A REPORT ON THE PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF THE FROG FAUNA IN SHENDURNEYWILDLIFE SANCTUARY, KERALA
The Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary, located in Kollam district, Kerala is one among the richest protected areas in terms of biodiversity in India. Several studies and assessments conducted in this reserve have emphasised the area as leading in conservation value for endemic plants, birds and fishes. But the amphibian fauna of the sanctuary had not been assessed in detail, till late. We carried out a frog survey in the sanctuary between the years 2008 and 2011. Our surveys present the sanctuary to bea leader in frog species richness and endemism. The survey also resulted in the description of four novel frog species, first observed in the sanctuary. We recommend that any activity that is not oriented towards the conservation of wildlife should not be entertained within the sanctuary’s boundaries, since conserving biodiversity is the prerequisite of the wildlife sanctuary.
A REPORT ON THE PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF THE FROG FAUNA IN SHENDURNEY WILDLIFE SANCTUARY, KOLLAM DISTRICT, KERALA STATE, INDIA K. I. Pradeep Kumar Anil Zachariah David V. Raju Ansil B. R., Sandeep Das Muhamed Jafer Palot E. Kunhikrishnan Robin Kurian Abraham 2008 - 2011 Kerala Forests & Wildlife Department Cite this work as Pradeep Kumar K. I., Zachariah A., Raju D. V., Ansil B. R., Das S., Jafer Palot M., Kunhikrishnan E. & Abraham R. K. (2011) A REPORT ON THE PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF THE FROG FAUNA IN SHENDURNEY WILDLIFE SANCTUARY, KOLLAM DISTRICT, KERALA STATE, INDIA. Kerala Forests & Wildlife Department, Kerala. The text of this document is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Copyright for images remain with the respective photographers. Acknowledgments We are extremely indebted to the Kerala Forest Department for providing permissions and to the staff of Shendurney WLS, Kollam, for the interest and cooperation shown in organizing the survey. The staff members of the sanctuary made the survey thoroughly enjoyable and productive. We are also thankful to all the participants for their dedication and interest. Text, design & layout by Robin Abraham Cover Photographs by Robin Abraham Summary he Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary, located in Kollam district, Kerala is one among the richest protected areas in terms of biodiversity in India. Several studies and assessments conducted in this reserve have emphasised the area as leading in conservation value for endemic plants, birds and fishes. But the amphibian fauna of the sanctuary had not been assessed in detail, till late. We carried out a frog survey in the sanctuary between the years 2008 and 2011. Our surveys present the sanctuary to be a leader in frog species richness and endemism. The survey also resulted in the description of four novel frog species, first observed in the sanctuary. But, despite qualifying to be an area supporting exceptionally rich biodiversity, multiple threats dog the sanctuary management. Issues like proposals for tourism initiatives, road widening, check-dam building and the presence of many private enclosures and plantations within the sanctuary need to be addressed. We recommend that any activity that is not oriented towards the conservation of wildlife should not be entertained within the sanctuary's boundaries, since conserving biodiversity is the prerequisite of the wildlife sanctuary. T A Torrent Frog in it's stream habitat. Photo: Robin Abraham Introduction and is contiguous with the 791 sq. km Kalakkad -Mundunthurai Tiger Reserve of Tamil Nadu. The sanctuary was established in 1984 and lies in the western part of the Agasthyamalai (Ashambu) hill range, with an altitudinal span ranging from 92 m ASL at the base to 1,550 m ASL at Alwarkurichi peak. The park is primarily a river valley surrounded by rugged hills, characterized by steep peaks and ravines. The annual average rainfall for this region is approximately 2,882mm. The Shendurney valley and the catchment drainages of the Kallada irrigation project on the Kallada River, upstream of the Parappar (Thenmala) dam, fall within the boundaries of this protected area. The drainage comprises of the major tributaries of Shendurney, Kazhuthuruthy and Kulathupuzha, and minor tributaries such as the Parappar, Uruliar, Pasmankandamthodu, Aruviar and Umayar within the sanctuary, all together form the Kallada River. Kazhuthuruthy river originates outside the sanctuary, flowing through the north, before joining the Shendurney River at the dam. The other main tributary, the Kulathpuzha River, flows through the Kulathupuzha valley to the south of the Shendurney Valley. The major vegetation types found here are low elevation evergreen forests (Hopea rachophloea Humboldtia facies of the Dipterocarpus indicus - Dipterocarpus bourdilloni - Strombosia ceylanica type), medium elevation evergreen forests (Cullenia exarillata - Mesua ferrea - Palaquium ellipticum - Gluta travancorica type), Nageia wallichiana facies, reeds of Ochlandra spp., Myristica swamps, secondary moist deciduous forests (Lagerstroemia microcarpa - Tectona grandis - Dillenia pentagyna type) and rubber plantations (Ramesh et al. 1997 a). Shendurney is named after the highly localized endemic tree species Gluta travancorica, locally known as `chenkurinji', typical to low elevation (<700 m) evergreen forests. At least 951 species of flowering plants in 118 families have been recorded here, including 309 Western Ghats endemic species. Additionally, at least 100 rare and threatened species of plants occur in the sanctuary, which is also the type locality of many plant species described from the region. Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary lies in Kerala's Kol- Shendurney is also home to a special ecosystem exlam district between the latitudes of 8�48'22.25"N isting only in some corners of the Western Ghats, and 8�58'6.06"N and the longitudes of 77�4'44.76"E namely the Myristica swamps. Some members of and 77�15'49.32"E. It covers an area of 171 sq. km Myristicaceae, a primitive family of flowering plants, ndia qualifies as one of the top ten mega-diversity countries in the world, holding a significant percentage of global biological diversity. However, the biological wealth of India is still vastly underexplored except for the larger animals and flowering plants. Of the vertebrates, the lower vertebrates are the least studied and understood, but amphibians have recently been gaining attention. During the colonial period, zoologists and naturalists from Europe made the first systematic attempts to survey and document the amphibians of India. Though centuries have passed, we are still dependent on the literature and repositories prepared by these early experts, since few intensive field surveys have followed since then. The amphibian fauna of the world comprises of more than 6600 species (Frost, 2006). Of these, 346 species are known to occur in India and 180 from Western Ghats (Aravind and Gururaja 2010, Biju et al. 2011, Dinesh et al. 2009, Zachariah et al. 2011). The Western Ghats mountain range of India, which is one among 34 global biodiversity hotspots (Mittermeier et al. 2004), is a repository for much of India's endemic amphibian diversity, hosting several endemic species, genera and even families. But, the diversity levels of amphibians increase consistently towards the southern parts of this mountain range. The Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary (WLS) is located in the southernmost sub-range of the Western Ghats known as the Agasthyamala Hills. The park has substantial areas of diverse vegetation types including grasslands, evergreen rainforests and montane forests with perennial water sources constituting an ideal abode for an exceptionally rich and varied amphibian fauna. Current information on the amphibians of the sanctuary is rather meager. Hence we carried out a pilot assessment of the amphibian fauna of the sanctuary, focusing on frogs with the help of naturalists and scientists from various parts of Kerala from the year 2008 to 2011. I Study area that are adapted to living in waterlogged conditions, dominate the Myristica swamps. These swamps are one of the known centers of endemism in the Western Ghats. Prior to the 1960s, no information was available to the scientific world about this special kind of ecosystem. Myristica swamps are seen in wet valleys in the evergreen forests. Species such as Gymnacranthera canarica and Myristica fatua var. magnifica are exclusive to the swamps. The trees in the swamps have special adaptations such as knee-roots that protrude into the air from the flooded substratum. Another critical and important habitat for several organisms is the Reed Brake. These habitats are composed primarily of a small kind of bamboo belonging to the genus Ochlandra. These reed brakes occur extensively towards the higher wind-prone areas of the sanctuary. The reeds are important to animals ranging from elephants to miniscule frogs. At least 5 species of frogs have been recorded to be closely associated to reed brakes, dependent on the reeds for one or more stages of their life cycle. It is understood that among the sanctuaries of the Agasthyamalai Hills, Shendurney WLS has the highest conservation value index, based on a Biodiversity Gap Analysis. Nearly 60% of the sanctuary is covered by wet evergreen forests with high levels of plant species richness and endemism (55% each) (Ramesh et al. 1997 b). Shendurney has also been designated as an Important Bird Area owing to the presence of three globally threatened species; the Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanii), Wood Snipe (Gallinago nemoricola) and Nilgiri Wood-pigeon (Columba elphinstonii), and also because of the presence of 10 of 16 bird species that are endemic to the Western Ghats. It also holds eight of 15 species whose distributions are largely or wholly confined to the Indian Peninsula, in the Tropical Moist Forest biome (Islam and Rahmani 2004). A total of 245 species have been recorded here. Records of nesting colonies of River Tern (Sterna aurantia) and small Indian Pratincole (Glareola lactea) have been made from this site. Recent bird surveys reported nesting of the Lesser Fish Eagle (Ichthyophaga humilis) in the sanctuary. Till recently this bird was supposed to be confined to the Himalayan foothills. The sanctuary is also an important wintering site for long distance migrants such as the Tickell's Leaf Warbler (Phylloscopus affinis), Large-billed Leaf Warbler (P. magnirostris), Blueheaded Rock Thrush (Monticola cinclorhynchus) and Rufous-tailed Flycatcher (Muscicapa ruficauda) (Islam and Rahmani 2004). Along with the other contiguous rainforest areas in the Agasthyamalai region, the Shendurney valley forms one of the most important areas in the Western Ghats for the conservation of the endemic Liontailed Macaque (Macaca silenus). Other endemic mammals found here include Nilgiri Langur (Trachypithecus johnii), Slender Loris (Loris lydekkerianus) and Malabar Giant Squirrel (Ratufa indica). Globally threatened landscape species such as the Tiger (Panthera tigris) and Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) are also found here. This sanctuary has had some disturbance in the past due to selective logging and reed collection in the lower reaches, although the rainforests at higher elevations have been left relatively undisturbed (Nair 1991). The total area of the enclosures within the sanctuary is 5.8 sq. km of estates belonging to Rosemala, Kallar and Rockwood estates. An irrigation lake formed by daming the river is a major landscape element in the area. There also exists collection of minor forest produce, even though Map of Shenduruney Wildlife Sanctuary, showing the main sampling locations primarily on elevation gradient and forest types; there are no tribal settlements inside the sanctuary (MoEF 2006, Islam and Rahmani 2004). In more re1. Kattilappara: Lowland Myristica swamp and cent years, the sanctuary has been under threat from surrounding areas proposals of widening of access roads and construc2. Rockwood Estate: Evergreen forests intertion of buildings inside estates, especially inside the spersed with plantations, at elevations of 700 + Kallar area, primarily for tourism purposes. There m ASL, on the southern part of the sanctuary have also been proposals to introduce exotic fishes 3. Pandimotta: Hilltop/montane evergreen forfor culture in the dam reservoir too, which is sure to ests with reed brakes at a height of more than have a negative impact on the aquatic young ones 1200m ASL of several endemic frogs and caecilians.The pres4. Rosemala & Kallar Estates: Evergreen forests ence of the dam reservoir, along with the enclosed interspersed with plantations, from around 450m ASL in the northern part of the sanctuary private plantation estates within the sanctuary has 5. Surrounding Areas: Areas in between Kattilapreduced natural forest cover in the past. para, Pandimotta, Kallar, Thenmala dam and the The objectives of the our investigations were to deer park site list the frog species within the sanctuary and also make estimates of their abundance in different Overall population was approximately esparts of the sanctuary. timated during the survey by using direct encounter or indirect evidences like vocalizations, egg clutch, etc. The following abundance categories were also attempted during the survey; Methodology Shendurney WLS is known for its network of streams, varied vegetation types and altitudinal gradients; hence the frog community is also expected to vary accordingly across different elevations and microhabitats in the sanctuary (see Appendix II). Sampling was carried out in selected sites by walking and searching in streams, pools, swamps and forest edges, both during day and night. Visual-encounter method and indirect evidences like vocalizations, presence of eggs, road-kills, etc. were considered for assessing the species diversity of the area. The following sites were selected for sampling, based Fig.1. Breakup of frog families with representative species occurring in the Shendurney WLS a. Abundant: > 10 individual in a locality, encountered (sighted or heard) b. Common: 5 - 10 individual in a locality, encountered c. Rare: < 5 individuals in a locality, encountered A team of nature enthusiasts from various parts of Kerala (see Appendix III) participated in the survey from 8 -10th August 2009. Species were noted and recorded by Robin Abraham separately, between 2009 and 2011. The classification and nomenclature followed is that of Frost (2009). Families not recorded in this survey but potentially exist in the sanctuary Results & Discussion A total of 45 species of frogs under 15 genera, belonging to 8 families were recorded during the survey. Family Rhacophoridae dominated with 20 species, followed by Nyctibatrachidae (6 spp.), Dicroglossidae (4 spp.), Bufonidae (4 spp.), Ranixalidae (4 spp.), Micrixalidae (3 spp.) and two species each from the families Ranidae and Microhylidae (Fig.1). Additional families that could be represented in the sanctuary are Maelanobatrachidae and Nasikabatrachidae, even though the present survey did not yield these species. This is also because of the sampling areas being restricted to a handful of sites close to field camps or base stations, all sampled in a limited timeframe. We recorded the anuran species over a period of three years from 2008 to 2011. Many bushfrog species described between 2000 to 2011, such as Pseudophilautus kani, Raorchestes chotta, R. nerostegona, R. graminirupus, R. anili (Biju and Bossyut, 2009), R. crustai and R. johnceei were well distributed in various habitats in the sanctuary. Many species were also unidentifiable during the survey. These were found to be hitherto undocumented species. The Myristica swamps in the lowest reaches of the sanctuary are an ideal breeding ground for some Nyctibatrachus species. Several clutches of eggs with guarding adults of Nyctibatrachus aliciae were also noted on leaves of a Lagenandra sp. at the swamps. Hill stream habitats of Rockwood are an ideal haunt for the torrent frog Micrixalus, an endemic genus of the southern Western Ghats. At the same time, the reed brakes (Ochlandra spp.) in the higher reaches of the sanctuary also harbour good breeding and foraging sites for many species of bushfrogs. The greatest species diversity (22 spp.) was noted at Pandimotta and the lowest species diversity (16 spp.) was recorded at Kattilapara and Rockwood estate (Fig.2). A site wise elaboration of frog species diversity is given below; 1. Kattilappara The Myristica swamps at Kattilappara and its environs provide an ideal habitat for several frog species. A good population of breeding Nyctibatrachus aliciae was noted alongside all marshy areas. Despite having a relatively low diversity of 16 species, compared to other areas of the sanctuary, the swamps support some unique and evolutionarily distinct frogs. Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Species Microhyla sp. Duttaphrynus melanostictus Hylarana aurantiaca Hylarana temporalis Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis Euphlyctis hexadactylus Hoplobatrachus tigerinus Fejervarya keralensis Nyctibatrachus aliciae Nyctibatrachus minor Indirana sp. Pseudophilautus kani Raorchestes nerostagona Rhacophorus malabaricus Polypedates psuedocruciger Polypedates sp. Status Common Common Abundant Common Common Rare Rare Abundant Common Common Rare Common Rare Common Common Rare Remarks Immature Breeding Fig. 2. Species diversity across sampling sites in Shendurney WLS Myristica swamp at Kattilappara Photo: Robin Abraham Mid-elevation forest adjacent to plantation at Rockwood. Photo: Robin Abraham Sampling in the swamps of Kattilappara Photo: Jafer Palot 2. Rockwood Estate Degraded evergreen patches, secondary forests, intact primary forests and hill streams, all around the Rockwood estate form an ideal haunt for many species of frogs. A fairly good number of Pseudophilautus kani and Raorchestes nerostagona were heard calling during the night survey. Mating pairs of Micrixalus fuscus were also noted on the boulders of torrential streams. The most abundant species were P. kani, Fejervarya keralensis and Micrixalus fuscus. Overall, 16 species were recorded in the estate and forests here. Sl. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Species Duttaphrynus melanostictus Duttaphrynus parietalis Pedostibes tuberculatus Hylarana temporalis Hylarana aurantiaca Fejervarya keralensis Indirana beddomii Micrixalus fuscus Nyctibatrachus aliciae Nyctibatrachus beddomii Nyctibatrachus sp. Pseudophilautus kani Raorchestes nerostagona Raorchestes chotta Rhacophorus malabaricus Polypedates maculatus Status Common Common Rare Common Common Abundant Common Abundant Common Rare Rare Common Common Common Common Common Remarks Recording frogs at degraded evergreen forest patch near Rockwood estate. Photo: Jafer Palot 3. Pandimotta The reed brakes and stunted trees found here, provides good habitat for several bush frogs, many of which are endemic and threatened. Populations of Nyctibatrachus beddomii and Duttaphrynus beddomii, were also sighted in the higher elevations. The area forms one of the most important centres of diversity and endemism for several frog species. Sl. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Species Ramanella sp. Duttaphrynus beddomii Pedostibes tuberculatus Indirana diplosticta Indirana sp. Micrixalus sp. Nyctibatrachus beddomii Nyctibatrachus major Nyctibatrachus aliciae Nyctibatrachus pillai Raorchestes beddomii Raorchestes chalazodes Raorchestes ponmudi Raorchestes graminirupes Raorchestes manohari Raorchestes chalazodes Raorchestes crustai Raorchestes johnceei Raorchestes sp. Raorchestes anili Raorchestes bobingeri Rhacophorus calcadensis Status Rare Rare Rare Rare Rare Rare Common Rare Common Common Common Common Common Rare Rare Common Rare Rare Rare Common Rare Common Remarks Breeding Breeding 5. Surrounding Areas Localities like Deer park, Thenmala damsite, Thenmala butterfly park, Kallar estates and the road between Kallar to Pandimotta area were also surveyed for frogs, but not as intensively as the other four sites. A total of 17 species of frogs were encountered during the survey. Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis had been reported from near the damsite. Sl. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Species Duttaphrynus melanostictus Hylarana temporalis Hylarana aurantiaca Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis Euphlyctis hexadactylus Hoplobatrachus tigerinus Fejervarya keralensis Nyctibatrachus aliciae Nyctibatrachus beddomii Nyctibatrachus sp. Pseudophilautus kani Raorchestes nerostagona Raorchestes chotta Raorchestes ochlandrae Rhacophorus malabaricus Polypedates maculatus Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis Status Common Rare Rare Common Rare Rare Abundant Common Rare Rare Common Common Common Rare Common Common Rare Remarks Immature Ochlandra reed brakes with montane stunted forest at Pandimotta. Photo: Robin Abraham 4. Rosemala & Kallar Estates Rosemala is a cluster of private states located inside the northern part of the Sanctuary, at a distance of 15 km from Ariyankavu. Kallar Estate is located in the southern part of the sancturay. Both Rosemala and Kallar lie on two sides of the Thenmala dam reservoir. Much of the surrounding forests are partially degraded, but still hold strong for amphibians. Recent developmental activities within the estate An analysis of earlier records and the present areas can be promlematic for the survival of frogs. survey reveals the presence of at least 45 speDespite disturbances, we recorded 18 spp. here. cies of frogs in the Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary. Sl. No Species Status Remarks Of the total 45 species we recorded, 38 (84%) are 1 Duttaphrynus melanostictus Common 2 Duttaphrynus parietalis Common strictly endemic to the Western Ghats and among 3 Pedostibes tuberculatus Rare the endemics, > 40% are regionally endemic to the 4 Hylarana temporalis Rare 5 Hylarana aurantiaca Rare Agasthyamalai Hills. New species described as late 6 Indirana sp. Common as 2011, such as Raorchestes crustai, R. agasthyaen7 Indirana sp. Rare 8 Micrixalus fuscus Abundant Breeding sis, R. johnceei, R. manohari and Nyctibatrachus pillai 9 Nyctibatrachus aliciae Common 10 Nyctibatrachus beddomii Rare are well represented in the sanctuary. Species such 11 Nyctibatrachus sp. Rare as R. manohari and R. chalazodes are reed associated 12 Pseudophilautus kani Common 13 Raorchestes nerostagona Common species, both of which were recorded in the sanctu14 Raorchestes chotta Common ary during our survey in 2008. 15 Raorchestes ochlandrae Rare 16 Rhacophorus malabaricus Common The frog communities of Shendurney WLS are 17 Polypedates maculatus Common 18 Polypedates psuedocruciger Common exceptionally diverse and the sanctuary and surrounding regions can qualify to be among the richest protected areas for amphibians in the entire country. Hence, the Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary should merit the highest form of protection to safeguard this incredible diversity, to help carry over its rich amphibian legacy into the future. Threats such as tourism initiatives, road development, the running of piggeries and poultry farms as exist inside the sanctuary limits today; all must be controlled. Such domesticated livestock often serve as vectors for disease pathogens which can affect wild species. We recommend that any activity that is not oriented towards the conservation of the sanctuary's wildlife, Plantations dominate both Rosemala and Kallar whether it be plants or animals, should never be enEstates, fringed by forest. Photo: Robin Abraham tertained within the sanctuary's boundaries. Conclusion Image Gallery Duttaphrynus parietalis Photo: Robin Abraham Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis Photo: Sandeep Das Hylarana temporalis Photo: Sandeep Das Micrixalus sp. Photo: Robin Abraham Indirana sp. Photo: Robin Abraham Nyctibatrachus pillai Photo: Robin Abraham Polypedates sp. Photo: Anil Zachariah Raorchestes crustai Photo: Sandeep Das Raorchestes chalazodes Photo: Robin Abraham Raorchestes beddomii Photo: Robin Abraham Raorchestes johnceei Photo: Robin Abraham Raorchestes pulcher Photo: Sandeep Das Raorchestes manohari Photo: Sandeep Das Raorchestes agasthyaensis Photo: Sandeep Das Rhacophorus calcadensis Photo: Robin Abraham References 1. Aravind, N. A. & Gururaja, K. V. (2010) Theme paper on amphibians of the Western Ghats, Report submitted to the Western Ghats Ecology Panel, India 2. Biju, S. D., Bocxlaer, I. V., Mahony S., Dinesh K. P., Radhakrishnan C., Zachariah A., Varad, G. & Bossuyt, F. (2011) A taxonomic review of the Night Frog genus Nyctibatrachus Boulenger, 1882 in the Western Ghats, India (Anura: Nyctibatrachidae) with description of twelve new species. Zootaxa 3029: 1- 96 3. Biju, S. D. & Bossuyt, F. (2009) Systematics and phylogeny of Philautus Gistel, 1848 (Anura: Rhacophoridae) in the Western Ghats of India, with descriptions of 12 new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society, 155: 374-444 4. Dinesh, K. P., Radhakrishnan C., Gururaja K.V. & Bhatta, G. K. (2009) A checklist of amphibians of India. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata 5. Frost, D. R. (2009) Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.3 (19th August, 2009). Electronic Database accessible at http:// research.amnh.org/herpetology/ amphibia/ American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA 6. Islam, M. Z. and Rahmani, A. R. (2004) Important bird areas in India: priority sites for conservation. Indian Bird Conservation Network: Bombay Natural History Society and Birdlife International, UK 7. Mittermeier, R. A., Gil, P. R., Hoffman, M., Pilgrim, J., Brooks, T., Mittermeier, C. G., Lamoreux, J., Da Fonseca, G. A. B. (2004) Hotspots Revisited: Earth's Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Terrestrial Ecoregions. CEMEX. Conservation International, and Agrupacion Sierra Madre, Monterrey, Mexico, 392pp 8. MoEF (2006) India's Tentative List of Natural Heritage Properties to be inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List. UNESCO, Paris, France 9. Nair, S. C. (1991) The southern Western Ghats: a biodiversity conservation plan. INTACH, New Delhi, India 10. Ramesh, B. R., Franceschi, D. and Pascal, J.P. (1997a) Forest map of South India: Thirvananthapuram - Tirunelveli. French Institute, Pondicherry, India 11. Ramesh B. R. , Menon S., Bawa K. S. (1997b) A Vegetation Based Approach to Biodiversity Gap Analysis in the Agastyamalai Region, Western Ghats, India. Ambio, Vol. 26 (8). pp. 529-536 12. Vasudevan, K. (1997) Rediscovery of the black microhylid Melanobatrachus indicus (Beddome, 1878). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society: 170-171 13. Zachariah, A., Dinesh, K.P., Kunhikrishnan, E., Das, S., Raju, D. V., Radhakrishnan, C., Jafer Palot, M. & Kalesh, S. (2011) Nine new species of frogs of the genus Raorchestes (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae) from southern Western Ghats, India. Biosystematica, 5(1): 25-48 Appendix I Systematic list of Frogs (Anurans) found in Shendurney WLS CLASS: AMPHIBIA ORDER: ANURA FAMILY: MICROHYLIDAE Microhyla sp. Common Name: Narrow-mouthed Frog Occurrence during the survey: Lowland forest at Kattilapara Ramanella sp. E.WG Common Name: Dot Frog Occurrence during the survey: A single record from Pandimotta FAMILY: MELANOBATRACHIDAE Melanobatrachus indicus Beddome, 1878 E.WG Common Name: Indian Black Frog Distribution: Southern Western Ghats Occurrence during the survey: None; records from neighbouring areas show high potential for species to occur in the sanctuary FAMILY: BUFONIDAE Duttaphrynus beddomii G�nther, 1875 E.WG.AG Common Name: Beddome's Toad Occurrence during the survey: Young ones observed in the Pandimotta and Karimala Kaddakkal area Duttaphrynus parietalis Boulenger, 1882 Common Name: Ridged Toad Distribution: Peninsular India Occurrence during the survey: Juveniles observed at forest near Rockwood estate Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799) Common Name: Common Indian Toad Distribution: Throughout S. & S. E. Asia Occurrence during the survey: Common in lowand mid-elevations Pedostibes tuberculosus G�nther, 1875 E.WG Common Name: Malabar Tree Toad Distribution: Central & Southern Western Ghats Occurrence during the survey: None; earlier records from the sanctuary FAMILY: RANIDAE Hylarana aurantiaca (Boulenger, 1904) E.WG.SL Common Name: Golden Frog Distribution: Southern Western Ghats & Sri Lanka Occurrence during the survey: Fairly common in lower altitudes Hylarana temporalis (G�nther, 1864) E.WG.SL Common Name: Bronzed Frog Distribution: Western Ghats & Sri Lanka Occurrence during the survey: Fairly common in low- and mid- elevations FAMILY: DICROGLOSSIDAE Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Schneider, 1799) Common Name: Skittering Frog; Distribution: Throughout S. & S. E. Asia Occurrence during the survey: Common in low elevations Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Lesson, 1834) Common Name: Indian Pond Frog Distribution: Throughout the Indian subcontinent Occurrence during the survey: Uncommon; noted in low elevations Fejervarya keralensis (Dubois, 1980) E.WG Common Name: Kerala Warty Frog Distribution: Throughout the Western Ghats Occurrence during the survey: Most common species in most habitats Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Daudin, 1802) Common Name: Indian Bull Frog Distribution: Throughout the Indian Subcontinent Occurrence during the survey: Fairly common in low- and mid-elevations FAMILY: RANIXALIDAE Indirana beddomii (G�nther, 1876) E.WG Distribution: Southern Western Ghats Occurrence during the survey: Rarely seen at mid - elevations Indirana diplosticta (G�nther, 1876) E.WG Common Name: Malabar Indian Frog Distribution: Southern Western Ghats Occurrence during the survey: Rarely observed at Pandimotta Indirana sp. 1 E.WG Common Name: Indian Frog Occurrence during the survey: Only observed at Kattilappara Indirana sp. 2 E.WG Common Name: Indian Frog Occurrence during the survey: Rarely ncountered at Pandimotta FAMILY: MICRIXALIDAE Micrixalus fuscus (Boulenger, 1882) E.WG Common Name: Dusky Torrent Frog Distribution: Central & Southern Western Ghats Occurrence during the survey: Fairly common in low- and mid-elevation streams Micrixalus sp. 1 E.WG Common Name: Torrent Frog Occurrence during the survey: Many records in streams in Pandimotta Micrixalus sp. 2 E.WG Common Name: Torrent Frog Occurrence during the survey: Observed at two streams between Kallar estate and Pandimotta FAMILY: NYCTIBATRACHIDAE Nyctibatrachus aliciae Inger, Shaffer, Koshy and Bakde, 1984 E.WG Common Name: Aliciae's Night Frog Distribution: Southern Western Ghats Occurrence during the survey: Common in streams at all elevations Nyctibatrachus beddomii (Boulenger, 1882) E.WG Common Name: Beddome's Night Frog Distribution: Southern Western Ghats Occurrence during the survey: Common in midto high- elevations Nyctibatrachus major Boulenger, 1882 E.WG Common Name: Malabar Night Frog Distribution: Central & Southern Western Ghats Occurrence during the survey: Common in midto high- elevations Nyctibatrachus minor Inger, Shaffer, Koshy and Bakde,1984 E.WG Common Name: Kerala Night Frog Distribution: Southern Western Ghats Occurrence during the survey: Common in midelevations Nyctibatrachus pillai Biju et. al, 2011 E.WG.AG Common Name: Pillai's Night Frog Occurrence during the survey: Recorded in streams between Kallar estate upto Pandimotta Nyctibatrachus vasanthi Ravichandran, 1997 E.WG.AG Common Name: Kalakad Night Frog Occurrence during the survey: Rarely seen in streams at Pandimotta FAMILY: RHACOPHORIDAE Raorchestes agasthyaensis Zachariah et al., 2011 E.WG.AG Common Name: Agasthya's Bushfrog Distribution: Reported only from Neyyar, Peppara and Shendurney Wildlife sanctuaries Occurrence during the survey: Rarely seen at Pandimotta Raorchestes anili Biju and Bossuyt, 2006 E.WG Common Name: Anil's Bushfrog Distribution: Southern Western Ghats Occurrence during the survey: Common in midto high- elevations Raorchestes beddomii (G�nther, 1876) E.WG Common Name: Beddome's Bushfrog Distribution: Southern Western Ghats Occurrence during the survey: Common at Pandimotta Raorchestes bobingeri Biju and Bossuyt, 2006 E.WG.AG Common Name: Robert Inger's Bushfrog Distribution: Agasthyamalai Hills Occurrence during the survey: Rarely heard at Pandimotta Raochestes chalazodes (G�nther, 1876) E.WG.AG Common Name: Chalazodes Reedfrog Distribution: Agasthyamalai Hills Occurrence during the survey: Commonly seen at Pandimotta Raorchestes chotta Biju and Bossuyt, 2009 E.WG Common Name: Small Bushfrog Distribution: Agasthyamalai Hills Occurrence during the survey: Common at Rockwood estate Raorchestes crustai Zachariah et al., 2011 E.WG.AG Common Name: Canopy Bark Bushfrog Distribution: Reported only from Peppara and Shendurney Wildlife sanctuaries Occurrence during the survey: Rarely seen at Pandimotta Raorchestes graminirupes Biju and Bossuyt, 2005 E.WG.AG Common Name: Ponmudi Grassfrog Occurrence during the survey: Fairly common in the higher reaches Raorchestes johnceei Zachariah et al., 2011 E.WG.AG Common Name: Johncee's Bushfrog Distribution: Reported only from Peppara and Shendurney Wildlife sanctuaries Occurrence during the survey: Common at Pandimotta Raorchestes ponmudi Biju and Bossuyt, 2005 E.WG Common Name: Large Ponmudi Bushfrog Distribution: Central & Southern Western Ghats Occurrence during the survey: Common in midelevations Raorchestes pulcher Boulenger, 1882 E.WG Common Name: Pretty Bushfrog Distribution: Central & Southern Western Ghats Occurrence during the survey: Common at Rockwood estate Raorchestes manohari Zachariah et al., 2011 E.WG.AG Common Name: Spotted Reedfrog Distribution: Reported only from Peppara and Shendurney Wildlife sanctuaries Occurrence during the survey: Seen among the reeds at Pandimotta Raorchestes nerostagona Biju and Bossuyt, 2005 E.WG Common Name: Canopy/Waterdrop Bushfrog Distribution: Central & Southern Western Ghats Occurrence during the survey: Fairly common in mid- elevations Raorchestes ochlandrae Gururaja, Dinesh, Palot, Radhakrishnan and Ramachandra, 2007 E.WG Common Name: Ochlandra Reedfrog Distribution in India: Central & Southern Western Ghats Occurrence during the survey: None; records from boundary of the sanctuary Raorchestes sp. E.WG Common Name: Bushfrog Occurrence during the survey: Rarely seen at Pandimotta Pseudophilautus kani Biju and Bossuyt, 2009 E.WG Common Name: Kani Bushfrog Distribution: Central & Southern Western Ghats Occurrence during the survey: Common at lowto mid- elevations Polypedates maculatus Gray, 1833 Common Name: Chunam Frog Distribution: Throughout the Indian Subcontinent Occurrence during the survey: Common at low elevations Polypedates pseudocruciger Das and Ravichandran, 1998 E.WG Common Name: False Hourglass Tree Frog Distribution: Southern Western Ghats Occurrence during the survey: One sighting at Katilappara Polypedates sp. E.WG Common Name: Tree Frog Occurrence during the survey: Rarely seen at Kattilapara Rhacophorous calcadensis Ahl, 1927 E.WG Common Name: Kalakkad Tree Frog Distribution: Southern Western Ghats Occurrence during the survey: Common in Pandimotta Key: E.WG - Endemic to the Western Ghats E.WG.AG - Endemic to the Agasthyamalai Hills E.WG.SL - Endemic to the Western Ghats & Sri Lanka Rhacophorus malabaricus Jerdon, 1870 E.WG Common Name: Malabar Gliding Frog Distribution: Central & Southern Western Ghats Occurrence during the survey: Fairly common at low- to mid- elevations FAMILY: NASIKABATRACHIDAE Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis Biju & Bossuyt, 2003 E.WG Common Name: Indian Purple Frog Distribution: Southern Western Ghats Occurrence during the survey: None; but most likely found in parts of the northern ridge Appendix II LEMD _ P _ W P _ _ P W P P P W _ P _ _ W P _ _ _ _ W P _ W W P _ _ _ _ _ P P _ _ P _ W W _ W _ _ P R _ R _ _ _ R R P P _ _ W _ _ _ R R R R R _ P R R _ R _ P R _ _ _ MEVG _ _ P P P _ W P P _ _ _ W _ W _ _ W P _ _ W W W R _ W W W _ _ _ _ _ W W _ _ W _ W W _ P _ _ SMRB R _ P _ _ R _ _ P _ _ Elevational Range (m) 1100-1400 90-300 800-1400 90-800 300-800 1100-1400 500-900 90-800 90-1200 90-300 300 300 90-1400 1000-1400 500-800 1000 90-150 90-700 300-900 1200-1400 1200-1400 800-1000 600-800 90-800 300-700 1200-1400 90-900 90-800 800-1200 1200-1400 1200-1400 1200-1400 1200-1400 1200-1400 600-900 700-1000 1000-1400 1000-1400 600-800 1000-1400 90-500 90-1400 1000-1400 90-800 90-300 50-200 90-900 Primary Microhabitat A, F, S T, G, P, Sw, Fo F, T F, T, P F, T F, T, S A, F, S T, S T, S, P, Sw S, P S, P T, S, P F, T F, T, S F, T, S F, T F, T, P, Sw F, T, S F, T, S F, T, S F, T, S T, S, G F, T, S T, S, Sw F, T, S F, T, S A, F A, F A, F, T A, R A, R A, F, T A, F A, F A, F A, F T, G A, F A, R A, F F, T A, F, Sw A, F A, F A, F A, F, Sw F, Fo Relative Abundance R R R A C R C C A A C C A R C R R A C R R C C A C C C C C C C C R R C C R C R R A C R C R R R Geographic and ecological distribution and relative abundance of frogs in the Shendurney WLS Species Ramanella sp. Microhyla sp. Melanobatrachus indicus Duttaphrynus melanostictus Duttaphrynus parietalis Duttaphrynus beddomii Pedostibes tuberculatus Hylarana aurantiaca Hylarana temporalis Euphlyctis cynophlyctis Euphlyctis hexadactyla Hoplobatrachus tigerinus Fejervarya keralensis Indirana diplosticta Indirana beddomii Indirana sp. 01 Indirana sp. 02 Micrixalus fuscus Micrixalus sp. 01 Micrixalus sp. 02 Nyctibatrachus vasanthi Nyctibatrachus major Nyctibatrachus beddomii Nyctibatrachus aliciae Nyctibatrachus minor Nyctibatrachus pillai Raorchestes pulcher Raorchestes nerostagona Raorchestes chotta Raorchestes manohari Raorchestes chalazodes Raorchestes johnceei Raorchestes agasthyaensis Raorchestes crustai Raorchestes anili Raorchestes ponmudi Raorchestes graminirupes Raorchestes beddomii Raorchestes ochlandrae Raorchestes bobingeri Pseudophilautus kani Rhacophorus malabaricus Rhacophorus calcadensis Polypedates psuedocruciger Polypedates maculatus Polypedates sp. Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis Myristica Swamp _ P _ P _ _ _ W W P _ _ W _ _ _ R _ _ _ _ _ _ W _ _ P P _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ W P _ W P R Forest Type Distribution -- W = widespread in that forest type, R = restricted to that forest type, P = peripherally distributed in that forest type; Forest Type Distribution -- W = widespread in that forest type, R = restricted to that forest type, P = peripherally distributed in that forest type; Primary Microhabitat -- A = arboreal, T = terrestrial, F = forest inhabitant, P = pondside inhabitant, S = streamside inhabitant, R = reed inhabitant, G = grassland inhabitant, Sw = swamp, Fo = Fossorial; Relative Abundance -- A = abundant, C = common, R = rare; Forest Type -- LEMD = Low Elevation Moist Deciduous, MEVG = Mid Evergreen, SMRB = Stunted Montane & Reed Brakes Appendix III List of participants: Team members of the Frog Survey. Photo: Jafer Palot Dr Anil Zachariah, Beagle, Chandakunnu, Kalpetta, Wayanad district Ansil B. R.,Vilayil Veedu, Mudapuram P. O., Chiraynakizhu, Thiruvananthapuram 695314 David V. Raju, Naturalist, Taj Safaris, Banjaartola, Kanha Tiger Reserve, Mukki.Post, Balaghat district, Madhya Pradesh Dr. Jafer Palot, Western Ghats Field Research Station, Zoological Survey of India, Erannhipalam P. O., Kozhikode 673 006 Dr. Kalesh, B.N 439, Bapuji Nagar, Medical College, P. O., Thiruvananthapuram 695 011 E. Kunhikrishnan, Department of Zoology, University College, Thiruvananthapuram K. I. Pradeep Kumar, Wildlife Warden, Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary, Thenmala Dam, Kollam district Robin Kurian Abraham, Nanthencode, Thiruvananthapuram 695 003 Sandeep Das, Santhi Nivas, Chembukkavu, Thrissur 680 020 K. K. Sethumadhavan, Lakshmi Niwas, Koottala, Mankara.Post, Palakkad district Dr. Vinu R., Krishnendu, Athinadu South, Kattilakadavu, Kayamkulam, Kollam district K.V. Uthaman, Wildlife Warden, Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary, Iritty Post, Kannur district P. K. Uthaman, TC 4/1568, Dewaswom Board Junction, Thiruvananthapuram 695 003 A Nyctibatrachus aliciae male guarding egg clutch in a Myristica swamp Photo: Jafer Palot A REPORT ON THE PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF THE FROG FAUNA IN SHENDURNEY WILDLIFE SANCTUARY, KOLLAM DISTRICT, KERALA STATE, INDIA