The Working Mens Clubs of Doncaster -
The community centres for the working class.
The Working Men's Clubs of Doncaster The Community Centres for the Working Class 2 The Working Men's Clubs of Doncaster The Community Centres for the Working Class 3 Acknowledgements It would be impossible to mention everybody who has helped with this project, but particular thanks go to the following people: Geoff Elvin, Kerry Parkin, Craig Johnson and staff at Doncaster CSV, Jenny Edwards, Connor Marick, Russell Bowley, David Fretwell, staff at The Yorkshire and Humber Heritage Lottery Fund, Neil McGregor at Doncaster Museum, Helen Wallder and staff at Doncaster Local Studies Library, Tom, Alan, Andy and Shaun at Intake Club, Dr Michelle Winslow, Dr Richard Stevens, Dave Gravel, the over-sixties group at Highfields WMC, Jim Warren, Peter Anelay and staff at Stirling Centre, Debbie Heppel and staff at Mexborough Day Centre, Guy White, Barry Crabtree, Doncaster Free Press, Howard Johnson, Sue Forbes, Rebound, Darron Heads, Claire Kendell, Jack Ridgill, Dave Lane, Lyn O'Hara, John Oldroyd, Pete Moorhouse, Wheatley Club committee, Pat and friends at Denaby Main and Institute, Chris Carr, Dr Ruth Cherrington, Carcroft Village Club, Bullcroft Officials' Club, Armthorpe Social Club, Highfields WMC, The Graceholme Club, Frank Arrowsmith and Andy Summers at Yorkshire Main Commemorative Trust, Askern Spa Club, Norton Coronation Club, Norman Poulson, Alan Cartwright, John Wilson, Lyn Charles, John Bryan, George Kennedy, Stella McGuire, the Jet at Bentley, Doncaster Trades Club. 4 5 6 Contents 4 9 11 13 15 19 19 23 29 33 34 36 38 40 41 45 51 55 58 Acknowledgements Foreword Introduction Theworkingmen'sclubmovement `Thegreatbeerquestion' TheclubsofDoncaster Formerclubs ClayLaneSocialClub ClubsinDoncastertoday TheDoncasterCIU DoncasterTradesClub Whatcanyouexpecttofindinatypical DoncasterWMC? Theclubstewardorstewardess Membershipandrules Theroleofthecommittee Clublandentertainment Theorganistanddrummer Clublandandthelocalpress TheScalaClub 60 61 63 64 71 79 80 82 86 90 95 103 105 107 109 111 112 Agents Clubentertainerstoday OliverReedcomestoClayLaneClub Clubtrips Theclubaspartofthecommunity Politics,clubsandtheMiners'Strike,1984-85 Sportsandgames Cardsanddominoes Eyesdown:bingoandothergames Aman'sworld?Womenandclubs Thefutureofclubs Thesmokingbananditseffectonclubs `SavetheWorkingMen'sClub'sandthe EntertainmentIndustry' Intothe21stcentury Bibliography Picturecredits References 7 8 Foreword WorkingMen'sClubsarepartofthefabricofDoncaster'scommunities. Fordecades,WMCshaveplayedakeyroleintownsandvillagesacrosstheborough,andwereoftenmuch morethanplacestohaveadrink.Theyboundtogetherpeoplewhooftenenduredhardship,enablingthemto helpandsupporteachother,andtheyplayedapartincommunitycohesion�`theBigSociety'�longbefore politicianscoinedthephrase. Clubswereformedbyworkingpeopleforworkingpeople�notamillionmilesawayfromtheethosof theLabourParty�anditisimportanttodocumenttheroletheyplayed,andcontinuetoplay,notjustin Doncaster,butacrossthecountry. Rt Hon Rosie Winterton MP for Doncaster Central 9 10 Introduction Foroveracentury,workingmen'sclubs1havebeenpartofDoncaster'slandscape.Theyhavebeenthe focusofmanycommunities'sociallifeandaparagonofworking-classinitiativeandself-organisation.Over recentyearsthough,clubshaveassumedalessprominentrole,andtheheydayoftheimmediatepost-war decadesisnowlookedbackonwithfondbutfadingmemories.Battlingbravelyagainstchangingfashions, smokingbansandcheapsupermarketbeer,theclubsofDoncasterarestillhere,andtheycontinuetooffer muchtotheirlocalcommunity. Thisbookisabouttheuniqueheritageoftheworkingmen'sclubsinandaroundDoncaster.Itisanarchive ofphotographs,memoriesandstoriesabouttheclubsastheyusedtobe;italsooffersaninsightintothe stateofclubstoday,andhowtheywilladaptforthefuture. 11 1 12 1 The working men's club movement `TheprincipleuponwhichtheWorkingMen'sClubandInstituteUnionisbasedisthatworkingmenaretoberaisedbytheirownendeavours.'2 TheWorkingMen'sClubandInstituteMovement (CIU)wasfoundedin1862bytheReverendHenry Solly(1813-1903),aformerUnitarianminister3, teetotaller,socialreformerandpioneerofworkingclassrights.Sollyhadpreviouslyestablishedthe CharityOrganisationSociety4andhadformany yearsbeeninterestedinhelpingdisadvantaged peopletobetterthemselves.Initsearlydays, theCIUmovementboastedahostofeminent supporters,includingCharlesDarwinandQueen Victoria,anditexemplifiedthenineteenth-century trendofsocialreformthathaddevelopedinanswer tothesocialandhealth-relatedproblemsoftheera. Rapidindustrialisationandurbanisationmaywell havebroughteconomicbenefitstomany,butthey alsowenthandinhandwithsocialunrestandhealth problems,bothmentalandphysical. Themainaimoftheseearlyclubswastoprovide educationandrecreationforworkingpeople,ina similarwaytotheMutualImprovementSocieties, readingroomsandWorkingMen'sInstitutes7of theearliernineteenthcentury.Sollysaidofexisting recreationalestablishments: " While, however, all these efforts have been productive of unquestionable benefit, none of them met that which is undoubtedly the first great want of working men after their day's toil � viz., unrestrained social intercourse, the means of chatting with one another, with or without refreshments.8 Inthiseraofrapidchange,middle-class philanthropists,suchasSollyandhis contemporaries,sawtheworkingclassas`little capableofthethoughtof,orthepowertooriginate andmanageclubsuntiltaughtandinspiredby others.'5Theyaimedtoactasinstigatorsofsocial change,usingtheirwealthandinfluencetonurture ahappierandhealthierworkforce.Thereformers' motiveswerenotalwaysentirelyphilanthropic, though:theywantedtoavoidthecivildiscontent thatwouldalmostcertainlyariseinnewlybuilt-up townsandcities,shouldstandardsofliving notimprove. Fromthestart,Sollyhadaclearvisionofthenature ofclubs,ashestatedinhisoriginalmanifesto: Thenewclubswerealsodesignedtofostersocial cohesion,trustandself-governance,andfrom theearlydays,theirnon-profit-makingnature reflectedthisunderlyingethos.Theclubswererun democratically,intheinterestsofthemembersand thewidercommunity;responsiblegovernancewasa keytenetoftheCIUanditsaffiliates. Theinitialclubsofthe1860sweregenerallyfunded bydonationsandloansorganisedbymagnanimous middle-classbenefactors.Thissystemofpatronage woulddissolvegraduallyasnewerclubsbeganto becreatedthroughtheeffortandorganisationof workingpeoplethemselves.Evenbythe1870s, independentlyfundedclubshadstartedtoappear, settingthetrendforthegenuinelyworking-class clubmovementthatwastofollow. The Reverend Henry Solly " " The union is formed for the purpose of helping Working Men to establish Clubs or Institutes where they can meet for conversation, business, and mental improvement, with the means of recreation and refreshment, free from intoxicating drinks; these Clubs, at the same time, constituting Societies for mutual helpfulness in various ways.6 " 13 CIU Journal, February 1898 CIU Club Journal 2011 14 'The great beer question' DrinkinginVictoriantimeswasrifeinallstrataof Britishsociety.Fromalehousestoginpalacesand gentlemen'sclubs,themightyBritishEmpirewas bobbingonaseaofalcohol.Manypeopledrankat workandduringthedaytime-evensoldiersimbibed onthebattlefieldtomaketheirplightseemmore bearable.Itisnosurprisethen,thattheteetotal philanthropistsofthedaysawitastheirdutyto alleviatethissocialmalaise.TheReverendSollyhad verydefiniteideasaboutthedangersofalcohol: " The club rooms in every locality will form the strongest counteraction to the allurements of the Public House. The desire for social enjoyment and the love of excitement are the impulses that habitually drive the Working Classes to visit the Beer Shop. These instincts also form a great temptation of reclaimed drunkards. They remain as strong as ever in their nature after they have become abstainers, and the Public House stands before them as the most available means for their gratification. Music, also, which ought to purify and refine, is now extensively employed as a temptation to drinking and other vices. Until there shall be established in every locality an institution that shall meet these instincts with superior attractions, but without temptations to evil, it is unreasonable to expect a great diminution of the drinking customs of the working population. This want the proposed Clubs will supply. Here the Working Man will obtain, at a charge within his reach, social intercourse and healthy mental excitement � the refreshment he requires or the improvement he seeks.9 Earlyclubswere,therefore,`dry'meetingplaces, developedpartlyasanalternativetothebawdypubs andmusichallsoftheday.Ofcourse,pressure fromclub-usersgrewgraduallyagainstthenondrinkingpolicy,andbythe1870s,alcoholbeganto appear.Bythistime,eventheRev.Sollyhadgrown usedtotheideathatdrinkinginmoderationwould attractalargerclienteletotheexistingnetworkof clubsandthereforeboosttheirchancesoflong-term survival.Demandforgamblingwasalsoonthe rise,andcardgameswithminimalstakeswerealso allowedinclubsfromthistimeon.Bythe1920s, themajorityofclubsacrossthecountryserved alcohol,althoughsomeremainedtruetotheoriginal aimevenintothe1980s,offeringonlyteatotheir members. TheReverendSollypartedwayswiththeCIUin 1878,butnotbeforehehadpavedthewayforhis successorstodevelopthisnationalorganisationinto oneofthegreatestworking-classmovementsin theworld.Today,thereare2,150clubsaffiliated totheCIU,with2,000,000members.Atitspeak intheearly1970s,therewereover4,000affiliated clubsandover4,000,000members.Somehow, theCIUdoesnotseemtobeaswellknownas,say, theTUCorsomeofthemajortradeunions.10Itgoes aboutitsbusinessinanunostentatiousmanner, beingalong-termparagonofworking-classinitiative andself-organisation.Forjust�6peryear,CIU membershaveaccesstoawiderangeoffacilities andsupportstructures,includinglegaladviceand representation,useoftheCIUconvalescenthome atSaltburn-by-the-Sea,andahostofeducational andsportingactivities.Inadditiontothis,theCIU memberispartofaunionofclubs.Armedwitha CIUcard,heorshecangainfreeadmissiontoall CIU-affiliatedclubsacrosstheUnitedKingdomand theRepublicofIreland.11 The benefit of the CIU was that it's there as a social club for everyone. It's a non-profit-making organisation anyway, and it's there for people to come out, socialise. They can talk but its nonpolitical, so they can talk politics or talk whatever they want in the club, talk their differences out. You could call it a CAB, a Citizens Advice Bureau, because some people want to go out and talk about their problems, and by talking to people, some people can help them, some people can guide them in the right direction, and perhaps it could be a saviour for some people. So that's a part it plays as well.12 " " " 15 << Bill Bridgin, a famous former member of Dunscroft Social Club or Ikey's, as it is called by the locals < The former Askern Road WMC and Institute, Toll Bar Stainforth WMC and Institute 16 " " Every member can obtain the associate card and the pass card. By obtaining that associate and pass card, it does allow them to get into the other 2,100 branches in Great Britain itself. " Each club then is also given a club journal which is printed every month from head office. Head office sends every club one free. They can obtain more if they want them, and inside there's a lot of information about union policy and that 13 kind of thing. " " ''The English working class have a wonderful talent for organisation. The whole trade union movement testifies to this, so do the excellent working men's clubs, really a sort of glorified co-operative pub and splendidly organised, which are so common in Yorkshire.'' 15 George Orwell speaking about Northern clubs The CIU logo that is displayed by affiliated clubs When we go on a trip out, we find a nice working men's club, like in Skegness or somewhere, and one of us signs for everybody, and they allow us in, you know, the women, half a dozen women or so. And if there's any music or they want a sing-song, we get up and give them 14 a song. " Balby Ashmount Committee, c.1955 17 This certificate shows the affiliation of Norton Coronation WMC to the CIU in 1942. It is still on display at the club today. 2 18 2 � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � The clubs of Doncaster Former Clubs TherearecertainlyfewerclubsinDoncastertodaythaninpreviousyears,butmanylocalpeoplestill remembertheonesthatusedtobehouseholdnamesinthearea.Hereisalistofsomeofthosethat havebeenmentionedbyinterviewees: Adwick-le-StreetWMC ArmthorpeMereLane ArmthorpeMiners'Welfare AskernEx-Servicemen'sClub AuckleyWMC BalbyAshmount,laterknownasTheOaks BarnbyDunPowerStationClub BentleyComradesClub BentleyReform BraithwellWMC BritishLegionClub BrosdworthOfficialsClub BrodsworthMiners'Welfare BRSAClub BurghwallisVillageClub CabbageClub(AdwickAllotmentHolders) CarcroftIndependentSocialClub ChequersWMC ClayLaneWMC DenabyOfficials'Club EdenGroveSports&SocialClub � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � GranbyRoadTenants'Association Ex-servicemen'sclub(`SoldiersandSailors Club'nearDoncasterMarket) GreenfieldClub,Dunscroft FriendlyIslandSocialClub,Bentley HarworthComrades TheHopInnClub,Denaby ICIClub IrishClub KikiClub,KirkSandall KirkSandallPensioners'Club KirkSandallSocialClub LangoldHillTopClub LiberalClub,nowtheCatholicClub LondesboroughSocialClub,Bentley ManorRoadSocialClub,Hatfield MarrClub MexboroughHopeClub MexboroughMainStreetClub TheMidasClub,Broadway TheNavyClub � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � NewExchangeClub NorthcliffeWMC,Denaby NorthgateWMC,Mexborough TheOldVolunteer RadburnSocialClub,Rossington RockwareGlassClub RoyalSocialClub,Dunscroft TheScala SprotboroughBritishLegion StainforthMiners'Welfare StainforthDemocratic Stainforth,Mosses Stainforth,TheLegion SYPTE,laterMainlineSports&Social TheOldMarketClub,DockinHill ThorpeMarshPowerStationClub ThurnscoeCoronationClub ThurnscoeMemorialClub WoodlandsComrades WoodlandsBritishLegion 19 20 21 22 The clubs of Doncaster Clay Lane Social Club ClayLaneSocialClub(WMC)wasfoundedin 1957.Likemanysimilarinstitutions,itwasfunded bypublicsubscriptionsanddonations.According toAlanCartwright,afoundermemberoftheclub, agroupofpioneeringlocalswentfromhouseto houseontheClayLanehousingestate,making acollection,askingresidentsiftheywouldlike tomakeacontributiontothecostofbuildingthe proposedsocialclub.Alansaysthatthemembers ofthelocalcommunitywereverygenerousand forthcoming,withmanyhundredsofdonations beingmade,thusenablingbuildingworktobegin andtheclubtobefounded. Forover30years,theclubwasverysuccessful, particularlyontheentertainmentfront.Allthemajor clubland`turns'andstarsplayedattheclub,with theoccasionalappearancebyaninternationalstar. Themostcontroversialbookingwas,withoutdoubt, guitarlegendBertWeedon,whogaveasingleonehourperformancein1968foranunprecedented feeof�125(equivalenttoapproximately�2000 in2011).Thiscausedmuchconsternationamong somecommitteemembers,withamutinybeingonly narrowlyaverted.Weedon'sextraordinaryfeeisstill atopicofconversationamongstformermembersto thisday. Likemanyworkingmen'sclubsintheDoncaster area,ClayLanebegantodeclineinthewakeof theminers'strikeof1984-85.Theclubwas refurbishedinthemid1980sandevenhada celebrityre-opening,courtesyofhonorarymember, theactorOliverReed(seeEntertainmentsection). Severalmorerelaunchesandattemptedrevamps followed,mostnotablyarenamingoftheclubas `TheExplorer'towardstheendofitsdays.This wasareferencetothestreetnamesontheestate wheretheclubstands:Shackleton,Livingstone, etc.ClayLaneSocialClubfinallycloseditsdoors inAugust2008.Now,muchtotheheartfeltregret offormermembers,itstandsderelictandawaiting demolition.16 Clay Lane - Explorer Social Club The guitarist, Bert Weedon. 23 " From `46 up to ten years ago, it had a good run. I mean, I remember seeing some of the real top artists at the Wheatley Club. Now that was the club to get involved with; it was a club and a half really. There was a chap called Tommy Jackson who had a stall on the market - a flower stall. He was their concert secretary, and he got all the top of everything for that club. They used to take the money like, but that was it in those days. Everything was running, every factory in Doncaster. There was the motor car factory in Carr Hill - Ford - they had a big factory down there, all the others � Bemberg's or ICI as it finished up. There was plenty of money knocking about then.17 I'm led to believe that this club [Dunscroft Social] started at the corner of the lane up here. We always called it Cuckoo Lane. That's where it first started in a smaller building, then they came up here to a big wooden building, and then of course, as it developed, they had all this built, and I think it was about 1937. I remember standing outside here. As kids, we used to stand out here asking men for cigarette cards. Remember the old cigarette cards? So that dates me, doesn't it? 18 24 " " " InmostpartsofDoncaster,workingmen'sclubs arestillpartofthelocallandscape,astheyhave beenfordecades.Infact,peoplearesousedto seeingthemthattheytakelittlenoticeuntilone actuallychangesorisdemolished.Thisisexactly whathappenedatBalbyAshmountafewyearsago: sadly,allthatremainsofthisonce-busyclubisan emptyspaceandapileofrubble. Despitetheirarchitecturalsimilarities,theclubsof Doncasterarevariedandinteresting.Eachhasits ownuniquecharacterandhasidiosyncrasiesthat reflectitslocality,itsmembersanditscommittee. Theclubsconnectustoabygoneera,atime whenBritishindustrythrived,jobswereplentiful, andcommunityspiritwasstrong.Throughbleak economictimes,theystillofferawealthofservices andsupporttotheirneighbourhoods. " The Granby, you got barred on a Friday and back in on a Sunday. The Top Club logged membership, quite traditional. You sat at that table, and everybody had that. The Legion, you were expected to be quite smart in there. People got dressed up, shirt and tie on a Sunday. You had three different clubs on 20 the go really. The New Exchange Club was in Exchange Buildings, which is somewhere near the Woolpack, in that corner, that building there from Bowers Fold towards Sunny Bar. The first building was called Exchange Buildings, I don't know what it's called now, it might still be called Exchange Buildings, but the club was held within that and went from the market 21 through to Silver Street. That's when we all went to the clubs during the war. That's when it started 22 really, then they continued it. " " There was no lager. Lager wasn't available. It was extra mild. Nobody asked for lager. Well, it wasn't there. It 23 just wasn't there. I mean, a lot of it is the price of beer. People go to Tesco's now, buy three cases [of beer] . . . DVDs, computers. There was nothing. If you didn't go out, well what did you do? There were no tellies; there were no telephones. I didn't even have a landline, me. So, you think about it: you had nothing at home. So, what did you do? You went to the club. If you wanted to talk to somebody, you 24 went to the club. It was originally made of corrugated tin. My aunty, in nineteen-forty something, she had her wedding reception in there, and it was made of tin, wavy tin. There was a picture of all these miners years and years ago in the strike.25 " " " " I can remember when I walked into the club now, for the first time, and I asked to be a member and the committee man that was on then, God bless him - he's dead and gone now - and you had to pay a shilling to be a member. I had to pay a shilling and put my name down and be proposed and seconded.19 " " " " " " " The original Scala club in Sprotbrough 25 " I was entitled to go in [to the Trades and Labour Club] from 1956, so late 50s, I started going in. A group of us used to meet there once a week in the club and play cards and such like. I could go out with ten shillings in my pocket and still take some change home, and I'd have played cards, and not have been winning it. That's all it used to cost: 10d in old money for a drink that I used to drink, a 26 bottle of beer; 5p in today's money. They were two strongish fellows, carrying two trays, a tray with about ten to twelve pints and a tray on top with the same on again. Never saw them drop one. They used to make a fortune. If a round came to, say, a quid - late 60s early 70s - you'd say, `Keep the shilling,' and that actually got him a pint. Now, if he was doing that on every table, and he was getting paid for it, he was making a nice 27 wage. " " " This club [Norton Coronation Club], everybody said it started off at The Laurels, but it didn't. It originally started off as a stable at the back of The Royal, and then it moved to the chapel. I was talking to Collin Potter, who said that, originally, the pipes that came from the cellar were like glass sections, and every now and then, you used to take them apart and wash them individually, and they used to slot into each other because plastic wasn't thought of. The only problem was you had to be careful you didn't drop them because if you ran out of 28 spares, it wouldn't reach [the bar]. " That was what they used to say: when you were at the pit, all you ever talked about was women, and when you went to clubs, you talked about cutting coal. We cut all the coal at the club, everybody did it. But when you were at the pit, you didn't talk about the pit; you talked about what you did last night and 29 what you did the night before. You couldn't move. If you went in the Wheatley club at 12 o'clock on a Sunday, you wouldn't get a seat. It could hold 200 or 300. We used to play snooker, tenpence corner for pairs. If you got beat, you wouldn't get another game that day, that's how busy it was. The concert room was packed every night when the groups 30 were on. " " " " " Wheatley Club welcomes an Italian visitor in the early 1980s 26 TheCoronationClubinArmthorpe,builtin1920, istheoldestinthevillage.Originally,itwasknown astheFarmworkers'Club,later,theLegionand ultimately,theCoronation.Theoriginalbuilding wasawoodenstructure,formerlyanoldWorld WarOnearmyhut.Infact,itwasbroughtbyrail fromYorkandtransportedtoArmthorpebyhorse andcart.Itwasreplacedbythepresentbuildingin 1954. 27 28 The clubs of Doncaster Clubs in Doncaster today Therearearound80members'clubsinDoncastertoday,manyofwhichareaffiliatedtotheCIU. � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ArkseyVictoriaSocialClub ArmthorpeCoronationClub ArmthorpeSocialClubandInstitute ArmthorpeCollieryOfficials'Club AskernMiners'Welfare AskernSpaCentral BalbyBridge BalbyRoadRecreationalClub BarnburghWorkingMen'sClub&Institute BarnbyDunSocialClub BentleyTopClub BentleyMiners'CricketClub(TheJet) BentleyWestEndClub BullcroftSports BullcroftOfficials' TheBurghwallis TheCampsall CarcroftVillage CatholicClub ComradesClub ConisbroughCastleWorkingMensClub ConisbroughCricketClub Co-opClub DenabyMainInstitute DenabyMiners'Welfare DoncasterTrades � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � DunscroftWelfare DunscroftSocial EdlingtonMiners'Welfare EdlingtonOfficials'Club EdlingtonBritishLegion EdlingtonWorkingMensClub(TopClub) GraceholmeSocialClub,Edlington GrovesSocial,Conisborough HatfieldMain HatfieldWoodhouseWMC HawthornSocial HickletonVillageHall HighfieldsMinersWelfareSchemeSocialClub HydePark IntakeSocialClub IvanhoeClub,Conisborough MexboroughWMCandInstitute MexboroughMiners'WelfareandAthleticClub MexboroughImperialClubandBrewery MexboroughConcertinaClub MoorendsComradesClub MoorendsSocialClub NortonCoronationClub ParkSocialClub(Waggie's) ParklandsSportsandSocial � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � PilkingtonBowlingClub RossingtonCollieryOfficialsClub RossingtonEx-ServicesSocialClub RossingtonLabourClub RossingtonMiners'Welfare RossingtonTopClub Rostholme,Bentley ScawthorpeSocialClub SkellowGrange SprotboroughCountryClub StainforthCentral StainforthOldClub StAlbansClub,Denaby StonegateClub,Thorne ThorneCoronationClub ThorneDemocratic TickhillInstitute TollBarCentral UkrainianClub WestminsterRecreationClub WheatleyClub WoodfieldSocialandRecreationalClub WoodlandsRhinos'(TheBomb) WoodlandsParkSocialClub YorkBarWMC 29 30 31 Intake's committee and its oldest member, Jack TheIntakeSocialClubopeneditsdoorsonFriday August21st,1931.Initsfirstweekoftrading,the bartakingswere�40-19-3d,whenapintofbitter was6dandapacketofcigarettescost2d. Onthedaytheclubopened,ithadamembershipof 55,untilitisrecordedinDecember1934thatthe membershiphadgrownto320andthebartakings wereamassive�95-11-1d. Onthe12thJuly1934,thefirstClubSecretary,Mr CyrilCheetham,sentaletterofthankstoT.Potts Esq.forcarryingoutthetransportarrangements ontheoccasionof`TheChildren'sOuting'.He enclosedachequefor30/-insettlement. Weare,andhope,alwayswillbetheheartof theIntakeCommunity.LikeallCIUclubs,ina nutshell,wearethecommunitycentresforthe workingclass.31 32 The Doncaster CIU TheSouthYorkshirebranchoftheCIUwasopened in1904,andCouncillorJHBagshawwaselected secretary.Initially,therewere50clubs,butthis numbersoonincreasedto179,andthebranch becameregardedasoneofthemostprogressive inthecountry.In1912,clubsintheDoncaster areacametogethertoformtheirownbranchof theCIU.TheDoncasterCIUareaissurprisingly large,stretchingrightacrosstotheEastCoast.It isnotsurprising,though,thatDoncastershould haveitsownspecificregion:asacentreofcoalminingforgenerations,thetownwassurrounded byindustrialvillagesandsuburbsthatbecame hotbedsofworking-classenergyandorganisation. Inaddition,thePlant(DoncasterRailwayWorks), ICI,InternationalHarvestersandnumerousother industriesemployedthousandsofpeople,manyof whomcollaboratedincreatingtheirownindividual clubsthatwereoftenlinkedwiththeirworkplaces andlocalities. Aregionthatissodenselypackedwithclubs requiresefficientmanagement,andthisisprovided byalocalgroupofelectedCIUmembers.Basedat Doncaster'snewTradesClubinthetowncentre, DaveGravelCMD32overseesallofthearea's clubsinhisroleasDoncasterCIUBranchSecretary andNECMemberoftheCIU.Daveracksupthe mileseverymonthashetirelesslycriss-crosses theregion,attendingmeetings,offeringadviceand overseeingalloftheaffiliatedclubsinhispatch. Occasionally,hegetstimeforadrinkhimselfat hislocal,Ikey's(DunscroftSocialClub),wherehe isstillclubsecretary.Davehasbeeninvolvedin clubsfordecades,havingbeenonthecommittee atStainforthCentralClubattheageof19.Behind himisa38-yearcareerasaminer;hewasalso avolunteerfortheMines'RescueServiceand workedondisastersatBentleyPitandFlixborough. HisknowledgeofCIUproceduresandetiquetteis impressiveandhedoeshisjobwithevidentpride. Theadvicehegivestoclubscoversmanyareas: rulesandby-laws,membershipproblems,gambling legislation,andmanyotherissuesthatrequirean in-depthknowledge. " " I'm not bigger than the club. They elect me, and they can fire me. " 33 [For] anyone who has served on the committee or served or done a duty for the club, there's four awards. You've got your Certificate of Merit - that's a ten-year award. You've got your Long Service award - that's the twenty-fiveyear award, and then you've got your Distinguished Service Award, which is a forty-year award. We do presentations; I go out to do presentations. It's just in recognition of their services, by giving 34 them a certificate. TheDoncasterCIUisnotimmunefromthe processesofrationalisationthatsweepthenation intimesofeconomicdecline:thereareplansafoot atCIUheadquarterstoamalgamatetheDoncaster regionwithWakefield,YorkandLeeds.Suchradical alterationsofboundarieswillinevitablybringabout changestojobroles;however,Daveisphilosophical aboutthefuture,believingthatchangemustbe embracedatthetoplevelofanorganisationinorder tosetanexampleatgroundlevel. " 33 The clubs of Doncaster Doncaster Trades Club SituatedintheheartofDoncaster'smainshoppingcentreisanew,state-of-the-artcomplexcalledDoncasterTradesClub.Thisexcellentfacility wasopenedin2008andisnowthethrivinghubofDoncaster'sclublandcommunity. AbriefhistoryofDoncasterTradesClub,byGeoffElvin: Doncaster Trades club began life in 1895 on Cleveland Street, located between Wood Street and Young Street. It was a place for trade unionists to socialise. Due to area improvements, the club was forced to move in 1904 to upstairs rooms above a milliners shop on High Street; it was here that the club decided to hire out accommodation for meetings of trade unionists and others. One of the first bodies to hire rooms on a regular basis was Doncaster Trades Council, an organisation that was to offer great encouragement to the club over the years. The stay in High Street wasn't long. Due to redevelopments again, in January 1906, they were forced to move once more. This time to a detached property at the bottom of Frenchgate, the old dispensary, which had previously been occupied by a school of industry for girls. The club continued to prosper, and by 1911, the organization was able to negotiate for a piece of land adjacent to the new bridge and next to the Brown Cow public house. In September 1913, John Thomas Kay, then the first Labour Mayor, was able to open the doors of the new premises, using a golden key supplied by the main contractor, Dennis Gill. This was the club's first purpose-built location. 55 years later, the club was forced to move once more, to allow Doncaster Council to install a roundabout at the Frenchgate end of the North Bridge. 1997 and we are at it again: improvements to the bus station and Frenchgate (Arndale) Centre meant that the Local Authority slapped a compulsory purchase order on the club. After six years, the club moved to a temporary headquarters (the SR Gent building on Trafford Way) while negotiations went ahead to allow the club to be part of the new Frenchgate set-up. On 6th October 2008, the club opened its new and current premises in the Frenchgate Centre, a new beginning, everyone hopes, which will help us to face the many challenges that undoubtedly lie ahead. The old dispensary 34 Above right: The Old Trades Club Above: Trades Club 1968 - 1997 Right: The current Trades Club 35 What can you expect to find in a typical Doncaster WMC? " I do think that working men's clubs have their rules and standards that they keep up and how they are run. There must be regulations that most of them adhere to, certainly at that time. So, I think they felt they could go into a working men's club anywhere in the land and they'd find something similar, they could fit in easily, 35 and I suppose that was one of the attractions. " DespitetheubiquityofworkingMen'sClubsinDoncaster,therearestillmany localpeoplewhohaveneversetfootinone.Fromtheoutside,someclubs canlookquiteforbidding,havingfunctional,ratherthanaestheticarchitectural features.Thevisitorshouldnotbeputoffbythis:youwillgenerallyfindawarm welcomeinsideandacodeofconductthatencouragesmemberstobehave consideratelytowardsnewcomers. The concert secretary in his box, overseeing the evening's proceedings. " This fellow had moved down from Newcastle and it was his first time in here [Denaby Main Institute]. He was stood at the bar. I looked at him and said, `Come and pull a chair up here, mate.' He says now, `I'll never forget that day I came in here and didn't know 36 a soul, and you shouted me over.' " Mostclubshaveseveraldifferentrooms,thelargestoftenbeingtheconcert room,whichhasastageandasmallPA(publicaddress)system.The chairmanorconcertsecretaryusuallyhashisorherown`box',equippedwith amicrophonewithwhichtointroduceartistsandmakeannouncements.The tablesaregenerallysetoutinrowsforoptimumuseofspace,andtherewillbea dancingareainfrontofthestagewhichbecomesincreasinglybusyasthenight progresses. The chairman's box at Intake 36 Behindthescenes,mostclubshaveseveralother less-visiblebutequallyimportantareas,notably thecommitteeroomandoffice,wherethe establishmentisrunonaday-to-daybasis,andthe kitchen,wherefoodispreparedforfunctionsand meals.Oneshouldalsoremembertheimportant backstagedressingroomwheretheartistsprepare themselvesbeforeperforming.Thesefacilities arerarelygrandandalwaysseemtohaveawall plasteredwithpublicityshotsleftbypreviousacts. Unlikepubs,clubsarenotrenownedfortheir luxuriantbeergardens.Themostyoumightfindis aconcretepatiofurnishedwithacoupleofpicnic tables.Whateveryclubdoeshavethough,isa dedicatedsmokingareabuiltinresponsetothe smokingbanof2007. Intermsoflayoutandappearance,Doncaster Tradesis,perhaps,theultimate21st-centuryclub, havingadazzlingarrayofstate-of-the-artfacilities thatarespreadoverseveraldifferentfloors.To thehardenedclub-goer,thefirstvisittotheTrades canbequitebewildering,asitissuperficiallyvery differentfrommostotherclubsinthearea:ithas lifts,plushcarpetingandsubtlelighting.Inessence though,thisisstillatraditionalclubinmanyways, beingthecentreofCIUoperationsforthearea. Thegamesroomisalsoacommonfeatureofmost institutions,dominatedbysnookerandpooltables, butalsofeaturingadartsboard,trophycabinetand theall-importantnoticeboardwhichkeepsmembers uptodatewiththeactivitiesofthevarioussporting sub-sections. Forthosewhowantaquieterevening(or afternoon),manyclubsofferalounge.Thisroom hasthefeelofapub,withcomfortableseatingand amoreintimateatmospherethanthelargerrooms. A typical smoker's shelter. This one is at Highfields WMC The lounge at Ikey's 37 The club steward or stewardess "I love it. You've got to like people for a start. I love meeting people and I love the community thing, but it's rapidly disappearing." 37 " The steward's responsible for running the bar, orders the beer when we run short, the bottles from breweries, etc. She gives me a list when I go to Batley's, the wholesalers, for crisps and things like that, and she also makes sure there's bar staff on for tomorrow night. A lot of people don't appreciate that in the morning, at nine o'clock, cleaners come down. Moira, she comes down, works out the takings from the day before, puts the float in ready for next day. She has to log it all at the end of the week, tot it all up and take it to the bank. Not only that, she has to make sure the bottles are all stacked up and restocked. People forget that they open at 12.00, and people say, `You're only open twelve while three.' Then, she's got to open up at 7.00 to do it 38 all again. She loves it, though. " Well, I get up very early anyway, and there's always jobs to do here. I open at 11.30 and close at 4.30, then I open again at 6.30 till 11.00. Sundays, we open all day, and if there's any major sporting event on, we open all day for that as 39 well. " Thejobofclubstewardorstewardessisvery importantinaclub.Theirpersonalityandability to`keepagoodpint'aretwomajorfactorsinthe venue'spotentialsuccessorfailure.Justliketheir publicancounterparts,thestewardandstewardess areresponsiblefororderingstock,employingbar staffandcleaners,andforthesecurityofthe premises.Usually,theyliveinaflatwithintheclub orinanadjacenthouse.Stewardshipisajobfora veryspecialtypeofpersonwhocancopewiththe pressuresofwork24hoursaday,getonwellwith adiverserangeofpersonalities�bothcustomers andofficials�andbeupinthemorningtoletthe cleanersinortoacceptadeliveryofstock.Sparea thoughtforthestewardwhowillstillbethereafter closingtimeuntilthelastglassiswashedandthe doorsarefinallylocked.Theclubisquitedifferent whenitisseenasaworkplace,ratherthanavenue forfunandrecreation. Moira,stewardessatNortonCoronationClub,told usthetaleofherfirstdaytherewhensheandher familyspentthewholeafternoonbailingwaterfrom theclub'scellarduringthefloodsof2008.She hadbeenexpectingaquietstarttoherjob,but wasinundatedwithwaterandcustomers.Itisa testamenttoherresolveandadaptabilitythatshe managedtodealwithalloftheseproblemsand makeittotheendofthefirstnight. " " Well, I'm completely in charge of the bar. The committee don't really have a say in that department. The staffing, the money, the stock control is all entirely up to me, and I do all that. I organise staff, and I do all the ordering. If I want to put a new beer in, I always consult John [club secretary] because he's always here, and we work together on that. We work together all the time and it works, it actually works. I don't look at it as `them and us'. It's got to be a team; it's 41 got to be a joint effort. " 38 Talkingofglasses,thereisonejobintheclubwhichcanbeconsideredrather mundanebutneverthelessessential,thatofglass-andbottle-collector.Ona busynight,thismemberofstaffcanberushedofftheirfeetasthebarstaffcall outformoreglassesandcustomerswanttheirtablesclearedofempties. Aftertimehasbeencalled,thecollectorhasthetaskofpersuadingmembersto drinkup.Thisrole,therefore,isquiteimportantinthelinkbetweenthebarand thecustomerandisessentialtothesmoothrunningoftheclub. Often,glass-collectorsareyoungpeopledoingapart-timejob,butinsomeclubs, theyareolder,havingdonethesamejobforyears. On a busy night, the club would not function without the essential services of the glass-collector. 39 Membership and rules Unlikepublichouses,whereallandsundrycan walkin,workingmen'sclubshavemembership anditsassociatedrulesandregulations.Potential newmembersareoftenfamiliarwiththeclub� hencetheirdesiretojoin�andtheyhavetogo throughaprocessofsigningupinordertobecome fullmembers.Alistofapplicantsispostedon theclubnoticeboardforaprescribedtimeperiod (usuallyafewweeks),andthen,ifthereareno objectionsfromexistingmembers,theapplicant willhaveabriefmeetingwiththecommitteeto discusstheclub'srulesandcodeofconduct,before beingpresentedwithmembershipandaCIUcard ifdesired.TheCIUcardallowsaccesstoover 2000affiliatedclubsinBritain.Clubmembership isrenewedannually,andthefeeisminimal,in somecasesbeingaslowas�1.00.Eachclubhas itsownrulebook,normallybasedontheFriendly Societies'ActortheIndustrialandProvident Societies'Acts.Manyclubsaregraduallyadopting thestatusgrantedbythelatter.Thebenefits forthecommitteeandtrusteesareclear:once incorporated,theyarenotpersonallyliableiftheclub getsintofinancialdifficulty. Tosomepeople,alonglistofrulescanbequite off-putting:noswearing,noshorts,nodrunken behaviour,andsoon.Inreality,though,these rulesarethereforthebenefitofallcustomers, bothmembersandvisitors,andtheyenableasafe environmentforclub-users.Theclubcatersfor thosewhodon'twantthestressesoftown-centre pubs,wherethereisnoregularclienteleandthe drinkershavenolong-termcommitmenttotheir environment. All clubs have their own rule books 40 The role of the committee Thecommitteeisanintegralpartofanyclub. Thisbodyisusuallyelectedannuallyandhasthe responsibilityofrunningtheorganisationwithin severalsetsofguidelines,suchasthosesetout bytheCIU(iftheclubisaffiliated),andtheHealth andSafetyExecutive.Inthepast,placeson committeeswerehardtocomeby,astheyoffered power,influence,statusandotherunofficialperks. Nowadays,someclubsstruggletofindprospective officials,whereasothersstillhaveawaitinglist. Generally,aplaceonthecommitteeisprestigious though,anditsresponsibilitiesaretobetaken seriously. Eachcommitteehasasimilarstructure,with differentpositionshavingvaryingdegreesof responsibility.Thecommitteeisentrustedwith enforcingtherulesofitsclub.Thiscanmean acceptingnewmembersandstaff,andalso discipliningthosewhoflaunttherules,forexample byswearingornotadheringtothedresscode. Occasionally,memberscanbebarredifthey overstepthemark. Ashmount Members Dinner > Ashmount Members c.1925 >> Ashmount Members c.1955 > Ashmount Committee c.1960 >> 41 Thepost-warheydayofclubsalsosawmany committeemenseducedbyexposureandaccess tomoneyandpower.Manyintervieweesclaimed tohaveheardstoriesofcorruptionandcreative accountingwithinsuccessfulclubs,particularlyin the1960sand1970s.Infact,thelargertheclub, themoresuchstoriesabound.Namesarerarely given,butanecdotesofunscrupulousbehaviourare rife,particularlyamongsttheoldergenerationof club-goers. Thecommittee,though,iselectedtorepresent theinterestsofthemembers,andnowadays,their businessisgenerallycarriedoutwithopennessand perspicuity.Membershaveaccesstoaccountsand otherofficialdocumentation,andcommitteesare runfairlyandhonestly. Membersareinvitedtomeetingsonceortwicea yearandtheyhavetheopportunitytoscrutinisethe runningoftheirownclubandtomakesuggestions astohowthismightbeimprovedinfuture. Recentlegislationhasgivenequalrightstowomen inclubs,andthiscouldleadtomorefemale committeemembersappearingonthescene. Perhapsamixed-sexgoverningcommitteewillbe moreeffectivethanthemale-onlyoneswhichhave dominatedclubsforgenerations. " We have a committee. We meet fortnightly. It's worked democratically. Everything's done democratically. We have a President, Vice President, a Treasurer, three trustees and seven committee members - a fourteen-man committee. We also have sub-committees, like the finance committee and a committee that deals with children's and life members' outings, etc., all answerable 41 to the parent committee. " " " " There was another incident where mice ate into the beer pipes and some beer 42 went missing. We used to have tiddlywinks, but the 43 committee couldn't make enough on it. There used to be a saying, `a good tank will take two gallon of water', something like that. I'm talking about a big tank, eighty-gallon. It would take two gallon of water, no problem - or lemonade . . . Well, you know what miners are like when they're down that pit with dust and rubbish, and the first pint didn't touch the sides. They say, `[it's] the best pint over there.' The old fella, Bill, used to say, `Harry, when you do the barrel, don`t forget ' [smiles and gestures]. He used to put a bottle of lemonade in it! The lads used to say, `That's a good head on that. 44 That's a good pint.' " " " Norton Coronation committee 42 43 3 44 3 " " " " " " Clubland entertainment You could go to see live entertainment every day of the week in the clubs in them days. In the 60s, you could go and see 45 Lulu or whoever you wanted to see. But some of the big acts, you know, the ones that went on to be big stars, in the 70s and 80s, they all did their duty 46 going around the clubs. Oh, they've all been here [Wheatley Club]. The latest one we've had is Billy Pearce, and, before he died, Bernard Manning. Going back years and years ago, Paul Shane's been here; Lyn Perrie's been here - you know, from Coronation Street. Well before that, she was a comedian, and her brother Duggie Brown, he's been here a few times. It was a long time ago, but all them comedians that had been on the comedy shows at one time or 47 another, they would have been here. At the Labour club, across from us, we saw Little and Large, Cannon and Ball, Shane Fenton and the Fentones. They were all there. They came to the Labour club. He became Alvin Stardust. We saw them all at the Labour club before 48 we saw them on the television. We wouldn't have gone if we didn't enjoy it. I think all clubs used to be nice; they used to get full as well. If there was a good turn, you had to be early or you didn't get a seat. We used to go to 49 Denaby Comrades. Guy Mitchell, he came. The Woodlarks - they were very popular in their day. The majority of turns that they had [played] on most days of the week, or they appeared for a week; in some cases a 50 couple of weeks. " " " " " I used to get a girl up while I was entertaining to do a comedy sketch. I used to pretend to be away at sea, and she'd have to come and sit on my knee. I used to say I had a wound in my leg, and I want you to rub my wound. This certain night, the lady got up, and I didn't know she had false teeth. She's dancing about a bit, and we have a bit of a scuffle and her teeth fell out and fell on the stage floor and just flew right over the other side of the club, and she just picked them up and 51 put them back in her mouth [Laughs]. In the seventies, young people had started to earn a bit more money. Everyone had a job, so that means they've got more to spend. So we thought we can book someone like The Swinging Blue Jeans. There was hell on that night because they didn't turn up. Remember that? Hippy, Hippy Shakes? They were 52 fighting like anything. " There was entertainment on Friday, Saturday, Sunday. Monday was the Ashmount, Tuesday the Wheatley Working Men's Club, Wednesday there was something on at the Liberal Club. You could see it any night of the week. 53 There's hardly any bands about now. Years ago, there'd be loads and loads of bands. You could have them on and that would attract people in. There would be comedians like Paul Shane, Bobby Knutt, all of them top comedians. There's none now. I can't remember the last time I saw 54 a comedy act in that club. " " " " " " " " 45 Forseveraldecadesuntiltheearly1980s,theclubs ofBritainwereabreedinggroundfortalentinthe entertainmentworld.Countlesshouseholdnames areknowntohavedevelopedandhonedtheir actsontheclubcircuitbeforemovingontoradio, televisionandthenperforminginlargervenues,such astheatres.Infact,manyaspiringartistsusedthe clubsasasteppingstoneifnottotelevision,thento ahigherlevelofcabaret. Onceyouhad`paidyourdues'onthelocalscene, youmight�ifyouweregoodenough�moveon toworkoncruiseshipsorsomeofthegreatvariety clubsofYorkshire,suchasJestersorBatleyVariety Club. " You get people who say, `Where you got these from?' Then, the next person will say, `These are fantastic.' You're never going to get somebody that pleases everybody. You're never going to get it. Doesn't matter who it is, you could have Status Quo on in here and someone will say, `Wow, this is banging!' Then someone else will say, `Ah, these are 58 crap!' " " It was a start for a lot of stand-up comedians. They all cut their teeth in working men's clubs. If they could get over in a working men's club, then they could do it anywhere, because if they were no good, they would be booed off stage. 55 Theclubaudienceswerenotalwayseasytoplease, andittooktalent,nerveanddeterminationforany aspiringperformertostanduponaregularbasis andbaretheirsoul.Onefledglingcomedianofthe 1960s�whostillwishestoremainanonymous �hadhiscareercutshortwhenheperformedat ThorpeMarshPowerStationClub.Unbeknown tohim,therewerelotsofcontractworkersfrom ScotlandandtheNorthEastonsitethatweek. HisrepertoireofgagsaboutScotsandGeordies fellonstonygroundtosaytheleast,andheoften reminiscesaboutthisbeingthefinalnightofhisbrief forayintothetreacherousworldofclublandcomedy. " Bythelate1960s,SouthYorkshirehadestablished itselfastheheartofclublandentertainmentand venueswerebuzzingwithlife.CarlsbergLager sponsoredatalentcompetition,andButlin'shad ashowtouringtheclubscalledHereComethe Redcoats,withacastofclublandentertainerswho workedattheButlin'scampsduringthesummer. High-qualityshowswereonofferacrossthetown oneverynightoftheweek.Eachclubhaditsown character,reputationandtypeofentertainment,and customerswouldthinknothingoftravellingacross towntoseespecificacts,ratherthanjustwatching whatwasontheirdoorstep. Manyartistsworkedveryhardduringthisperiod, some`doublingup'.Thismeantappearingatone clubtodoanearlyeveningspotbeforehurrying acrosstowntoanotherwheretheywouldperform laterintheevening.Somedida`SundaySpecial', whichinvolvedplayingbothlunchtimeandevening atthesamevenue. Bythelate1960s,SouthYorkshirehadestablished itselfastheheartofclublandentertainmentand venueswerebuzzingwithlife.CarlsbergLager sponsoredatalentcompetition,andButlin'shad ashowtouringtheclubscalledHereComethe Redcoats,withacastofclublandentertainerswho workedattheButlin'scampsduringthesummer. High-qualityshowswereonofferacrossthetown oneverynightoftheweek.Eachclubhaditsown character,reputationandtypeofentertainment,and customerswouldthinknothingoftravellingacross towntoseespecificacts,ratherthanjustwatching whatwasontheirdoorstep. " " " There was some great entertainment in them days. Some of then finished up on telly. Marti Cane came in for an audition at Swinton Victoria, and they wouldn't let her up, didn't think she was 56 good enough. They were ever so good. You can't get that on television. Nobody knew them, and that act, they could do it in every club, but once they'd been on television 57 that was it: gone! " " Yeah, I can remember the Scala Club, and it was all big bands there, all groups mainly and top acts, such as Frank Highfield - when he was on his way down. They used to double with Greaseborough Working Men's Club. Now, the Greaseborough club had acts such as Shirley Bassey, all the big names, Bob Monkhouse, they had them all. They used to do Greaseborough first, and then they'd go to the Scala Club because they had a longer license to sell beer after 12.00, which was very unusual in them days. So they shared the bill between them. At the Greaseborough Club, there'd be one act on, a compere and then a big act on, and then all the little acts, whereas then, the big act there or the famous act would go to the Scala Club. They would finish off last there, and it was like that 59 every night. " 46 Clublandentertainmentwasnowbigbusiness, andagreatdealofmoneywasinvolved.Concert secretariesfoundthemselveshandlingthousands ofpoundseachweekincommissionsandfees. Agenciesopenedandmanagementdealswere signedwithartists.Priortothis,artistswould arriveattheclubarmedwiththeirmusicanda microphone,dothreetwenty-minutespots,seethe concertsecretaryattheendofthenight,getpaid andtrytonegotiateanotherbooking.Now,the trendwasforthemtohaveamanagerandanagent whowoulddoallthenegotiatingontheirbehalf,at apriceofcourse:standardagencycommissionwas 10-15%oftheartist'sconcertfee. Concertsecretarieswereverywaryaboutthis moveandbandedtogethertoformanassociation toprotecttheirinterests.Manyhadbeenletdown bythenon-appearanceofartists,whoseagenthad foundamorelucrativebookingatthelastminute. IntheSouthYorkshireregion,NeilPennobecame presidentoftheConcertSecretariesAssociation, whichwasformedtoprotecttheinterestsofthe clubs.TheAssociationagreedarangeoffees, lengthoftimeonstage,andtoholdauditionnights atdifferentclubsonarotabasis,witheachclub holdingoneperyear.Theauditionsweretobeheld duringtheweeksoastomaximiseprofits.One smallclubtookover�170overthebarontheir auditionnight,whichwasabigboosttoitsfinances. TheAssociationalsoprovidedfreelegaladviceto clubswhofoundthemselvesindisputewithartists, theirmanagementoragentsovercontracts.Infact, astandardcontractwasagreedanddistributedtoall clubsintheAssociation.Itwasanexcitingtimein clubland,andinresponse,theDoncasterFreePress, aweeklynewspaper,devotedmoreandmorespace toclublandnews,gossipandreviews. Insomerespects,thebusyclubsofthispost-war erahadreplacedthemusichallsandvarietytheatres ofearliertimes.Varietywasstilltheessenceofthe entertainmentbill,particularlyinthelargerclubs,as formerclubsingerLynCharlesexplains: A Variety bill was exactly that, and it wasn't just on stage that you became aware of the diversity of talents on offer... Iwouldregularlybeawokenbythesoundofducks, dovesandotherfeatheredfriendsinthebedroom nextdoor.Thepelvisofacontortionistwasnot anunusualsightgreetingmeinthedressingroom. Comedianswouldtestouttheiractovermugfuls ofsteamingcoffeeinthe`digs'-commonparlance forovernightaccommodation.Musicianswere welcomethere,asalatenightsing-songwas alwayspreferabletofeignedamusementforthe classclown.Irememberfeelingthecomedians in1980sclublandwerestrugglingtofindsuitable material,astimes,inthewordsofthesong,were indeed,a-changing,particularlyastowhatwas deemedfunny. Itiswellrecordedthatonlythebravewenttothe barorthetoiletwhenBernardManningwason stage.Asayoungartist,Ifoundhisaggression quitefrightening.Fortunately,Istartedthenight, ratherthanfollowedhim!ActssuchasTheBarton Brothers,whowerenotreallybrothers,wereallroundperformers.Oneofthem,atall,lankyfellow, didimpressions,andtheotherbrotherplayedguitar aswellasdeliveringcomedy.Often,thecomedy elementofmanyactscameaboutasameansof self-preservation�lookatLesDawson.Iremember thatMartiCainewasstrikingineverysenseof theword,andeventhoughshesang,itwasher comedy,herbraveryandmovementwhichstayin mymemory. Magicianswererarerandoftenveryold-fashioned. Therewasnotagreatdealofvarietyintheirdelivery orpresentation:maninsuit,oftencolourfuland shiny,withgirlinfeatherhead-dressandswimsuitor leotard,smiling;ALWAYSsmiling.Theexceptions wereWayneDobsonandPaulDaniels,whostood outfortheirpatterandcomedictiming. Onthebill,therewasalwaysroomforunusual hard�to-categoriseacts,suchasMightyAtomand Roy(MoandRoyMoreland).Ventriloquistsoften hadtheir`dolls'slumpedinacornerchair,andthis frightenedthelifeoutofmeonafewoccasions. Andyes,some`vents'didtalktothemasifthey wererealoffstage! Groupswereusuallyonlastifitwasatriplebill. Someofthemwereidealfordancesets,asoften thatwasallpeoplewantedtodoafteranenjoyable liquidevening.Iwasalwaysrelievedifthiswasthe case,asIfoundithardtoperformthediscoand dancemusicoftheera.I'dbashoutNeilSedaka,`I willSurvive',`BlackisBlack',butitneverfeltquite me.Youhadtoprovidethevariety,though.This wasexpected.Astand-outbandformewereMagic whowereinadifferentleaguetomostofthebands, notjustplayingthemusicofQueen,butperforming asiftheywereinrockstadiums-whichtheynow are.I'msuretheywouldacknowledgethatthe WMCsweretheirtrainingground,andwithoutthe existenceoftheclubs,wouldtheyormanyofus havethecareersorlifestylesthatwehavenow? Duoswerepopularacts,aswere`guitarvocs'- guitarvocalists.Duoswouldusuallybethoughtof ashusbandandwife,butmanywereteamedupfor vocalability,looksandsimilarstyle.Theywould oftenwearmatchingoutfits.Catsuitswere`in'. Somewouldtryouttheirownmaterial,butthey struggledastheaudiencestended,itseemed,tolike musictheywerefamiliarwith. 47 Malevocalistswereusuallybesuitedinblack velvets,bowtie,frillyshirtandhadpermswhich wereverytrendy-anexamplesetbyDoncaster footballerKevinKeegan!Mostwouldsingthehits oftheday,butoperaandtherepertoireofMario LanzawerealsoheardacrosstheWMCs. Countryandwesternactsseemedtobepopular.It wasn'tunusualformetosharethebillasa`Singer ofSongsfromtheShows'withthosebedeckedin bejewelled,fringedwhitejacketsandStetsons.No oneseemedtothinkitstrangethatwewereonthe samebill.InoneareaofSouthYorkshire,aman wouldrideonhorsebackregularlythroughthepit villageinStetsonandfullJohnWayneregaliaand tetherhishorseuppriortoenteringtheMiners' Welfare. Thesenseofcamaraderieandcommonalitywas verystrong.ManyactsfromtheDoncasterarea travelleduptodoacircuitintheNorthEastor Scotland,andthefactthatweallcamefromthe sameareawiththesameaimstoentertainandearn alivingwasheart-warmingandreassuring.When performancesdidnot,foravarietyofreasons,turn outaswewouldhavewished,therewasalways ashouldertocryon.Thevarietycircuitwasa microcosm,afullyintergenerational,integrated societywhichreflectedthearea'sdiversity.There weredisabledvocalperformerswithstrongsinging voiceswhofoundgainfulenjoyableemployment alongsideable-bodiedmembers. Thelivemusicianswhosupportedthevocalists wereverymuchapartofthatvariety,andare somethingthatIfeelissorelymissed.Thebuzzof playingwithlivemusicianscanneverbereplicated byusingtapes.Thelivemusicians,evenifthey werenotthebestonthecircuit,actedasabridge betweentheperformerandtheregularclub audienceandconcertsecretary.Workingwiththem wasalwaysgoodpreparationforotherwork:TVor radioshows,theatreperformances.Youbecame experiencedatworkingwithavarietyofstylesand indealingwithdifferentpersonalities.Youwere abletoexpressyourselfwithapieceofmusicandto changethemoodtosuittheaudience. AlthoughI'mnotagreatfanoftheTV-basedtalent showgenre,Idolike`Britain'sgotTalent'!How refreshingtoseethataudiencesstillcravediversity onstage.Doesn'titjustshowthatsomanypeople haveadesiretoworkon(whattheyperceiveas) theirtalent,howeverbizarreitmayseemtoothers, inordertoentertain,moveandencouragelaughter intheirfellowman.IhadanAuntywhohadahotel inSkegnessandwhohad`turns'stayingwithher.I sang`WindmillinoldAmsterdam'withtheRonnie HiltoninherbarwhenIwasnineorten. Iwatchedthefire-eaterspractiseinhergarden, avoidingherpotentiallyinflammablepoodlesthat wereever-present.Istayedafterthevarietyshow finished,watchingacrobatscoolingdownaftertheir performances. IthinkmyMum,onreflection,wasratherrelieved thatIcouldsing,butitwasalwaysaboutperforming forme,andtheWMCsgavemeanincrediblestart andtheconfidencefortacklingnotonlyother venues,aftermytimeintheclubs,butlifeitself. Crikey,untilI'dwrittenthis,I'dnotreallythought inthoseterms,butasIsuggestedatthebeginning, VarietywasOFFaswellasONstage,anditseems itistrue.Thankgawd! " The memory act had a blackboard, and she'd get somebody to write on the back of the blackboard, the name of a dog or whatever the capital of Yugoslavia was at the time. She'd stand in front of the blackboard, and she wouldn't be allowed round the back, and her partner would write down what was said. She used to say, `Dog,' and people were like, `Wow, they got that right. How did they get that?' There was some kind of contact between her and her partner. It was a 60 merry act, but it was a con. " 48 " You'd got seven or eight different acts as part of an evening's entertainment. The musician's skills in those days were much the same: you had a band call on Monday morning to go through all the show, and then each evening, you'd do that show and you'd repeat it to the end of the week. Then, the next load of acts would come in, and the days went on like 61 that. " I remember when Guy Mitchell was on there for a week - booked for a week, �600. He came on on the Sunday night; he was drunk, and they paid him up, on the Sunday night. `Never felt more like singing the blues' - that's all he could sing. He was drunk; he only did one night. They paid him up, told him to pack his 63 gear. He was practically legless. At the Wheatley Club, they had a female organist, Suzanne they called her, and this act came on in the concert room. He wasn't really blue; he was just a bit naughty, but they paid him up. That's the difference between artists now and in the 1970s. Now, they would think it was nothing, but then, because she was there, they asked her to leave whilst he did his act, and it wasn't a very blue act at all, not compared to today. Chubby Brown was on, got paid up. He worked on Sunday lunchtime, but the secretary said to him afterwards, `You've been great, but tonight, we don't want you swearing.' He [Chubby Brown] said his act was swearing, so they wouldn't let him on at night because they were 64 bringing the wives. Dickie and Dottie, a risqu� club act from the 1960s who threatened to reveal all, but never actually did. Asinthemusichalls,alcoholconsumptionwas alsoacentralpartoftheevening'sexperience, andintheclubsthebeerwascheapandplentiful. Theaudience,then,hadnosympathyforany substandardact,andiftheirresponsewas unfavourable,theconcertsecretarywouldbe obligedtostepinand`payup'theact.Quite simply,thismeantthatafullorpartialfeewould behandedoverinexchangeforthecurtailmentof aperformance.Thereareveryfewperformerson theclubscenewhohaven'tbeen`paidup'atsome earlypointintheircareers,andmanyclub-goerscan thinkofnumerousexamplesofwell-knownartists beingdismissed,oftenasaresultofdrunkenness ortheuseof`blue'languagethatwasnotdeemed appropriatefortheladiesintheaudience. " " " " This guy turns up in a white suit, Don Fardon, and he's absolutely out of his head. We thought, `Who's going to get hit tonight?' because we were on the committee and we'd booked him, and we'd charged everybody �2.50. We had all come from the afternoon shift, and all the wives had met us, and it was absolutely packed. You paid �2.50, and miners didn't like that. So we came in from the shift at eight o'clock and he was at the bar in a white suit. He was absolutely pissed! He couldn't talk, and they [the audience] kept saying, `Come on, Maurice. Get him on!' Maurice went to the mic and said, `Don't you lot know that top-line acts don't come on till ten o'clock?' He [Don Fardon] couldn't walk, and he had to keep making excuses as to why he couldn't walk. He was trying to say that we were country yokels. Top-line turns don't come on till ten, and he was absolutely pissed. He was falling all over the stage. He fell down on stage. Maurice said, `Don't knock him. 62 He's got stage fright.' " " The acts were always `Fabulous Girl Singer', `Top Boy Band', `Excellent Trio', `Star Turn', and it was all so very low 65 brow, low key sort of thing. It used to be different at one time. It used to be all different singers and comedians and country and western. Jack Duckworth's Vera, Vera Duckworth came in as a singer - or she was supposed to be. We were laughing at her. It was full. If you were trying to get a seat at seven o'clock at night, the whole place was 66 full. You wouldn't get a seat. " " " One of my first visits to a club, I was 18. The turn that was on was Dickie and Dotty. We went to see her because of the feathers, you know what you're like when you're eighteen, but we never saw a thing. We had bad necks by the time we 67 were done. " " Remember Dickie and Dotty? They played there [The Scala]. They did it with fans and a guitar. They had all the movements and you never saw anything, never saw any of their private parts at all. The way they did it was absolutely brilliant. They did it to music, moving the fans and covering different parts of their 68 body. Yes, Dickie and Dotty. " " " 49 `We hadn't even turned on the PA when the concert secretary told us to turn it down. And another time, even the drum kit on its own caused the decibel meter to trip out. What can you do? There are sensible sound levels and realistic ones' 69 Everyperformerwilltellyouthatoninnumerable occasions,theyhavebeentoldto`turnitdown!' whetherduringasound-checkorinthemiddleofa show.Oftenthough,astheeveningprogressesand thealcoholstartstotakeeffect,volumeseemsto becomelessofanissuetotheclub'smanagement. " Where the stage was, they had it [the decibel meter] on the corner of the bar. When you wind your guitar up, it sets off and goes like green, green, green, yellow, yellow, red, because it was so close. You only had to hit a good key and it would 70 knock your gear off. Today,youwillprobablyseeoneactpernightin mostvenues,withtheperformerdoingtwoorthree different`spots'thatarefittedaroundthebingo.It isuptotheartisttotailorthesesetstothemood ofthevenue.Thefirstspotmightbemadeup ofmedium-tempopieces,butbytheend,itwill beexpectedthatthepacequickensandasteady flowofdanceablenumbersisrequiredtokeepthe audienceonthefloor. " Above: The dreaded decibel meter which is the bane of all club entertainers' professional lives. Right: A club singer in full flow during the early 1980s. Note the HH amplifier, Watkins Copycat Echo unit, professional apparel and glittery background. " The entertainment is secondary in the clubland circle. It is secondary to the bingo. It is. It's a fact of life. You are the entertainers, who come to any club - and it's a northern thing - you are not there to entertain. You are there to provide something that happens in between the 71 bingo. I can remember once in The Comrades, I was sat in the audience and I'd done my first spot and they had the bingo on. It got a bit noisy while the bingo was on, so the chairman got on the mic and said, `Now, if you don't give up and give order for this bingo, then I'll put the entertainment back on!' I looked at him and he was serious, and when I did get back on stage, I said, `Well, that was nice wasn't it?' and they all went, `Yeah, it was. Get on with it!' and I thought, 72 `Well!' " " " I did get my own back one night for the bingo. It was a red-hot night and I forget which club it was - it was in Doncaster - and they had the back door open in the concert room because it was that hot. I had a puncture in my car tyre, so I get out the old foot pump and I put it in the tyre while they're playing bingo. I'm stamping on it, and it starts squeaking every time, `Squeak, squeak, squeak.' The bingo callers were going, `Where's that noise coming from? Give order, whoever's making that noise, give order!' I just stopped and waited until he's started on the bingo again, and then I started again, `Squeak, squeak, squeak,' and he got madder and madder. He didn't know where it was coming from, 73 but I got my own back. Generally,entertainersreceiveawarmwelcomein clubsandtheyaretreatedfairly.Theirmaingripeis oftenaboutbeingsandwichedbetweenthebingo sessionsoratbeingtold`Youcan'tputthatthere!' whensettinguptheirequipment. " " Another thing we tend to do is provide facilities in the dressing room for tea, coffee, a towel, soap, you know, a sit down, comments book from the artist, and that goes a long way in the performance, you know because they feel a lot more welcome. We have a policy where the chairman will go and greet them with a handshake. We'll let them know straight away basically what time they're due on, so they know how long they have to set up. It's just nice to show them that we are appreciative of their talent at the end of 74 the day. " 50 " The organist and drummer " When I first started at 11 years old, I'd no equipment, nothing, because you just didn't. You used the club's microphone system, which was like singing through a cocoa tin. At the time though, you thought it was marvellous, and all they had was a pianist, no organs, just a piano, and no drummer. Then it evolved after about four or five years, and you got a pianist and a drummer. With the pianist and the drummer, you thought, `Oh, this is great.' But the drummers just had the old great big bass drum, a cymbal, a hi-hat and two skulls. That's all they had, and every song you sang was the same tempo: oom pah pah, oom pah pah. I did this song called `Bachelor Boy' by Cliff Richard, and so the pianist used to say to me, `Right, you start it, and I'll follow you,' because there was no written music, not at that point in time - that came later. You started singing, and then the pianist would follow you, and then the drummer would come in. So, I started, `When I was young, my father said...' and that would be it, the piano would come in with the same old pattern and then the drummer would follow. Anyway, then it stopped and it came to just an organist, but it was the old Wurlitzers that the bigger clubs bought when picture houses shut. So, you went from the old way they played to just sustained chords, and that's all you got. No matter what you did, that's all you got off a Wurlitzer. A great big bloody hall, and that's all it could do! Then, you got the drummers who came in, and they used to get the Lowrey organs and the Hammonds. Then, when it got to the proper organs with the Lowries and the Hammonds, you got the Leslie speakers, and I used to be, `Let me get up there. I wanna get up and sing!' I wanted to get up because the drummers then were really good. Then, they got the synthesisers. It was really terrific. Then, you might be really lucky and get an organist, bass and drums. It would be a fairly big club that 75 would have all of them. " " Every artist, unless they had brought some self-accompaniment like a guitar or were working in a band, was in the hands of the club organist and the drummer, who may have been good or who may 76 have been bad. They had some good times in here, and a lot of people haven't appreciated them. They've been damned good. We used to have an organist and a drummer, Paddy Carwell. He's dead now, though. They're all gone now. We sold the organ. The organ didn't get used for about 18 months, and it would have cost a fortune to get it repaired. We had Lorna the organist. She backed up the singers. All they do is turn up with a little machine now. They're karaoke singers now, aren't 77 they, really? " " Atonetime,nearlyeveryclubhaditsownresident organistanddrummer.Thesetwomusicianswere likepartofthefurnitureand,aspaidemployees, theyheldpoststhatwerebothprestigiousand coveted.Armedwithanencyclopaedicknowledge ofpopularstandards,theduowouldstartthe eveningwithaspotoftheirownthatservedasa warm-up.Afterwards,theywouldthenperform asthebackinggroupforvisitingsingersand comedians.Theactsthatwerewellpreparedwould bringalongtheirownsheetmusicor`dots'forthe organistanddrummertofollow;however,sightreadingwasnoteveryresidentmusician'sforte,and thingsdidn'talwaysgotoplan: " I remember once at Intake Social Club, I went out one night with the backing group, and I gave them my sheet music. Now, my first set opened up with `America', but I finished off with `Somewhere' from West Side Story. Now when they took their dots, they went out onto the stage and one started playing `America' and one started playing `Somewhere', so I just went, `Whoa! Hold 78 on. Let's start again.' And then it's expected of you to go onto a stage and instantly make a complete show out of fresh air, worthy of the standard of Andre Previn, you know: 79 perfect. It had to be perfect. Before karaoke came out, we had `free and easy' with the piano and drummer. They used to have it on at Christmas, didn't they? `Free and easy', and anybody used to be able to get up and perform. They used to have the drummer and the organist on, and you'd just get up and have a sing-song. They did it at The Westminster, Doncaster, every Christmas, bank holidays, Boxing Days; it was all free and easy. It was free and easy in my 80 club [laughs]. " " " " " " 51 52 Duo Russmar 53 Inthepre-computerage,performers'`dots'werenoteasilycomeby.Usually, theartistwouldhavetopayanarrangertohand-writetheparts,andthiswasa skilful,painstakingandlaboriousprocess.Notonlydidthemusichavetolook right,italsohadtosoundright,andtherewereactuallyveryfewcompetent arrangersinthewholeofDoncaster.Thosethatcoulddothejobwerein greatdemandandspentmuchoftheirdaysarmedwithcalligraphypensand manuscriptpaper,tryingtomeetadeadlineforasinger. " All I would do is sit down and write from morning until night, scribbling with an italic pen. I used to buy manuscript paper in bulk from London: four reams, and I'd get through it all in a 81 year. Today,itisverysadtoseesomanyemptystagesinclubswithnotadrumkit, organorLesliespeakerinsight.Themajorityofresidentmusicianshavebeen laidoff.Thankstothenow-ubiquitousbackingtape,theirservicesarenolonger required.Thisrepresentsthestripping-awayofanotherlevelofindividualityfrom eachclubanditsreplacementwithbland,homogenisedmusicthatdifferslittle fromnighttonightandfromvenuetovenue. " " So the dots things, as time went on, got surpassed . . . because the artists were forced by the powers that be to use backing tracks. So they were on safe ground: you didn't need the wrath of the organist and drummer to mess up your act when you've got the 82 stability of the backing track. " Mexborough Concertina Club: many club stages aren't used to their full potential nowadays. A typical hand-written score produced by top local arranger Dave Lane 54 Clubland and the local press " As Free Press columnist, I always used to travel incognito. No one knew who I was, apart from the doormen, so I could get in, flash my Free Press card. I'd sit at the back out of the way so 83 that you saw the act as it was, not putting a special show on just because I was there. " Inthe1960sand70s,DaveBent,awell-respected figureinclubland,wroteaweeklyarticleinThe Venuewhichsoon,togetherwithalltheclub advertisements,becameasupplementtotheFree Pressandrequiredreadingforallthoseassociated withtheclublandentertainmentscene.Dave wouldspendeveryeveningwatchingartists performinclubs.Hewouldseeoneartistdeliver onespotandthenmoveontoanothervenue.He wouldusuallycoverfourclubsinonenight,his commentsandopinionseagerlyawaitedwhenthey appearedinprintthefollowingThursday.Dave workedtirelesslyandhadagenuineenthusiasmfor clublandentertainment.Hiscommentswerealways constructiveandwell-founded,andhemusthave beenaninfluentialfigureinhisday.Hisviewswere notedbyartists,managers,agentsand,ofcourse, thegeneralpublic.AfewwordsfromDavecould makeabigdifferencetoanartist'scareer. " " That local paper, the Free Press, used to tell you which clubs the shows were on, 84 so you'd pick what you fancied. The premise was that with the Free Press, money came in when clubs advertised in the Free Press. In those days [1980s], there were lots of clubs, and the revenue was quite extraordinary, so the more revenue that came in, the more 85 everyone was happy. " Asthe1960sprogressed,showsatthelargerclubs gotbiggerandbetter;starsofclublandappeared ontelevisionandbecamehouseholdnames.This boostedtheirimageand,ofcourse,theirpay cheques.CharlieWilliams,DuggieBrown,Lynne Perry,DavidCopperfieldandBernieCliftonwere someofthenamesthatstartedtheircareersina smallclubinSouthYorkshire. " Doncaster Free Press has been the source of information about clubland entertainment for decades. Charlie Williams was a popular local performer who went on to enjoy national stardom. In the early 1980s, clubland reviews were written by the mysterious Yardov Ale. 55 Clockwise from top left: Peggy and Julia Palette, Shirley Wilson, Lennie Bennet. Acrobats were sometimes part of the variety bill. 56 Clippings from The Venue 57 The clubs of Doncaster The Scala Club OnefondlyrememberedvenueistheScalaClubinSprotborough,named presumablyafterthefamousLaScalaoperahouseinMilan,butpronounced locallyasthe`Scaler'.ThisMeccafortalentactuallystartedinThorpeLanein 1932,becameScalaProgressivein1935andthenmovedtolargerpremises onSprotboroughRoad.Itclosedin1968.TheScalarepresentedthezenithof localandnationallightentertainment,particularlywhenitmovedintoabigger building.Theline-upofregularlyvisitingstarsreadslikeaWho'sWhoofthelate 1960sandearly1970sshow-businessworld.Localresidentswouldoftenbeup inarmsabouttheparkingsituationwhentheclubwasbusy.Thevenue'sown carparkwassimplynotbigenoughtocaterfortheamountofvisitorsthatwere regularlyattracted,andthesurroundingstreetswerelinedwithinconsiderately parkedvehicles,ofteninfrontofpeople'sgates.Evidently,driversinthisera eitherdidn'tdrinkalcoholortheywereaccustomedtotherelativelyrelaxeddrinkdrivinglawsoftheday.86 ItwasquitecommonforartistsattheScalatolodgewithlocalfamiliesin Sprotborough,andmanypeoplehadtherareopportunitytoseestarsintheflesh whentheyhadonlybeenontelevisionafewdaysbefore.Sadly,thisgroundlevelinteractionwithcelebritieshaslongsincegone,andwenowliveinanera ofcossetedcelebritieswhorarelyminglewiththepublicastheyarechauffeured fromstadiumtostudio. " " " I remember being a big fan of Bert Weedon as a kid, and there he was one day, playing at the Scala, literally just up the road from where we lived. I actually watched him that night just a few yards from where we were sitting, playing that million-notes-a-second piece, whatever it is [Guitar Boogie Shuffle?] and that was one of 87 those important moments in my musical life. All the top acts, Shirley Bassey, they had them all . . . then they started to charge; that was frowned on a little bit. But when you're getting five acts - you might get five acts - and those five acts, they'd be there all week, and they'd change the week after. I'm not sure what they charged, maybe two shillings. There was all sorts, all 88 different acts; there were massive acts there. The Scala was great. You had to take your tea; you had to go at half past six. It got packed. Donald Pearce has appeared there, Guy Mitchell. There were loads, Dickie and Dotty. I don't think the 89 Scala's there any more, unless it's a supermarket. " " " Left: Dennis Stevens behind the bar of the old Scala club 58 TheentertainmentbandwagonrolledonuntilthefirstTuesdayinDecember 1968.EveryonewasshockedtohearthatTheScalaClubhadclosedits doorsovernight.Thiswasfollowedshortlyafterwardsbytheclosureofthe GreaseboroughClubnearRotherham,anothermassivelypopularentertainment venue. ManypeopleremembertheScalaclosingdownandthebuildingbeingusedasa Grandwayssupermarketinthe70sand80s,withitsdistinctive`ServeYourself andSave'straplinethatadvocatedthesupposedbenefitsofthisnewwayof shopping.Nowadays,thebuildingisaSainsbury's,ironicallyofferingthesame cheapalcoholthathascontributedsomuchtothedemiseoftheclublandscene inBritain. Manyquestionswereaskedastowhytheseprestigiousvenuescloseddown, andmanystillremainunansweredafteralltheseyears.Wasitthegreedof artistswhoincreasedtheirfeestimeaftertime?Wasitthattheadmission chargeofhalfacrownwastoocheap?Weregreedyagents,managersand committeesskimmingofftheprofits?Itmaywellhavebeenacombinationofall thesefactors,althoughmuchmoresinisterreasonshavebeenputforwardover theensuingdecades. On 5th December, 1968, The Free Press published the shocking news that the Scala Club had suddenly closed. " Like all clubs, they had various scams running. One of them was running the cheapo watered-down bitter � it might have been Whitworth's or another defunct one - to the Barnsley Bitter pumps. My dad was the steward at the time and had to go along with the various fiddles that the committee were up to. One of the locals that he didn't respect much anyway would often remark, `Mmmm, lovely stuff this Barnsley Bitter, Dennis,' and wouldn't drink 90 anything else. It folded as far as I'm concerned because they were having some very, very good turns, international turns, and they weren't getting the money, the revenue, over the bar to cover the costs of the turns, and that's tragic, and it just folded. The outgoings were 91 far in excess of the income, so it folded. " " ThedemiseoftheScalacausedotherclubsintheareatotakenoticeandbegin tocutdownonentertainment.Althoughtheywereverypopularwithclubgoers,theweek-longvarietyshowswereout;clubsconsolidatedtheirpositions; thetelevisionstarsmovedon,andonceagain,clublandrevertedtoitsposition heldafewyearsearlier:provideroflocalentertainmentonamoderatebasisand incomfortablesurroundings. Thesurvivingclubsweremuchwiserfortheexperience.TheKikiClub attemptedtobuckthistrend,butisnowmainlyrememberedforbeingaflashin thepan,asitwasonlyopenforashortperiod. " The Kiki Club also boasted a state-ofthe art multitrack recording studio that drew recoding artists from across the country " When the Scala Club closed down they built a new club, in Kirk Sandall, and it was called the Kiki Club, and that really took the top 92 entertainment. " 59 Agents Gettingworkontheclubscenecanonlybedone ifanartisthasanagent.Usually,performershave toshowcasetheiractatanauditionnightinaclub whereoneormoreagentswillbeobservingthem furtively.Someformerperformersactuallyreferto thesenightsas`cattle-marketauditions'fortheway inwhichtheactswereherdedonandoffstage.In thedaysfollowingtheaudition,theperformerwill hopefullyreceiveatelephonecallwithconstructive commentsabouttheirshowandadescriptionofthe typeofworkthattheymightbeexpectedtoget. Theessentialsubjectoffeeswillalsobediscussed, alongwithcommissionrates. " " We were skint one night, and we did a gig somewhere near Barnsley � it was a Sunday, I think. We got to the end of the night, the concert sec' thanked us and said he'd have us back at Christmas � they always said that but never re-booked you. Then, he said, `You do know it's a no-pickup venue, lads?' We were devastated, and the singer just sat on the step outside with his head in his hands, almost in tears, saying that was it, he was going to pack it 94 all in. After our audition, the agent came up and said, `It's a good show, lads, and I'm sure I can get you some work for about �100 - �150 a night [in 1986], but remember: that stage is a fantasy world up there, as far as the audience are concerned. You've got to get some more 93 colourful clothes and liven it up a bit.' Ofcourse,ano-pick-upgigeverysooftenensured thattheagentcouldgettheircommissionfromthe performerwithoutchasingitupforweeks,soitwas ashrewdbusinesspractice,really. Clubbandsinthe1970sand1980sreceived considerablekudosfromthelocalpeople.Many werewell-knownintheareaandhadacertain statusintheirownfield.Eventoday,manypeople canremembersomeofthelocaltalent.Names suchasBitterSuite,TheGents,SmartAssandThe TubelessHeartsarestilloftenbandiedaround.One mustalsonotforgettomentionPonder'sEnd,a bandthatfeaturedDoncaster'sownJohnParrfor manyyearsbeforeheshottointernationalfamein the1980s. " Beinganagentisnotaneasyjobthough,andthe rewardsarenotmassiveunlessyouarefortunate enoughtosignanactthathitsthebigtime.Even then,slick,high-levelmanagementcompanies arelikelytostepinandsidelineyouattheearliest opportunity,offeringlucrativedealsandsmooth patter. Inmostclubs,actsareoftenpaidincashonthe night,thefeehavingbeenpre-arrangedbetweenthe agentandtheclub.Occasionallythough,themoney ispaiddirectlytotheagent,andthismeansthatthe artistwillbegoinghomewithemptypockets,at leastuntiltheagentbalanceshisorherbooksatthe endofthemonth.Thisno-fee-on-the-nightgigis commonlyknownasthe`nopick-up'. " 60 Club entertainers today " " Entertainment has changed recently. They're all loud bands, or screeching vocalists with backing music. No-one seems to play instruments these days. I'm not into that kind of thing and I'm not into loud groups either. Personally, I would one hundred percent go with live entertainment all the time. I love live entertainment, but then again, obviously, it's the budget. A lot of venues can't afford it; a lot of venues haven't got the facilities to have a live act - as in the bands . . . I suppose, if you go back to the olden days, a guy would come with his guitar and his own amp and a speaker, and Bob's your uncle, he's done. But obviously, times have changed and things have moved on. But sadly, a lot of clubs haven't moved on, but it's a hundred percent live entertainment for me all the time. 96 Oh, backing tracks have been in probably since the 70s. It started on tape; then it went to DAT; then it went to CDs; then it went to minidisc; now, it's gone to 97 laptops. " 95 " " Therearestillplentyofclubbandsandsingerson thecircuittoday,butincomparisontothe60s,70s and80s,therosterisgreatlydiminished.Falling clubattendanceshavemeantthatmanyclubs cannotaffordtopayfour-andfive-piecegroupsany more.Theresultisapreponderanceofsoloartists andduosthatusebackingtapestosupplement theirsoundandgivetheillusionofafullband.In termsofexcitementthough,nothingcanproperly replacelivemusicians,eithergroupsororganistsand drummers.Electronicbackinganddrummachines tendtosounddullandsterilebycomparison. " Rueben in action on audition night. Chris Carr appears regularly on the local club circuit. " " That used to one of the best nights on a Friday, one of the best bands in Doncaster or South Yorkshire or even the North East, and then all of a sudden, they want �800 as opposed to �300 or �400. You've got to sell a lot of beer to get that 98 back. The thing was that the artists were going from being a band, a nice big sixpart band, fantastic. Then the next time you see them, they're a quartet; then the next time you see them they're a duo, and 99 then a singer with tapes. " The Distance have played all over Europe, performing high-energy shows that captivate audiences. The Dream Divas are a great duo, full of style and energy. " 61 A typical signed publicity photo that artists leave with venues after their performance. These can often be found covering the walls of the dressing room. Tony Adams and Grandad were in high demand for years because of their hilarious act. Below: Wild Oates in concert in the early 1980s The inimitable Carlo Paul Santana in action. The Distance organise a future booking after a successful audition night. 62 Oliver Reed comes to Clay Lane Club Therearemanymythsandlegendssurroundingclublandculture,butfeware moreinterestingandentertainingthanthestoryoftherenownedactorOliver Reed'stwovisitstoClayLaneSocialClubinitsheydayinthelate1980s.At thetime,ReedwasagoodfriendofStanBarlow,anentertainermorecommonly knownasDavidCopperfield.Copperfield,whowasbornonDoncaster'sClay Lanehousingestate,isperhapsbestrememberedforhisprime-timetelevision appearanceswithLennyHenryandTracyUllmaninthepopularcomedyseries ThreeofaKind. Oneweekend,CopperfieldsuggestedthatReedaccompanyhimtohisoldhaunt, ClayLaneSocialClub,foralunchtime`jolly',and,accordingtoeyewitness reportsfrommembers,thepairarrivedattheclubalreadyinasomewhat advancedstateofinebriation.Reedimmediatelymadeabeelineforthebarand, profferingawadofcash,saidtothebarmaidinhisratherpompouslyaffected actor'sdrawl,`Here'sahundredquidtobuythepeasantssomebeer.'Many oftheclubmembersoverheardReed'sdisparagingreferencetothemselvesas `peasants',andwithcolourfulcriesof`We'llshowhimwho's...peasants,' severalmembersseizedthebear�bearded`Ollie'-andstrong�armedhimover totheclubpooltablewheretheyproceededtolayhimoutonthebaizeanddryshavehim.Apparently,Reedfoundthiscapermostamusingandeventhrewa fewextraquidbehindthebar.Sobeganadrinkingsessionofepicproportions whichhas,quiterightly,passedintoclublandfolklore.100 Thereisalsoanotherverifiableanecdoterelatingtothislegendaryepisode:on thewaytoDoncaster,Reedapparentlytorehistrousers.Laterthatday,after theinfamous`dry-shaving'incident,aladyclubmemberkindlyofferedtorepair thedamagedgarment.Reeddulyremovedhistrousersandspenttherestofthe sessionseatedatthebarinhisunderpants,happilyquaffingaway. Infact,ReedreturnedtoClayLaneforasecondvisitsomemonthslatertoreopenthenewlyrefurbishedclub,whenhewasmadeanhonorarymemberby thecommittee.Inevitably,anotherBacchanaliandrinkingsessionensued,and theeventwasdulyreportedinthelocalpress.Theactorendedtheeveningby gettingverydrunk,astheaudienceexpected.Hethenjumpedontothebar, strippeddowntohisunderwearandstuckacigaretteupeachnostril.Such apitythatnobodyhadmobilephonesordigitalcamerasinthosedays-there seemstobenoexistingpictureofthisdisplayofactingability. " So we just brought him in, and David Copperfield said, `Look at my buddy,' kind of thing, because he's quite a big imposing bloke. He stayed all afternoon. He loved it. He loved it. He got bladdered with everybody because old David Copperfield likes a few beers as well. Then, they invited him down to re-open the club. They made 101 him an honorary member as well, didn't they? Sadly,ClayLaneSocialClub,oncethefloweroftheDoncasterclubsceneand theprideandjoyofitslocalcommunity,hasrecentlyclosed.Itnowliesderelict andabandonedintheheartofClayLaneestate.Manywarmmemoriesofitstill lingerthough,andtheoldregularsstillmeetupindifferentdrinkingholesacross thetown. " Oliver Reed was a famous British actor, whose work spanned many major films from the 1950s to 1999. He died during the making of the award-winning Gladiator with Russell Crowe. He was also famous for his amazing capacity for alcohol. 63 Club trips Oneofthemostpopularservicesofferedtothe communitybytheclubwastheclubtrip.Inthe 1950sand1960s,working-classpeoplehadlittle disposableincome,fewopportunitiesforholidays andnoprivatetransport.Theubiquitousmotorcar didnotsitoutsidemosthomes,asitdoestoday.It isnosurprisethattheannualorganisedcoachor traintrips,almostinvariablytotheEastCoast,were much-anticipatedeventsattheclub.Thetripswere financedbythememberswhocontributedasmall amountofmoneyeachweekintoaspecialclub-trip fund.Whensummercame,thiswasthenused tohirebusesorchartertrainsandtoprovidethe childrenwithspendingmoneyfortheamusements andfood. " " " For a lot of the kids, that one trip 102 out was it. " That's the only holiday we got: the day trip. I came from a family of ten. We 103 had nowt; we had nothing. " You don't hear of many in the area doing club trips now. That's how things have changed, not just Armthorpe. Anyway, I was always last-minute, me, and my dad was sat in the house and he said, `What time does the trip go, then?' `Nine o'clock.' `It's five to nine now. Come on!' I said, `You get going, dad.' Anyway, we caught `em up and passed `em, and we ran up Mere Lane where the bus was, and eventually, my dad ended up getting on the bus, completely out of breath � he had silicosis at that time � and he coughs and coughs. It was Scunthorpe before he could speak to me [laughter]. He says, `You bugger!' He 104 couldn't get his breath, he couldn't. " " You used to go on the train to Cleethorpes, that was with the Wheatley Club. That was exciting, going on the train when you were a child, because you never did anything like that. And you got the equivalent of five shillings pocket money from the club and a packet of crisps and a little bottle of pop. That was great because you never got anything like that at all. It was brilliant. And then, we used to go with the Old Volunteer in Silver Street because my dad was a member there, so we used to get trips to Skegness and Bridlington. We used to go in coaches, loads of them. And the same thing, you got your crisps and a little bit of spending money, that was to spend on 105 the amusements when you got there. " " We used to have the club trips every summer, and they would be on the trains right up until my two were little, and then they stopped the trains and we used to go on the coaches. I remember just loving it because you used to get all dressed up and take your sarnies, and then get on the train, and then they used to come round with these books, and if you were a member, like my dad was and you had paid your subs, all the children got a pound. It used to be a pound note and it was so much when you were six or seven. 64 Cleethorpes. Then the second Sunday would be the Social Club to probably the same place, and the third would be the bottom club - the Coronation club. That was our holidays when I was a kid. Without a shadow of a doubt, that was the 109 only holiday we could afford. " The last couple have been to Skegness. It depends, because they've got a card that's got five places: Cleethorpes, Filey, Skegness, Scarborough and Bridlington. They fill it in, and they tick the one they want. The most popular one wins - that's 110 where we go. " We used to get one day out at the coast, the seaside, to Cleethorpes, occasionally to Bridlington, and that was the club trip from Kilnhurst club: one day a year. We'd get ten bob111 apiece off the club, and that was a lot of money - you're talking about the 40s. If you got ten bob, it was a good day out. It was the highlight of the summer. We never had a holiday; we never went away for a 112 holiday up to starting work. " " And then it went up. It kept going up and up until the last time I took my two, the year before Dad died, they got a fiver. Was it a fiver or a tenner? It was an amazing amount of money, and they still had eight or nine coaches that last time I went. They used to go up Wentworth Park, from Wheatley club, up Wentworth 106 and block the whole road. " " The only time I ever went to the seaside was when I went on the club trips. I never went any other time. It was 107 marvellous. " They used to have a kids outing, where kids would go on the trains. They'd have two trains and extra coaches. I can remember one time - and I'll never forget this as long as I live - we'd booked extra coaches. We used to walk round the train selling tickets, raffle tickets, and all these kids were sat about. Some were sat on the floor. It was like a bloody parcel carriage with no seats in, and they're all sat on 108 the floor. When I was a kid, on the three Sundays - I can't remember if it was June or July - the Mere Lane club trip . . . would be the first Sunday of the month. That would be to Bridlington, say, or " " " " You should have seen the village on a Sunday morning. There was a surge down to the station at Stainforth. There were absolutely hundreds and hundreds of children. The kids got a bag of fruit on the train; they got their dinner provided and got all these tickets for free rides when they got there. Everybody had a real good day. Then, of course, they started cutting down, so we started going by coach. Now we take two coaches for 113 the kiddies. " " 65 " Cleethorpes, Bridlington, mainly Cleethorpes, because it was nearest. I can remember when I was a young `un, we used to go to Adwick station and get on the train. We used to walk it, walk down from here [Highfields] to Adwick station, and they used to give us a shilling; all the kids got a shilling. The train went right onto the sand. It ran onto the beach, so you stepped off your train right onto the sand. We used to get half a crown and my mum told us it was for the fish and chips. She used to say, `Give us your half a crown,' and we'd say, `Do we spend that?' and she'd say, `No, it's for the fish 114 and chips.' They were great days out, and they brought the community together, always. 115 They come round on the bus, the committee men, giving out free sweets. They'd bring my mum a jug of tea and three or four cups. The kids used to think 116 it was lovely - well my three did. What the Top Club was famous for really was they used to have trips, take all the kids away. All the village used to go. They used to have 70 and 80 buses. They'd go to Cleethorpes for an afternoon. Mere Lane [club] used to have about 20 buses, 20 to 25. The buses used to be queued up behind each other, right from 117 the club, right up to the Greyhound. It used to be sixpence from Rossington to Skegness. You caught the train early in the morning and caught it 118 back at six o'clock at night. " " " " " Sometimes, the station platform had to be improvised to accommodate the large amount of people going to the seaside. " " " We went every year from Rossington Labour Club. The girls always had new white socks and white pumps to go on the 119 trip. At Edlington, there used to be about 30 buses for the children, what they called children's outings, and all through the year they'd save. The dads and whatever would put money in, and when it was the payout, they got it then, and then on a Sunday, they took them on a trip. At Edlington we always went on the bus, 120 sometimes there would be 40 buses. " " " " When I was little, it was whole trains. It wasn't just getting on the train that was going to Bridlington, the trains were booked out for Wheatley Club, and there would be more than one as well. It was always Bridlington, Skegness or Cleethorpes, sometimes Scarborough, but never further than Scarborough. We never went to Whitby. It always seemed 121 to be idyllic. " " " I was six or seven then. There used to be forty-odd buses for the clubs, yes, 122 Mere Lane. " " 66 " " " Old Yorkshire Traction buses. You know these luxury coaches now, well you've seen nothing like these. They were like a bit of a charabanc with a top on. They never used to break down. Nearlyallintervieweestalkedabouttheclub tripwithfondmemoriesandexpressedtheir appreciationforwhatwasoftentheonly opportunityoftheyeartohaveaholidayof anykindandtoseethesea. It used to be a train when I used to go. They used to hire so many coaches, to Cleethorpes, always Cleethorpes. The beach at Cleethorpes, you got off the train 123 and you were more or less on it. " " The children nearly always went on the club trips on trains, steam trains. 126 " " In them days, sometimes you didn't get a holiday. Nobody had a lot of money, and you'd look forward to your 124 day out. Therecanbenobetterexampleofaclubdoing somethingpositiveforitslocalcommunitythan theclubtrip.Itisagreatshamethatthisannual excursionisallbutextinctinmostpartsof Doncaster.Thereasonsforthisarecleartosee: thedeclininguseofclubs,differingtastes,families havingbetteraccesstocreditandmoredisposable income.Oneshouldalsorememberthatchildren todaynolongerseeatriptotheseasideasthe ultimateexperience.Itisnowjustoneofmany formsofleisurethattheymightindulgein. " When my daughter was very, very young, we used to have train trips from here. We used to catch the bus into the train station; the train used to pull away and go to Bridlington or Scarborough. We had great times, great times. Now it's the old people's one I go on. I go on that every year. I've been going on that for the last 5 years. It's really tremendous. We stop in a lay-by half way there, get the crates of beer out and the crisps. We have a superb dinner at Bridlington, superb, in a really nice hotel, then there's taxis to take you round wherever you want to go in Bridlington, free taxis all day. The club can't do enough for you and the committee's tremendous. The majority, and I'm not saying all [on] the bus, but the vast majority of them would get out of the bus and go to the working men's club. Crazy! The same one they went into every year: the Ex-Servicemen's, or the Solders' and Sailors' Club. In fact, they'd sit on the step waiting for it to open, and I'd think, `You've come all the way from Doncaster 127 to go to another club!.' " " We have club trips every year. I remember the trips, one of the first trips I went on, yes, I remember them well, excellent for the club and excellent for the membership, and long may it be so. We are one of the few clubs or the only club that still has life-member outings and children's outings. We were the last club to use trains to take our kids to the seaside. Times have changed: now they tend to want to go to the theme parks more than just to the seaside. That's the fashion these days. We're going to 125 Flamingo Land this year for example. Manypeoplehaveamusingstoriesrelatingtotheir clubtripsinthepast: " I went to Benidorm when I was 18 years of age, in 1963. Not many people went abroad at that time. I went for five days and it took me two weeks to recover when I got back. I won a champagnedrinking competition; I drank twelve bottles in one night. 35 blokes from the Granby Road, Jocks and Geordies off to Benidorm for a week in 1963! It was a regular thing. Everybody wanted to save into it, put in your pound a week or whatever and then off you go to Benidorm the year after - an alcoholic frenzy for five days. You put your pound in and you had to do a raffle, a rota raffle on a Saturday or Sunday. The profits from the raffle went into the gents' outing. There were no gents in that outing I can tell you now. 128 They were all pit lads! " " 67 " We used to have a club trip. The children used to go on something like 12 buses. The secretary and treasurer used get off the first bus and drop back and pay out the money, drop back to the next bus behind it as the trip was going to Bridlington or wherever they were going. They were doing this one particular day and they got off the end bus, not realising it was the end bus and there was no bus to 129 pick them up [much laughter]. That train used to leave here, and it was run by the British Legion, this train. It used to leave about eight in the morning, and it used to take about three hours to get to Cleethorpes. It used to go about half an hour then stop in a sidings somewhere. All the kids used to hang out of the windows and when they got there all their faces were black, with all the smoke that used to come off of the engine. They were absolutely black bright, it's a fact. `Have you been down the pit?' `I'm copying me dad.' We got there at quarter to twelve and we were back on the train at three o'clock coming back home again, spent half a 130 crown and that was it. " " " We were posh, because I was from Armthorpe, and we used to go on buses. Then, my dad was a member of Intake, Intake Social, and they used to take us on the train. Oh we were posh! They used to come round with crisps on the bus, but when we used to go on Intake, Intake was better because they gave us ten shillings spending money. I'll never forget that: a ten-shilling note! I'd never seen one until 133 we went there. The life members choose where they want to go, and they go to the same place every year. They choose; they vote where they want to go. They won't change it. They go to the same place every year, which is Bridlington. I say `they' - I'm one of them. They vote for it and that's where 134 we take them. " The club arranged a trip to go to Skegness, arranged it with the railway. You just walked up to the station and got on the train and it took you to Skegness, 135 and you came back at six o'clock. I remember every club used to do them, in summer. When summer first started, you'd have a day out. I was from Armthorpe, but I know they all did them because you used to go to places like Cleethorpes, Bridlington. And when you got there, there'd be buses from all clubs there. Oh it was brilliant. That's what you got when your dad was a member of a club. That was part of your kids' treat in summer. For all clubs, they all did `em. 136 I always went on the club trips, and now I take my daughter. It's tradition. 137 " " " " " " " " Dunscroft Social Club has regularly organised trips for disabled children over the years. " In them days you didn't go for a week's holiday. The only time my mum was taking me and me younger sister, that was to Cleethorpes, and that was the day that war broke out, so we couldn't go, and we were going to go for four days. The days aren't like that now; there's nothing like it used to be. If you'd been to Cleethorpes, you'd stop [being] mardy for weeks. Oh aye, you'd had a good day if you'd been to Cleethorpes. Sand 131 sandwiches! You weren't going abroad like everyone does now. There was nowt like that then, it was only day trips. We only heard about Blackpool or Cleethorpes, not anywhere foreign, Yarmouth and things. 132 " " " " 68 69 4 70 4 " " The club as part of the community The members got together and decorated this club last time. I mean, to have decorators in would cost a fortune, so the members did it themselves. " 138 ClubsareoftencommonlyassociatedwithbeerandSaturday-night entertainment,buttherehasalwaysbeensomuchmoretotheseinstitutions thanthat.Theoriginalaimoftheclubmovementwastoprovideaplace forworkingpeopletosocialiseandbetterthemselves,andinthisrole,clubs graduallybecameacentralpartoftheircommunitywherepeoplewouldinteract andhelpeachotherinmanyways. Five or six of them at the pit sat down and decided we need our own club, and someone says the Granby, that was the road, so they set it up and it became notorious - for fighting, guaranteed. It didn't matter what side you were on, I don't think it went a fortnight without a fight. The stewards became legendary, how they ran it. Clubs had strict drinking hours, but the Granby didn't have drinking hours, it had its own drinking hours, and lock-ins, but you had to be `in'. There was an inner circle and an outer circle. If you weren't 139 `in', you didn't get in. The committee used to control that. " Intake life members' annual party Manyclubswerebasedinindustrialareas,suchas Edlington,ArmthorpeandRossington,wherethe majorityofmenwouldworkatthelocalmineor factory.Asaresult,thecamaraderiethatdeveloped duringtheday(ornightifyouwereonthatshift) wouldoftenbecarriedoverfromtheworkplaceinto theclub.Anintimacyexistedwithineachclubthat representedafeelingofsecurityandtogetherness. Suchclose-knitcommunitiesaredifficulttoimagine nowadays,particularlyforyoungerpeople,as Britain'sindustrialdeclinehastakenitstollonthem; however,theeldergenerationofclub-goerslook backtothishalcyonicerawhen,despitepeople's relativelylowlevelsofdisposableincome,therewas asenseofsolidarityinthecommunitythatmay begoneforever.ArmthorpeSocialClubisaprime example:manyoftheregularshaveknowneach otherfordecades,bothatworkandintheirlocal club. Thespin-offsfromsuchsocialcohesionareevident, andtheyoftenresultedinaninformalsupport mechanismbeingpartofclublandandcommunity life.Problemscouldbesharedandsolved,andyou alwaysknewsomebodywhocouldhelpout. " New Year's morning - tradition, and it carried on right up to it finishing, like hogmanay in Scotland - you'd be out at your parties, you'd be up all day, some people didn't go to bed, but you used to take your bottle on New Year's Day, you'd take your bottle of whisky, bottle of vodka whatever and what you would do is buy a pint of lemonade or pint of soda water or whatever your mixer is, and everyone would share their drinks and say, `Happy New Year to you.' And of course, all the younger ones loved that, but they got a bit out of control. It would become a big singing competition, England versus Scotland. Anything you can sing, we can sing better. So you'd have different singalongs, and so nobody bought drinks, they only bought mixers, and the committee said that was fine. I was on the Granby committee when I was 22, and I thought that was wonderful, that was a great New Year's Day. The first time I went, Pete Hutchinson took me, he was a Jock lad, union man, called at our house at half past ten with a bottle of rum, he said, `Come on, we're going to the Granby.' So we walked down and it was absolutely packed solid. A guy on the organ, a few singers, and that was it, you'd get a few English guys getting up, everyone coming with whiskey and vodka, women coming in with sandwiches, and you've never seen anything like it. And it went on all day. Forget closing at half past three, it carried on until four, five o'clock until everyone went home. That went on from when I was eighteen until two or three years ago. People used to come back from Scotland. What a day! You'd say to odd people, `Come to the Granby,' and they'd be absolutely amazed, dancing on the table, all good humoured. And you could go in and basically you didn't pay for a thing if you didn't want to. There'd be drink everywhere, Southern Comfort, Bells, and as the years 140 went on the drink got better. " 71 InDoncaster,differenttypesofclubhaveserved differentrolesovertheyears.Therewasa noticeablecontrastbetweenthecommercial entertainmentvenuesofthe1960sand1970s, suchastheScalaProgressiveandtheKikiClub, andthesociallyorientedminers'welfaresofthe pitvillages.Theformerexistedprimarilytomake money,andbetweenshownights,theyoffered relativelylittletothelocalpeople.Bycontrast, welfareclubshavealwaysliveduptotheirname, offeringawiderangeofservicesandsupport mechanismstotheirmembers.Forexample,some miners'welfaresstillofferNUMsurgeriesevery weekwhereformerunionmemberscallinfor advice. " " " " Mansfield [Avenue], Paxton [Crescent], George Street. Everybody knew each other and you had characters. In every pub you went to, there was a 141 different character. It was the only place where children could go. You couldn't go to your legions or top clubs, but you could go to the miners' welfare, but you had to sit on the patio with crisps so your dad and mam could have a pint - well your dad could. 142 They were the heart of the community. That's where everyone went: they went to the club in villages, especially 143 mining villages, miners' clubs. The bank holidays were best. We used to have wheelbarrow races. You know, old wheelbarrows down at the yard, one wheel, and we used to sit on it and run down to The Royal with him on, [drink] half a pint, sup it as you're coming up, and then push him back. It's alright going down, but it's coming back that's difficult, and you've only got one wheel. We did it in the 60s. We had Easter bonnets and five-a-side side football up at the park. It used to be brilliant, but then, nothing. It was the centre of the community and we used to do bus tours out to the seaside - Cleethorpes Bridlington. [It] used to cost thirty bob; it cost thirty bob a piece. It declined when 144 all the oldies packed in. I mean, you could tell it was part of the community when they used to have the famous leek competitions and the " " " pigeon clubs and the fishing clubs also. It was part of the community. Every club in a village had a part to play in its community. They also raised enough money to send their kids off to the seaside in summer, plus the old-age pensioners, and at Christmas time, they put spreads on for nothing which were for the older people and the kids to eat. Oh, it was definitely part of the community. There was a great spirit in the club in those days. If you weren't part of working men's clubs and you were a bit posh and thought you were a bit above them, they didn't want to know you. They wanted people that were part of them and a part of their community, and if you were taken into their community and they trusted 145 you, you were looked after. greater international travel culture, so they loved talking to Roberto. Roberto's English wasn't that good . . . so I ended up translating. I got really fed up that summer because I'd be dragged along to 146 the club every night. " " " 72 " Roberto was a really unusual character, and they all loved him at the club, because although he was Italian, he had red hair and blue eyes, and they couldn't believe an Italian could look like that. A lot of my dad's friends, that generation, they'd only just started going to Spain for a holiday, but if they went to Spain, all they saw was the Brits, didn't they? They didn't have that " The Legion was really, really strict. They didn't have union meetings there; they had nothing political, nothing. Wouldn't have anything to do with anything political. Until four or five years ago, unless you were ex-servicemen, you couldn't be on the committee. That's gone now because they've got no people left, but their committee was ex-military. They all worked at the pit, but they were all ex-soldiers. They had that ethos, tradition: pay homage to the Queen. No lefties in here. The club closes at two o'clock on a Sunday, even though everyone else is open all day; they always 147 closed at two o'clock. It was Bullcroft Officials in that room. They were all the officials with sticks and the gaffers. This room was basically for the grafters, and you weren't allowed to 148 mix. " " " " " Everybody used to get themselves made a member. Their dad used to make them a member like ours did with us at the Kilnhurst club. Our old man was a member down at the Kilnhurst club. As soon as he was eighteen, he became a member, and he died in 1999, aged almost 90, so that's a fair stretch, that's how far 156 we go back. At one time, they used to have the Easter bonnet parade, and every Tuesday, years ago, every Tuesday night, it was packed with the dancers, and we used to come every Tuesday and it was fantastic, with the organ. That was the Adwick Working Men's club. That's not here anymore. They've knocked that 157 down. In working men's clubs, everybody knew each other, but in pubs it's not like that, it's not the same, it's not the same community at all, it's totally different. It's the same at Wheatley club, but everybody in that York Bar club knows each other. They'd be shouting from here right over to there, shouting to each other. 158 It's really good. What we do is we pay 50p entry and that gets you a cup of tea, and you've to buy a 50p raffle ticket. That pays you out �4. Then, they have the bingo, and the bingo pays you �18 out. And of course, the money that's surplus goes in the bank, the TSB. There's a committee; she's the chairperson; I do the secretary and treasurer, and Jeanie is the vice chair. There are three names on the bank books; we're in the TSB now. We've all got three sets of keys. We trust everybody. They run the raffles, running two raffles a year, most of the stuff is given. It's not making a lot of money now, not like it used to do. Then we run a football card. The money that we have surplus, we're having a peaand-pie supper. Debbie's making the pea and pies. On 27th April, we've got a turn coming, which will be paid out of the club. Anybody that wants to come in, friends, they can come in and get pea and pies for 159 �1.20, and a turn. That's not bad! " " " " We also paid for the cricket ground from our wages. We paid so much into the union, and that was paid off our wages for the cricket ground, the bowling green and the welfare club itself. If you went home sick, you didn't have to pay - if you were unwell - but every day you were working, you also donated to 149 the welfare. On Boxing Day every year, there would be a disco for the kids, and they'd get - members again, if they'd paid their subs - they'd get a selection box, a really good, big, selection box. Every child would get one, and then you'd get to go to the disco, which made you feel really grown-up because you were never allowed in. You were allowed in occasionally to the concert room if there was some sort of family event on, but I can't remember going the rest of the 150 year. Then we have the old-age pensioners' dinner at Christmas, which is excellent again. We have two artists, three or four beer tickets plus free wine all night. It's 151 really good. " " " " What my dad used to call the `old cronies' trips', the same thing but just for the men, just for the old men. And my dad used to go as a sort of member volunteer, even up until he was 70. He was an `old crony' himself, and he still called all the other old men `old cronies'. He used to say, `I'm going on the old cronies' trip.' And then, my brother started to do that, as a helper, so I think that still carries 152 on. All ex-working miners, all good lads, all get on with each other. It's a good crack. What more could you want? The working man's club is trying to keep the tradition of the mines going, with this village being a mining village, this is the only place that ex-miners go and enjoy themselves and have the crack, taking the 153 piss out of each other. It's all done voluntarily. All the money is put back into the club, the community, because this is what its all about: keeping that community spirit, 154 trying to keep hold of it. We all know each other, never argue. 155 We all know each other. " " " " " " " " " " " " " 73 " I can always remember they said, `We'll have a carry-out,' and I thought, `A carry-out?' And they'd go to the bar and say, `We'll have six bottles of that and ten bottle of that, and that was a carry-out. There was going to be a party. It happened often; it came from Scotland, because you actually carried out 24 bottles in a crate, and two of you would carry it up the road, and that was a carry-out. That was from the Scottish miners that. Bells Hill and Lanarkshire, they always have carry-outs. It was part of their culture. When you've been out having a few drinks, you don't go home, you have a carry out. `Where are you going?' `I don't know. We'll just walk up the road 160 and see who's up and about.' For kids, every bank holiday, we have a disco, free pop and crisps. Easter, we do a raffle, for Easter eggs obviously. Christmas, we do a raffle, bottle of 161 whiskey, big cuddly toy. I'm a life member. I've been at the club fifty years . . . you pay your subs, you pay one payment and you keep paying to stay a member of a club. See I don't have to pay subs anymore because I've been 162 here fifty years. Clubs are a good institution, unlike pubs, and don't get me wrong, I don't dislike pubs, but unlike pubs, the discipline and good manners you have in clubs is second to none. You don't get trouble in clubs and you don't get people who are in for that � people will tell them; I will tell them; the president, even. We don't believe it now, but even now, there are children that don't go on holiday; there are old people who don't go out for a meal. This club has always looked after its own people. They've always put meals on. They've always took children on holiday. They put parties on for children at Christmas. All the old people get a gift at Christmas, as well as money and a free hot meal, so that's important. It's important to " " " " At one time, Ikey's had its own members' skiffle group " the community. We also give money to charity, local charities. Charities come in here and collect - the local churches and 163 whatever. " " " It's a very important part of my life. Certainly, a good social place to come, lots of friends here, and it's enjoyable to come here. Alan's daughter grew up in the club; my children grew up in the club, and the same can be said for many, many people. It's very much a family, part of 164 our life. In the Top Club years ago, if you went in there and said `boo', you were out, and you were proper out. Whereas if you went in the Granby and you had three fights, you'd get in two days later - and become secretary in a fortnight! 165 [Everyone laughs] When the fight used to start in the middle, which it often did on a Friday and Saturday, all the tables went. They invented the Mexican wave with punches, round and round they went. `Oh, it's come all the way round,' the Mexican 166 punch! " " " " " I remember there was this labour club in Rossington, before it became a group club in the 70s or 80s, and it was one Sunday lunchtime that I was singing there. These four young lads only about 12 or 13 years old came up to me and said, `Hello, mister,' and I said, `Hello, kids.' They said, `Can we help you with your gear?' I said, `No, you're alright. I'll get it in myself.' `Would you like your car washing?' I said, `Well, no not really. It's gonna rain. Look.' `We'll wash it good, you know. We're very cheap.' I said `What's cheap, like?' They said, `Well, ten bob.' I said, `Get on thee way get out of it,' because ten bob was a lot of money in those days. They said, `Are you sure?' I said, `No, go on. Go.' So, they went, and when I came out to my car, it was stood on four bricks! Yeah, they'd nicked my tyres and I was told by the committee if you'd paid them lads the ten bob, you'd have been alright, and they'd have washed 167 your car! " " 74 " I'm not a very good drinker now. I'm not supposed to drink at all. I do have a couple of halves . . . you're trying to drum up revenue for the club as well. You've got things that are expected of you, to sell totes or sell raffle tickets and that kind of 168 thing. " " " " We had one [charity night] five weeks ago, made about �1400. It was a good night. We had a disco and raffle; we made some money. It was for a Sheffield 169 cancer charity. They [the press] must have thought we were crackerjacks. All other people say, `What you want to go down a mine for?' When you work it all out, the friendship and the stuff you get from that is beautiful. I can walk in here and I can talk to any of the lads and there's no problems. That's what it's all about: you can walk into a lot of places and they never talk to you. No one wants to come to any area, indirectly, and sit on your own and have your pint and no one talk to 170 you. " Theclubwas,indeed,ratherlikeanextended familytomostofitsmembers,anditwouldnot beunusualforseveralgenerationsofthesame familytogotheretogether.Thisintimacycould sometimesproveawkwardfornewdrinkers,as everybodyknewtheirages.Itwasacceptedthat youwouldhavetowaituntilyour18thbirthday beforebeingallowedtocomeintotheclub,signup formembershipand,perhapsmostimportantly,go tothebarandbuyabeer. I'd never see anyone without a drink. If one of lads came in and said, `Col, I haven't got much money,' I don't mind telling you - and you can put this in your book - I'd go and get a couple of quid out of the bandit and say, `Here you are, love. Get yourself a couple of pints.' I'd lend them money when I know for a fact they wouldn't give it me back. But it comes out of the bandit, so why should I be bothered? I'd help anybody, wouldn't see anyone without a drink, full stop. If they'd come into the club, that was it. 171 " 47 years after their wedding reception in the Coronation Club, Ruby and Tommy were still regulars. his cousins and there used to be about six of us all sat together, and that was it, arguing about which seat you were sat 172 on, which was your table. " " " Well, you went with your own group really, usually family. I mean, when I used to go, I went with my husband and " Most people's introduction to a working man's club was through their dad. Yeah, through their father, like I was, and I wasn't even allowed to walk in till I was 18. I lived on the estate since I was seven, and I wouldn't ever dare walk in there while my dad was a member, honestly, because everybody knew each other and they knew who you were. I wouldn't even dare go in. They'd even challenge me even though they knew my dad. If you didn't have a membership card, you weren't allowed in. At one time, you had to carry it at all times. `You've forgot your card, you know where you live,' `Have you got your card with you?' `Well, I'm a member.' `Are you? Well, where's your card? Go home!' Then you went mad because you just thought it was your club, and it was a nice, absolutely 173 corking club. Well you see, in a colliery village, the life was around that working men's club, right. During the week, the men would go and play at whatever they wanted to " " David and John Spencer In Mexborough Concertina Club 75 do, and at the weekend, the wives went, Saturday night and Sunday night, then they used to have the turns on, and there used to be some good ones. I used to enjoy 174 going. " When I first started drinking I used to go in pubs at 14. You could get served, but when you get to 18, you can go into clubs, into the Granby. I found it great because the Granby, as we've said, had this camaraderie: Jocks, Geordies, etc. They even had gentlemen's outings. Now there's a misnomer if you've ever heard 175 of one! There used to be a waiting list here, but if your father was a member you could get made a member a bit faster, you see. Your father would be sat in here having a pint, and you might be sat out there having a game of snooker but he was there. He always seemed to be there, so he kept an eye on you. You weren't going to have much trouble were you? That doesn't happen now. People like me, at my age, I've got two sons and they're 176 not members of clubs. " " " It's only the lads that keep it open. Unfortunately, I don't think there's a future for them, because working men nowadays, they aren't like they were when there were building sites, pits, factories. It's all too modern nowadays, no proper jobs, no labouring jobs or owt 178 like that. " " It used to be fathers and mothers and sons and daughters. They all went out. 177 " Jock Forbes' plaque at Wheatley Club " " " Domino handicaps, darts, snooker, whatever was going, so the big game was Monday dinner, because you'd got the night shift in and then you got the afternoon shift who didn't want to go to work, then the day shift who had slept in, and then at two o'clock, the day shift would call in for a couple on the way home. So it was a big day, Monday. You'd get someone on nights thinking, `I've had five and I don't want to go.' Virtually anyone could stay Monday dinner, so that would go on to six o'clock, then you'd either go home and get two hours and think you'll face the night shift at nine o'clock, or you wouldn't go. You could do it in them days. It was a big day in a mining village, not just here, anywhere. Monday, Miners' Monday. It was a big un that, a really big un, and strangely enough it wasn't a day when there was a lot of trouble. That was a big day that in all the clubs, bigger in the Granby in Edlington because they'd lock 179 the doors. " 76 Clubsreallywereself-runinstitutions.Oneexpolicemanandclub-userclaimedthatherarelygot calledouttoclubsbecausetherewasrelativelylittle disorderinthem.Iftherewastrouble,itwasoften dealtwithin-housebymembersorthecommittee whoknewthatsuchthingscouldbesortedout withouttheneedtoinvolvethepolice. An example of club rules 77 78 Politics, clubs and the Miners' Strike, 1984-85 " The Miners' Welfare was a distribution centre for food. The distribution was controlled by the union people. The other thing they did, they organised holidays with other countries. The Miners' Welfare organised holidays in the strike. What happened was we had a public draw, and anyone who got chosen put their names in a hat, and those that were drawn out, the families in Belgium paid for the children to go. There was also clothing. Clothing was sent to the Miners' Welfare. That was another thing that happened. We had a fantastic theatre group came and did an evening's entertainment for us at the Miners' Welfare. Fabulous! I can't remember the name of the group, but one of them appeared in Coronation Street many years ago. That was a really fantastic night. They came as a gesture, solidarity if you like, `We support the miners' sort of thing. `We'll give you an evening's entertainment.' That was really good. 180 If Arthur Scargill ever came, he couldn't go to the Top Club, the Legion or the Officials' [Club]. He could go to the Granby or the Miners Welfare, only those two places. He wouldn't be allowed through the doors, because of the political 181 affiliation. " " TheMiners'Strikeof1984-85wasaterrible struggleformanycommunitiesaroundDoncaster. Despitethemanyhardshipsthatpeoplehadto endure,thisdifficultperiodsawcommunitiespulling togetherwithincredibleresolve.Theworkingmen's clubsoftenbecamethebaseofoperationsforthe strikerswhowouldmeetthereeverymorningtoget theirstrikeallowance(�1perday)andtogetthe latestupdateonpicketingtactics.Soupkitchens wereestablishedtherebywomen'sgroups,often affiliatedtotheBarnsley-basedWomenAgainst PitClosuresgroup.Even26yearsafterthestrike, people'smemoriesarevivid,andemotionsstillrun high. " Manyclubswereusedasdistributionpointsfor foodandclothing,whichcamefromalloverthe countryandfromabroadtobesortedandgiven totheminersandtheirfamilies.Thesedistribution centreswereusuallysituatedatthelocalminers' welfareclub.Drinkswerereducedtohalfprice; theprofitmarginsofclubswerecuttotheboneto enablememberstoretainsomedegreeofsociallife. Infact,theprolongeddurationofthestrikebrought manyoftheclubstonearbankruptcy.However, asisusualinclose-knitcommunities,oncethe strikewasover,theminerssupportedtheclubs andrestoredtheirfinances,therebyenablingthem toflourishonceagain,cementingtheirsymbiotic relationshipwhichhasexistedforsolong. " They used to have a soup kitchen, not at this club, at the welfare, in the welfare hall, during the strike. They used to send parcels from London and wherever, and these miners, from here, went down to London, and walked over London Bridge with buckets, collecting money from all the well-to-do people, and all these big shops like Harvey Nichols and places like that. They used to bring the money home, get the groceries, parcel them up in boxes and each family got a box of groceries 183 from the club. You had two meetings: the NUM official meeting and then the unofficial meetings. They were held in the smoke 184 rooms. " A lot of our members were miners, and we were instrumental in helping them and their families by way of food parcels, and they used to come out here and socialise, and that overcame their problems hopefully, but we did help them 182 tangibly by giving food parcels. " " " " 79 Sports and games Lord Halifax presents the Halifax Trophy to Brodsworth Main Colliery Officials' Club Sportsandgamesareanessentialpartofclubland life,providingafocusfortheinterestsofmany members.InDoncaster,therangeofsuchactivities supportedbylocalclubsisincrediblywide,showing thatfriendlyteam-basedcompetitionisavaluable facetofahealthycommunallifestyle.Thereis notasingleclubintheareathatdoesn'thavea dedicatedgamesarea,andyouwillrarelyseean unusedpoolorsnookertable.Thepricesforusing thetablesarenominal,beinganotherofthemany non-profit-makingservicesthatclubsprovideto membersandvisitors.Theatmospherearoundthe tablesiscompetitivebutjovial,andonecanheara steadystreamofquipsfromplayersandspectators throughouteachframe.Somecompetitions, however,aremoreseriousinnature,suchasthe inter-clubchallenges,buttherestillremainsasense ofdecorumandsportsmanshipthatremindsusthat thisisonlyagameandthatparticipationisthemost importantthing. " That club yard, it used to be for the pigeons. It was a pigeon square, as it was always called. [People] used to fly pigeons from there . . . If the pigeons had flown, we're flown. We're in here [the bar]. The bar used to be full of pigeon men, as they called them. They basketed the birds up on a Friday night, and they used to come in here. And another thing, we had a rugby team here, and they used to play up the road there just opposite The Abbey pub. They used to kick the hell out of each other and then all come in back here, all drinking together. And we had all these things. We had a garden show up to five years ago. It was as good as any in Yorkshire, taking aside that one from Harrogate, like we`ll give them that [laughter]. We had wonderful shows in here, used to be 30 or 40 exhibitors. The bar would be full of vegetables and flowers, and all got 185 auctioned off for older people. " " There was one to Scarborough and one to Whitby . . . We've been going down for fishing trips because we've got a fishing club. There's a sea-fishing club 186 and a fresh-water fishing club. They wanted me to play dominoes. I said, `Harry, I've only got a tenner. I'm not playing dominoes.' He said they were playing a fiver a match, two-handed. So I sit down and I play Harry and win the game and the next game. I ended up winning 500 quid. I just couldn't lose, and there were all-comers coming from all over. We used to play for money in this village more than what they play for now. They play for a pound a man; they used to play for a fiver a man twenty 187 years ago. " The1980sweretheheydayofthevisitingsports celebrity,andbignamesfromtheworldsofsnooker anddartswouldsupplementtheirtournamentprize money188bytouringclubsandspendinganevening playingagainstthemembers.Apparently,itwas anunwrittenrulethatthestarswouldletatleast oneplayerbeatthemduringtheevening,although six-timesWorldChampionRayReardonshowedno mercyashetrouncedthewholeoftheIntaketeam onhisvisittherein1981. " 80 " " We've had Alex Higgins. We've had Ray Reardon, going back to the times when he went from here to the World Championship final. He went straight from here. He lost unfortunately. The latest one was John Virgo; Dennis Taylor was one of the most entertaining; Jimmy White and Alex Higgins. Darts, we've had John Lowe, Bristow, Dennis Priestley, many more. We try to look after everybody, all the spectrum. theyhadtakentheirentourageofacolytesback totheRockinghamArmsHotelafteraneveningof `pro-am'snooker.Theirpartyingandnoisewastoo muchforthemanagementandotherguests,and theywereaskedtoleave. " " 189 " We've had Dennis Priestly, the darts player. In fact, his mum was a big 190 member here [Denaby Institute]. " AlexHigginsandJimmyWhite'svisittoIntakeis stilltalkedabouttoday,mainlybecausebothplayers wereincrediblydrunkandwerethrownoutoftheir hotelintheearlyhoursofthemorning.Apparently, Ithaslongbeenatraditionforclubstohavetheir ownteamsinmanyofthemostpopularsports. Inter-clubleaguesandmatcheshavealways offeredtheopportunityforregularhomeandaway competitionsthatseethebestofeachclubplaying eachotherinspiritedbutgood-humouredfashion. Oneonlyhastolookatthetrophiesondisplayin everyclubtoseetheirlongtraditionofsporting activityanditsimportancetothecommunity. " Above: John Lowe below: Ray Reardon 81 Cards and dominoes " " [We] used to have panel games there on a Monday. There would be seven games: snooker, billiard, darts, cribbage, 191 whist, dominoes, fives and threes. The concert room on a Sunday afternoon, dominoes handicap. You'd have about 40 tables, 192 40 or 50 tables. " Therecentupsurgeinthepopularityofpokerhas notpassedtheclubby,though,andpokernights arearegularandverybusyfeatureofmanyvenues today. " Inthesedaysofelectronicmediaandfast-paced entertainment,thereissomethingrathertimeless aboutlong-establishedgamessuchasdominoesand cardsstillbeingplayedinclubs.Manylocalsarrive attheclubandstartsettingupfortheirafternoon oreveninggamessession,placingthedominoes boardonthetableandsettingascoringdeviceby itsside-oftenacribbageboardservesthispurpose. Someclubsleavethedominoesandboardsout permanentlyinaspecificplayingarea. Tothelayperson,dominoandcardgamescan seemratheresoteric,andthefluencyandeasewith whichthelocalsplayshowthemtobeoldhandsat it.Fivesandthreesseemstobethemostpopular gameinthearea,offeringtheperfectbalance betweenskillandluck " What we did have in the 70s was panel games. A wonderful night out, you'd play home and away. They still have them now, but not to the same degree. You'd have darts, cards, whist, crib, snooker, dominoes � fives and threes. You'd have seven, and you used to play for points, and you used to have a panel-game league, and all those clubs used to participate. That went by the wayside. It was a fantastic night out. I don't know why it was called panel games, but that's what it was called. All those games, you went of an evening, to the club. " We used to have a football team, snooker team, darts team, dominoes team, fives-and-threes team and so on. We had all that lot. The league was club against club. The panel games were the original CIU, where it was club against club, whereas now, we've got different sponsored leagues for darts and dominoes, and then you've got snooker and pool. We also got a ladies darts team. " [Dominoes games] of fives and threes, ordinary dominoes, star. We used to have darts and dominoes and pool. We used to have a pool league, but that fell through. We had a good team at pool, not bad. They used to have the area finals in here. 194 It was packed. You couldn't move. " 193 82 " " We'd have a bus from Mere Lane and we'd go to places like Moorends, Rossington, Conisbrough. We were based in Armthorpe, but these are all clubs we went to, and we'd have a bus full. The wives would come; we'd make an evening of it. It was a fantastic atmosphere, and they'd come to your club with a bus full. Fantastic night. It used to be brilliant. 195 In them days, they used to have tugof-war teams and things like this. And before that yard was tarmacked, we had quoits, like say throwing horseshoes, and each club used to play one another at it, and tug-of-war, and you see, all that kind 196 of thing has gone. Solo, the odd game of crash, where you had four hands. The prize was runs and pairs and flushes. You had thirteen cards apiece, four of you, and you make your best four hands, and the first to get to seven pegs gets paid. On the Wednesday night when bingo was on, we'd have a game of cards in here. It still happens. They used to play it in there, but they just come in here now. They don't play for a fortune - pennies, like. One time, the club owned two boats, two fishing boats, sea fishing boats. One was moored at Bridlington and one at Withernsea, and we had our own 197 minibus. " " " " " 83 84 85 Eyes down: bingo and other games " " I play bingo; my wife plays bingo, Tuesday night, Thursday night, Saturday night and Sunday night. Nowt wrong 198 with bingo � could win some money. They used to bring money because they had bingo here. It used to be Mondays, Wednesday, Fridays, Saturday and Sundays, and the women on a Thursday night set up a cancer bingo to raise money for charity. It used to be packed in there. It was all cackling in there. That was the 70s and 80s, and they made some money for cancer then. 199 " EveryclubinDoncasterstillhasbingonightswhich oftenseehousespackedfullofregulars,avidly engagedincrossingofftheirnumbers.Sometimes, theprizescanbesubstantial,andastrictcodeof conductisadheredtosothateverybodygetsafair chance.Usually,playersarehopingtobethefirst tocompletealine,twolinesorafullhouse,which paysoutthelargestprize. Bingo-callingisalsoanacquiredskill,andthereis moretoitthenmeetstheear.Thecallerhastopace theirreadingappropriately(nottooslowandnot toofast),speakclearly,andbeconversantwiththe widerangeofnicknamesthatthenumbershave. HerearethecommononesusedinDoncasterclubs: 1.Kelly'seye 7.Luckyseven 8.Gardengate 11.Legseleven 12.Onedozen 13.Unluckyforsome 16.Sweetsixteen 18.Keyofthedoor 21.Keyofthedoor 22.Twolittleducks 32.BucklemyShoe 44.DianaDors 50.Bull'seye 57.Heinzvarieties 88.Twofatladies 90.Topoftheshop,blind90 Awordofwarningfortheuninitiated:don'tshout `Bingo!'whenyouwin.Theusualcallismorelikely tobe`Hereyouare!'orsomethingalongtheselines. Inadditiontobingo,mostclubsrunarangeofother chance-basedgamesthatentertainthemembers anddrawinvitalincome.Tombola,raffles(oftenfor moneyoramixedgrill)andsez-u'sarecommonly playedinanevening.Atypicalminimumstake mightbeonly20pence.Anothercommonfavourite isthefootballcard.Punterssimplypickateamon thecardandwritetheirnameonit.Theperson whohaschosentherandomlyselectedwinnergets acashprize,oftenbetween�10and�20. " " I don't play personally, but my wife does. She's a regular. It's a big activity within the club, and we have lots of snowballs and different incentives to encourage a game of Bingo. It's a popular 200 activity in the club. We even have a members' draw. It's been going on now sixty years, the members draw. That's the last time a 201 member won it! " " " 86 In earlier days, the numbers were drawn from a bag or box. Today, bingo machines range from compressed-air driven ones full of ping-pong balls to electronic devices with digital displays. 87 88 89 A man's world? Women and clubs Women win equality at working men's clubs By Stephanie Condron 12:01AM BST 02 Apr 2007, The Telelegraph " Women have, for the first time in the 140-year history of working men's clubs, been granted the same rights as men. The National Executive of the Clubs and Institute Union has voted to grant women members equal access to clubs around the country. Until Saturday, women who joined one club were banned from entering other clubs unless they were with a male member. They were also banned from attending the annual conference. But Kevin Smyth, the general secretary, told the 984 male delegates at this year's annual conference in Blackpool: "We have to end discrimination in our clubs." After the motion to grant women equal access was passed by a two-thirds majority, he said:" This is a major breakthrough." Sue Carr, 61, the secretary of the Ashford Road Club in Swindon, said: "It's been like the Dark Ages. Every year I come to conference with my husband and have to go shopping while he goes in. Next year, I'll be in there too." The Club and Institute Union has some four million club members as well as 30,000 associate women members. 202 The thing is with clubs, you see, women didn't have a place in `em. They weren't on committees; they weren't allowed. In a lot of some clubs, even up to recently, they weren't allowed at bars. There were two things: miners were quite chauvinistic anyway, and ladies didn't pay. But that was the way it was then. Some clubs, they weren't even 203 allowed in. " " Everything revolved around the opening times, especially on the weekend. When he could get in and when we would have Sunday dinner depended on when 206 they shut on a Sunday afternoon. " " " They didn't have any prominence in clubs; they weren't allowed on committees; they weren't allowed on anything; they weren't allowed to sell 204 raffle tickets. " " As far as I'm aware, at the Westminster Club, women couldn't be served at the bar. Up to the 80s, if I had 205 to guess, off the top of my head. " At one time, you bring your wife in or a woman, and they couldn't get served at the bar. No women were allowed near the bar. I remember at Hyde Park Club, women weren't even allowed in the bar. They had to go into the concert room. That's like Rosso [Rossington] Top Club. Things have lightened up a lot now. They've got women full members. We were gonna do it this year anyway, but we were forced into it by law. So, we made this rule up that you can't be a committee member unless you've been a club member for two years. Unfortunately, this year is the first year we've allowed ladies to become full members, but they've still got to wait to 207 join the management committee. " " " Women were classed as halfmembers. It was a working men's club. Women weren't even allowed to play on the pool table. Women were like second208 class members. " At one time, you weren't allowed in without a man anyway - your husband or a male. But of course, women didn't go to clubs because they had to stop at home and make the dinner. Yes, stop at home and make the Sunday dinner. There's more women than men now on a Sunday. Lots of women come here on a Sunday 209 dinner. " Punters at Bentley `Jet' 90 " " " When you're retired, you come down here to have a chat with your friends, something to do, and especially in the winter when you get bored and get away 210 from the wife for an hour. " They used to have a turn on noon and night. All the men would go at lunch time, and if the turn was good or was clean, then you'd take your wives or girlfriends 211 in at night. " A lot of women came. [They] used to come from all over. It was only twenty years ago that women were allowed to be members . . . but they used to come. They weren't excluded. There's still some up the North East that the government's gonna sort out because they won't have them in. I never saw them go in their purse [laughs], but they could go to bar and get 212 served. " " " Women didn't take part really, not on the committees and that. Wait a minute though, they did form a ladies' 213 section. " " " That's what it used to be like in clubs, because it was a working men's club, weren't it, so it was a place for a man to have a pint, but at weekends, they took 214 the wife out. No women on their own. I never saw a woman on her own, and no mucking about either. No kissing in a corner or 215 anything like that. All very well run. " " Going back to the 50s, I would say that the ladies sat down and the 217 gentlemen bought the drinks. I still don't like going to the bar. A woman didn't need to pay owt. There was no need to take a handbag. My husband would say, `What are you taking that for?' I'd say, `I feel dressed with it on.' No, a 218 woman didn't go to the bar. " " " I never bought a drink. Ladies didn't go to the bar, never. It should be like that now: ladies are ladies. I've never seen a 216 woman go to the bar. " " 91 Clubsarecommonlyperceivedasapredominantly maleenvironment,andinmanywaysthisistrue: therearestillveryfewfemalecommitteemembers inthewholeofDoncaster,andtheclublandclientele ispredominantlymale.Untilfairlyrecently,some clubsevenhadspecificmale-onlyareas,theonly womenenteringthembeingthebarstaffand cleaners.Recentlegislationhaschangedallthis, althoughaswiththesmokingban,therehasbeen someresistance�frommen,unsurprisingly. Manyinterviewees,bothmaleandfemale, expressedambivalencetowardsthesegregationof sexesinclubs,feelingthatinthe1950s,60sand 70s,anall-maleenvironmentwasoftenagoodidea, asitofferedaplaceforworkingmentosocialise andrelaxafterhardshiftsatwork.Theladiescould getonwiththeirownthingwiththemenoutofthe way.Ladiesdidgotoclubs,however,butaswith themen,theirattendanceandbehaviourfolloweda setpattern. " On a night, especially on a Sunday night, you used to have to go out at half seven to get a seat. Honestly, I'm not joking, seriously. That's when we got married; we got married in 72, so it was about that era. Honestly, we used to have to be in at half seven to get a seat. What happened was blokes used to go out and get a seat, sit down, get a drink for the wives and save all the seats, and when the women came, the blokes would go in the bar for an hour and leave them playing 219 bingo. " " " At the big session on a Monday, you never saw a female, never, unfortunately. The big night was Saturday night, and they would come out with all the trimmings, with their war paint on, and then they'd go home and they'd be miners' wives again. You never saw them at big 220 sessions. There's a bloke stood at the door, and he said upstairs is shut, so my wife looked round and saw the games room and said, `Is it OK if we go in there?' [He said,] `You can't go in there, it's men only. Women are only allowed upstairs.' She wasn't very pleased about it, but we had to come out, obviously, as we couldn't get 221 served. Today,groupsofwomencanbeseeninforcein certainclubs,oftenmeetingtoplaybingointhe afternoonorevening.Interestingly,mostofthese groupsusetheclubasavenuefortheiractivities, butinstarkcontrasttothemaleclub-users,they rarelydrinkalcohol. " " " In the week, it was the men, but at the 222 weekend, it was the couples. " 92 Anne Diamond presents the Miss Queen of the Clubs trophy 93 5 94 5 " " " The future of clubs We haven't got any of them now: working men. They've taken it off that sign: Norton Coronation Working Men's Club. We changed the name `Norton Coronation Club' because there aren't that many that are working. That sign just invites anyone in, see. Not just working men. So if your title is `working men's club', there aren't that many working. 223 " When the colliery closed, you lost the sense of a place where people used to 224 meet. " They used to be queuing up at seven o'clock at night, didn't they on weekends? We had full audiences all the time. I think all the clubs in the 60s and 70s were packed. Well, they used to be, locally. I would say the beginning of the 80s was the beginning of the end for clubs, when Maggie Thatcher got in. Yeah, after the strikes, that did it. When the pits shut, that was it, and that's when all the clubs died, I would say. Well, everyone went redundant, and redundancy money ran 225 out, and that was it. " Itisverysad,butclubsinBritainareindecline. Oneonlyhastolookatthelistofclosed-down establishmentsinthisbookandtoreadmanyof theinterviewees'commentstorealisethatwe arenowwellpasttheacmeofclubland.Gradual changesinfashion,technologyandtheeconomy havehaddamagingeffectsontheclubmovement, justastheyhavehitmanyotherareasofsociety andindustryinrecentyears.Pubs,too,have sufferedimmensely.Doncaster,forexample,has onlyafractionofthetown-centre`real'pubsthat oncegraceditsstreetsafewdecadesago.The newglass-frontedthemebarsthathavesprung uparenowthenormformanyyoungpeople,and theyrepresentthetypicalvenuefora`goodnight out'.Thetraditionalpuborworkingmen'sclubis todayperceivedbysomeasdullandold-fashioned bycomparison.Recordshopshavecloseddown, thedancehallsarelong-gone,musicalinstrument shopsarestruggling,andthetownnowonlyboasts onecinemawhenatonetime,eachsuburband miningvillagehadatleastoneofitsown.Many intervieweeshavequestionedwhetherchange actuallyrepresentsprogress,orisjustforthesake ofprofitandtheadvancementofconsumerism. Thisvastarrayofdistractionsthatcanbeusedtofill ourleisuretimeisarelativelyrecentphenomenon, markingadistinctdifferenceinsocialbehaviour frompreviouseras,evenintothe1970sand 1980s.Themainareasofgrowtharetelevision andtheinternet,bothofwhichofferabewildering surfeitof`entertainment'andengagement.Today's sensoryoverloadcontrastsstronglywiththemeagre rationofjustthreeterrestrialtelevisionchannels thatkeptthepopulationentertaineduntil1982.226 Thisconstantbombardmentbyelectronicmediais cynicallydesignedtoturneverybodyintopassive consumers,accessingtheirownentertainmentfrom thesolitudeofthehome.Whatacontrastthis `new'wayoflifeoffers,comparedtothatofthe workingmen'sclubs!Clubsareaboutsociability, interaction,self-organisation,theenjoymentof otherpeople'scompany,andtherealisationthatthe `hereandnow'iswhatisactuallyimportant,not thevicariousandremoteobservationofcelebrity culture.Addthelowpriceofsupermarketbeer tothisequation,andtheinsidioustentaclesof consumerismseemlikeapotentforce,battling againstmuchofwhattheclubsstandfor. 95 " Sky has a lot to do with it, Sky Sports. It all seemed to coincide with when Sky came out. When Sky came out, it was �40 per week, really expensive. A lot of my mates had it; they said, `Look, I'm not spending all this money to go out and not watch it.' So they used to stay in, have a few cans, and all of a sudden, when you start to stop 227 in, it's funny how it catches you. You don't want to go out. " " " " That is something I've seen disappear slowly: that camaraderie. Everybody in the same thing together, anything that's going for the club, let's support it and pay the money in, always willing to help, 228 plenty of people for committees and all that sort of thing. " We need to start educating the younger generation. Working men's clubs have always been well renowned for old guys who have 229 just finished work, old committees, this that and the other. " The main thing is the amount of people coming. Definitely, it's deteriorated really, really badly, especially on Saturday and Sunday nights, I'm sad to say. It's not just this club: me and my wife, we don't go abroad, but we go all over the country, and when we go, we go to working men's clubs. It's the same everywhere you go now. It's really sad. In fact, we went to Blackpool a fortnight ago and [of] the three clubs we normally go to, one had closed down and the others didn't even open at dinner time. When you look at this club [Intake Social], it's doing remarkably well compared to a 230 lot of clubs you go into. " " Turn the clock back 30 years: no plasma TVs, no 100 channels, no PlayStations, no videos. If you look, you've now got in-house entertainment, haven't you? You've got the full range. You think, `Do I want a beer?' You can go to Tesco, Budweiser at 50 pence a bottle. The only negative is you've got 75% of what you would like. The drawback is, `Would I like to talk to somebody?' That's the 231 difference, and what are you going to pay for that? " " " I don't think they'll ever close in villages, because it's a meeting place isn't it, and as I've told you, when we used to go, it was with his cousins, with relatives. I don't think that'll come to a halt. But I don't know you see, it's a long time since I've been in a club. I don't 232 know what they're thinking now. " " " They just need to move with the times, and that's happening in a lot of clubs: they just haven't moved with the times. They need to 234 know [how] to keep up with everything that's going off. " The ones who'll moan are the people who never use it, and I'll say if you had used it, it would probably still be open today. Members who never go in - there's probably two thousand members at the Wheatley club - but you can't get a hundred people in. Where are they all? Why be a member of a club and not use the facilities? 233 It's crazy. Since the pit shut, it's killed a lot of them. It was the lifeline for 235 the clubs. " " 96 " " " Yeah, mainly miners. They used to have colliers on Monday, all supping, playing the dominoes handicap [laughs]. They used to shift loads and loads of coal on Monday. There was dust in here. The mines shutting down had a huge effect. Two big employers 237 round here shut down. That's what killed it. " They say, `We're going to town,' don't they, the young ones now. They'll go to town for a drink. Drink is taking too much 238 importance now. " I would like to think that clubs provide a facility within the community, I really do. I mean, I'm a club man so it would be remiss of me to say anything different to that, but they'll struggle. In fact, I would suggest here that most clubs in the Doncaster area are struggling at this moment in time. Financially, the economy is not very good at the moment, and so the only way that clubs really 238 are getting revenue is from over the bar. " " " This one will [survive]. The clientele keep this place ticking 239 over. It's not changed much. That's what's helping it. " Hopefully, I think a lot of them will survive, but a lot of them are closing down now, and I can't see them opening again. The youngsters, we're not getting the youngsters in here now, where they're more interested in their computers and their what-have-you. I should say the average age in here now is 45. I can't see them surviving later on. We'll survive. I think we'll always survive, not just because of the brewery, but because of the committees we have 240 and the general overseeing of everything. " " I think at the moment we're doing very well. We're doing alright, but there's no future in it is there? When you really think about it, there's no young kids like there used to be. The truth is, well, we're trying. It's you old gits that won't let them come in. We get one or too young kids coming in, but the problem is that we're trying to educate them, you know. The idea is not to get off your head, because that's the thing now isn't it? You go drinking and make yourself poorly with it. You should have a game of darts, dominoes, pool, whatever you want to do, and go home stood up. They don't they want to be flat out. We get one or two in playing snooker and pool. There's not that many because of the size of the villages. They're the future members though, that's the thing, but 241 half of them stop their membership. " 97 98 Left: Monday afternoon at the Social 99 " Young people now don't want Bingo and that . . . Young people now want to be stood at the bar with a bottle in their hand, Budweiser or something like that. That's all they want. They don't want entertainment; they don't want anything. We've paid hundreds and hundreds of pounds over the years, and it's never 242 brought any more in. " " " " They're not surviving; they're going down, and why are they going down? I can answer that in one. I've said it before: it's 243 smoking. Got to give us a smoking room, that's all we ask. " Everybody's changed; their tastes have changed. They have this loud music, and they're not satisfied until they have it 244 full blast. " Pubs are struggling. The whole licensed trade is struggling. And if you ask members of the licensed trade why they think they are struggling currently, I'm sure the majority would answer, `Supermarkets'. Supermarkets sell liquor, whether it's spirits or beer, they can sell it far, far cheaper than clubs can even buy it. They are selling it and making a profit from that, and they can sell it cheaper than what clubs are buying. There's something 245 wrong there. " " A lot of jobs have gone. You've only got to take Wheatley Hall Road now. ICI, they've gone. They had three to four thousand workers. Crompton Lighting are still there but only just. Burton's Tailors, Leger Bakery, Harvesters had three or four thousand. The Plant, that had about eleven thousand in its heyday, all those type of people. And it was a continuation of what your father did as well. Your dad went in; you went in; your older brothers went in. Your first drinking hole, really, you went in with your brothers. They 246 looked after you, basically. " " What I'm trying to generate here is a younger atmosphere. Like on Fridays, I've got a younger DJ for the night time, but also incorporate where functions can be brought in for a free venue hire and free DJ on Friday evening to try and generate the public back through the door again. Golf clubs found that they were so cliquey that they had four-year waiting lists. What they found was that, as their older members were dying, they weren't doing anything for the younger generation, and they ran out of membership. They 247 forgot to cater for the younger generation as times go by. " It gets harder, because as I say, I'm in my eighties, and let's be fair about it: you're not up to doing as much as you did when you were forty, or even sixty. What you want is for some younger people to be interested, but they seem to think they're generating enough money to do without half of these things, but you're not, you see. " 100 " It's not because of cheap beer in the supermarkets, it's too dear here in pubs. It's that that's the problem, not the supermarkets. If supermarkets can sell it at that price, then they should be able to sell it in the pubs at that price. But they have these conglomerates, all these pubs. They have to buy the beer off them at their price. 252 They've got to pay their rent. " " Above and opposite: Highfields WMC " We came out of our committee meeting at ten past eight, and there was three in - I counted `em. Then, I counted again at half past eight, and there were twelve in. Artists come on and it's degrading for the entertainment as well when they see a concert 253 room the size that we've got and there's nobody in. " The social side gradually diminished from the 1970s onwards, and we can always say, well, it's a move towards individualism as a nation, Thatcherism and all that crap, look after yourself. Clubs started declining from then, and it's where we've ended up now. Frank says the Top Club's great - yes, it's a good club, but it's owned 254 by one person; it's not a working men's club anymore. " " " " You know what, we've talked about turns, well, it's all money that's going out and it's all got to be found, even if there's only ten people in the room. We haven't got to that level like, but as an example, that turn still wants paying, even though they're 248 entertaining nobody. " You won't get those days back; they've gone; they've gone, 255 definitely. " " " Years ago, the only thing you did when you finished work, there were two things: you either watched telly - and there was only a couple of channels then - or you'd go out for a pint and a game of snooker. Now, you've got a hundred and one things to do, as 249 opposed to just going out for a pint. " In years gone past, if you weren't in this club by 7.00pm on New Year's Eve, you didn't get a seat. You couldn't get in. They stopped them. If you let them in the bar, they'd sneak into the concert room. They'd sit on beer crates, anything just to sit down. This New Year's Eve, you could have got a seat anywhere in the club at 8.00pm. It's changing times. It's 25 years since it was that good. It's just been a steady decline, this is how I seen it anyway, it was a steady decline and then all of a sudden, it was a drop, a real drop. On times like Christmas Eve, they used to queue outside the door, and they'd got snap250 with `em, sandwiches for later on. We used to 251 have some blinding nights, took good money. What I'm trying to do is bring a bit of town into a working man's club, a bit of pub into a working mans club. Then basically, we're going more up-market with live entertainment, because where a lot of the clubs have gone wrong or they've served their course in certain areas is they've started scrimping on live entertainment, and they've started thinking that they can get away with a �150 solo or a duo and still make the same money. You can't do it. People start seeing what you're doing, and then basically, they go, `They're nipping and tucking. We'll start looking elsewhere for live entertainment.' What we've actually done is we've come in and said, `Right, OK, we'll stick with the solo acts for a couple of months until we actually develop it, and then . . . let's entertain, let's do all the marketing, let's do everything. If we lose, fine, but what people are going to see is changing in regard to different 256 aspects of what this village is. " " 101 The locals enjoy a cigarette outside Armthorpe Social Club 102 The smoking ban and its effect on clubs At06.00BSTonSundayJuly1st2007,the governmentenforcedasmokingbaninenclosed publicspaces.Individualsbreakingthislawcouldbe finedupto�200,whilstbusinessescouldexpectto payupto�2500. " I can remember coming back to Kilnhurst club after a club trip, I'd be six or seven years old, and just for that night, you were allowed to go in the club with your parents . . . There was that much smoke in the concert room, because they'd got a turn on, there was that much smoke that it made your eyes run, I mean we were just kids and weren't used to that 257 sort of thing. to the supermarket for their fags, and then they got used to it and thought to themselves, `Hey, this is great.' They can sell it cheaper than we can buy it in. The corporations and the government and all this lot keep trying this and that, but there's that much money involved in supermarkets with the shareholders and politicians, they aren't bothered about 259 working men's clubs. Inlocalclubs,thereareregularreferencestothe factthatthesmokingbanisnotactuallylawin theHousesofParliament.AsaRoyalPalace,the seatofgovernmentenjoysCrownImmunityfrom theanti-smokinglaw.MPsareexpectedtosmoke outdoorsindesignatedareas,buttechnically,they can'tbefinedforsmokingindoors. " " " " " What are killing the clubs are the supermarkets, cheap beer. You can go and get three cases for �20. You can sit at home; you can have a fag, have a drink when you want. People in here, it's the centre of the community to me, the club. You used to come in, have a drink and have a fag, not go out there when it's throwing it down or blowing a gale, snow. People used to like to come in, have a pint, ashtray on the table and have a fag. It doesn't happen now. People have got used to going out, but still, why do we have to go out there? I mean it's alright in the summer, but come the winter, you say, `I've got to go out again and it's 258 snowing!' Where can the smoker go? You've got Albert and Ernie who come in regardless of the weather. They like to come in and have a smoke . . . and now they're not going to come in, they'll stay at home. They're not going to want to be kicked out in the cold. We haven't . . . been allowed to put that facility on for them inside the 260 venue. Lots of people don't come, particularly during winter. You're all right out there when it's balmy, but when it's snowing, it keeps people away. People'll not come out when they can smoke in their houses. I can't smoke in my house so it doesn't make a deal of difference; I have to go outside 261 anyway. " " It's disgusting how they can sell lossleading products at supermarkets, and then we can't compete against that. The writing was on the wall with the smoking ban. They should, in hindsight, have given you one room that you could smoke in, so you could have sent them in to the TV room out of the way. People who couldn't smoke in clubs would go Untilrecently,cigarettesmokeandclub atmosphereswerealmostsynonymous.Itisstill easytoenvisagealarge,poorlyventilatedconcert roomonaFridayorSaturdaynight,wherethe performerwouldbewatchedthroughaneverthickeninghaze.Everybodywenthomesmelling ofsmoke,butnotmanypeopleseemedtomind particularly�thiswasthewaythingshadalways been,andwas,therefore,acceptedasnormal.The smokingbanwasenforcedblanket-fashionacross thecountrythough,andcomingatatimewhen theclubtradewasalreadyindecline,itseffect acceleratedthistrend.Today,evennon-smokers inDoncaster'sclubsthinkthatthebanwasillconceivedanduncompromisinginitsapproach. Mostpeoplethinkthateachclubshouldhaveits owndiscretesmokingroom,ratherlikeasnugor smalllounge,fittedwithefficientextractorfans. Thiswouldgivepeopletheoptionofstayingindoors tosmokewhilststillreservingthebulkoftheclubas asmoke-freezone. " " " It's killed `em now cos, I mean, no disrespect, it's non-smoking, you see, that's killed `em. To be honest with you, I can understand what they're doing, and I have no problems with that, but that's why it's killed pubs. I don't smoke now like I used to do, but when I used to, I used to go for a pint and a fag with it . . . It's killing pubs, killing clubs particularly. 262 That's what I think is happening. " " It's killed a lot of atmosphere, because you could be having the crack with the lads, then you go for a fag and when you get back, the atmosphere, it's not the same. When you go back, it's killed it. You're removing people, taking them out of that atmosphere, and they come back in and say, `Just had a fag, just been talking to so and so,' but that atmosphere doesn't carry on from having a fag to coming 263 back in. " 103 104 'Save the Working Men's Clubs and the Entertainment Industry' ThefutureforDoncaster'sclubsisnotentirely bleak.AtIntakeSocialClub,theconcertsecretary, ShaunWhittaker,hasrecentlyformedacampaign groupcalledSavetheWorkingMen'sClubsand theEntertainmentIndustry,theaimofwhichisto encouragepeopletoactpositivelyinhelpingclubs tosurviveinthe21stcentury.Shaundecidedto exploittheinternetandcreateaFacebookgroup thatwillpublicisenewsandeventsfromclubsand thatwillactasaforumfordiscussionforpeople whowanttodevelopthewaysthatclubsoperatein thecurrentclimate. " Clubs have decided to just go off on their own and just do their own thing and not be part of the community, and it's been lost, and that's the idea basically . . . to try it get the community back in. The big statement on Facebook is `Intake Club 264 bringing the community together.' " " I just turned the laptop on one morning and saw that the news headlines said that the government had raised the unit alcohol price, I think it was, to about 25p, and this was to try and combat the cheap drinks in the supermarkets. I thought, `That's not going to make one hell of a difference,' and I was fuming at what they thought they were trying to achieve, and it wasn't going to achieve anything. So I just set up this group, and it just ricocheted from there. That was on the 265 18th of January. Intake Social Club " " Inbetweenhissecretarialduties,Shaunworkstirelesslyathiscampaign,tryingtodragtheleviathansof clublandandtheCIUintothe21st-centuryvirtualworld.Herealisesthattheexploitationofnewmediacould bethekeytoaccessingnewaudiencesandhopefullycreatinganewgenerationofyoungerclub-users.The SavetheWorkingMen'sClubsandtheEntertainmentIndustrycampaignhasalreadyattractedagreatdeal ofpublicity,includingnumeroustelevisionandnewspaperstories,andthewebsitereceivesanimpressive amountofhitseachday.Thenextstageistoproduceasetoffree,onlinematerialsintheformofan `informationandideas'pack.Clubswillbeabletoaccesstheseresourcesfreelyandadaptthemtotheir needs,hopefullygainingnewideasabouthowtodeveloptheservicestheyofferandattractmorecustomers tonewevents. What we have started on there is like a What's On Guide - it's like free advertising. It's Facebook; Facebook is completely free. What we've started doing is, let's say this Saturday, [in the] What's On Guide, anyone can post what's on in their venue, and you can share it on your page so all your friends are going to 266 see it. " 105 106 Into the 21st century Clubswillsurviveinfutureyears,buttheywillhavetoadapttothefastpaceof changeinsociety.Someclubswillclose,whilstotherswillcontinuetodowell. Sometimes,itisdifficulttopinpointwhythisisthecase;occasionallythough, theanswerisquiteevident.Asmanyintervieweeshavesaid,thereisaneedto bringmoreyoungpeopleintoclubsandtomakeuseofthesefantasticvenues. Maybetheclubscouldbecomepartofthenationallivemusicscene.Theyare perfectlysizedvenueswithexcellentfacilities,andonecanalreadyseeexamples oflocalmusicnightsthatfeatureoriginalbandsanddrawinacompletelynew andyoungerclientele. Asnon-profit-makingorganisationsandcommunitycentres,theclubsmight alsobeabletoaccesspublicfundingtosupportandbroadentheservicesthat theyprovidetothecommunity.Aswehaveseen,theyarethefocusofmany communitiesandarenotjustaboutalcoholconsumptionandgoodnightsout. Theyoffermuch,muchmorethanthattolocalpeople.Thespiritandinitiative thatfoundedtheoriginalclubsmustnowbeusedtokeepthemaliveinyearsto come. " Clubs will survive, but only a smaller number of clubs. We're already losing too many, but the better ones, the best supported ones, will survive, providing they are run correctly. So the properly run, the best-run clubs, the best-supported clubs will survive, there's 267 no doubt of that. " 107 108 Bibliography Adeney, M., and Lloyd, J., The Miners' Strike 1984-5: Loss Without Limit (RKP, 1986). Bailey, P., Leisure and Class in Victorian England: Rational Recreation and the Contest for Control, 1830-1885 (Routledge, 2010). Bloomfield, B., Boanas, G. and Samuel, R., The Enemy Within: pit villages and the miners' strike of 1984-5 (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986). Coekin, C., Knock Three Times: Working Men, Social Clubs and Other Stories (Dewi Lewis, Stockport, 2006). Elvin, G., (Ed. Peter Tuffrey), Doncaster's Trades and Labour Clubs, (Geoff Elvin, Doncaster, no date). Holden, T., Queen Coal (Sutton, London, 2005). Milne, S., The Enemy Within: Thatcher's Secret War against the Miners (Verso, London, 2004). Orwell, G., The Road to Wigan Pier (Penguin Classics, 2001). Samuel, R. (Ed.), History Workshop Series: People's History and Socialist Theory (Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1981). Samuel, R., Island Stories. Unravelling Britain. Theatres of Memory Volume II (Verso, London, 1998). Samuel, R., `Local History and Oral History', History Workshop, No. 1 (Spring, 1976), pp. 191-208. Samuel, R. (Ed.), Miners, Quarrymen and Saltworkers (Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1977). Samuel, R., Theatres of Memory (Verso, London, 1994). Samuel, R. & Thompson, P., The Myths We Live By (Routledge, London, 1990). Solly, H., Working Men, a Glance at Some of their Wants, with Reasons and Suggestions for Helping them to Help Themselves, (Bell & Daldy, London, 1863). Solly, H., Working Men's Social Clubs and Educational Institutes (1867) (Kessinger Publishing, 2009) Thompson, P., The Voice of the Past: Oral History, 3rd Edition (OUP, Oxford, 2000). Thornton, J., All the Fun of the Fight (Doncaster Library Service, 1987). Tremlett, G., Clubmen:the History of the Working Men's Club and Institute Union (Secker & Warburg, London, 1987). Waddington, D., Critcher, C. and Wykes, M., Split at the Seams? Community, Continuity and Change After the 1984 Coal Dispute (Open University Press, Milton Keynes, 1990). 109 110 Picture credits Cover Picture: Regulars at Armthorpe Social Club. All pictures Real-to-Reel Media, apart from the following: CIU Journals and CIU Benefits leaflet, courtesy of the CIU; Balby Ashmount, Toll Bar House and Stainforth WMC, courtesy of Geoff Elvin; Bill Bridgin, courtesy of Dunscroft Social Club; CIU Certificate, courtesy of Norton Coronation Club; Bert Weedon publicity, courtesy of www.bertweedon.com; Wheatley Club Accounts, courtesy of Wheatley WMC; Regulars at the Scala, club steward's dinner and dance 1958, courtesy of Dr Richard Stevens; Club welcomes an Italian visitor in the early 1980s, courtesy of Sue Forbes; The Doncaster CIU area, courtesy of the CIU; Carcroft Village Club, Old Scala Club, Barnburgh Club and the Liberal Club, The Old Dispensary and Old Trades Club, Balby Bridge and Asmount Committees, courtesy of Geoff Elvin; The Comrades club in the 1950s, Fire at the Old Volunteer, Trades Club in the Northern Bus Station, courtesy of Doncaster Local Studies Library; Norton Coronation committee, courtesy of Norton Coronation Club; The Venue adverts and articles, Doncaster Free Press 1970, The Free Press 5th December, 1968, Dickie and Dotty, courtesy of Barry Crabtree and Doncaster Free Press; Gig reviews, courtesy of Lyn O'Hara; A typical hand-written score, original composition by Dave Lane; Dennis Stevens behind the bar of the old Scala club, courtesy of Dr Richard Stevens; Aim Studios brochure, courtesy of Howard Johnson; Chris Carr publicity shot, courtesy of Chris Carr; Carlo Paul Santana, Intake Social Jubilee week, Tony Adams and Grandad, Wild Oates in concert in the early 1980s, Wild Oates publicity shot, courtesy of Intake Social Club; Askern Club trip, courtesy of Doncaster Star; Carcroft Club Dinner and Trip Letter to the Venue, courtesy of Barry Crabtree and Doncaster Free Press; Dunscroft Club trip, courtesy of Dunscroft Social Club; Jock Forbes' plaque at Wheatley Club, courtesy of Sue Forbes; members awards, Ray Reardon, courtesy of Intake Social Club; Ikey's skiffle group, courtesy of Dunscroft Social Club; Intake life member's annual party, courtesy of Intake Social Club; Lord Halifax presents the Halifax Trophy to Brodsworth Main Colliery Officials' Club, John Lowe, Ray Reardon's visit, courtesy of Intake Social Club; Miss Queen of the clubs, courtesy of Intake Social Club. 111 References 1 Workingmen'sclubisoftenusedasagenerictermfor establishmentsthatarealsocalledsocialclubs,workingmen's institutes,miners'welfareclubsandsoon.Themaincriterion forsuchcategorisationisaffiliationtotheCIUorWorkingMen's ClubandInstituteUnion,buttherearemanycommittee-runand privatelyrunclubsintheDoncasterareathatcanstillbeclassed asworkingmen'sclubs,despitenotbeingCIU-affiliated. LordRoseby,Unionpresident,1875. 24 FrankArrowsmithandAndySummers,04.04.11,Graceholme SocialClub StirlingCentre,partone,16.03.11 GeoffElvin,TradesClub,11.03.11 Don&Barry,13.05.11 JohnBryanandTosh,NortonCoronationClub,08.06.11 FrankArrowsmithandAndySummers,Graceholme,04.04.11 Don&Barry,13.05.11 55 ConcertinaClub,13.04.11,DavidandJohnSpencer1 ConcertinaClub,13.04.11,DavidandJohnSpencer1 PaulineandKenYounginterview,16.06.11 HighfieldsGroup,31.03.11,AlanChadwick RayTrevorsandAnneHolland,07.07.11 RayTrevorsandAnneHolland,07.07.11 DaveLane,06.06.11 FrankArrowsmithandAndySummers,Graceholme,04.04.11 Peteandfriends,Comrades,17.05.11 Don&Barry,13.05.11 DaveLane,06.06.11 JohnBryanandTosh,NortonCoronationClub,08.06.11 JimmyCook,16.04.11 Peteandfriends,Comrades,17.05.11 SteveHowes,interview01.03.11. Peteandfriends,Comrades,17.05.11 DaveLane,06.06.11 RayTrevorsandAnneHolland,07.07.11 RayTrevorsandAnneHolland,07.07.11 IntakeSocialClub,10.03.11,ShaunWhittaker RayTrevorsandAnneHolland,07.07.11 DaveLane,06.06.11 JohnBryanandTosh,NortonCoronationClub,08.06.11 RayTrevorsandAnneHolland,07.07.11 DaveLane,06.06.11 ClayLaneGroup,25.04.11 DaveLane,06.06.11 DaveLane,06.06.11 DaveLane,06.06.11 Stirlingcentre,09.03.11,Evelyn,RobLaverandGwen DaveLane,06.06.11 56 25 57 26 58 27 2 59 28 3 UnitarianismisaliberalChristiancreedthatbelievesinoneGod, incontrasttotheChristianHolyTrinity. 60 29 61 4 SollyhadpreviouslyestablishedtheWorkingMen'sMutual ImprovementandRecreationSocietyinLancasterin1860. 30 62 31 5 Bailey,P.,LeisureandClassinVictorianEngland:Rational RecreationandtheContestforControl,1830-1885(Routledge, 2010),p.124. 6 FromIntakeSocialClub'swebsite,http:// intakesocialclubdoncaster.webs.com/whoweare.htm CMD:ClubManagementDiploma,acourserunbytheCIU whichcoversclublaw,administrationandaccountancy. DaveGravel,TradesClub,15.06.11 DaveGravel,TradesClub,11.03.11 SueForbes,Rebound,10.05.11 DerekandPat,DenabyMainInstitute,01.07.11 Moira,clubstewardess,NortonCoronationClub,14.06.11 JohnBryanandTosh,NortonCoronationClub,08.06.11 Joanne,BullcroftOfficials'Club,02.07.11 Moira,clubstewardess,NortonCoronationClub,14.06.11 IntakeSocialClub,01.03.11,Tom&Alan Peteandfriends,Comrades,17.05.11 ArmthorpeSocialClub,16.05.11,Colin,Terry,John&Helen Peteandfriends,Comrades,17.05.11 IntakeSocialClub,01.03.11,RayBird SueForbes,Rebound,10.05.11 WheatleyClubCommittee,06.07.11 PaulineandKenYounginterview,16.06.11 63 32 64 FromRev.HenrySolly'sinitialmanifesto,c.1861.Source: Tremlett,G.,Clubmen:theHistoryoftheWorkingMen'sCluband InstituteUnion(Secker&Warburg,London,1987),p.13. 65 33 66 34 7 ThefirstexampleisRevFWRobertson'sBrightonWorking Men'sInstituteof1849,whichspawnedothersimilar organisationsacrossthecountry,suchastheSouthShields WorkingMen'sInstitute. 67 35 68 36 69 8 Solly,H.,WorkingMen'sSocialClubsandEducationalInstitutes (1867)(KessingerPublishing,2009),p.10. Ibid,p.15. NotethattheCIUisnon-political. 37 70 38 9 71 39 10 72 40 11 ThereisactuallyonlyoneCIUclubintheRepublicofIreland: theCityofDublinWorkingMen'sClub. DaveGravel,TradesClub,11.03.11 DaveGravel,TradesClub,11.03.11 73 41 74 12 42 75 13 43 76 HighfieldsGroup,31.03.11,FlorenceRiley,MrsB.Thakrah, MrsB.Booth,BeatriceLisyk,KathMusgrove 14 15 Orwell,G.,TheRoadtoWiganPier(PenguinClassics,2001), p.79. 44 77 45 78 46 79 SpecialthankstoNormanPoulsonandJohnWilsonforthis story. 16 17 47 80 48 DunscroftSocial,14.03.11,CharlieJones,HarryChurch DunscroftSocial,14.03.11,CharlieJones,HarryChurch IntakeSocialClub,01.03.11,Tom&Alan FrankArrowsmithandAndySummers,Graceholme,04.04.11 GeoffElvin,TradesClub,11.03.11 Stirlingcentre,09.03.11,Evelyn,RobLaverandGwen Don&Barry,13.05.11 81 18 MexboroughGroup1,MexboroughDayCentre,30.03.11, Sylvia,BarbaraLydiaandLily1 49 50 82 19 GeoffElvin,TradesClub,11.03.11 RayTrevorsandAnneHolland,07.07.11 FrankArrowsmithandAndySummers,Graceholme,04.04.11 Peteandfriends,Comrades,17.05.11 Don&Barry,13.05.11 83 20 51 84 21 52 85 22 53 86 23 54 TheRoadSafetyActof1967introducedthefirstlegal maximumbloodalcohol(drinkdriving)limitintheUK.The limitwassetatamaximumBAC(bloodalcoholconcentration) of80mgofalcoholper100mlofbloodortheequivalent107 112 milligramsofalcoholper100millilitresofurine.Itbecamean offencetodrive,attempttodriveorbeinchargeofamotor vehiclewithabloodalcoholconcentrationthatexceededthe maximumprescribedlegallimit. Source:http://www.drinkdriving.org/drink_driving_information_ uklawhistory.php 87 115 ArmthorpeSocialClub,16.05.11,ColinWalker 146 SueForbes,Rebound,10.05.11 FrankArrowsmithandAndySummers,Graceholme,04.04.11 BullcroftOfficials'group,02.07.11 ArmthorpeSocialgroup,23.05.11 SueForbes,Rebound,10.05.11 IntakeSocialClub,01.03.11,MikeAtkinson SueForbes,Rebound,10.05.11 ArmthorpeSocialClub,16.05.11,ColinWalker ShaunWhittaker,12.04.11 ArmthorpeSocialClub,16.05.11,Colin,Terry,John&Helen ConcertinaClub,13.04.11,DavidandJohnSpencer1 116 MexboroughGroup1,MexboroughDayCentre,30.03.11, Sylvia,BarbaraLydiaandLily1 117 147 148 HowardJohnson,interview15.04.11. Don&Barry,13.05.11 JimmyCookandCo,16.04.11 StirlingCentre,partone,16.03.11 PaulineandKenYounginterview,16.06.11 149 118 88 150 119 89 MexboroughGroup1,MexboroughDayCentre,30.03.11, Sylvia,BarbaraLydiaandLily1 90 151 RichardStevens,01.04.11 GeoffElvin,TradesClub,11.03.11 DaveGravel,TradesClub,11.03.11 `SecretService'bandinterview,04.05.11 `SecretService'bandinterview,04.05.11 IntakeSocialClub,01.03.11,RayBird IntakeSocialClub,10.03.11,ShaunWhittaker RayTrevorsandAnneHolland,07.07.11 Don&Barry,13.05.11 DaveLane,06.06.11 MexboroughGroup1,MexboroughDayCentre,30.03.11, Sylvia,BarbaraLydiaandLily1 120 121 152 SueForbes,Rebound,10.05.11 ArmthorpeSocialClub,16.05.11,Colin,Terry,John&Helen Don&Barry,13.05.11 Don&Barry,13.05.11 IntakeSocialClub,01.03.11,Tom&Alan StirlingCentre,partone,16.03.11 Don&Barry,13.05.11 FrankArrowsmithandAndySummers,Graceholme,04.04.11 IntakeSocialClub,01.03.11,RayBird JimmyCookandCo,16.04.11 153 91 122 92 154 123 93 155 124 94 156 125 95 126 96 157 HighfieldsGroup,31.03.11,FlorenceRiley,MrsB.Thakrah, MrsB.Booth,BeatriceLisyk,KathMusgrove 158 127 97 Don&Barry,13.05.11 HighfieldsGroup,31.03.11,Chairwoman FrankArrowsmithandAndySummers,Graceholme,04.04.11 HighfieldsGroup,31.03.11,AlanChadwick ArmthorpeSocialgroup,23.05.11 IntakeSocialClub,01.03.11,RayBird IntakeSocialClub,01.03.11,Tom&Alan FrankArrowsmithandAndySummers,Graceholme,04.04.11 FrankArrowsmithandAndySummers,Graceholme,04.04.11 RayTrevorsandAnneHolland,07.07.11 DunscroftSocial,14.03.11,CharlieJones,HarryChurch ArmthorpeSocialClub,16.05.11,Colin,Terry,John&Helen ArmthorpeSocialgroup,23.05.11 ArmthorpeSocialClub,16.05.11,ColinWalker Stirlingcentre,09.03.11,Evelyn,RobLaverandGwen ClayLaneGroup,25.04.11 Stirlingcentre,09.03.11,Evelyn,RobLaverandGwen FrankArrowsmithandAndySummers,Graceholme,04.04.11 DunscroftSocial,14.03.11,CharlieJones,HarryChurch Stirlingcentre,09.03.11,Evelyn,RobLaverandGwen 159 128 98 160 129 99 161 130 100 SpecialthankstoformerClayLanemembers,Norman Poulson,AlanCartwrightandJohnWilsonfortheireye-witness accountofOliverReed'svisit. 101 162 MexboroughGroup1,MexboroughDayCentre,30.03.11, Sylvia,BarbaraLydiaandLily1 131 132 MexboroughGroup1,MexboroughDayCentre,30.03.11, Sylvia,BarbaraLydiaandLily 133 163 ClayLaneGroup,25.04.11 SueForbes,Rebound,10.05.11 DerekandPat,DenabyMainInstitute,01.07.11 StanPearsoninterview,12.05.11 PaulineandKenYounginterview,16.06.11 SueForbes,Rebound,10.05.11 StirlingCentre,partone,16.03.11 WheatleyClubCommittee,06.07.11 ArmthorpeSocialClub,16.05.11,ColinWalker HighfieldsGroup,31.03.11,AlanChadwick Tenshillings,equivalentto50ptoday. ConcertinaClub,13.04.11,DavidandJohnSpencer1 DunscroftSocial14.03.11,CharlieJones 164 102 165 Stirlingcentre,09.03.11,RobLaver IntakeSocialClub,01.03.11,Tom&Alan Stirlingcentre,09.03.1,Evelyn,RobLaverandGwen Stirlingcentre,09.03.11,RobLaver CharlotteRawson,07.07.11 DerekandPat,DenabyMainInstitute,01.07.11 FrankArrowsmithandAndySummers,Graceholme,04.04.11 FrankArrowsmithandAndySummers,Graceholme,04.04.11 ArmthorpeSocialgroup,23.05.11 FrankArrowsmithandAndySummers,Graceholme,04.04.11 Stirlingcentre,09.03.11,Evelyn,RobLaverandGwen JohnBryanandTosh,NortonCoronationClub,08.06.11 RayTrevorsandAnneHolland,07.07.11 103 166 134 104 167 135 105 168 136 106 169 137 107 170 138 108 171 139 109 172 140 110 173 141 111 174 142 112 175 143 113 176 144 114 HighfieldsGroup,31.03.11,FlorenceRiley,MrsB.Thakrah, MrsB.Booth,BeatriceLisyk,KathMusgrove 177 145 113 178 ArmthorpeSocialClub,16.05.11,ColinWalker FrankArrowsmithandAndySummers,Graceholme,04.04.11 JimmyCook,16.04.11 FrankArrowsmithandAndySummers,Graceholme,04.04.11 IntakeSocialClub,01.03.11,Tom&Alan 209 HighfieldsGroup,31.03.11,FlorenceRiley,MrsB.Thakrah, MrsB.Booth,BeatriceLisyk,KathMusgrove 210 240 IntakeSocialClub,01.03.11,LesSimms JohnBryanandTosh,NortonCoronationClub,08.06.11 DunscroftSocial14.03.11CharlieJones IntakeSocialClub,01.03.11,Tom&Alan 179 241 IntakeSocialClub,01.03.11,MikeAtkinson Don&Barry,13.05.11 JohnBryanandTosh,NortonCoronationClub,08.06.11 StirlingCentre,parttwo,16.03.11 Stirlingcentre,09.03.11,RobLaver Stirlingcentre,09.03.11,Evelyn,RobLaverandGwen Stirlingcentre,09.03.11,Evelyn,RobLaverandGwen GeoffElvin,TradesClub,11.03.11 180 242 211 181 243 212 182 213 183 HighfieldsGroup,31.03.11,FlorenceRiley,MrsB.Thakrah, MrsB.Booth,BeatriceLisyk,KathMusgrove 184 244 MexboroughGroup1,MexboroughDayCentre,30.03.11, Sylvia,BarbaraLydiaandLily1 245 214 GeoffElvin,TradesClub,11.03.11 Don&Barry,13.05.11 Paul,AskernSpaClub,21.06.11 DunscroftSocial,14.03.11,CharlieJones,HarryChurch Don&Barry,13.05.11 Food,forthoseoutsideYorkshire DunscroftSocial14.03.11,CharlieJones ConcertinaClub,13.04.11,DavidandJohnSpencer1 DunscroftSocial14.03.11CharlieJones FrankArrowsmithandAndySummers,Graceholme,04.04.11 JimmyCookandCo,16.04.11 Paul,AskernSpaClub,21.06.11 ConcertinaClub,13.04.11,DavidandJohnSpencer1 HighfieldsGroup,31.03.11,AlanChadwick WheatleyClubCommittee,06.07.11 ShaunWhittaker,12.04.11 IntakeSocialClub,01.03.11,RayBird Stirlingcentre,09.03.11,RobLaver ArmthorpeSocialClub,16.05.11,ColinWalker ShaunWhittaker,12.04.11 ShaunWhittaker,12.04.11 ShaunWhittaker,12.04.11 IntakeSocialClub,01.03.11,Tom&Alan FrankArrowsmithandAndySummers,Graceholme,04.04.11 DunscroftSocial14.03.11,CharlieJones ArmthorpeSocialgroup,23.05.11 ArmthorpeSocialgroup,23.05.11 215 246 185 216 247 186 217 248 187 188 Feesforsuchappearancescouldeasilyrunintothethousands ofpounds,evenintheearly1980s. 189 218 MexboroughGroup1,MexboroughDayCentre,30.03.11, Sylvia,BarbaraLydiaandLily 219 249 250 Stirlingcentre,09.03.11,RobLaver FrankArrowsmithandAndySummers,Graceholme,04.04.11 ConcertinaClub,13.04.11,DavidandJohnSpencer2 StirlingCentre,partone,16.03.11 JohnBryanandTosh,NortonCoronationClub,08.06.11 BullcroftOfficials'Clubgroup,02.07.11 RayTrevorsandAnneHolland,07.07.11 Channel4beganbroadcastingon2ndNovember,1982 Don&Barry,13.05.11 FrankArrowsmithandAndySummers,Graceholme,04.04.11 Paul,AskernSpaClub,21.06.11 IntakeSocialClub,01.03.11,MikeAtkinson JimmyCookandCo,16.04.11 Stirlingcentre,09.03.11,Evelyn,RobLaverandGwen Don&Barry,13.05.11 ShaunWhittaker,12.04.11 ArmthorpeSocialClub,16.05.11,Colin,Terry,John&Helen 251 IntakeSocialClub,01.03.11,Tom&Alan DerekandPat,DenabyMainInstitute,01.07.11 Don&Barry,13.05.11 JimmyCookandCo,16.04.11 WheatleyClubCommittee,06.07.11 JohnBryanandTosh,NortonCoronationClub,08.06.11 JimmyCook,16.04.11 DunscroftSocial14.03.11,CharlieJones IntakeSocialClub,01.03.11,Tom&Alan IntakeSocialClub,01.03.11,Tom&Alan JohnBryanandTosh,NortonCoronationClub,08.06.11 IntakeSocialClub,01.03.11,Tom&Alan 220 252 190 221 253 191 222 254 192 223 255 193 224 256 194 225 257 195 226 258 196 227 259 197 228 260 198 229 261 199 230 262 200 231 263 ArmthorpeSocialClub,16.05.2011,Colin,Terry,John& Helen 201 202 ByStephanieCondron,TheTelegraph,02Apr2007,pagenot known 203 232 264 233 265 234 266 FrankArrowsmithandAndySummers,Graceholme,04.04.11 FrankArrowsmithandAndySummers,Graceholme,04.04.11 JimmyCook,16.04.11 SueForbes,Rebound,10.05.11 WheatleyClubCommittee,06.07.11 Moira,clubstewardess,NortonCoronationClub,14.06.11 235 267 204 MexboroughGroup1,MexboroughDayCentre,30.03.11, Sylvia,BarbaraLydiaandLily1 236 237 205 JohnBryanandTosh,NortonCoronationClub,08.06.11 GeoffElvin,TradesClub,11.03.11 206 238 207 208 239 ArmthorpeSocialClub,16.05.2011,Colin,Terry,John& Helen 114 115 About this book ThisprojecthasbeenfundedbytheHeritageLotteryFundandcoordinatedbyReal-to-ReelMedia.In early2011,Real-to-Reelspentsixmonthsworkingwithlocalclubs,communitygroupsanddaycentres inDoncaster.Overthistime,weaccumulatedauniquearchiveofinterviews,photographsandvideo, representingtheworkingmen'sclubsoftodayandpeople'smemoriesoftheminpreviousgenerations. InTheWorkingMen'sClubsofDoncaster,youwillfindsomeofthefascinatingstoriesandimagesthathave beencollectedfortheproject.Thewebsite,www.workingmensclubs.org,containsmorearchivematerials andinstructionsonhowtocontributeyourownmediaintheformoftext,audio,videoandphotographs. Edited by Dave Angel www.hlf.org.uk www.realtoreelmedia.co.uk 116