustainable urban environment, starting from within the city's public streets and locally creating incentives for future developments. On a local scale, each evaporator will generate conditions that stimulate sustainable businesses, housing, recreation, etc. to develop freely in response to the changing conditions of the grid. Based on the speculative nature of private interest and commercial forces, the effects of an evaporator on its surrounding tissue can be described in three ways: 78 Cleantech Corridor > 1 Radial The new plaza generates public activity, providing both the market and the amenities for new businesses to bloom within a certain radius from the public plaza. 2 Linear The irrigation arms transform surrounding streets into lush green landscapes, making them attractive to live in or to establish pedestrian-based small scale creative industries, galleries, etc. 3 Nodal The evaporator is a node within the public transit system of the city. The green streets stimulate walking or biking to and from the central plaza, where the transfer to public transport can be made. As a result, the resolution of the grid will locally scale down around the evaporator, boasting a large array of different typologies that coexist at walking/biking distance from the central plaza, slowly replacing the car-based monotony with a pedestrian-based diversity that assures a more sustainable use of the city's grid as a public domain. PROXIMITY OF PUBLIC PLAZA WILL GENERATE: - leisure base typologies: cafe's, restaurants, etc. - cultural production based typologies, galleries, public workshops, etc. - shop typologies: bike shops, board shops, etc. - service based walk-in typologies: banks, real estate agents, etc. 4 Total Patchwork Object The solar evaporator combines a sub-surface clarifier with an above-ground evaporation basin. Black water sewage is collected from the main city sewers and is passed through a grit chamber to remove indigestible solids before it flows into the sedimentation tank. The sludge with a higher density than water sinks into a sludge bed. A surface skimmer removes floating solids lighter then water while clear water flows over a weir into a separate basin underneath the clarifier. The anaerobic digestion of the sludge bed will create methane gas that is collected and stored in the top of the tank. It powers a pump that displaces the clear water up through a vertical pipe into the evaporation basin. The basin is covered with a transparent skin that induces a greenhouse effect in the evaporation dome as a result of the captured solar radiation. Under these conditions the water in the basin will evaporate continuously, a process enhanced by a low speed surface fan that continuously exposes the water surface to flows of less saturated air. As the water evaporates, the pressure inside the dome increases forcing the vapor into the irrigation arms. Traveling through the arms, the purified water will gradually condensate and is released through irrigation holes in the bottom of the irrigation arms. 79 Professional Winners Typology To be implemented as an intervention within the grid, each evaporator and its set irrigators needs to be thought of as an adaptable system that can be tailored to suit both existing and desired conditions. Depending on the desired radius of effect, the evaporator can assume different sizes and position within the grid. Larger evaporators produce more water, support larger green areas, and thus increase their radius of effect. They affect more people and accommodate more activities and are able to connect to multiple modes of transport. Smaller evaporators will, on the other hand, have a smaller radius, but can also supply a different, more intimate public space. The position in relation to the street will further determine the type of public space generated around and underneath the evaporator. Shown in incremental size and in different positions, three typological plans illustrate the variety of public spaces that can be achieved within different urban situations. Likewise, the typological sections show three typical streets with possible ways of distributing the greenery within the profile. In the first, a single irrigator is shown on one side of a 60ft street that generates a linear green space on one side of the street. It generates a zone that provides room for outdoor activities; recreational, commercial etc. that has no interference by motorized traffic. The second displays a dual set of irrigators watering both sides of an 80ft street, changing the typology into a two-sided shopping street, where pedestrians can stroll up one way and down the other. The reduced profile of the road will slow down traffic, making the motorized domain more permeable. The third shows a centralized green space reminiscent of the well-know typology of the Spanish `La Rambla': a green boulevard with traffic on either side of a 100ft street and an array of plantations and public activities in its centre. Implementation The Umbrella strategy will first be applied to the Cleantech Corridor, where the implementation of a limited number of solar evaporators could slowly transform increasingly larger portions of the district, branding the Corridor as a prime example of an innovative sustainable urban renewal operation. Its exemplary role would not only boost the attractiveness of the area for further social and commercial developments, but would also generate a large incentive for further expansion of the Umbrella strategy to the rest of the city. The first solar evaporator is proposed for the Department of Water & Power (DWP) Innovation Campus; one of the two sites specified in the competition brief in the northern reaches of the Cleantech Corridor. Bordering on the edge of the campus and reaching out into the surrounding urban tissue of the Corridor, this pioneering solar evaporator will visually, as well as physically, integrate the public dimension of urban transformation with the technical dimension of innovative water and power management. As a showcase for the DWP, it will be a vital instrument for urban renewal of the district. The plaza could host weekly markets, selling the produce of local agricultural initiatives and a variety of plants and arts & crafts from newly established creative industries, thus providing a platform for social activity that could simultaneously be a platform for promotional or educational outreach of the DWP. 80 Cleantech Corridor 13 14 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. black water sewer grit chamber sedimentation tank anaerobic sludge bed surface skimmer clarified water overflow clarified water basin methane gas collector 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. biogas powered pump evaporation bassin surface fan solar evaporation chamber vapor distribution arms airtight transparent skin condensation irrigation holes 5 6 81 Professional Winners Solar Evaporator Diagram 12 15 11 10 16 9 8 3 2 1 4 7 82 Cleantech Corridor Future Vision When viewed in a larger context, a network of many evaporators would, over time, change the way people use and move through the city. In today's LA, people travel large distances because various functions they use are strongly segregated. In total, 98% of all movement in the city is done by car. Implementing a system of evaporators will refine the resolution of specific parts of the grid within a certain radius from the evaporators. Here, diversification of functions will take place, accompanied with the rise of a non-motorized local infrastructure. The evaporators become transfer nodes within an urban transit network, overlaying each of the low-speed local infrastructures with a fast and efficient high-speed network that connects the different local centers around the evaporators. As the network of evaporators grows, it will increasingly restructure the movement of people within the city and could, ultimately, reduce the car to a secondary mode of transport. A vision slowly dawns on us: sprouting from within the crevices of the city, a network of green boulevards and lushly vegetated streets arises, blooming with activity. Watery domes glistering in the sun, define a cityscape the likes of which can only be the hanging gardens of Semiramis. Could Los Angeles become the first wonder of a sustainable world? 31 m 85 Greenoplasty Second Place Labtop Architects Associates Series et Series "It may come to mind to the designer to make a design that can release around him creative energies, suggest possibilities, open minds, take action, find references and connections that one may find for himself, if he wants to find them, and that everyone can find." �E.Sottsass (1917-2007) "Too many good people have been defeated because they tried to substitute substance for style, they forgot to give the public the kind of visible signals that it needs to understand what is happening." �P.H. Caddell Introduction We believe that the key to a successful green corridor lies in the ability of the built environment to inspire its residents to look beyond the common, the materialistic, and the easily consumed, in favor of the stimulating, the daring, and the whimsical. Only with this premise may we start to break our old habits and consider radically new, more environmentally conscious ways of living. The urban approach we took in designing the Cleantech Corridor was to compress the nearly four mile site by implementing a local tramway, then rezoning specific areas in order to give space back to the pedestrian. At the local scale, this translates into the opportunistic retrofitting of the existing environment, along with the inclusion of highly visible urban markers. At the scale of the Cleantech facility, we sought to embody our commitment to keeping as much of the existing context intact, while also giving the residents of the corridor a monument to the seemingly impossible. The Urban Scale At this specific moment in the evolution of green architecture and urbanism, we believe that an engineered approach to a green standard of living is no longer sufficient. Speaking specifically about new technologies, whether it be telecommunications, microprocessors, cars, or composite materials, the world has seen a mass migration of technological goods production move to developing countries. For this reason, we have taken a more holistic approach, rather than an engineered one, with the hopes of creating a Cleantech Corridor with a distinct local character, which would attract new green companies on the basis of standard of living, rather than pure efficiency. The overall vision of the Cleantech Corridor is based on creating a very distinct, very local urban space; a space whose residents will take pride in their neighborhood and not feel the need to commute long distances in order to live in a neighborhood with more amenities. We believe that a local rail line servicing only the Cleantech Corridor is a way to compress the almost four mile site to more walkable distances. This strategy also exposes its residents to more area in less time, negating the need for cars within the corridor. Furthermore, as a need for housing arises, lightweight mixed use building 86 Cleantech Corridor mass is populated evenly throughout the site above the warehouses. This is done in hopes of allowing all areas of the corridor an equal chance to develop, while sustaining the still-functioning warehouses. In the long term, we believe that these areas with more exposure and more potential residents necessitate more business, giving short term architectural propositions the power to provoke zoning changes from a loose homogeneous industrial district, to a more consolidated, dense, heterogeneous neighborhood. Colored Streets Street Of Sculpture Cleantech Tramway Art Streets Connect Vertical Gardens Southern Sport Sector & Northern Art Sector The Neighborhood Scale If we are to provoke the residents of the Cleantech Corridor to help society change the way it perceives energy use, it is only fair to give them "the kind of visible signals that it needs to understand what is happening." We believe that for the Cleantech Corridor to be the kind of environment which truly inspires radically new perceptions, it should literally start with the street. For this reason the tranverse streets of the corridor, running perpendicular to the streetcar on Mateo Street, would be cut off from traffic, essentially given back to the pedestrian. These pedestrian streets would then be finished with colored pigment or punctuated with elephants, each terminating at a vertical garden in order to shift the function of the streets from spaces of conveyance to a series of destinations. Furthermore, this strategy means to replace the Cartesian grid as the only way in which the Cleantech Corridor might be negotiated� "You can find me on Industrial Street, just past Jesse," becomes "You can find me on the green street just past the elephants." Our strategy reinforces the way in which people commonly clarify places in metropolises like Los Angeles, where, for example, the intersection of Wilshire Blvd and S. Curson Ave is described as "Across from the tar pits." It is our view that urban interventions of minimal environmental impact yet high visibility have the power to shift the perceptions of a neighborhood and hopefully shift common thought into the realm of what has never been done before, or what could be done. 87 Professional Winners 88 Cleantech Corridor The Architectural Scale At moments when the light catches the model Cleantech Facility just so, it floats over the city like a balloon restrained only by thin cables. A cube sits on a mirrored base, its connection to the ground obscured by a chaotic cloud creating a trompe l'oeil that evokes the impossible. This is our intent, to present the resident of the Cleantech Corridor with what appears to be impossible. We believe that the ability of society to free itself of non-renewable energy sources and replacing them with clean sources of energy is also a seemingly impossible task. Yet, the building is remarkably straightforward. The construction of the model Cleantech Facility, like the work of the sculptor, Louise Nevelson, is composed of salvaged elements softened by a monochromatic wash. The building is committed to retaining the character of the industrial context which is an integral part of downtown Los Angeles' short history, while also avoiding the waste demanded by the scrapping and rebuilding of new developments. American writer Elbert Hubbard reminds us, "No one ever gets far unless he accomplishes the impossible at least once a day." Ultimately, the Cleantech Facility stands as a tribute to the impossible. The Cleantech Corridor is a perfect site for a case study in creating a modern, performative landscape. There is a great deal of latent potential energy in the 89 Professional Winners corridor, from the landscape and streets, to the footprints of outmoded industrial buildings. The river to the east of the site is an enormous asset that, if accessed appropriately, could be a powerful input within a system that renews and recycles energy, water, and waste for the greater Los Angeles area as a whole. We have also been interested in challenging the notion that a productive urban manufacturing district is inherently anti-pedestrian and unsafe. Some of the best examples of exuberant public space in Los Angeles can be in the industrial environs. Plus, the redevelopment of the corridor offers an opportunity to raise the social and literal performance of the current infrastructure through reorganization and reuse. Our proposal is to reprogram infrastructure for a localized response to specific program needs and to develop flexibility in how resources are managed and used. Specific solutions include water reuse, while acknowledging the existing river channel as a flood protection mechanism. Additionally, reuse of the footprints of outmoded industrial buildings as high performance ruins as a stabilizing factor in this typology of urban form, creates a tangible demand for real estate east of downtown. Essential to this narrative of reuse and remediation is the notion of creating a productive landscape. Crops such as bamboo, hemp, and poplar can be used as tools for remediation and also as tangible commodities used for industrial manufacturing and production. When thinking of urbanism and sustainability, it is also important to note that the conversation is focused onto the technical ramifications of what is tangibly green or environmentally viable. As designers, we would also like to counter that there is an enormous benefit to designing communities that are socially sustainable and programmatically flexible. Targeting the bridges as conduits for pedestrian activity and access across the site, we chose to relocate our Cleantech manufacturing, research, and industrial facilities parallel to these bridges. We also chose to perceive the heroic and monumental bridges along the river as untapped opportunities for dynamic, flexible public space. Largely overlooked, the series of concrete bridges over the LA River are a major urban element that imposes a unique identity to the corridor. Major pieces of urban infrastructure, the bridges are an iconic remnant of a CLEANTECH FACITITY SITE PLAN ft. m. 20 100 40 200 N 90 Cleantech Corridor 91 Professional Winners Hewitt Street Green Festival 92 Cleantech Corridor once useful and coherent transit system, before the freeways and cars, when the Los Angeles population moved in a less nodal, disparate fashion. The architectural bridges are programmed to integrate the community east of Los Angeles into the site and formally stitch the two sites of the river. All of the existing bridges along the corridor are historic, with the exception of the Whittier/6th Street Bridge which is slated to be demolished and rebuilt. Coincidently, this bridge has the longest footprint into the residential community to the east. We propose that this structure is a linear commercial park with mixed use and recreational functions parallel to vehicular access and transit. In addition to commercial facilities, the building will also house a trade-tech facility, as well as parking and manufacturing research. Along the First Street Bridge, we have chosen to place a photo-voltaic canopy/theater that provides energy to the surrounding residential and commercial population of Little Tokyo. Populating the 1st Street Bridge with civic and additional recreational uses greatly enhances the value of the connection, while using the crossing as a place for gathering, dialogue, and public interaction. To the south of the site, we have added a distribution center and truck depot that straddles the 10 freeway to the north and south, with a manufacturing and recycling plant that bridges over the river, consolidating much of the current hodgepodge metal recycling that currently exists south of Washington, north of Olympic. 94 Cleantech Corridor 95 The Green District Third Place Buro Happold Mia Lehrer & Associates Elizabeth Timme Jim Suhr The urban character of the Los Angeles industrial corridor is a paradoxical blend of functionality and disregard. Currently, most of the city's distribution, shipping and freight storage occur within this zone. However, there is no structural logic or organization to this corridor. Freight modal hubs are littered along Alameda and Olympic. Additionally, a huge residential population to the east is cut off from accessing the city by this blanket of absolute and thoughtless industry. In part, because of the lack of organizational clarity of these transit systems, 20�30% of the "industrial" buildings that populate the site are outmoded buildings with no inherent flexibility or market valu--currently shuttered, and left derelict. Conversely, part of what makes the Cleantech Corridor site so provocative is its raw space and potential for industry and innovation. However, to function within a modern metropolis, the corridor needs a systemic overhaul, a retrofitting to transition into an intermodal landscape. Zoning Reinforce and straighten existing zoning and distribution across the site, building an integrated campus. Connections Create a street system and take advantage of the existing connections to transform the river into an amenity, offering destinations for the community. Open Space Connect existing green spaces and redefine |the Los Angeles River to provide a wildlife habitat and space for recreation, demonstrating sustainability as an identity. 96 Cleantech Corridor Energy Where density can be created within the mobility web, it is proposed that more efficient central plants be used, taking advantage of the city's reclaimed water to cool high-efficiency chillers. Programs for skylights, solar-thermal collectors and building-integrated PV, combined with efficiency improvements for new and existing buildings, could provide a net reduction in electrical energy, while allowing for increased development. Materials & Waste Our waste strategy extends existing organic waste collection programs by providing incentives to localize waste treatment, ultimately creating composting and biodiesel production that result in minimized transportation emissions, while creating local jobs. The greatest opportunity lies in recycling organic waste: a 70% diversion rate for the Cleantech Corridor could divert 7 million pounds of organic waste from landfill and provide a rich organic fertilizer (possibly to be used in the civic agriculture component), significantly reducing future growth. 97 Professional Winners Transportation & the Mobility Web Our waste strategy extends existing organic waste collection programs by providing incentives to localize waste treatment, ultimately creating composting and biodiesel production that result in minimized transportation emissions, while creating local jobs. The greatest opportunity lies in recycling organic waste: a 70% diversion rate for the Cleantech Corridor could divert 7 million pounds of organic waste from landfill and provide a rich organic fertilizer (possibly to be used in the civic agriculture component), significantly reducing future growth. Water, Storm Water & Green Streets The Cleantech Corridor has a symbiotic relationship with the periodic events of storm-water and street-water runoff. A natural sectional depression occurs along Alameda, collecting runoff from the larger downtown area. We have proposed that the street be rebuilt to include a porous section to allow the reabsorption of storm water into the alluvial plain. Similarly, all proposed green streets will have a porous section to allow water to percolate. Due to the current inadequate preparation for a 100-year-event flood, flood pockets have been introduced to the site to relieve the river during periods of excessive storm events. 98 Cleantech Corridor The Cleantech Corridor is a perfect site for a case study on creating a modern, performative landscape. There is a great deal of latent potential energy in the corridor, from the landscape and streets, to the footprints of outmoded industrial buildings. The river to the east of the site is an enormous asset that, if accessed appropriately, could be a powerful input within a system that renews and recycles energy, water and waste for the greater Los Angeles area. We are also interested in challenging the notion that a productive and urban manufacturing district is inherently anti-pedestrian and unsafe. Some of the best examples of exuberant public space in Los Angeles can be in the industrial environs. Additionally, redevelopment of the corridor offers an opportunity to raise the social and literal performance of the current infrastructure through reorganization and reuse. Our proposal is to reprogram infrastructure for a localized response to specific program needs and to develop flexibility in how resources are managed and used. Specific solutions include water reuse, while acknowledging the existing river channel as a flood-protection mechanism. Additionally, reusing the footprints of outmoded industrial buildings as high-performance ruins would be a stabilizing factor in this typology of urban form, and would create a tangible demand for real estate east of downtown. Essential to this narrative of reuse and remediation is the notion of creating a productive landscape. Crops such as bamboo, hemp and poplar can be used as tools for remediation and as tangible commodities for industrial manufacturing and production. When thinking of urbanism and sustainability, it is important to note that the conversation is focused on the technical ramifications of what is tangibly green or environmentally viable. As designers, we would counter that there is an enormous benefit to designing communities that are socially sustainable and programmatically flexible. Targeting the bridges as conduits for pedestrian activity and access across the site, we chose to relocate our cleantech manufacturing, research and industrial facilities parallel to these bridges. We also chose to perceive the heroic and monumental bridges along the river as untapped opportunities for a dynamic, flexible, public space. Largely overlooked, the series of concrete bridges over the Los Angeles River is a major urban element that imposes a unique identity on the corridor. Major pieces of urban infrastructure, the bridges are an iconic remnant of a once useful and coherent transit system, before the freeways and cars, when the Los Angeles population moved in a less nodal, disparate fashion. The architectural bridges are programmed to integrate the community east of Los Angeles into the site and formally stitch together the two sides of the river. All of the existing bridges along the corridor are historic, with the exception of the Whittier/6th Street Bridge that is slated to be demolished and rebuilt. Coincidently, this bridge has the longest footprint into the residential community to the east. We propose that this structure become a linear commercial park with mixed use and recreational functions parallel to vehicular access and transit. In addition to commercial space, the building will house a trade-tech facility, as well as a parking structure and manufacturing research centers. Along the 1st Street Bridge, we have chosen to place a photovoltaic canopy/ theater that will provide energy to the surrounding residential and commercial population of Little Tokyo. Populating the 1st Street Bridge with civic and recreational uses greatly enhances the value of the connection, while using the crossing as a place for gathering, dialogue and public interaction. To the south of the site, we have added a distribution center and truck depot that straddles the Interstate 10 freeway to the north and south, with a manufacturing and recycling plant that bridges the river, consolidating much of the current hodgepodge of metal recycling businesses that currently exists south of Washington and north of Olympic. 99 Professional Winners 100 Cleantech Corridor 101 Intelligent Growth Honorable Mention Escher GuneWardena Architecture The Cleantech Corridor offers an opportunity to be the spatial and ideological center for regional Cleantech research and industry, while providing the geographic and socio-economic connector between currently disparate parts of the city. To achieve these goals, a paradigm shift in 3 areas is critical: water management, transportation and education. Future development in the city must address water management. Los Angeles imports hundreds of millions of gallons of water daily from the north and the east, additionally depleting the Los Angeles aquifer. Only a fraction of valuable seasonable storm water is captured and hundreds of millions of gallons of treated and re-usable water are discharged into the ocean. While storm water management is improving along some sections of the river, not enough attention is given to waste-water management. Water could be recovered for use in industry and agriculture and replenish the aquifer. Enacted water recycling measures would close the loop of source and distribution. The Cleantech Corridor is an opportunity to create a model water district at the Los Angeles River, allowing a waste-water treatment facility and spreading grounds at the physical and theoretical center of the city. Though located near various highways and railways, most of the Cleantech Corridor suffers from a lack of public transportation. A variety of transportation systems exist, yet they are often disconnected, confusing and unpractical. Easy and convenient coordination is key to greening the city. In addition to improving traditional private and public transportation, new smart transport modes (shared taxis, an express minibus, one-way car rental, park and ride, bicycle and car sharing) are emerging. Interlinking existing and emerging systems into a multidimensional transport node at Union Station will create a central hub, connecting the center of the city with the surrounding areas. Beyond traditional public transport modes, the district is well-positioned to coordinate emerging transport modes with flexible routes and on-demand scheduling that relies on technology to achieve full coverage without the need for new infrastructure. Education is the central aspect of intelligent growth. Education--investment in people--is key to developing green industries in Los Angeles, creating higher-wage green-collar jobs and empowering local communities. The past educational model--the school as factory--is untenable. With the decline of routine cognitive and manual work in manufacturing, the Cleantech Corridor offers a new educational paradigm based on lifelong learning. A sustainable environment is a teacher for the community. Enormous opportunities are possible for synergetic partnerships by locating satellite institutes affiliated with regional, national and international colleges and universities throughout the corridor, and by linking research facilities to Cleantech businesses and industries. New work and education partnerships will transform the local community and the idea of the factory itself. Above all, connections must be made to local teaching facilities at the high school level. New models call for smaller schools with specialized academic focus, and for community partnerships (libraries, meetings spaces, skill centers and vocational schools), linking all levels of education. 102 Cleantech Corridor 103 Professional Winners 105 Infill-Tration Honorable Mention Zoltan Neville Infill-Tration proposes a solution for the Cleantech Corridor of Los Angeles that begins with the reconsideration of the under-utilized existing resources within the area, in order to improve not only the industrial corridor, but the natural water system and the entire urban experience. The project acts more as a method for regeneration and growth rather than a specific design, providing a dynamic framework in which the natural process of development can occur. Two major resources are identified as inefficiently used: water and space. The area identified as the corridor straddles the LA River, a major geographic feature that has been neglected until recently, engineered to flush every drop of water from this drought-prone region out to sea as quickly as possible. The other resource is space, both planar and volumetric. This industrial area is apparent in plan by the change in urban fabric and it is hardly defined enough to read the streets. Most of the surface area is paved over as parking lots, which are empty for most of the day, absorbing the heat of the sun and keeping water from entering the ground. Additionally, a large number of warehouses are unused, or underused, representing empty volumes in the map. The volume of water that actually flows through the channel is significant. The amount of water that is going out to sea unused, while we suffer from drought, is significant. Presently, the river water is polluted and the city faces the task of keeping the water clean enough to enter the sea. Two reclamation plants already work at cleaning some run-off water entering the river, though only 25% gets recycled back into the system for irrigation purposes. Therefore, the water needs to be cleaner to be useful. Thermal Baths 106 Cleantech Corridor The first step of this project proposes to store valuable river water in empty warehouses. Because the water is polluted, natural filtration methods can be employed on the surrounding open spaces, simultaneously functioning ecologically as well as providing some public space for the growing residential population in the neighborhoods. The treated water would then support other public functions, raising value and allowing for further development. Considering that about 40% of the surface area in the neighborhood is open space, the various spatial qualities that exist in the current fabric are incredibly rich and diverse and could accommodate a wide range of open/ public programming, as well new development. As opposed to the traditional two-dimensional method of separating uses into different areas, one could program based on spatial quality rather than location. Lap Pool and Phytodepuration Gardens The implementation of the methodology of Infill-Tration was carried out on one block that contained two possible water storage locations. In addition to spatial qualities of open spaces, microclimate conditions are important in determining where certain natural filtration systems can go. Therefore, a mapping of micro-climate conditions was done of the block to begin to delineate where the three systems (evapotranspiration garden, phytodepuration wetlands, and lagooning ponds) can go, depending on their spatial needs as well as sun requirements, and proximity to storage site based on volumetric flow. The filtration systems are placed first, based on their optimum locations. Then, based on the water output from these systems along with the adjacent spatial qualities, various programs become aggregated where appropriate. In this scenario, various public amenities are put into place due to the large number of renovated loft buildings in the direct vicinity. The system is intentionally dynamic. The program will affect the existing urban fabric that will eventually circle back in order to re-program the site. The method will catalyze a process that will continue to develop itself, allowing the natural process of investment and growth to occur simultaneously. In turn, the programs can continuously change, although the larger interventions like deeper pools may "scar" the landscape and have further implications on what the future use may be. Additionally, this method of growth and generation of value takes into consideration the tax-increment financing method of the CRA. 107 Professional Winners Finally, Infill-Tration provides a solution that is not only dynamic and flexible to meet the needs of the modern city, but also links building and landscape, ecology and urbanism, public space and private development into a unified system that can continue to grow and have a lasting positive effect on not only the Cleantech Corridor, but the entire metropolitan area. Evaporative Cooling Towers Constructed Wetlands Los Angeles, Interrupted Honorable Mention ZAGO Architecture Urbanism as Architecture Los Angeles is a great city without great urbanism. While the structure and atmosphere of the city is compelling, its urban form remains an ephemeral promise rather than a concrete fact. The problem of urbanism in Los Angeles today is a problem of architecture. It requires the willful shaping of the city, imagined large and without trepidation, to bring its form in line with its aspirations. This project proposes a series of large-scale developments along the Los Angeles River and a major reconfiguration of the river itself. In addition to large-scale building complexes at the northern half of the study area, the zone identified by the city as the Cleantech Corridor is composed largely of a recombinant urban device that simultaneously insinuates itself into the surrounding context, while producing its own coherent yet varying urban space. Nature as Artifice The Los Angeles River, once a meandering wash subject to destructive flooding, is now a piece of infrastructure. Its current location and cross-section are products of civil engineering. Rather than romanticize a sylvan future for this channel, one that requires enormous flood-control mechanisms to maintain a fictive natural appearance, this proposal adds engineering to separate the need for ecological corridors in the city from the need for occasional flood control. At a point near the William Mead housing project, water is removed from the channel and pumped to an engineered wetland field located at the current piggy-back rail yards. From there, the water continues above and alongside the current channel in an ecological corridor. This corridor then follows a decommissioned rail right-of-way to Long Beach, where it is directed back to the current channel. The channel remains as a flood control device, employed frequently in the winter months and available as an ad-hoc urban and recreational space year round. 110 Cleantech Corridor HIGH SPEED RAIL A CONTEMPORARY RE-INTERPRET THAT CREATES STRONGLY DEFINED Currently, the area between Union Station River is a left over, out-of-scale piece of plinth and five towers. The plinth houses commercial spaces. The towers, which contain residential space. As a contemp the towers create strongly defined urban A NEW CREATIVE HUB FOR EXPERI HEAVY CLOUDS HIGH SPEED RAIL COMPLEX The heavy cloud buildings are the north vide a bridge between Arroyo Seco, the arrangement are, at once, both monume buildings. Each has a central atrium th A CONTEMPORARY RE-INTERPRETATION OF BAROQUE URBANISM High Speed Rail Complex THAT CREATES STRONGLY DEFINED SPACES Currently, the area between Union Station, the MTA headquarters, and the Los Angeles River is a left-over, out-of-scale piece of the city. The HSRC is HIGH CENTER FOR NEW comprised of a low plinth and five towers. The plinth houses the high-speed SPEED RAIL A CONTEMPORARY RE-INTERPRETA THAT CREATES rail station and residential and commercial spaces. The towers, which afford area STRONGLY DEFINED Los Angeles Currently, the is home to preeminent crea between Union Station FIDM, left over, out-of-scale USC. River is Otis, SCI-Arc, UCLA andpiece ofTh and and the views of the wetland and the river, also contain residential space. As a con-aproximity tocenterother afore mentt plinth its five towers. The plinth houses creative hub. The will contain lab commercial spaces. The towers, which a experimental contain residential space. As temporary re-interpretation of baroque urbanism, the towers create strongly creative work. a contempos the towers create strongly defined urban defined urban spaces. Currently, the area between Union Station, the MTA headquarters and the Los Angeles River is a left over, out-of-scale piece of the city. The HSRC is comprised of a low plinth and five towers. The plinth houses the high speed rail station and residential and commercial spaces. The towers, which afford views of the wetland and the river, also contain residential space. As a contemporary re-interpretation of baroque urbanism, the towers create strongly defined urban spaces. A Contemporary Re-Interpretation of Baroque Urbanism that Creates Strongly Defined Spaces A NEW CREATIVE HUB FOR EXPERIMENT A NEW CREATIVE HUB FOR EXPERIMENTAL WORK IN THE ARTS HEAVY CLOUDS HIGHcloud buildings are the northern gateway to the Clean Tech Corridor and proSPEED RAIL COMPLEX The heavy vide a bridge between Arroyo Seco, the Cornfields and Elysian Park. Their forms and THAT CREATES STRONGLY DEFINED SPACES arrangement are, at once, both monumental and lithe. They are large scale residential Currently, the area between Union Station, the MTA headquarters and the Los Angeles buildings. Each has a central atrium that provides natural ventilation. River is a left over, out-of-scale piece of the city. The HSRC is comprised of a low plinth and five towers. The plinth houses the high speed rail station and residential and commercial spaces. The towers, which afford views of the wetland and the river, also contain residential space. As a contemporary re-interpretation of baroque urbanism, the towers create strongly defined urban spaces. A CONTEMPORARY RE-INTERPRETATION OF BAROQUE URBANISM A NEW CREATIVE HUB FOR EXPERI HEAVY CLOUDS The heavy cloud buildings are the northe vide a bridge between Arroyo Seco, the arrangement are, at once, both monume buildings. Each has a central atrium tha CENTER FOR NEW A NEW CREATIVE HUB FOR EXPERIMENTA CENTER FOR NEW ART A NEW CREATIVE HUB FOR EXPERIMENTAL WORK IN THE ARTS The heavy cloud buildings are the northern gateway to the Cleantech Corridor and provide a bridge between Arroyo Seco, the Cornfields, and Elysian Park. Their forms and arrangement are, at once, both monumental and lithe. They are large-scale residential buildings. Each has a central atrium that provides natural ventilation. HEAVY CLOUDS Los Angeles is home to preeminent creative institutions, including Art Center, Cal Arts, A NEW CREATIVE HUB FOR EXPERIMENTAL WORK IN THE ARTS FIDM, Otis, SCI-Arc, UCLA and USC. The Center for New Art's adjacency to SCI-Arc and its proximity to the other afore mentioned institutions will allow it to function as a The heavy cloud buildings are the northern gateway to the Clean Tech Corridor and procreative hub. The center will contain laboratories, galleries and performance spaces for vide a bridge between Arroyo Seco, the Cornfields and Elysian Park. Their forms and experimental creative work. arrangement are, at once, both monumental and lithe. They are large scale residential buildings. Each has a central atrium that provides natural ventilation. Heavy Clouds A New Creative Hub for Experimental Work in the Arts Los Angeles is home to preeminent crea FIDM, Otis, SCI-Arc, UCLA and USC. Th and its proximity to the other afore menti creative hub. The center will contain lab experimental creative work. 111 Professional Winners A NEW CREATIVE HUB FOR EXPERIMENTAL WORK IN THE ARTS The heavy cloud buildings are the northern gateway to the Clean Tech Corridor and provide a bridge between Arroyo Seco, the Cornfields and Elysian Park. Their forms and arrangement are, at once, both monumental and lithe. They are large scale residential buildings. Each has a central atrium that provides natural ventilation. HEAVY CLOUDS CENTER FOR NEW b A NEW CREATIVE HUB FOR EXPERIMEN Los Angeles is home to preeminent cre FIDM, Otis, SCI-Arc, UCLA and USC. T and its proximity to the other afore men creative hub. The center will contain la c experimental creative work. d a b Existing channel b Pumping station Forebay c Spillway below to wetland Plunge pool c RIVER, INTERR Marsh SOLVING ENGINEERI CENTER FOR NEW ART Center for A NEW CREATIVE HUB FOR EXPERIMENTAL WORK IN THE ARTS New Art Reclamation system Empty channel New soft bottom river d d Remedation blooms a Section aa Section bb Existing channel Los Angeles is home to preeminent creative institutions, including Art Center College, California Institute of the Arts (CalArts), Fashion Institute of Design and Merchandising (FIDM), Otis College of Art and Design, Southern RIVER, INTERRUPTED SOLVING ENGINEERING of ENGINEERING California Institute WITH Architecture (SCI-Arc), University of California at Los is Angeles The desire to green the Los Angeles RiverUniversitybeenchannel that containsofit blithely to pro(UCLA) and the and the recognition that the in Southernvital ignoring California (USC). The Centecting the surrounding communities from flood waters have long of conflict. Instead this fact and proposing to green the existing river, the project acknowledges today's river as a piece of engiter for New infrastructure far removed from its original form and meandering locations. Theits proximity to the other aforeneered Art's adjacency to SCI-Arc, and conflict will be settled by solving an engineered problem with engineering. The normal flow of the river will be diverted to new a soft bottom channel while the existing channel will maintained flood control infrastructure. The normal creative hub. The center mentioned institutions, willbeallowasit to function as aflow RECOMBINANT URBAN FABRIC in the bottom of the in the existing channel to an engineered wetland. will re-directed via a spillway introduced A NON-HIERARCHICALwill URBAN FABRIC THAT PROMOTES AND COMMUNITYwill also the water before galleries, and performance spaces it discharged into the The will contrast toThe wetlandzoningcleanseand animalsuses, transform thea Piggyurbannew channel.into atopark forand encourage fine-grained mixingfor experimental contain laboratories, weisproposeCOLLABORATION designed wetlandthe Cleanprovide In traditional which new Back fabric area allow of light industry, retail, habitat for native plants separates and Yards Corricreative livingwork.work spaces. gives and creative the while allowing an open and flexible surrounding areas. creative dor andand collaboration. TheIt designidentity to each ofscaleseparate programs surrounding developments while at relationship amongst them, thus fostering interaction responds to the and pattern of the the same time proposing its own Micro-pools Section cc Reclamation system Clean river Section dd New soft bottom river Los Angeles is home to preeminent creative institutions, including Art Center, Cal Arts, FIDM, Otis, SCI-Arc, UCLA and USC. The Center for New Art's adjacency to SCI-Arc and its proximity to the other afore mentioned institutions will allow it to function as a creative hub. The center will contain laboratories, galleries and performance spaces for experimental creative work. A New Creative Hub for Experimental Work in the Arts The desire to green the tecting the surrounding this fact and proposing neered infrastructure fa by solving an engineere bottom channel while t will re-directed via a sp The wetland will cleans habitat for native plants dor and surrounding ar Light In unique space. The orientation of the fabric resets the urban grid to capture the prevailing winds for ventilation and to create circulation corridors toward the river. 01. 04. 03. Heavy Industry Mixed U 08. 06. 02. 09. ION AND COMMUNITY 02. Light Industry Heavy Industry Mixed Use Retail Residential 1" = 80'- 0" 05. 07. abric designed to allow and encourage fine-grained mixing of light industry, retail, programs while allowing an open and flexible relationship amongst them, thus 01. ern of the surrounding developments while at the same time proposing its own evailing winds for ventilation and to create circulation corridors toward the river. 03. 04. Above Courtyard Tunnel 05. 06. 07. N 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. Recombinant Urban Fabric A Non-Hierarchical Urban Fabric that Promotes Collaboration and Community In contrast to traditional zoning that separates uses, we propose a new urban fabric designed to allow and encourage fine-grained mixing of light industry, retail, creative living and creative work-spaces. It gives identity to each of the separate programs, while allowing an open and flexible relationship amongst them, thus fostering interaction and collaboration. The design responds to the scale and pattern of the surrounding developments, while, at the same time, proposing its own unique space. The orientation of the fabric resets the urban grid to capture the prevailing winds for ventilation and to create circulation corridors toward the river. 112 Cleantech Corridor Reclamation system c Marsh Empty channel New soft bottom river d Remedation blooms a Section aa d Section bb Existing channel Micro-pools Section cc Reclamation system Clean river Section dd New soft bottom river TERRUPTED NEERING WITH ENGINEERING een the Los Angeles River and the recognition that the channel that contains it is vital to proounding communities from flood waters have long been in conflict. Instead of blithely ignoring oposing to green the existing river, the project acknowledges today's river as a piece of engicture far removed from its original form and meandering locations. The conflict will be settled ngineered problem with engineering. The normal flow of the river will be diverted to new a soft while the existing channel will be maintained as flood control infrastructure. The normal flow via a spillway introduced in the bottom of the in the existing channel to an engineered wetland. cleanse the water before it is discharged into the new channel. The wetland will also provide e plants and animals and transform the Piggy Back Yards area into a park for the Clean Corriding areas. Light Industry 01. Retail Residential Heavy Industry 03. 04. Mixed Use 1 08. 06. 02. 09. 05. 07. Light Industry Mixed Use Retail Residential 1" = 80'- 0" N Above Courtyard Tunnel 113 Professional Winners River, Interrupted Solving Engineering with Engineering The desire to green the Los Angeles River and the recognition that the channel that contains it is vital to protecting the surrounding communities from flood water have long been in conflict. Instead of blithely ignoring this fact and proposing to green the existing river, the project acknowledges today's river as a piece of engineered infrastructure, far removed from its original form and meandering locations. The conflict will be settled by solving an engineered problem with engineering. The normal flow of the river will be diverted to a new soft bottom channel, while the existing channel will be maintained as flood control infrastructure. The normal flow will re-directed via a spillway introduced in the bottom of the in the existing channel to an engineered wetland. The wetland will cleanse the water before it is discharged into the new channel. The wetland will also provide habitat for native plants and animals and transform the Piggy Back Yards area into a park for the Cleantech Corridor and surrounding areas. a b Existing channel b Pumping station Forebay c Spillway to wetland Plunge pool Reclamation system Marsh Empty channel New soft bottom river d Remedation blooms Micro-pools Section cc Reclamation system Clean river Section dd New soft bottom river Student Winners 117 Messy Tech First Place Randall Winston, Jennifer Jones, Renee Pean School of Architecture at the University of Virginia Charlottesville, USA Clean Is Messy. Messy Is Clean. Messy Tech recognizes the full life cycles involved in "clean" industries, which can be complex and not perfectly clean. In turn, messy processes can lead to cleaner. Making Is Messy Designing and manufacturing are inherently messy, where error can lead to progress and where flexibility reigns. Innovation Is Messy Creativity and artistry are fostered in environments of cross-pollination and collaboration, where conflict and harmony co-generate good ideas. Urban Life Is Messy The weaving of diverse infrastructures, people, and activities makes for a rich and dynamic urban fabric. 118 Cleantech Corridor Existing dodger stadium dodger stadium dodger sta dium lincoln heights chinatown civic center lincoln heights c chinatow wn civic cener enter el puebo pue lo ueb blo Proposed dodger sta dium lincoln heights hts c chinatow wn lincoln heights hts chinatown civic center river park district river park district el pueblo el pueblo union station his ga to lle ric ry co ro re w bunker hill dodger stadium little tokyo union station bunker hill dodger stadium his ga to lle ric ry co ro re w b bunkerhi hill hi ill dodger sta dium his o ga to lleric c le ri rry o y ro re w his ga to lle ric ry co ro re w his ga to lle ric ry co ro re w little boyle boyle tokyo heights heights lincoln boyle jewelry toy district heights heights artist/ district chinatown artist/ chinatown south park south park warehouse warehouse central city central city district district east east civic center seafood seafood civic center el pueblo el pueblo district/skid district/skid union station bunker hill union station bunker hill row row fashion district fashion district jewelry district toy district produce produce little little boyle boyle district district tokyo tokyo heights heights warehouse jewelry warehouse boyle toy district toy district artist/ district district heights artist/ district south park warehouse central city warehouse central city district east district east seafood seafood south LA central LA south central district/skid district/skid industrial industrial row row district district fashion district fashion district jewelry district produce district warehouse district produce district warehouse district nanc distri nc ncial trict ct lincoln boyle heights heights southpark th p h pa p lit e ittle ttle boyle b bo boyle b bo district district toky kyo o toky kyo o he eights he eights lincoln boyle toy distric oy ict ct ewel di welry is s oy ict ct artist / jew dis- toy distric hts artist / heights heights ts t tric trict southpark th p h pa p warehouse river c chinatow wn river park cen city warehouse park ce c citywn cen chinatow entral y ce entral y district district district district e east e east se seafo civic cener seafo ueblo enter se el puebo eafoodblo pue civic cener eafood blo enter el puebo pue lo ueb innovation innovation d district/sid union river t/s d s ski d district/sid union t/s d s ski river b hill hi ill station/ campus row w bunkerhi b hill hi ill campus row w station/ bunkerhi residential residential fas hion district fas hion district jew ewel dis welry diis s t tric trict his o ga to lleric c le ri rry o y ro re w his o ga to lleric c le ri rry o y ro re w his o ga to lleric c le ri rry o y ro re w el puebo pue lo ueb blo union union b hill hi ill station/ bunkerhi sta station/ dodger dium cleantech cleantech financial distri financial nanc nc ncial trict ct lit e ittle ttle civic cener enter lincoln boyle heights ts hts heights south park boyle heights southpark th p h pa p p produce financial distri e pe e nanc nc ncial trict ct litproducefinancial ittle ttle lit e ittle ttle boyle b bo district boyle b bo distric t distric district toky t kyo o toky kyo o he eights he eights jew welry di is s toy distric oy ict ct clean jew ewel dis warehouse welry diis s toy distric oy ict ct / artist /ewel dis- warehouse boyle artistclean distric t t tric trict distric t heights ts t tric trict southmanufacturing th park hp pa p manufacturing warehouse warehouse ce cen entral city y ce cen entral city y district district district district e east e east se seafo eafood se seafo eafood south LA so c south centra so c centra innovation al innovation al LA d district/sid t/s d s ski d district/sid t/s d s ski ind trial ndust i river t l ind trial t river campusndust i l row w campus ct row w di fas istric district di residential istric ct hion residential fas hion district nanc distri nc ncial trict ct district district cleantechdistrict cleantech district boyle heights ts p produce e distric t warehouse distric t p produce e distric t warehouse distric t clean manufacturing district clean manufacturing district Diverse groups and activities south LA south LA central industrial district central industrial district so south LA Embrace, expand on, and weave together new urban life in the Cleantech Corridor so al south LA c centra ind trial ndust i l t di ct istric c centra al ind trial ndust i l t di ct istric a new light rail system light rail system increases a new increases a new increases a new light rail systemlight rail system increases Subways connect downtown to the surrounding city. Highways and the river serve as barriers Accessibility to the Cleantech Corridor and throughout downtown, while constructed caps bridge previous barriers Infrastructural Systems Energy Generation Localized infrastructural systems link public and private sources of solar and wind energy generation to provide off-the-grid power to the corridor. This adaptable network can also support new technologies. Water Treatment Water is gathered at shared community sites throughout the corridor to be treated with a variety of technologies, including reverse osmosis, nano-based membranes and ultrafiltration. In each case water is daylighted as an essential element of public space. Paths A network of public paths weave along and across the river to link surrounding communities and to provide recreational space. The connectedness of the paths supports a diverse urban environment along the corridor. River The river is re-imagined as a public amenity that both mitigates flooding and provides vital greenspace to the corridor and downtown LA. 119 Student Winners Department of Water and Power LA River District Infrastructure becomes public amenity with the addition of the DWP LA River Site and a dramatic river expansion. A public promenade provides vital green space near the detention center and allows access to the river. Cleantech Financial District A new downtown financial center that is home to California's cap and trade exchange following the passage of Proposition AB32. A high speed rail station bridges Union Station to a new commercial strip, leading to a river overlook. Arts District + Solar Hood Light rail stations create vibrant hubs of activity within the corridor and a constructed solar hood creates vast amounts of energy to be used locally. The solar hood doubles as a public park that bridges the western and eastern sides of the corridor. Manufacturing District New industries catalyze existing urban fabric through adaptive reuse of buildings. The process of making is exhibited and displayed through transparent facades and displays of information for the public. 120 Cleantech Corridor 121 Student Winners Messy Tech Innovation Hub Physical and Networked Adjacencies at the Proposed Site Commuter Railway system Roadway system -1 Sci-Arc Light rail - Metro rail Maintenance of way building Roadway system - 2 LA CMTA Roadway system - 3 Physical adjacency factors Networked adjacency factors The site of New Integrated Creative Industry, Downtown LA current urban situations:Infrastructure, Arts District and New Site 123 Urban Pumps Second Place Ji Hoon Kim Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL, London, UK One of the recent emerging ecological issues is revival of the LA River and its transformation into a green corridor along the edge of Downtown Los Angeles. The area has been neglected because the watershed area belongs to the industrial part of downtown and a slum district of LA. However, it has easy access to transportation systems and, as a water resource, has strong potential to be one of the major industrial and natural parks in the United States. Our team's concept is a thorough utilization of the water stream of the LA River as an industrial resource for existing manufacturing facilities and as an ecological resource for the downtown LA environment. Our design consists of a networked constellation of pump systems for controlling the damage resulting from Los Angeles flood and storm water. It recycles sewage from neighboring industries and returns a supply of gray water for irrigation and manufacturing. It helps the LA River to attract more industries for efficiently designed water infrastructure and also works as a natural water park. Our proposal also suggests creation of an affordable environment for high-tech industry and laboratories that will connect manufacturing and research. At the urban scale, six urban pump stations along the LA River work in collaboration and act as both a water-collector and supplier and a recycling and drainage system. These will protect new landscape elements that are part of a public water park inside the river. Bicycle paths and stepped grass decks can suggest other open public spaces. At the architectural scale, the lower part of the pump station houses water tanks that store LA River water. The water could be utilized as an industrial resource and the tanks could act as catch basins during the flood season. The ground level provides office, lab, education and manufacturing facilities. These facilities will be connected to the freight rail and parking structure, with proposed amenity and commercial spaces nearby. The roof space is designed as a public park that links to the LA River with a pond and irrigation system that comes from recycled water. 124 Cleantech Corridor New Integrated Creative Industry site Railway network type-2 woking for commuter rail system Railway network type-3 parking and preparing area Building type-1 Light Rail-Metro Rail Maintenance Building Building type-2 LA CMTA Special building type SCI-Arc Downtown LA Layer study for investigating specialised urban features of the site 125 Student Winners Design system - 1 Converse production Raw material area Distribution area Production lines Design system - 2 Transverse conveyance Raw material area Distribution area Sci-Arc Container handling system for raw material Container handling system for distribution of new production Design system - 3 Micro conveyance Moving system for extra spaces and material Design system - 4 Non-production Exhibition, Residences area Communal area Cable car for new moving system 126 Cleantech Corridor 127 Student Winners Integrated-Creative-Factory, Downtown LA 128 129 LocAvore Agritech Third Place Ryan Lovett, Jesse Keenan Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation, Columbia University New York, USA LocAvore Agritech (LAA) is a revolutionary plan for vertically integrating food production and distribution systems technology. These new systems of production will provide a platform for emerging for-profit businesses seeking to create additional value built upon Los Angeles' existing food infrastructure and human capital. There are over a 150 non-restaurant food businesses, providing over 15,000 jobs, in the Cleantech Corridor alone. LAA's value creation mechanism will not only provide additional jobs, but will work to meet Los Angeles's emerging public health crisis in accessing healthy food head-on. LAA's foundation is based upon four pillars: (i) localized dense urban vegetable production; (ii) agritech education facilities; (iii) mobile food distribution network; and, (iv) kitchen incubators. Each one of these components will integrate technology, labor, and space in order to create the synergy required to attract and create the capital necessary for sustainable economic development. There is nothing more sustainable than food. With the emergence of urban agriculture, Los Angelenos have become increasingly introspective of the true cost of food, whether this is framed in terms of quality, access, or carbon footprint. To address this, LAA seeks to provide a platform for the cost-effective production of high intensity vegetable crops that can be cycled through the surrounding region. By maximizing the spatial relationship between crop typologies and technology, LAA's infrastructure provides a model for efficient localized vegetable yields. For every 1 million square feet, 60,000 people will have access to a full array of staple fresh vegetables, without regard to seasonality. While the square-footage yield relationship is important, the energy consumption dynamic is equally as fundamental in terms of economic viability. After all, 80% of the energy consumption occurs at the production stage. Contrary to the implicit notion of vertical farming, the margins in conventional farming economics are built upon fuel, fertilizer, and water costs, not land pricing and availability. Distribution isolated energy consumption, until now, has been more of an afterthought once the food leaves the farm. Combine conveyor with aquaponics /Canal system 130 Cleantech Corridor LAA provides several unique methodologies for minimizing net energy consumption. First, through efficient nutrient delivery system technology, each vegetable will require just a fraction of the energy otherwise required through traditional fossil fuel intensive fertilizing. In terms of energy technology, LAA will be able to biodigest millions of tons of spoiled food that are transported through the region. Current produce spoilage rates of 10% provide a tremendous opportunity to create energy from non-toxic waste. Finally, access to water, even in the smallest quantities, through the close proximity to the LA River is critical to closing inefficient food production loops and minimizing overhead. With the emergence and broader application of agritechnology, an entire generation of skilled and semi-skilled workers will need to be cultivated to serve the growing demand. Through hands-on training in horticultural, energy, and food safety technologies, facilities will serve a multitude of functionalities for cooperative training and research. LAA provides an opportunity for traditionally semi-skilled workers to upgrade their skills sets in lock step with the new food revolution. Agritech Campus Masterplan Los Angeles is a city defined by its mobility as matter of necessity and practicality. LAA adapts to these predictable movements by bringing the food to the people. Through a unique adaptation of dead concrete space, LAA envisions rental pads for docking mobile food trucks. These pads would be available for rent over a series of incremental time periods that would be available via a blind online auction format. The alignment of end-sales pricing and rents allows for more open competition for the highest and best products and subsequent spatial allocation. This directly benefits the public good by providing a dedicated revenue stream and by relieving surface street congestion. However, the end-sales will not be dominated by prepared and processed foods. This new mobile network will be able to distribute raw food boxes, via a community membership service, and seedlings to small scale urban farmers. The profit seeking motivations are driven by the tremendous food market gap in most of the communities in and around the Cleantech Corridor. These communities have 4 times the number of convenience stores and fast food restaurants as they do supermarkets or produce vendors. Each local grocery store serves roughly 27,986 people, compared with Los Angeles County's average of 18,649. Local mobile trucks already exceed supermarket access points on a margin of 5 to 1. Formalizing the informal mobile truck network and diversifying with healthy food products will go a long way towards addressing the serious public health and education problems, which are fundamentally tied to regional economic competitiveness. The final component of LAA is the kitchen incubator. These incubators are intricately designed spaces that allow for the cooperative renting of kitchen space and equipment. Very often, the overhead associated with starting and operating an FDA, USDA, and California state regulated commercial kitchen is cost prohibitive to budding food entrepreneurs. For the start-up, incubators allow food producers to pay for only the time they utilize and to tap into a stand-by labor force. By sharing ovens and energy consuming equipment, the entrepreneurs collectively save money and energy. It is this collective entrepreneurial spirit and drive for socially responsible economic growth that shapes the context of LAA. 131 Student Winners From Growing Areas To Processing Area Adjacent Agritech Campus + R&D Center Over 100 Kitchens Dry Food Storage Frozen Storage Cold Storage From The Agritech Campus To the Kitchen Incubators: - Prep work, Processing, and Cooking done in Labs in The Cleantech Corridor and around city On the Road: - Priority Lanes on Boulevards - Not Permitted on High Traffic Corridors To New Civic Furniture Spaces: Operated by the City, reserved by Truck Operators via online auction New Distribution spaces allocated to underserved areas first, but then become demand based an Go: New Civic Furniture BUS SHELTER STREET VENDOR New Instant, On-Demand, Mixed-use Neighborhoods F Permanent Seating / Dining Areas etation Pet Hydration H Permanent Seating / Mixed Use Bus Stop K Cafe / Restaurant Excercise Station / Stoop G Health Smoothies Designated Truck-Only Space Designated Truck-Only Space BOTTLE FILLING STATION I Community Water Tower / Lounge L Community Cooking Station Retains Prior Function BBQ E Stoop Seating Yoga PORTABLE SEATING N M Portable Seating + Playing Surfaces Dilapidated Gas Station >> Mixed-Use Leisure Zone O Underutilized Center Median >> Active Angeleno Centric Zones Excercise Furniture P J Impromptu Performance Space Prototypical Suburban Residential Block >> Mixed Use 24hr Block New Instant, On-Demand, Mixed-use Neighborhoods Selected Entries 134 Cleantech Corridor Volha Piskun, Andrei Hakhovich California College of the Arts EcoSynthetic Roofscape 135 Selected Entries Bart Chui, H.Y. Cheung Villages in a Jungle in a City 136 Cleantech Corridor Disguincio&co. + Joanna-Maria Helinurm Back to the Future back to the future Techonology is progressing with the speed of light, yet every step forward makes us look further back nostalgia. Our proposal, is to take advantage of the immerging innovations of technology and present it in an old-fashion package. Taking one of the oldest living organisms, a tree, as our role-model to mimic its way of operating. Yet since 12443_1 ally by its o be focused remains s a public tions. Many parade ground, al program al value of promotes the y: 137 Selected Entries Mike Jacobs Architecture gHOST CITY: Los Angeles gHOST CITY hosts Los Angeles gHOST CITY: los angeles Los Angeles is host to the largest undocumented immigrant community in the country. As a result, the city benefits from culturally rich urban experiences, but simultaneously inherits increased public and financial obligations. gHOST CITY embraces the hidden economies of Los Angeles' undocumented labor and immigrant communities as indispensible contributors to a future green infrastructure for the city. Existing informal economies and currently PARADE GROUND & FESTIVAL SPACE underserviced rail networks serve as structural mechanisms that address and offset the increasingly politicized financial costs incurred by the host City of Los Angeles. Undocu econom Of the m engage streams 1. Resid 2. Dom 3. Resta ES TIES 11 WEEKS, 52 FESTIVALS, 2,000CU.FT. COMPOST 15169_3 AERIAL 1960 THE CITY HOSTS INDUSTRY 2010 RETHINKING NET ZERO 2060 GREEN INDUSTRY HOSTS THE CITY # OF UNDOCUMENTED IMMIGRANTS IN L.A. RETHIN Sustain the cap immigra site can total an rich com $99,140 RAIL USE $ OF UNDOCUMENTED IMMIGRANTS ON L.A. Biochar materia chambe Biochar against addition 138 Cleantech Corridor Yasmeen Kahn, Erica Nobori LEED AP, Steve Baule LEED GA UrbanFLOW: The Cleantech Corridor as Experimental LAB A Day in the Life Natasha is in her late 20s, single and works for a start up company researching micro algae as a renewable biodiesel fuel. John, lives with his wife and two children in the LEED certified community near the Cornfields and works in the Local manufacturing center creating tidal generators that produces energy from ocean currents. 6:30 Wakes up in their condo overlooking the Los Angeles River. Shower water is collected in a grey water system to be used to replenish pools and cisterns in the corridor. 08:00 Natasha wakes up in her one bedroom apartment east of the River and prepares for work. 7:00 With his wife prepares breakfast and lunch for his kids before they head off to school. Fruits and vegetables are from their plot in the community garden. 9:00 bikes across the main street bridge over the LA river with has been restored to its natural braided flow to the Clean Tech lab where her office leases a research lab. 7:30 John walks his kids around the local wetlands habitat to their elementary school. 10:30 Checks the progress of algae production in an open testing pond that can be rented to test safe and certified green tech products (urban+ecology open source lab). 8:00 Takes the public transportation to the manufacturing center. 12:30pm Walks to to a local favorite lunch spot with coworkers along one of the green space corridor that has a brook naturally filtering reclaimed water from a local recycling water plant). 8:30 Arrives at work. Today they will be preparing the delivery of a 700 KW tidal generator to Hawaii. 1:30 Returns to office. 11:00 transport of generators on rail via the Alameda Corridor to the Port of Los Angeles for final destination. 2:30 After finishing her work at the laboratory meets a friend at a local farmers market for coffee and to buy fresh vegetables grown at an aquaponics farm. Noon Lunch overlooking one of the Aquaponics Ponds in the area 4:00 Bikes over to the local gym for a Pilates class. Gym is in a former Cold Storage warehouse that has been converted into a mix use space for residents and local commercial retailers 1:00 Outside group meeting to discuss the specs for upcoming project. They meet under a covered vine canopy used to provide shade and absorb heat. 2:00 Diagrams and blueprints are delivered online by Engineers in Dubai for next project. 5:30 Hops on local rail/bus with bike back home. 2:30 Begin preparation of work site for next project. 6:00 After Dinner finishes her documentation and posts her laboratory test results for other coworkers to analyze. 5:30 leaves work. 9:30 Meets up with friends for drink at local bar. Bar Special: Vodka infused with apricots picked from the public fruit trees in the area.. 12:00 Returns home. 6:00 meets wife in the Cornfields Park. Wife has picked up the kids for Soccer practice. 7:30 John prepares dinner for the kids while wife waters the garden with water saved in Cisterns. 9:30 After putting the kids to bed, John and his wife watch TV and heats the house via geothermal heat/cooling pump system placed under the shallow water wetlands near their condo. GRAM: GREEN & WATER 15540_3 139 Selected Entries Kuth Ranieri Architects LAgora Commons: A Multi-Use Cleantech Community Aerial View of Context View towards Entrance on N. Main St. View from West LAgora Commons: A Multi-Use Cleantech Community LAgora Commons is envisioned as an AGORA, a marketplace for the sharing of ideas and community outreach for the cleantech and surrounding communities. The location for the Commons is the DWP LA River Site, where the Cleantech Corridor and local residential neighborhoods converge. As a multi-use urban district the LAgora Commons brings together 10 acres of rooftop agricultural fields and greenhouses with 300,000 sq ft of office, research and commercial space, 450 units of multi-generational housing and a site-wide wetlands and reservoir forming a vibrant and sustainable urbanism. The Urban strategy of the proposed district is based on four key principles: The Walkable Village, Intergenerational Residential Housing, Urban Agriculture, and Self-Sustaining Ecologies. Within its immediate context, LAgora Commons negotiates the dramatic spatial differences of the industrial corridor, the surrounding residential neighborhood and the open space of the LA River. In terms of tectonic expression, we have developed a contiguous horizontal system of building and landscape which rises, knits and torques across the site, incorporating public and private programming and performative environmental systems. The entire system behaves as a constructed ecosystem, managing water, waste, energy and food production. All components of this ecosystem are multi-functioning, intertwining the related social, ecological, and economic purposes. 6 Nucleus 5 8 4 3 1 2 7 10 11 9 12 13 Membrane Site Plan 100' 200' 1. Cleantech Town Square 2. cleantech offices (below) 3. rooftop greenhouses 4. cleantech labs (below) 5. rooftop agriculture 6. recycling center 7. retail strip 8. market 9. amphitheater 10. reservoir 11. wetlands 12. wellness center 13. housing blocks Life of a Cell: An Urban Prototype At the core of the proposal is a model for repairing dispersed and auto-centric urban and suburban communities. The design is a cell structure. The nucleus, containing the DNA of the project, is a taut congregation of residential, commercial, civic, and environmental programming. The outer membrane is porous and adaptive, connecting and engaging the surrounding communities, infrastructure and institutions. 15730_1 Aerial View of Context View towards Entrance on N. Main St. View from West LAgora Commons: A Multi-Use Cleantech Community LAgora Commons is envisioned as an AGORA, a marketplace for the sharing of ideas and community outreach for the cleantech and surrounding communities. The location for the Commons is the DWP LA River Site, where the Cleantech Corridor and local residential neighborhoods converge. As a multi-use urban district the LAgora Commons brings together 10 acres of rooftop agricultural fields and greenhouses with 300,000 sq ft of office, research and commercial space, 450 units of multi-generational housing and a site-wide wetlands and reservoir forming a vibrant and sustainable urbanism. The Urban strategy of the proposed district is based on four key principles: The Walkable Village, Intergenerational Residential Housing, Urban Agriculture, and Self-Sustaining Ecologies. Within its immediate context, LAgora Commons negotiates the dramatic spatial differences of the industrial corridor, the surrounding residential neighborhood and the open space of the LA River. In terms of tectonic expression, we have developed a contiguous horizontal system of building and landscape which rises, knits and torques across the site, incorporating public and private programming and performative environmental systems. The entire system behaves as a constructed ecosystem, managing water, waste, energy and food production. All components of this ecosystem are multi-functioning, intertwining the related social, ecological, and economic purposes. 6 Nucleus 5 8 4 3 1 2 7 10 11 9 12 13 Membrane Site Plan 100' 200' 1. Cleantech Town Square 2. cleantech offices (below) 3. rooftop greenhouses 4. cleantech labs (below) 5. rooftop agriculture 6. recycling center 7. retail strip 8. market 9. amphitheater 10. reservoir 11. wetlands 12. wellness center 13. housing blocks Life of a Cell: An Urban Prototype At the core of the proposal is a model for repairing dispersed and auto-centric urban and suburban communities. The design is a cell structure. The nucleus, containing the DNA of the project, is a taut congregation of residential, commercial, civic, and environmental programming. The outer membrane is porous and adaptive, connecting and engaging the surrounding communities, infrastructure and institutions. 15730_1 140 Cleantech Corridor Ung Bum Lee, Hoon Yu, Sun Jung Han, Chunghwan Sung, Jeff Lee, Derek Kim multipli-CITY block scale con NETWO Sustainability supporting dive The future city must b the city that is able to result minimize the res energy consumption b ing system. available parking space information system Social Factor Cleantech Corridor must be more than just science park or office park. Cleantech Corridor can be cultural icon and brand itself by introducing creative ideas to the buildings, urban spaces and operating software. It makes the Cleantech Corridor professionals to be more creative and helps the visitors to realize the importance of cleantech. People's mind is the most fundamental soft infrastructure. . The city must accommodate various unexpected functions as well as existing function to sustain in the unpredictable future. We suggest indefinite space as a tool for supporting functional variability of the city. By scattering indefinite spaces in the city, we can make the city possible to adapt to numerous branches of urban evolution and more attractive . Indefinite Space trans-functional building traffic direction control system bus interval control system open space Infrastructure grey water furification system grey sewer line direction control point Our proposal reflects the possibility of LA river as a natural landscape in the urban planning. Recovering water level is crucial to restore urban function of LA river. L Our strategy is to return graywater to LA river after purification to recover water level. The restored LA river waterfront can promote urban landscape and can be utilized as urban park and natural open space Building a large scale possibly cause many proposal explores a m adding a large scale n LA River Building As society changes ra to the structural infras ing to new function. W with the situation of o PLUG-in CONTAINER conditioning unit and tion. linear green open space along LA river Road The alternate means o cause car is often poi true that the current c infrastructure-road, an flexible bus operating ing car traffic, instead operating system con bus users by interacti structure near freeway 141 Selected Entries OCDC Cleantech Solar Symbiont b a e d f c An architectural mutualism embodies the existing industrial loft housings that serve as hosts that employ the proposed apparatus- the Solar Symbiont. The speculation is that the physical construct of Solar Symbiont would share air and surface rights with existing host buildings. Unlike billboards and cell sites, a Solar Symbiont network's farming policies cultivates reusable energy as a form of commodity that performs more than just generate electricity, heating, and additional income for the building. With the clear notable macro environmental effect for establishing clean energy enterprises, Solar Symbiont intervention would also produce a new identity and urban destination for owners, dwellers, and visitors. Solar Symbiont is a time-sensitive infrastructure produced and assembled locally in Downtown Los Angeles. The overall faceted and expandable geometry facilitates the demand for directional variations of the sun and builds on the potential to optimize growth. It is laid out to stretch and to latch onto its most proximate host building with capability to shift scale and proportion for the interest and demand of occupants. Solar Symbiont is constructed using layers of snap surface composites, operable PV panels, sub roofing solar heating duct patching, and a lightweight substrate canopy supported by a point-loaded suspension structural system. Integrated with additional housing pods, the Solar Symbiont system also includes public roof garden, tanning deck and lap pools. Legend a. Hard shell roof deck integrated with Rayotec solar heating ductwork, b. Mega structural roof frame / public circulation, c. New cellular housing inserts, d. Existing building / host, e. Individual photovoltaic cells, f. Structural surface network for the individual PV cells Cleantech Solar Symbiont Design of a unique, industrially-zoned corridor in downtown Los Angeles elicits the strategy of building a sustainable field of solar energy housing that posits a complex ecology and sprawling cellular system with PV shells nesting on top of the existing built environment. The aim is to create a fluid and scalar roof scape where the merging of the newly proposed program and its spatial components are symbiotically connected to the overall site. The project establishes mutually beneficial relationships for a diversity of conditions that encourage for change towards cleaner energy consumption and development in urban living. 16767_ a e c d f Legend b a. Hard shell roof deck integrated with Rayotec solar heating ductwork, b. Mega structural roof frame / public circulation, c. New cellular housing inserts, d. Existing building / host, e. Individual photovoltaic cells, f. Structural surface network for the individual PV cells 142 Cleantech Corridor Shunsuke Nakano, Ana Untiveros-Ferrel, Sana Ihmoud Urban Jungle (Photosynthetic District) 1 --�-------------------------------------------���������������������--���������������������� SCI-Arc Cleantech Corridor Companion Reader Edited by David Bergman and Peter Zellner Content Curation by Seth Ferris 2 3 Contents --�������������������-� Pages 4-5 Introduction to the Reader David Bergman ���������������������� Pages 10-12 ����������������������� Pages 7-10 EXCERPT Industrial Trends Report Published 3rd Quarter 2010 Prepared by Grub Ellis ���������������������� Pages 17-19 EXCERPT Los Angeles' Industrial Land: Sustaining A Dynamic City Economy Published December 2007 Prepared by the CRA (Community Redevlopment Agency) and the Department of Urban Planning ���������������������� Pages 12-17 EXCERPT Residential / Industrial Land-Use Conflict Published 2006 Prepared by the UCLA Policy Team --�������������������� Page 21 References --����������������---- Page 23 Credits and Aknowledgements EXCERPT Cleantech Corridor, Los Angeles, California Published 2008 Prepared by the ULI (Urban Land Institute) 5 Introduction to the Reader David Bergman In undertaking the Cleantech Corridor competition, the Future Initiatives program at SCI-Arc, along with our partners, wanted to begin a dialogue about an alternative vision for the development of this potentially critical asset in the city's fabric. The fundamental proposition was that the ambition and the scope of the Cleantech initiative would offer a canvas for innovative approaches that would be both transformative to the core of Los Angeles and exportable to other industrial communities in the region and across developed urban environments in general. In order to do this we wanted to demonstrate approaches that would contrapose the radical and speculative with the conventional understanding of the urban development process and received knowledge about opportunities for the site. In order to do this effectively it was felt that the reader would be aided by having access to the current public discussions and analysis of opportunities at the Cleantech Corridor. This supplement was conceived of a as a way to bring the reader up to date on the state of the discussion in order to provide context for the competition submissions and juror comments. What follows is a curated set of excerpts from research by independent civic organizations, and policy statements from the City of Los Angeles regarding future opportunities for the Cleantech Corridor. In providing these documents we intend to provide a window on the current state of play influencing the future disposition of the plan area. Moving forward we anticipate that the efforts of the competition entrants and the discussion contained in this volume will add to our understanding of what is possible in this part of the city and for new modalities of urban development broadly applied. 6 7 Los Angeles' Industrial Land: Sustaining A Dynamic City Economy INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND Job producing land is a critical component of a healthy and prosperous city. Industrial zoned areas of Los Angeles offer employment opportunities for residents of all skill and education levels, create and support jobs in multiple other business sectors, and generate taxes that sustain the quality of life elsewhere in the City by funding streets and sidewalks, police and fire services, libraries, trash collection, and more. For these reasons, the City of Los Angeles has had a long-standing adopted policy to preserve industrial lands.1 This existing policy states the City's intent to: � Protect industrial zoned land; � Retain and expand existing businesses; � Attract new uses that provide job opportunities for the City's residents; � Maintain a healthy jobs/house hold ratio that supports the General Fund and its capacity to pay for essential services and programs for the City's existing and future population. Despite this long-standing policy to support industrial and employment generating land uses, the policy has been increasingly overlooked, recently prompting a renewed effort to retain critical job producing lands, the jobs they support, and the revenues they generate for the City. The industrial sector in Los Angeles employs fully one�quarter of the City's total workforce2 and creates an estimated $219 M annually in City tax revenue.More than 410,000 persons are employed in the industrial sector.3 The diverse and dynamic economy of Los Angeles is increasingly home to many types of `new economy' jobs that are considered industrial. Technological advances and global economic changes are replacing `smokestack' industries with more light manufacturing, apparel, biomedical, logistics and creative industries. Moreover, Los Angeles provides opportunities for start up businesses; industrial zones offer the conditions needed for entrepreneurs and small businesses to grow and expand, as well as transition to full production. In addition to directly supporting job-producing uses, industrial zoned land is crucial to many services essential to Los Angeles' business and residential communities including utilities, distribution, recycling, construction and maintenance yards, animal services, and automobile repair. These businesses are also critically linked to other business sectors that rely on goods and services produced in industrial zones. Competition for industrially zoned land in Los Angeles is extremely high; industrial land in the City has the lowest vacancy rate in the nation, remaining consistently below two percent. Yet the supply of these critical job-producing areas is becoming increasingly scarce as non-industrial uses such as residential, big-box retail, schools, open space and recreational facilities continue to encroach on industrial land. Currently, 26 percent of Los Angeles' industrial land is already used for nonindustrial purposes,4 leaving just six (6) percent of the City's total land area available for active industrial uses. In 8 Downtown Los Angeles, West Los Angeles and increasingly in Hollywood, residential developers have purchased industrial properties to convert them to high-end housing, creating speculative markets that result in increasing land prices and uncertainty about future land use decisions, making it difficult for our most important industries to do business in Los Angeles and for new industries to have the confidence to invest. As a recent market report forecasting the fate of industrial land in Los Angeles cautions: "The major concern is what the developers will do with the minimal vacant land that is left in Los Angeles County. Developers of all types of product: residential, retail, office and industrial, will all scramble to gobble up land and turn it into what they believe will be the most profitable use. The recent trend in Los Angeles has been mixed-use and high-end condominium construction. If this trend continues, industrial space will be in even tighter demand, pushing more users in the area to move east [to the Inland Empire]."5 When industrial businesses and jobs leave the City, it not only redirects economic value and revenues to other cities, it potentially leaves Los Angeles residents with fewer--and often lowerpaying--employment opportunities. To protect job-producing land in the City of Los Angeles, the Mayor's Office of Economic Development appointed an Industrial Development Advisory Committee in 2003 to make policy recommendations to the Mayor and City Council to help the City: � Encourage industrial economic activity in the City of Los Angeles; � Retain and optimize the use of the City's industrial zoned land; � Increase the number of quality jobs available to local residents; and � Increase the City's revenues from industrial activity. EvOLvING INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS The term "industrial" no longer only refers to large factories producing steel, cars or other mass produced goods. Today the term describes a broader array of job-producing uses and activities--in addition to traditional industrial uses--such as furniture and clothing design, biomedical research/manufacturing, and entertainment-related post-production activities that do not necessarily generate impacts such as noise, traffic and pollution. While the industrial/ employment sector is evolving, Los Angeles County remains the largest manufacturing region in the United States. Although globalization has generally triggered an exodus of jobs from many American city centers, the strategic importance of Los Angeles and its industrial lands has been strengthened. Industrial districts are a critical component of the dynamic entrepreneurial economy of Los Angeles. In many instances, these thriving districts developed where a core industry was first established, later followed by support services and related businesses. This can be seen in several industrial districts in Los Angeles that have located proximate to regional transportation infrastructure and have evolved into specialized districts such as fashion design/ production, goods distribution (including food), entertainment and aerospace. These industrial districts are home to many small and start-up operations, which are a critical component of the dynamic regional economy. The 9 Table 3 Originally printed in Los Angeles' Industrial Land: Sustaining A Dynamic City Economy, Page 17 entertainment industry and its support activities such as prop houses, lumber yards, digital film editing and sound stages are clustered primarily in industrial districts of Hollywood, Studio City and other parts of the San Fernando Valley. Warehousing and logistics industries are clustered into districts around the port and airports (both LAX and Van Nuys), along the freeway and rail lines bisecting the San Fernando Valley, and around the freight transportation hubs east and southeast of Downtown Los Angeles. Smaller industrial clusters remain along former railroad lines in portions of South and Southwest Los Angeles. households and 790,000 people.7 Over 160,000 City residents are employed in the manufacturing sector alone, and Los Angeles County is the largest manufacturing employment center in the nation.8 The industries that comprise the businesses and jobs discussed in this report are based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), used by the statistical agencies of the United States to classify business establishments.9 NAICS classifies as "industrial": transportation, manufacturing, utilities, construction, and wholesaling, along with high-tech industries such as computer and electronic manufacturing and software reproduction. THE IMPORTANCE OF INDUSTRIAL LAND TO THE LOS ANGELES ECONOMY Industrial jobs are a critical component of the region's employment base. From building construction to computer manufacturing to motion picture/audio production, industrial jobs employ about 410,000 people, about 25 percent of the total workforce in the City.6 These industrial sector jobs support an estimated 270,000 LOS ANGELES' INDUSTRIAL WORKFORCE Certain communications, publishing, motion picture and sound recording industries are included as a part of the expanding creative industries sector. These jobs range from highly-skilled, technical positions to entrylevel apprenticeships and careerpath positions for unskilled and semi-skilled workers. Compared to 10 retail and service jobs, industrial jobs often provide higher wages and better opportunities for skills development and career advancement. For instance, average wages for industrial jobs in the City are about $47,000 annually while the average retail job pays around $29,000 annually.10 According to the Los Angeles Economic Development Corporation (LAEDC), the largest sectors in manufacturing within L.A. County employed the following number of workers in 2005: � 61,500 in apparel; � 60,500 in computer and electronic products; � 51,900 in transportation products; � 48,200 in fabricated metalproducts; � 43,400 in food products; Despite the tremendous amount of employment provided on industrially-zoned land, the City has been losing jobs while its population continues to increase. In 1980 there were 1,815,494 jobs in the City of Los Angeles compared to a population of 2,969,181-- about 0.61 jobs per person. By 2005, the population had risen by 33 percent to 3,934,714 while jobs had decreased by about 3 percent to 1,759,202--just 0.45 jobs per person.11 Thus, while the City added about 965,500 people, employment dropped by about 56,300. In addition to providing relatively high-paying jobs, the industrial sector also offers a wide range of employment and advancement opportunities to the residents of Los Angeles. diminishing industrial lands is pricing out industrial tenants and exacerbating the loss of jobs from the City. GRUBB ELLIS REPORT 2008 Real estate speculation has additional negative consequences. Industrial land owners may hold industrial zoned land without investing in industrial operations--with the expectation that more lucrative land uses would be allowed in the future. The lack of regular maintenance accelerates the obsolescence of the structures and perpetuates the cycle of disinvestment. While economic cycles in single or multiple business sectors can alter the demand for land, zoning and the General Plan are designed to assure a balanced, sustainable economy for the City's longterm future, regardless of the inevitable ups and downs of the real estate markets. For instance, in what was once an underutilized industrial zoned district adjacent to the Downtown Historic Core now stands a thriving Toy District that generates over a billion dollars of sales and related economic activity annually.12 The district was able to develop because the City did not cede to the pressure to convert industrial zoning to residential zoning during a period of weak demand. The purpose of land use planning is to look beyond the short-term expediencies of cyclical and speculative markets to assure that the City is always in a position to take advantage of future job producing opportunities. The neighborhood or district context in which the buildings are located or to the City's long range need to sustain a balanced economic base. REAL ESTATE ECONOMICS SHAPING INDUSTRIAL LAND USES IN LOS ANGELES With a constrained supply and a thriving economy, the demand for industrial land in Los Angeles is the strongest in the nation. Yet increasing land speculation for non-industrial uses on ever 11 CONCLUSION Recent conversions of Los Angeles' diminishing industrial and employment land to non-industrial use raise important planning and public policy concerns regarding the economic, social and physical development of Los Angeles. The General Plan Framework, the City's blueprint for development and growth, recognizes the diverse needs of the City and establishes an array of policies to guide City departments in its implementation. The City must balance various goals to meet the needs of today's residents without foreclosing on future opportunities. The Framework highlights the need to provide not only adequate land for housing, commercial, recreational, cultural and public facility uses but also the importance of ensuring that the City has adequate land for businesses, the jobs they create and sustain, and the revenues they generate for the City's General Fund. Further, the General Plan Framework elevates the need to make economic opportunities available throughout the City, with special emphasis on "portions of the City that historically have not received a proportional share of such opportunities."13 Sustaining those businesses that employ today's residents is a critical part of a sound industrial land use and economic development policy for Los Angeles. Equally important is retaining land to attract and grow businesses so that they cancontinue to employ current and future residents. Consistent implementation of the City's adopted industrial land use policies will help to ensure that existing industry continues to function, that current residents remain employed, that jobs of the future can locate in Los Angeles, and that neighborhoods are properly planned and developed. It is imperative that we consistently adhere to clear rules to: attract and retain private investment; for CRA/LA and other economic development agencies to foster investments by and in the City's businesses; to implement improvements to land and infrastructure; to seek out and support private business expansion; and for the Port of Los Angeles to continue its program of growth and modernization. Similarly, if Los Angeles hopes to attract green/clean technology and other emerging industries, the City must convince investors that it will protect their investment--best demonstrated by clear and consistent application of land use and development policies. This report has demonstrated the critical role of job-producing industrial land to the City's long-term economic health and to the hundreds of thousands of residents employed in the industrial sector. Although there are claims that industrial land in Los Angeles is an abandoned remnant of an earlier manufacturing heyday, industrial demand for these areas--particularly as demonstrated in Downtown, portions of Hollywood and West Los Angeles--is still the most competitive in the nation. At a time when economic analysts are concerned that there is too little industrial land in the City to sustain job growth, City policymakers should be especially prudent about the future of Los Angeles' industrial lands. Industrial Trends Report � Third Quarter 2010 Activity Drops as Other Indicators Level Off The Los Angeles industrial market slowed in the third quarter. Quarterly sale and lease activity decreased by roughly 37 percent 12 compared to the previous quarter, and is lagging 20 percent behind where it was the prior year. Net absorption turned negative to -126,732 square feet this quarter due the drop in activity, indicating much of the activity continues to be lease renewals, with no net growth in occupancy. The vacancy rate remained at 3.3 percent for the second consecutive quarter. Asking rental rates also remained steady at a 12 year low of $0.45 per square foot, triple net � a signal that the industrial market may be reaching a bottom. After several years of declining port activity, the turn around now in volume flowing through the ports appears sustainable. Despite continued caution with regards to consumer confidence and spending, many retailers have been readying themselves for the upcoming holiday shopping season by replenishing their inventories as evidenced by the steady increase in import cargo volumes at the port of Los Angeles and Long Beach. The 23.9 percent year over year increase in loaded import volume for the month of August speaks favorably for the demand for warehouse and distribution space in the Los Angeles metro market. In fact, the largest transaction for the quarter was a direct lease signed on a large, warehouse building in the South Bay market. Price Transfer, a large third party logistics operator, signed a 64 month lease on a 219,097 square foot, Watson Land Company building in Carson. The landlord has agreed to add 6 additional dock high doors in order to accommodate the tenants shipping and receiving needs. This quarter the market has also witnessed a flurry of sales throughout the region as financing concerns have improved and falling prices have enticed buyers into the market. FORECAST � The vacancy rate will remain sub 4 percent due to improving fundamentals. � Positive port activity will continue to draw logistics users to Southern California's premiere industrial market. � Asking rents will stabilize. Cleantech Corridor Los Angeles, California THE STUDY AREA AND THE PANEL'S ASSIGNMENT With its West Coast location, diverse mix of people from around the world, and optimistic and free-spirited outlook, Los Angeles has a well-earned reputation as a place for creativity, innovation, and reinvention. The city that defied expectations by growing beyond anyone's wildest dreams in the 20th century now faces a new century fraught with challenges. One challenge lies in maintaining Los Angeles' competitive edge and sizable employment base as a manufacturing center while adapting to a new global model in which heavy manufacturing is often outsourced. To that effect, Los Angeles has launched an ambitious plan to transform an approximately four-mile swath of land downtown along the banks of the Los Angeles River into a catalytic Cleantech Corridor full of enterprises engaged in the pursuit, development, and manufacture of "cleantech" products and technologies. City leaders hope that Los Angeles can pioneer cleantech industrial innovation in the 21st century just as it did with film, infrastructure, aerospace, and myriad other ambitious endeavors in the 20th century. Many people think of Los Angeles through a Hollywood filter, but the reality is far 13 different. Although entertainment plays a major role in the regional economy, the port and its related industrial and logistics corridor function in the aggregate as a tremendous regional economic driver. A heavily industrial corridor running through a dense population center poses difficulties, however, not to mention that global economics make large-scale manufacturing in U.S. cities increasingly difficult. The widely lauded and studied Alameda Corridor that placed the freight-rail lines below street level from the port to downtown has been a tremendous boon to the city and has kept thousands of people employed. However, Los Angeles' industrial fabric is older and has limitations. The city sees cleantech as a way to reinvent its manufacturing base and incite new economic development while improving quality of life for the city and its residents. Although directed by the city through the mayor's office, the Cleantech Corridor concept stems from CleanTech Los Angeles (CTLA), a collaborative partnership that includes not only the city but also the Community Redevelopment Agency of the city of Los Angeles (CRA/LA); the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP); the University of California, Los Angeles; the University of Southern California; the California Institute of Technology; the Jet Propulsion Laboratory; the Central City Association; the Los Angeles Area Chamber of Commerce; the Los Angeles Business Council; and the Los Angeles County Economic Development Corporation. The city handles most of the governance, but everyone affiliated with CTLA has agreed to the following goals: � Create well-paying, familysupporting jobs by attracting and retaining clean technology businesses that will create job opportunities at all levels, including those with career ladders; � Stimulate demand by facilitating the continued growth of a large marketplace for clean technology goods and services; � Facilitate environmental solutions that deploy clean technologies to clean up the environment, create a better quality of life, and exceed regulatory responsibilities. The Cleantech Corridor stretches four miles along the Los Angeles River. It begins to the north at North Spring Street at the site formerly known as the Cornfields and now designated as the future home of the Los Angeles State Historic Park. Traversing south, the corridor passes through part of the historic pueblo, Chinatown, Union Station, and the Arts District before terminating at 27th Street just south of Washington Boulevard along the border of the city of Vernon. Just to the east of the river beyond the industrial plain lies the historic Boyle Heights neighborhood. The Interstate 10 freeway, the Gold Line light rail, and many freight-rail lines cross the site. Of note, several of the partners in CTLA are also supporters of the Los Angeles River Revitalization Master Plan that the city adopted in 2009, which outlines a 20-year blueprint for the revitalization of the river. THE CORRIDOR OFFICE MARKET The corridor has a wide range of office space, ranging from Class A buildings that are owned and occupied by public agencies near the 101 freeway, to a variety of Class B and Class C space in other locations. According to CoStar, the corridor has 1.7 million square feet of office space; of this amount, 1.1 million square feet is Class B or C space that would be expected to 14 be occupied by private sector tenants. Class B space represents 763,000 square feet, with an average annual asking rate of $14.33 per square foot and a vacancy rate of 14.8 percent. Class C space represents 359,000 square feet, with an average annual asking rate of $22.12 per square foot and a vacancy rate of 1.4 percent. The higher asking rates and lower vacancy for Class C buildings likely reflect that these buildings, which are often considered inferior because they are in older, "funkier" buildings, are actually more desirable to creative services and other firms that seek this environment, whereas Class B space is often in obsolete buildings originally built for corporate or institutional tenants. Cleantech, along with fashion, arts, and other uses with a creative orientation, is much more likely to be interested in Class C space because it is affordable and has more interesting architecture than Class A or Class B space. Office market activity for Class B and C space has been very modest from 2003 through 2009. Over that period, average annual net absorption for Class B space was negative 9,800 square feet, which is consistent with older corporate or institutional buildings that continue to lose tenants until they are renovated and repositioned in the market. By comparison, Class C space had an average annual net absorption of 100 square feet during this period. Future office opportunities in the corridor will likely be for space in renovated or new buildings that target the Class C office market. Key considerations will be the ability of buildings to accommodate a range of small and medium-sized firms with interesting design and nearby amenities. An emerging trend of fashion tenants also appear to be looking for office space in the corridor so they can access a creative environment in an urban setting. One major jeans company is currently planning to relocate a large number of its headquarters staff from another city to a new building in the corridor. CLEANTECH SECTORS AND EMPLOYMENT The "green economy," including longstanding environmental-related uses as well as newer cleantech firms, has been one of the leading growth sectors in the state's economy from 1995 through 2008. The sector has averaged a 2.4 percent growth rate, compared with a 1 percent growth rate for the overall California economy. Cleantech jobs span a range of skills, from blue collar to white collar, and pay rates ranging from just above those required by the city's living wage ordinance up to $100,000 or more annually. In 2008, according to an analysis by Next10, the Los Angeles region had 40,000 green jobs. The largest concentrations include the following: � Air and environmental services, with approximately 10,000 jobs; � Energy generation�related firms, with more than 5,000 jobs; � Recycling and waste stream� related firms with approximately 10,000 jobs; and � Energy-efficiency firms, with approximately 5,000 jobs. The growth of jobs in energyefficiency firms in the Los Angeles region was 77 percent greater than in the state as a whole, indicating the region's strength in this sector. Green transportation, primarily in motor vehicles, was also strong in the region, with 152 percent growth in employment between 1995 and 2008. Water and wastewater-related firms in the region saw extraordinary 3.5-fold growth from 1995 through 2008 in water conservation activities, with a lesser but still strong 68 percent growth in research and testing. 15 Venture capital investment is seen as a major driver of research and development. In California, venture capital investment in cleantech is growing dramatically and nearly doubled from 2007 to 2008, to $3.3 billion. The Los Angeles region received $600 million, the largest amount invested after the San Francisco Bay Area and Silicon Valley. This investment suggests interest in venture capital firms in the Los Angeles cleantech sector. The success of San Diego and its biotech cluster, despite the lack of local venture capital firms, shows that high-tech clusters can be successfully created even without a heavy local presence. Drawing definitive conclusions on what types of real estate are needed to support cleantech can be difficult, because it covers a broad range of industries with diverse needs for real estate products. However, the experience of other areas in growing hightech clusters indicates that the key is to create environments attractive to scientists commercializing new technologies that provide affordable spaces and promote interaction with other scientists. Numerous examples show how random encounters between scientists and others have led to new ideas, collaborations, and companies. This experience underscores how an industrial mixed-use environment with significant amenities that promote interaction could create a desirable destination for cleantech startups and firms. frastructure. Rather than a unified corridor, it is a collection of subdistricts that have developed in response to the transportation infrastructure that has evolved in the corridor over the last century and a half. In general, it is defined by the following land uses: Industrial: Although the majority of the study area is zoned for heavy industrial, in fact it is used for diverse, mostly light industry and fabrication: � Food processing and distribution; � Apparel manufacturing; � Newspaper printing; � Transit maintenance and operation; � Warehouse and distribution; � Materials collection and recycling; and � Smaller-scale fabrication. Residential: Residential development is largely confined to more or less isolated communities, with the highest concentration of market-oriented housing within the Arts District. Transportation infrastructure: In many ways, this use defines the study area because even the Los Angeles River has been subsumed into the rail systems and today exists only as a giant drainage channel within the rail corridors that line it. The highway systems that surround and dissect the study area further subdivide it while providing the generally good vehicular access that has caused the area to persist as a center of industrial activity. However, whereas the major highway and rail corridors have been developed to an extraordinary level of complexity and are generally well maintained, the local system of streets has been allowed to decay to a similarly extraordinary level. Compounded by the heavy use that these streets suffer from modern PLANNING AND DESIGN Although the study area is at the historical center of Los Angeles, radiating from the Los Angeles River, and is largely considered an industrial ditrict, it is in many ways a series of interstitial spaces that have been colonized by diverse uses capitalizing on the historicin- 16 tractor-trailer vehicles, the neglect of these local streets has become a major limiting factor for the growth and development of the area. The study area is a vast swath at the center of downtown Los Angeles (see corridor map in "The Study Area" section); as such, the panel has subdivided it into a series of subareas to develop more localized strategies for each of them: � Cornfield/Arroyo Seco: The Cornfield Arroyo Seco Specific Plan process that has recently been completed provides excellent direction for the future development of this area in conjunction with the Los Angeles River Revitalization Master Plan. The goals of establishing it as a LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design)�Neighborhood Development, mixed-use neighborhood are fully compatible with the goals of this study. � Civic Center/Transportation Hub: With the continuing development of Los Angeles' transit infrastructure and the advent of high-speed rail, the panel anticipates that this area will continue to develop at a high level of intensity. An increasing demand for high-density, mixeduse development-- including residential, office, and retail--will continue as more and more of this infrastructure comes on line. � Little Tokyo: In many ways, this district is the logical bridge between Downtown and the Arts District and offers greater potential for its continued growth as a mixed-use neighborhood. � Boyle Heights: Although heavily affected by highway and rail infrastructure interventions over the years, the potential for cross-river connections as the Los Angeles River Revitalization Master Plan is implemented will continue to be enhanced by some strategic investments in openspace connections, as will be discussed further. � Southern Industrial Area: Currently heavily populated with large manufacturing and distribution functions, the key site within this area is the CRA/ LA's CleanTech Center. Because of its large size (20 acres) and adjacency to existing rail and highway infrastructure, continuing to seek a tenant who can use that unique parcel is logical. If, however, market and financial considerations do not support that use, the site could be reconsidered as a mixeduse node that could function as the southern terminus of the developing Arts District. GROWTH AND DEvELOPMENT NUCLEUS: THE ARTS AND INNOvATION DISTRICT The greatest short- and mediumterm opportunity to establish a nucleus of growth and development currently exists within the Arts District. The panel has rebranded this district the Arts and Innovation District as an expression of both its past and its future. This rebranding reflects the core opportunity identified to enhance a mixed-use community that focuses on the Incubate/Innovate + Create/Fabricate end of the value proposition, as stated earlier. To achieve this goal, the core of the Arts and Innovation District should be conceived as the nucleus of a growth center of innovative urbanism that spreads from the core area of the SCI-Arc/Innovation Campus node and grows outward to eventually embrace the river and beyond. vISION FOR THE ARTS AND INNOvATION DISTRICT The existing urban structure and building stock of the district lends itself ideally to the development of a dynamic and creative 21st-century urban neighborhood that recolonizes and adaptively uses the early 17 20th-century forms. This vital pattern of regeneration has been implemented successfully around the world to great effect. The opportunity here is to enhance job creation through a dynamic community of skilled, knowledge-based workers who operate in a stimulating environment based on innovation and creativity. The district offers the following key opportunities for establishing this neighborhood: � The district has a unique character and sense of place based on its fine-grained urban structure and architecturally distinctive building stock. Clearly, not all, or even most, of the buildings within the area are architecturally valuable, but as a whole, the older industrial nature is highly valuable for its flexible opportunities for adaptive use. The generally small footprint size of the buildings is actually an advantage encouraging the development of small-scale spaces suited to business incubation and small business development. Residential Industrial Land Use Conflict Conserving Industrial Land in Southeast Downtown RESIDENTIAL PERMITTING PROCESS In order to build residential units in the Southeast downtown sub-area, a developer must first obtain a permit through one of five legislative means stipulated in the Los Angeles Municipal Code (LAMC)14 By law, securing approval for a residential project under any one of these five mechanisms requires the developer to submit an application to the Department of City Planning Public Counter, demonstrating how the residential project will meet the following criteria:15 1 Desirable to the public convenience and welfare; 2 In proper relation to adjacent uses 3 In harmony with the objectives of the General Plan and Redevelopment Plan; 4 Not detrimental to the character of the immediate neighborhood; 5 Does not displace viable industrial uses. EXPANDING NUCLEUS FROM THE ARTS DISTRICT � The small scale of streets and blocks is inherently pedestrianfriendly, a rare asset in downtown Los Angeles. With appropriate streetscape improvements and use of interstitial spaces for neighborhood-scaled open spaces, it has tremendous potential to become an appealing neighborhood. � The same physical traits characterize the Boyle Heights industrial area, directly across the Los Angeles River, suggesting another opportunity. � Accessibility to the civic, transportation, and business center of downtown and the surrounding neighborhoods creates additional business opportunities. Table 1 Originally printed in Industrial Land Use / Resedential Conflict, Page 12 18 Figure 2 describes the process a developer must undertake to receive an approval for locating residential units on industrially zoned land if, as in the case of our sub-area, the property is within a Redevelopment Project Area. 19 PROBLEMS RESULTING FROM LITTLE COLLABORATION When reviewing this process we found that, at least on the staff level, there exists little collaboration between the Planning Department and CI staff when making determinations about a residential conversion project on industrially zoned land in the CI Project Area. In fact, the CRA/LA is not included in the Planning Department permitting process until they are sent a notice 24 days before the public hearing. On average, over the last five years, CRA/LA CI staff receive this notice 53 days after the application has been sent to a ZI.16 Partly due to the lack of interagency collaboration, over the last five years Zoning Administrators approved of 46 out of the 50 (92%) residential applications in the industrial downtown area.17 We found this lack of collaboration problematic and worsened by the fact that the Planning Department does not assign Zoning Administrators (ZA) to specific areas.18 Interviews with the Office of Zoning Administration suggest that one of the main reasons for organizing ZAs in this manner is to protect the Planning Department from Agency capture. The fear of binding a particular ZA to hear cases from a specific area presents the danger that he or she might rule consistently in favor of approving developers' applications; the result being that certain areas with an "easy" ZA would see an excessive amount of approvals for entitlement permits. As a result, they neither possess specialized knowledge on the nature of industries in our sub-area nor on the areawide impacts the proposed housing development will have on the region. ZAs, therefore, must rely heavily upon the report from the Zoning Investigator (ZI) to make their determination on whether the residential project will displace future industrial uses. However, while ZI reports include information on the particular property in question, they do not speak to the "big picture" impact of multiple residential conversions on downtown industrial facilities. Under this narrow focus approving a residential development in the area would appear to meet the criteria set out by the LAMC, since the conversion of any one building, in isolation, would have a minimal impact on the present and future viability of downtown industries,. In fact, from a sample of these determinations, we found ZAs to conclude that the proposed residential conversions did not displace any industrial uses, and conformed to the General Plan, and CI Redevelopment Plan. In addition to the lateness of their inclusion in the permitting process we also recognized potential issues internal to the CRA/LA that may have contributed to the approvals of 100% of the residential conversion applications that came before their Board. From our investigation into the CRA/LA approval process we determined two causes behind CI staff's apparent support of residential conversions of industrial buildings: � Staff cannot openly recommend against conversions because members of the advisory CICAC have economic interests within the project area. � The Agency and the project area redevelopment plan have no explicit guidelines for staff to follow when recommending to support or deny against residential conversions. Such uncertainty allows extraagency pressure groups such as the members of CICAC to influence decision-making. From these findings, the process of approval within the Agency has passively enabled runaway conversions of industrial facilities. Consequently, we chose to examine policy options that would encourage staff to make professional recommendations, regardless of outside pressures. 21 References 1 13 General Plan Framework Economic Development Chapter. Objective 7.10 LAMC 12.24-X,1; LAMC 12.24-X, 3; LAMC 12.27; LAMC 12.32-F; and LAMC 13.06 Conditional Use Permit (Cu) Zoning Code Sections: City Planning Commission 12.24U; Area Planning Commission 12.24V; Zoning Administration 12.24W & Adaptive Reuse (12.24 X 1) Average from all 50 Zoning Administrator Cases between 2000 and 2005 From a review of ZA determinations in CD 1, 9, & 14 over the 5 years The motivation for this is threefold: (1) No one particular area in the City will get the "easy" or "hard" Zoning Administrator; (2) Want to ensure an equitable level of work for all ZAs and ZIs; (3) Precludes loss of great institutional knowledge if Zoning Administrators are relatively interchangeable rather than be subject to losing the one person who knew coastal issues or horse keeping issues or artist loft issues General Plan Framework, Section 7.2.11 (1996, 2001). California Employment Development Dept., Labor Market Information Division, ES202 data (2005). This number represents persons working in the City of Los Angeles, irrespective of place of residence. Not including the Airport and Port of Los Angeles. DCP GIS (2004). Grubb & Ellis, Industrial Market Trends: Los Angeles County (Second Quarter 2007). California Employment Development Dept., Labor Market Information Division, ES202 data (2005). Census 2000, Census 2005 American Community Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics Consumer Spending 2001-2002. Grubb & Ellis, Industrial Market Trends: Los Angeles County (Second Quarter 2007). 14 2 15 3 4 16 5 17 6 18 7 8 9 NAICS Sectors 21 (Mining), 22 (Utilities), 23 (Construction), 32 (Manufacturing-Durable), 36 (Manufacturing- Non- durable), 42 (Wholesale trade), 48 (Transportation and Warehousing), 493 (Warehousing and Storage Facilities), 511 (Publishing Industries), and 512 (Motion Picture and Sound Recording Industries). California Economic Development Department (2005). 10 11 Southern California Association of Governments Regional Transportation Plan (May, 2006). Central City East Association: Economic and Fiscal Impact Analysis (February 2005). 12 22 23 Credits Editors: David Bergman, Peter Zellner Content Curation: Seth Ferris Design: Seth Ferris All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopy, recording or any other information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission from the Southern California Institute of Architecture. SCI-Arc Publications Copyright �2011 SCI-Arc Southern California Institute of Architecture 960 East 3rd Street Los Angeles, CA 90013 Acknowledgements The Los Angeles Cleantech Corridor & Green District Competition is sponsored by the Southern California Institute of Architecture and The Architect's Newspaper. The competition is presented by the Community Redevelopment Agency of the City of Los Angeles, City of Los Angeles, Department of Cultural Affairs, Quercus Trust, and Latham & Watkins LLP. Competition partners include the Mayor of the City of Los Angeles' Office of Economic and Business Policy, Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Clean Tech LA, and U.S. Green Building Council, Los Angeles Chapter. We would especially like to extend our gratitude to our jury for their time and commitment to this project. We thank Stan Allen, Hsinming Fung, Cris B. Liban, Michael Maltzan, Dennis McGlade, Romel Pascual, Nikolas Patsaouras and Donald Spivack. This project is made possible in part by a grant from the City of Los Angeles, Department of Cultural Affairs.