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2013 Riverfront+Levee Park Steering Committee: Mark Peterson, Mayor of Winona Frank Pomeroy, Chair Eric Sorenson, Vice-Chair Tina Anderson Pam Eyden, Winona City Council Tom Fassbender Jason Gilman Mike Kennedy Bernadette Mahfood Rod Nelson Gaby Peterson Jack Richter Natalie Siderius Mary Stefanski Mike Walsh Chad Ubl, staff Carlos Espinosa, staff

This research project was produced and completed in 2013-14 by The Center for Changing Landscapes (CCL) of the College of Design at the University of Minnesota. The project contributors include: Matthew Tucker ASLA Co-Principal Invest gator Assistant Professor Department of Landscape Architecture

Mary Vogel Co-Principal Invest gator CCL Co-Director

Emily Lowery CCLResearch Fellow

Erin Garnaas-Holmes CURA Research Assistant


he City of Winona has partnered with the University of Minnesota’s Center for Changing Landscapes to collaborate with the community to articulate and communicate a clear vision for the riverfront as well as a roadmap for its implementation. The goal of this research project is to aid the Community in the creation of a riverfront vision that will characterize and communicate the future potential of the riverfront and to serve as an implementation guide of physical and programmatic improvements needed to stimulate a renewed public interest in the riverfront. An underlying goal is to “give the riverfront backâ€? to Winona’s residents and visitors. The VISION PLAN builds on previous planning, it empowers future planning and existing civic leadership, responds to physical, cultural, and political contexts, and it supports implementation. This research report analyzes the potential of the riverfront and its place within the City of Winona. The key questions asked in the research were: ÇŠ:KDWLVWKHFRQWH[WRI:LQRQDǢVPLOHULYHUIURQWHQYLURQPHQW" ÇŠ:KDWDUHWKHVSHFLČŒFSK\VLFDODQGFXOWXUDOFKDUDFWHULVWLFVRI WKHULYHUIURQWHQYLURQPHQW" ÇŠ:KDWDUHWKHSUHYLRXVDQGH[LVWLQJPXQLFLSDODQGUHJXODWRU\ contexts that drive (constrain or leverage) the current DQGIXWXUHULYHUIURQWHQYLURQPHQW" ÇŠ+RZGRHVWKHULYHUIURQWUHODWHWRRWKHUDTXDWLFHQYLURQPHQWV :LQRQDǢV'RZQWRZQDQGWKHFLW\DVDZKROH"

ÇŠ $V ZH EHJLQ WR LPDJLQH D UHGHVLJQHG ULYHUIURQW SDUN DQG waterfront that improves the status of Levee Park and effectively connects to the community and the park’s historic legacy, what are the current opportunities and constraints of this site that FRXOGLPSDFWKRZLWLVGHVLJQHGLQWKHIXWXUH" 7KH ČŒQDO JRDO RI WKLV UHSRUW LV WR SURYLGH DQVZHUV WR WKHVH questions in a digestible format for the Winonan community. The research materials generated in this report are foundational tools for engaging in a critical discourse regarding past and future changes to the Winona riverfront and Levee Park. By documenting opportunities and challenges, we can frame the issues needed to be addressed for an effective vision of a future park and waterfront that are strongly connected to the rest of the city. By providing recommendations, Winona can begin to establish momentum towards a path of implmentation The research is intended to: ÇŠ (QJDJH ERWK WKH SDUN FRPPLWWHH DQG WKH JHQHUDO SXEOLF Project work was presented at Levee Park Committee meetings for feedback and it will inform committee discussions and actions. ÇŠ%HGLVSOD\HGDWFRPPXQLW\PHHWLQJVFRPPXQLW\HYHQWVDQG posted on Winona’s website to engage the city residents in the park/waterfront work and to receive suggestions and comments. ÇŠ6XSSRUWFLW\HIIRUWVWRIXQGLPSOHPHQWDWLRQRIWKHYLVLRQ

Winona Riverfront Showing Steamboat Dock And Railroad Station At Foot Of Winona Street, Winona, MN, ca1870; MNHS





Street across rail tracks and bisecting Levee Park, WCHS










“Recognizing the unique aesthetic value of Levee Park, the historic function it has served ln the past as a gateway from the river to the heart of Winona, and the disruption of the area that would result from the flood barrier plan, several landscaping concepts were investigated as potential measures which could be incorporated into the project to retain the beauty of the area and focus attention on the historical society interests. The concept illustrated in plate 6 was designed to achieve this objective and to complement existing urban redevelopment plans for the area south of the park. The plan as illustrated consists of a combined levee floodwall system along the waterfront edge of the park, with a low floodwall about 300 feet long fronting the plaza area in which the steamboat would be featured. Considerable landscaping, including terraces on the levee back slope, would be included in the plan to further restore the aesthetic quality of the area as well as retain the docking-facility theme which the park has conveyed throughout the history of Winona. In order to retain a reasonable view of the river and to keep fill requirements to a height that could be effectiyely landscaped, the freeboard range of the proposed floodwall has been omitted. However, costs have been included in the cost estimate to provide for a removable aluminum floodwall cap to be installed during flood conditions. In view of the desirability of preserving the aesthetic of the area and since the freeboard range would be required only in rare instances, the flood barrier concept shown for Levee Park is considered to be both practical and feasible.” INTERIM SURVEY REPORT FOR FLOOD CONTROL, MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT WINONA, MINNESOTA. SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL COMPLIANCE WITH HOUSE COMMITTEE RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED 18 SEPTEMBER 1944 AND THE FLOOD CONTROL ACT APPROVED 21 OCTOBER 1965, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, ST. PAUL DISTRICT, CORPS OF ENGINEERS, ST. PAUL, MINNESOTA 55101, 6 FEBRUARY 1970

As Built Drawings- Levee Park Section Views From Operation And Maintenance Manljal Winona, Minnesota Appndix A86$UP\&RUSV2I(QJLQHHUV

As Built Drawings- Levee Park Plan View from Operation And Maintenance Manual Winona, Minnesota Appndix A86$UP\&RUSV2I(QJLQHHUV


oday’s park is a public space that has tremendous opportunity for Winona’s FRPPXQLW\ DQG LWV YLVLWRUV +RZHYHU WKH SDUNǢV FXUUHQW GHVLJQ KDV VLJQLČŒFDQW OLPLWDWLRQV WKDW UHVXOW IURP DQ RYHUEHDULQJ HPSKDVLV RQ Č?RRG SURWHFWLRQ IRU WKHUDUHFDWDVWURSKLFČ?RRGWKURXJKWKHXVHRIODUJHČ?RRGZDOOVDQGSDYHPHQW As a result, Levee Park is visually obtrusive, inaccessible, unwelcoming and unappealing- the exact opposite of its historical role in the community. As per its name, the current physical form favors a design similar to that of a levee, with a narrow width of pedestrian space (similar to a large city sidewalk) atop the levee. Other portions of the Park are either isolated by slopes or fencing (city side of Park) or are dominated by car infrastructure, in the form of Levee Drive along the river edge and four surface parking areas (two at each end; two on Levee Drive). A large portion of the lower level of the Park was designed low HQRXJKWKDWVHDVRQDOČ?RRGLQJUHTXLUHVLWWREHFORVHGRIIHIIHFWLYHO\FORVLQJRQH third to one-half of the park in the spring or summer months, hindering advanced planning of park actvities at the river’s edge and prohibiting boat mooring- the primary historic use of the Park’s river edge. Public use and safe enjoyment of the riverfront park predates the current physical form. Riverfront Parks are also essential pieces of “green infrastructureâ€? in D FLW\ DQG SURYLGH VLJQLČŒFDQW FRQWULEXWLRQV WR D FRPPXLW\ǢV TXDOLW\ RI OLIH U S Q  SK V F  V   K  N Q   VK V V    pub c sp c s un c s s bu s s s g s u us In doing so, the park has become largely neglected, with a lack of stewardship and ownership, whether E\FRPPXQLW\VXSSRUWRUPXQLFLSDOVWDIČŒQJ7KLVODFNRIVXSSRUWLVDPSOLČŒHGE\ the relative lack of budget emphasis on public parks within the City of Winona. Indicators of public care typically seen in popular urban parks - while cosmeticare largely absent in Levee Park. Indictors of less than adequate care including areas of pavement upheaval, lack of tree care, dying plants, fences in disrepair and other unsightly elements are evident in Levee Park.

“Thus the basic issue for Winona’s riverfront revitalization is how to invest in the riverfront in ways that will accrue multiple benefits to the City and return the Mississippi River to its central defining role in Winona.” City of Winona Downtown Revitalization Plan (2007)



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The adjacent diagrams illustrate the general opportunity for Winona to spatially focus the cultural momentum of events, recreation and development on the river, while concurrently opening the city to the river. “Openingâ€? the city ZRXOG PHDQ IXOČŒOOLQJ :LQRQDǢV YLVLRQ laid out in the 2007 Comprehensive Plan to “Create recreational opportunities that will appeal to downtown residents of the rest of Winona, and visitors. Recreational opportunities are those that relate to use of the river and ULYHUIURQW ERDWLQJELNLQJČŒVKLQJHWF  as well as the City’s extensive upland trail and park resources.â€?

Figure 3. Slide from community presentation demonstrating focus of “momentum� of activities toward riverfront.


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Figure 4. Slide from community presentation demonstrating focus of “momentum� of activities into the city from the riverfront.

“Non-motorized Transportation. Establish a safe and efficient non-motorized transportation system that accesses all parts of Winona and the regional trail network.” 2007 Winona Comprehensive Plan USFWS

Marine Art Museum


Prairie Island



Marina Latsch Island Aghaming Park

Lions Park

Boat Launch Islands USFWS


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l e ve le vee pa p ark rk

Lock and Dam

As river reliant industry and associated infrastructure has moved away from the riverfront over the last half century, riverfront open space projects have proven to be a successful economic revitalization strategy in river cities throughout the US and abroad. While recreation is an important goal of these projects, many of these projects leverage the physical and historical context of the riverfront to develop tourism and to encourage residents to stay. This strategy of capitlizing on the physical and historical strengths of an area is similar to eco- and historical tourism, however riverfront reinvestment also can catalyze new, adjacent development. The 2007 Winona Downtown Revitalization Plan and 2007 Riverfront Revitlaization Plan are document that work in tandem, with redevelopment of one area reinforcing and supporting redevelopment of the other. For example, the Plan’s call for a downtown Convention Center and VLJQLČŒFDQWUHGHVLJQRIWKHULYHUIURQWDQGQHZFRQQHFWLRQV is not coincidental. 5LYHUIURQWUHYLWDOL]DWLRQSURMHFWVFDQKDYHKLJKO\EHQHČŒFLDO economic impacts, including attracting new commerical and residential “walkableâ€? development in areas adjacent WRULYHUIURQWUHLQYHVWPHQW7KLVEHQHČŒWVORFDOEXVLQHVV who must compete not only in terms of wages, but also in WKH LQWDQJLEOH EHQHČŒWV LQOFXGLQJ LPSURYHG TXDOLW\ RI OLIH for residents.

For a report discussing the methodology and census data trends, please see the UMN CURA report, located here.

WKHČ?RRGZDOODQGHDUWKZRUNVDVZHNQRZLWZDVVXJJHVWHGE\WKH:LQRQD County Historical Society in order to preserve Levee Park, once known DV Ǥ5LYHUVLGH 3DUNÇĽ LQ LWV KLVWRULF FRQČŒJXUDWLRQ 7KH 86 $UP\ &RUSV of Engineers references this effort in its Interim Survey Report for Flood &RQWURO0LVVLVVLSSL5LYHUDW:LQRQD0LQQHVRWDIURP

Ǥ$VHDUO\DVWKHLQLWLDOSXEOLFKHDULQJKHOGLQVHSWHPEHUFRQFHUQ was expressed by the Winona County Historical Society regarding the HIIHFWVDČ?RRGFRQWUROSURMHFWZRXOGKDYHRQDEORFNVWULSRIKLVWRULF Mississippi River frontage just downstream from the Minnesota Highway 43 and Chicago and North Western Railway bridges. This area, known as Levee Park, once served as a docking facility during the steamboat days on the Mississippi River and now features the last remaining woodenhull, stern-wheel steamboat, the Julius C. Wilkie, which is enshrined there as a monument and museum to that historic era. The Winona County Historical Society hosts over 10,000 visitors annually who tour this unique historical attraction.â€? - p. 32 The Winona County Historical Society advocated for an alternative plan in /HYHH3DUNWKDWZRXOGIHDWXUHDFRQFUHWHČ?RRGZDOOODQGZDUGRIWKHSDUND 2’-high wall that extended up from the riverfront and into downtown. This ZRXOG VWLOO SURWHFW GRZQWRZQ IURP Č?RRGLQJ EXW DOVR SUHVHUYH WKH SDUN However, this plan was disregarded by the project sponsors.

Ǥ7KHEDVLVIRUWKHLUGHFLVLRQFHQWHUVDURXQGWKHFLW\ZHOOČŒHOGZKLFKLV SUHVHQWO\ORFDWHGLQWKHSDUN7KHZHOOVZRXOGUHPDLQVXEMHFWWRČ?RRGLQJ LI WKH KLVWRULFDO VRFLHW\ SODQ ZHUH DGRSWHG 8QOHVV Č?RRG SURWHFWLRQ LVSURYLGHGWKHFLW\ZRXOGKDYHWRUHORFDWHWKHZHOOČŒHOGDQGDQHZO\ FRQVWUXFWHGLURQUHPRYDOSODQWDWDFRVWHVWLPDWHGDWWRPLOOLRQ $GGLWLRQDOFRVWVHVWLPDWHGWRH[FHHGZRXOGDOVRUHVXOWLIWKH historical society plan were adopted due in part to the extensive sewer PRGLČŒFDWLRQV UHTXLUHG FORVXUH VWUXFWXUHV DW VWUHHW FURVVLQJV DQG miscellaneous structural work requried.â€? p. 32 As discussed previously, the US Army Corps of Engineers proposed a compromise that redesigned the park, featuring a riveredge walkway and plaza overlook, histroic stone block walls were largely preserved (except in the area around the Wilkie plaza), park areas requiring additional earthworks were to be “reforestedâ€? and the City’s wellheads protected. Ironically, by DYRLGLQJWKHPLOOLRQRUPRUHH[WUDH[SHQVHRIWKLVSODQWKH&LW\DGRSWHG the design of Levee Park as we know it today. By the end of construction the new levee cost over $30 million and what has resulted is an urban park that is infrequently used. Based upon our review of the existing conditions and WKHSDUNSODQVWKHSRRUSK\VLFDOGHVLJQVLJQLČŒFDQWO\FRQWULEXWHVWRWKHODFN of use, as the park does not integrate public river edge access, which was vital to the establishment of the City and its sense of identity.

:KLOH VHYHUDO DVSHFWV RI WKH 86 $UP\ &RUSV H[LVWLQJ SDUN FRQČŒJXUDWLRQ deter park use, one primary infrastructure design failure (albeit surely XQLQWHQGHG LVWKDWRIWKHČ?RRGZDOOLWVHOIDQGWKHDUHDEHWZHHQZDOODQG water’s edge. While the wall itself may achieve its functional goals, the sheer length and prominence of the wall creates a visually unappealling feature that dominates the experience for anyone on the river or walking at its edge through the park, particularly in those areas near the Wilkie plaza or the eastern half of the park. This portion of the park has limited access, and several of those access points are restricted in size and view, creating ZD\ČŒQGLQJ VQDIXǢV DQG ǤEOLQGVÇĽ RU KLGGHQ FRUQHUV WKDW FRPSURPLVH D sense of personal security for the park visitor. The visual prominance of the wall is particularly un-inviting to those on leisure watercraft calling port at Winona (which is a historically important asset of the park and Winona’s visitors). Compounding the unappealing physical appearance of the wall is the presence of the one-way street and angled parking throughout the length of the park. The street and angled parking abut the rivers edge, where a low height wall and mooring platform rest atop a submerged sheetpile wall that forms the predominate park river edge. In concept, the combination of vehicle access, parking and a lower platfrom provide what was intended to serve as a boat mooring area, easily DFFHVVLEOH E\ YHKLFOH DVEXLOW GUDZLQJV IURP WKH ǢV ODEHO WKLV DUHD “recreational boat mooringâ€?). This intended function reinforces historic use and current desire to use the riverfront park for leisure craft mooring in close proximity to downtown. However reasonable the program, the unintended consequence of the design execution has resulted in a public mooring area that is functionally defunct and cannot be reliably used by recreational boat WUDIČŒF Our analysis of daily USGS stream gage data from 2002- 2013 indicates H[SHFWHGVHDVRQDOULYHUČ?XFWXDWLRQVLQFOXGLQJVSULQJUXQRIIDQGVXVWDLQHG summer rainfall events. When this data is juxatoposed against a sampling of annual community events and site elevation data, several observations FDQEHPDGH)RUH[DPSOHWKHSHULRGRIKLJKHVWUHFUHDWLRQDOERDWWUDIČŒF (summer) is also the period where the majority of seasonal water level FKDQJHVRFFXU:KLOHWKLVLVWREHH[SHFWHGWKHDPRXQWRIČ?XFWXDWLRQGXULQJ this time is typically 2 to 4 vertical feet. Given the concrete mooring platform LVRIDČŒ[HGHOHYDWLRQWKRVHUHFUHDWLRQDOZDWHUFUDIWGHVLULQJWRPRRUDW/HYHH Park (per the USACE design intent) cannot reasonably expect to do so given WKHH[LVWLQJČŒ[HGPRRULQJSODWIRUPHOHYDWLRQ&RQWUDVWWKLVDSSURDFKWRWKH ǤČ?H[LEOHÇĽPRRULQJDUHDDIIRUGHGE\WKHVORSLQJZKDUIZLWKFREEOHGSDYLQJDV VHHQLQSKRWRVRIWKH3DUNIURPǢVWKURXJKWKHǢV The analysis also yields that the existing elevation of Cal Fremling Drive is too low. The current street elevation will typically result in the street being closed and underwater or at some point in time, in any given year, from mid0DUFKWRPLG-XO\$VLGHIURPDGGLWLRQDOSRVWČ?RRGPDLQWHQDQFHGXHWR changing water levels and low park elevations result in a park river edge that



he VISION PLAN recommendations look beyond cosmetic LPSURYHPHQWVDQGVHHNWRDGGUHVVWKHIXQGDPHQWDOČ?DZVRIWKHRULJLQDO (and existing engineering design) that resist public use and enjoyment RI WKH KLVWRULFDOO\ VLJQLČŒFDQW SULPDU\ ULYHUHGJH RSHQ VSDFH WKDW LV central to the very founding of Winona. The distinctive water frontage of Winona can again be a strong economic and recreational asset for WKH&LW\EXWVLJQLČŒFDQWUHSDLUVWRWKHULYHUIURQWSDUWLFXODUO\DUHGHVLJQ of Levee Park- are needed. The proposed redesign of the Vision Plan responds directly to the Winona City Council adopted 2007 Riverfront Revitalization Plan: Levee Park: Plan for a comprehensive redesign of this central downtown park. Ample public input throughout the planning process has highlighted concerns that Levee Park, particularly the lower level, is a harsh and uninviting environment. It is well suited to withstand flooding, but has never been the type of signature waterfront park many would prefer to see at this location. City of Winona Riverfront Revitalization Plan, (2007; p.24) The recommended changes allow the Park to be functional for the community also include changes in park programming, management, and maintenance. Repairs to the physical character of the park go beyond “exterior decorationâ€? such as repairing fences, removing dead or dying plants, adding planters and other changes that add interest but do not change the park’s fundamental character, how it is used, and how it relates to Winona’s downtown. This VISION PLAN is an illustrative roadmap for implementation of the physical and programmatic improvements necessary to stimulate a renewed public interest and dialogue in the riverfront, to “ give the

riverfront backâ€? to Winona’s residents and its guests, and to support previous community civic planning and grassroots efforts. The vision EXLOGV RQ WKH SUHYLRXV SODQQLQJ GLUHFWLRQV LGHQWLČŒHG LQ WKH FLW\ǢV Comprehensive Plan, the Downtown Revitalization Plan and Riverfront Revitalization Plan (2007); previous Levee Park community input (2008); empowers new, strong civic leadership; responds to physical, cultural, economic, and political contexts; and supports implementation. Questions addressed in the visioning process include: :KDWLVWKHQDWXUHRI:LQRQDǢVPLOHORQJULYHUHQYLURQPHQW" :KDWDUHLWVVSHFLČŒFSK\VLFDODQGFXOWXUDOFKDUDFWHULVWLFV" How does the riverfront relate to Winona’s Downtown, other aquatic environments, and the city as a ZKROH" What are the opportunities and constraints that this environment offers to an enhanced, redesigned riverfront park and waterfront that improves its current status and connects more effectively to its community, its KLVWRULFUROHVDQGLWVIXWXUHSRVVLELOLWLHV" :KDWDUHWKHFLWL]HQVǢLGHDVIRU/HYHH3DUN"

7KH 9,6,21 3/$1 SURFHVV LGHQWLČŒHG VHYHQ VLJQLČŒFDQW RSSRUWXQLWLHV  These opportunities establish the big picture strategies for implementing change on the Winona riverfront. The opportunities are purposefully conceptual as way to think more broadly about the river, the downtown and the larger economic and ecological resources of the community. These opportunities are

Renewing Winona’s river-based identity, Reclaiming Levee Park as Winona’s front porch, Integrating Levee Park into Winona’s larger riverfront system, Seeing the riverfront as a park with a river running through it, Exploring the river as a “natural main street,” Enhancing the vibrancy of existing grassroots cultural initiatives and identifying opportunities for new initiatives, and Addressing the unintended consequences of infrastructure projects that have sapped the park’s vitality and limited its civic role. 7KH9,6,213/$1UHVSRQGVWRWKHIROORZLQJLVVXHVLGHQWLȌHGLQWKH &LW\RI:LQRQD&RPSUHKHQVLYH3ODQ S  City Policy Planning Issues (selected) Balance of Uses: The VISION PLAN balances recreational uses with the adjacent commercial and industrial uses. Improved access: Access to the river and the park are improved on Main, Walnut, and Huff Streets with an overlook at the terminus of Walnut Street River-related uses: Fishing, watching towboats, canoe and kayak landing, enjoying being by and looking at the river Trails: Mississippi River Trailhead and pedestrian trails along the river Redevelopment & Mixed-Use Buildings: Developed and

repurposed historic buildings are located next to the Park. These could include a River Education Regional Center and park RIȌFHV Water-based recreation-Identify and promote key riverfront destinations: The water feature on Main Street strengthens the Park’s water identity; its spotlight draws people to the riverfront during riverfront events. Park Committee Programming (selected; from May 2013 meeting) Multiple-season use and programming &OHDUZD\ȌQGLQJDQGHQWUDQFHGHPDUFDWLRQ Kayak and canoe launch Views of bluff; not just river. Relocate John Latsch sculpture Grassed slopes to roll on play on non-traditional play structures. Concerts at water edge Quiet space and art in park Overlooks that extend riverfront experience over waters edge Limit parking to limited service access, ADA and deliveries. Trailhead connection to existing trails in city. Bring water to people Park as an economic driver These strategies, along with programming input from the Levee Park Committee and members of the Community, resulted in a set of recommendations for programmatic support and physical changes in the riverfront park. The VISION PLAN recommendations include:


The existing physical design of Levee Park is strongly tipped in favor RI Č?RRG SURWHFWLRQ DW WKH FRVW RI SXEOLF XVH DQG HQMR\PHQW :KLOH Č?RRGSURWHFWLRQLVDFULWLFDOIXQFWLRQIRUWKHSDUNLWGRHVQRWKDYH to remain the only reliable park function. For decades, Winona’s riverfront park balanced many different uses and can do so again. The existing riverfront edge design has design failures that prohibit functional, year-round use of the Park. The proposed redesign DFNQRZOHGJHV WKH LPSRUWDQFH RI Č?RRG SURWHFWLRQ ZKLOH DOVR UH balancing public use and enjoyment of this vital community space. The historic “esplanadeâ€? function is brought back to the park, with both an upper and lower esplanade. These wide, public walkways provide important pedestrian space where people want to be- at the water’s edge. Cars are removed from the park, except for service or emergency vehicle access, and the new riverfront esplanades connect overlooks, sun lawns, performance spaces and interpretive programs. Increase the docking facilities on the riverfront and include a means of easy identification (directions and attractions) and access routes from the docking area to the downtown area. Riverfront Revitalization Plan (2007) This new river edge integrates the realities of modern changing river levels through the incorporation of adjustable docks and ramps to that respond to seasonal water change and still allow recreational boat mooring to occur. In other areas, the river edge and parking area is repaired by correcting the design elevation by raising the area so LWLVKLJKHUWKDQWKHW\SLFDOVHDVRQDOČ?RRGLQJ7KHVHUHSDLUVWRWKH existing design allow the Park to serve as the hub for river-based interpretation, recreation and tourism that are crucial to modern local economies. In this manner, the integrated esplanade, dock and river landing are the necessary riverfront infrastructure for a 21-century “Front Porchâ€? for Winona and guests.

3. reBALANCE FLOOD PROTECTION + COMMUNITY VITALITY The new “front porchâ€? and “front doorâ€? provides strong connections throughout the park and downtown; together they provide a gateway to the City, which the VISION PLAN calls “Riverfront Landingâ€?. The Landing acts as the central hub for all Park activities, with special emphasis placed on creating a distinct sense of arrival. This is accomplished by the large, open plaza that can be programmed for small events, regional river-related festivals, or large outdoor SHUIRUPDQFHV7KHVFDOHRIWKHVSDFHLVDPSOLČŒHGE\VWURQJYLHZVXS and down the river and the proximity of the Highway 43 bridge overhead. This scale provides a distinct, much needed spatial hierarchy and ZD\ČŒQGLQJGHVWLQDWLRQWKDWLVDEVHQWLQWKHFXUUHQWSDUN 7KHFXUUHQWSK\VLFDOGHVLJQRI/HYHH3DUNSXWVVLJQLČŒFDQWFRQVWUDLQWV on the capacity for the Park to be used for community events and festivals of a variety of type and size. These events continue in the strong grass-roots tradition of the Frozen Film Festival, the Shakespeare Festival, the Midwest Music Fest, Live @, and others. This hindrance takes its form in having paths that are too narrow and frequently inaccessible, lack of essential services- such as electrical, potable water and restrooms, minimal areas that are large enough DQGČ?DWHQRXJKWRKRVWYHQGRUVVSDFHVDQGQHDUO\KDOIRIWKHSDUN LV VXEMHFW WR Č?RRGLQJ IURP VHDVRQDO KLJK ZDWHU OHYHOV  7KH FXUUHQW SDUNǢVGHČŒFLHQFLHVOLPLWWKHSRWHQWLDOIRUKRZWKHSDUNFDQRQFHDJDLQ become a vital space for celebrated events that bring a community together, attracts visitors and new residents. Riverfront Landing provides this vital space.

Removable Floodwall at Winona Marina was installed by USACE as part of the Winona levee project (the same project that built Levee Park)

The Landing is elevated above seasonal water levels so at allow for the advanced, long range planning of annual, large regional riverfront celebrations and cultural events (Shakespeare Festival, for example). In addition, the proposed park improvements provide the essential services that are absolutely necessary and expected to sustain and JURZ ULYHUIURQW HYHQWV DIWHU WKH ČŒUVW VHYHUDO \HDUV RI D VXFFHVVIXO HYHQW 7KH /DQGLQJǢV SOD]D LV GHČŒQHG E\ HQWUDQFHV IURP WKH ULYHU dock and esplanade, as well as from the Main Street gateway. The SOD]DLVHQFORVHGE\VZHHSLQJODQGIRUPVZKRVHJHQWO\VORSLQJČ?DQNV open out towards the river and welcome visitors. The landforms provide informal seating areas for when the plaza space is used IRU SHUIRUPDQFHV ZLWK DXGLHQFH FDSDFLW\ RYHU  SHRSOHHLWKHU community wide or impromptu. The plaza also serves as a primary staging area for those arriving or departing on riverboats that may moor at the river edge adjacent to the plaza, or for access to the public dock.


ON Provide direct physical and visual access that does not require bridging tracks or levee Walkways within riverfront park should be designed to accommodate high volume of pedestrians during events; 12’ minimum width on all primary walkways; 18’ on all esplanade walkways. Clarify existing circuitous and confusing pedestrian routes to/from downtown; Consider riverfront identity + signage program Walkways within riverfront park should have clear spatial hierarchy that reinforces access and use; for example, esplanade walkways should be large to accommodate grand scale of river. All pedestrian access should be equivalent in experience to accommodate universal accessibility; avoid separate ramps; bring park into compliance with ADA $FFHVVDQGZD\ČŒQGLQJZLWKLQSDUNVKRXOGEHGLUHFWZLWKXQREVWUXFWHGVLJKWOLQHVDQGQRHQFORVHGVSDFHVZLWKRXWDOWHUQDWH means of egress All pathways should be illuminated with overhead path lighting or specialty lighting. Provide multiple types of seating arrangements, including permanent benches oriented towards river and downtown, public porch swings oriented towards river, movable cafe-style furniture associated with cafe space, low-height seatwalls that provide informal seating area, lawn seating on turfgrass slopes (3h:1v ratio); some locations to have overhead shade protection 'HVLJQVKRXOGLQFRUSRUDWHRSSRUWXQLWLHVWRHQFRXUDJHSK\VLFDOČŒWQHVVLQFOXGLQJH[HUFLVHVWDWLRQV

Provide bicycle parking areas as edges of park; discourage bicycle use on upper esplanade. encourage bicycle use on lower esplanade Provide MRT regional trailhead at periphery of park so as to capitalize on inter-state bridge junction, downtown and riverfront park. Opportunity to combine trailhead access with public-private redevelopment partnership. Provide supporting public facilities, including restrooms and changing areas.


Limit vehicle access to special-uses for event service, park maintenance vehicles and emergency vehicles Pedestrian walkways should be designed for light-duty vehicle weight and turning radii; Lower esplanade, performance plaza DQGFDIHDUHDVKRXOGEHGHVLJQHGIRUČŒUHWUXFNZHLJKWDQGWXUQLQJUDGLLVSHFLDOUHLQIRUFHGWXUIVKRXOGEHXVHGLQDUHDVZKHUH no hard-surface pavement is provided Relocate and consolidate daily vehicle parking with existing on-street and off-street parking in downtown; during special events provide off-site parking with shuttle service Provide designated in-park parking areas for food trucks (and similar vehicles) during special events Provide vehicle access to allow service of large leisure boats (riverboats, overnight excursions, etc)


Provide connections to riverfront and downtown from new Hwy 43 bridge; pedestrian should not be required to follow vehicle bridge alignment to 4th street, rather pedestrians and bicycles should be provided opportunity to “exit� the bridge and have direct connection to riverfront



Opportunity to combine various water “access� activities beyond canoe/kayak Portage will require shallow areas protected from primary channel current Provide vehicle access for permitted service vehicles (i.e canoe rental truck+trailer)


3XEOLFGRFNVKRXOGEHVL]HGLQZLGWKVLPLODUWRRFHDQSLHUZKLFKDOORZVIRUQRQERDWHUDFFHVVČŒVKLQJDQGRWKHUSHGHVWULDQ access opportunities beyond boater access Provide public dock to allow mooring and river access throughout seasonal changes in river levels Access to/from docking areas should be clear and universally accessible River edge improvements for dock should not disturb existing sheet pile wall at river edge or protrude into navigational channel Public dock should include area to moor local water taxi/jitney service, research vessels and other designated regularly moored craft.


Area should be provided to accommodate large riverboats (300-400ft length); Adjacent shoreline area should provide large gathering space for queue during dis/embarkment


WRWDODXGLHQFHZIW[IWRUODUJHUWHPSRUDU\VWDJHEXVDQGRUSRUWDEOHUHDG\URRPEHKLQGVWDJHVHFXULW\DQGČŒUVW aid stations, limited access points, supplemental stage power; temporary restrooms and concessions; restricted access to portions of the park 24 hours before and after event; shuttle service for parking, 1-2 events year; Provide area for special event FUDIW EDUJHZLWKPXVLFVWDJHČŒUHZRUNVHWF DGMDFHQWWRSHUIRUPDQFHVSDFH




WRWDODXGLHQFHZIW[IWSHUPDQHQWǥVWDJHǢDGMDFHQWWRSHUPDQHQWSDUNFDIHDQGUHVWURRPVUHJXODUO\VFKHGXOHG event (weekly in summer, etc); 1-2 hour setup/take-down; permanent power; Recommended slope for seating and rolling is 3H:1V




H[KLELWRUV[WHQWǥSDGVǢQRQVORSHGGD\ZHHNHQGDWWHQGDQFHPD\LQFOXGHDQ\VWDJHVHWXS 24 hour set-up hour setup/take-down; non-powered; temporary restrooms and concessions, shuttle service for parking, 1-2 events year;




Themes associated with river and community history, living behind a levee, water resources Utilize overlooks for opportunities for permanent interpretive panels for interpretive themes that allow for direct observation from overlook 2SSRUWXQLW\WRLQWHUSUHWULYHUPDQDJHPHQWDQGČ?RRGSURWHFWLRQPHDVXUHVRYHUWKUHHFHQWXULHV 2SSRUWXQLW\WRXWLOL]HSXEOLFWRKHOSEXLOGDZDUHQHVVUHJDUGLQJSUHYLRXVČ?RRGLQJHYHQWVDQGWRǤPDUNÇĽČ?RRGHOHYDWLRQV




Opportunity to allow limited, guided tours of public water works, pumping stations and other locations associated with river and ground water Parcels adjacent to new Hwy 43 bridge provide opportunity for new educational and entrepreneurial development focused on river-identity of Winona and surrounding region. Opportunity for USFWS Visitor Center or other similar programming in DVVRFLDWLRQZLWKUHJLRQDOWUDLOKHDGGHVWLQDWLRQ*6)LQFOXGLQJRIČŒFHV Opportunity to interpret cultural and natural history; similar visitor centers Consider locating LIMITED amount of large river-related memorabilia that could have iconic qualities; materials should be durable and suitable for 4-seasons weathering; intent is to minimize use so that those items that are displayed support the park and NOT so the park becomes an outdoor collection of memorabilia Utilize larger than life John Latsch sculpture to provide iconic destination within Park; sculpture should be located in a Latsch-centric ‘outdoor room’, with interpretation of Latsch, conservation movement of early 210th century and other related HGXFDWLRQDOWKHPHVVFXOSWXUHORFDWLRQVKRXOGEHDERYH\HDUČ?RRGSODLQDQGDFFHVVLEOHGD\V\HDUXWLOL]HXSOLJKWLQJ minimize plantings adjacent to sculpture so as to encourage direct interaction; avoid ornamental use of water as river is in direct proximity /RFDWH DERYH  \HDU Č?RRGSODLQ VLWH LQ WKH SDUN WR VXSSRUW RWKHU IDFLOLWLHV QRW D GHVWLQDWLRQ XQWR LWVHOI ORFN GXULQJ QRQ RSHUDWLQJKRXUVW\SLFDOO\6)ZWRWDOČŒ[WXUHV 0: DQGFKDQJLQJDUHDQRQ+9$&SDVVLYHVRODUDQGZLQGV\VWHPV


Storage for park equipment (movable chairs, etc) and interpretive programming support; space for Park Staff or Volunteer Docent; park light lighting controls, wireless access, wellhead 1000 SF; non-HVAC/passive solar and wind systems,




Walk-up window with exterior cafe seating; no full food service and cooking/ food prep limited to per-prepared foods for food VHUYLFHVDQLWDU\VHUYLFHV 6)




Should be designed as sculptural-artistic feature, not limited in form and function to childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s play area spray ground; Must EHNHSWFOHDURIDUHDVWKDWČ?RRGPXVWSURYLGHDGMDFHQWSXPSURRPZLWKFRQWUROV


Public art should be integrated with other park features and â&#x20AC;&#x153;plop artâ&#x20AC;? should be minimized. art should be extremely durable


Recommended non-permanent; space should accommodate other seasonal uses; Adjacent to supporting services (cafe, UHVWURRPVVHDWLQJ 1RǤUHTXLUHGǼVL]HǢ[ǢǢPLQLPXPUHFRPPHQGHGVL]HFRQVLGHUYHQGRUFRQFHVVLRQDJUHHPHQWZLWK turn-key facility services, installation, etc



Memorial Union, Lake Monona Madison, WI

South Lake Union center provides an example of architecture that “opens” outward and could be inspiration for cafe.

Mt Pleasant Public Pier Charleston, SC

'LVWLQFWLYHFROXPQVRQWKHȍRDWLQJ Willamette River Eastbank Esplanade Portland, OR

clean of vegetation, except for non-woody landscape ground cover of salvia and other hardy perennial plants enjoyed by beings with two, eight or more eyes. Within the Latsch Island overlook, modern tree planting beds are established under bands of porous paving that allows water WRČ&#x152;OWHULQWRWKHVXEVXUIDFHDQGZDWHUWKHURRWVRIWKHPHPRULDOULQJ of redbud trees. New seatwalls provide a place to sit and admire the sculpture, read quotes of John Latsch or to remember loved ones with their names etched in the seat wall stone. The same seatwalls also have a secret function in that the wall foundation utilizes root barrier technology to keep tree roots in their place and to avoid damaging WKHLQWHJULW\RIWKHČ?RRGZDOO7KHǤ:HOOKHDG&DIHÇĽVSDFHSURYLGHVD new structure for protection of city drinking water well pumps. Other existing wellheads are redesigned to be housed in vaults, similar to a cellar, that allow for equipment to be monitored and maintained.

Mt Pleasant Public Pier Charleston, SC

College Park Pavilion Dallas, TX

The slope of the levee that faces downtown is planted with deep URRWHGQDWLYHJUDVVHVDQGČ?RZHUVWKDWKROGWKHVORSLQJVRLOLQSODFH These meadow areas provide a verdant backdrop when park is viewed from the city and the time typically spent mowing turf grass in the existing park is time redirected to new park stewardship other than ODZQPRZLQJ7KHPHDGRZSODQWVDOVRKDYHDQDGGLWLRQDOEHQHČ&#x152;WLQ that like the wetland plants on the river shelf, meadow slopes also provide a safe and accessible place to study urban plant ecology, to collect insects or to study the natural history of the river in a manner that is easily accessible for school groups. The current fence along the tracks is proposed to be removed and soils excavated to create rain gardens that absorb and clean urban storm water runoff from the QHDUE\VWUHHWVDQGUDLOURDG\DUG'XULQJSHULRGVRIVLJQLČ&#x152;FDQWVWRUP HYHQWVWKHUDLQJDUGHQVUDSLGO\GUDLQWRUHWURČ&#x152;WWHGRYHUČ?RZVWUXFWXUHV FRQQHFWHGWRWKHFLW\ǢVČ?RRGDQGOHYHHSURWHFWLRQV\VWHP7KHVHORZ lying areas provide the proper growing space for large riparian treeslike cottonwood and silver maple- that are iconic and essential to any river landscape. These quick growing trees provide shade for the upper esplanade path and the lawn picnic terraces. Together, this narrow band of meadow, sunken rain garden and riparian forest provide physical separation from the railroad tracks, and with an improved ADA accessible entrance at Main Street, the unwelcoming presence of the fence is no longer needed. If circumstances arise whereby the tracks are no longer used, the levee will seamlessly transition to the rail yard â&#x20AC;&#x153;rails to trailsâ&#x20AC;? gardens, which provide a welcome green seam between the city and river.

6. PLAY + LEARNING FOR ALL AGES The new park design does not provide a playground in typical fashion, as Lake Winonaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s park currently provides excellent space and facilities for play structures. In lieu of structured play, the riverfront park utilizes informal play and learning experiences centered on the physical environment and Winona history. This includes simply laying on the grassy slopes and watching the birds migrate and EDUJHVVWRSSODFHVWRODXQFKDND\DNRUFDQRHSODFHVWRČ&#x152;VKIURP the safety of a public dock, places to roll down a hill, places to eat, places to drink a coffee with friends, places to read and to listen, SODFHVWRFDWFKEXWWHUČ?LHV EXWOHWWKH0RQDUFKǢVJR SODFHVWRZDWFK Č&#x152;UHZRUNVSODFHVWRNLVVDQGKROGKDQGVSODFHVWRVNDWHDQGVNLWR run, saunter and stroll, to learn and to share, to touch the water and smell the air, and of course-whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a new front porch without front SRUFKVZLQJV" Example of overlook envisioned for upper esplanade

Lower esplanade provides easy access and staging area to touch the river

Belo Gardens Houston, TX

7. INVEST IN GREEN PUBLIC REALM INFRASTRUCTURE Quality of life is frequently cited as one of the most important aspects for successful businesses to attract and retain new employees. The days of working for one company for a lifetime are long gone and we have become a â&#x20AC;&#x153;free agent nationâ&#x20AC;? that seeks places to live, work and play that are vibrant and healthy. City quality of life and desirability indices include statistics about economy and schools, but they also include indicators such as natural environment, parks and open space, perceived safety, opportunities for social engagement, physical connectivity, community spirit, arts and culture, tourism, scenery, accessibility, health and well-being, air quality, water quality, and sense of community. All of these indicators, and others, are embodied in how contemporary parks and open space are used by a community and its visitors. These are opportunities beyond swimming lessons and park swings that require the physical space and support services to allow contemporary uses to function for a community. In this manner, parks and open space provide vital, public infrastructure that is necessary for the successful, vibrant community that can compete with other cities and attract and retain residents, visitors and business. In but one example of this role, the Vision Plan strengthens existing streets that connect to the Park by making them more important as civic spaces. This is done not just E\VWUHHWEDQQHUVDQGČ?RZHUSRWVEXWIXQGDPHQWDOO\UHGHČ&#x152;QLQJKRZ a street can function as public space for more than vehicles, while providing essential services and access, addressing stormwater environmental and regulatory needs, improving the pedestrian experience and triggering reinvestment. For example, the VISION PLAN re-envisions a portion of Main Street as an extension of the riverfront park, bringing park programming into the downtown and downtown life into the park. The new Main Street re-establishes VLJQLČ&#x152;FDQWGLUHFWYLVXDODQGSK\VLFDOFRQQHFWLRQEHWZHHQWKHULYHU and downtown. Without this connection, the river, park and downtown will likely continue to work independently without mutual economic RUUHFUHDWLRQDOEHQHČ&#x152;W

The new Main Street proposal brings tangible vision and character to City adopted policy: Main Street should be redesigned as the â&#x20AC;&#x153;gatewayâ&#x20AC;? to Levee Park... develop signage and landscaping for all alternative street accesses to the River (as well as Main Street) that clearly designates, invites, and draws one to Levee Park from the Downtown area. City of Winona 2007 Downtown Revitalization Plan (p. 17) As public infrastructure, parks and open space also require dedicated budgets for short term maintenance, long term capitalization of assets and- like roads, sewer and airports and other infrastructurere-investment to meet current standards for health, safety and welfare of the community. Infrastructure without reinvestment and upkeep will fall into disrepair, community concerns will mount as land values decrease and action must be undertaken to repair but to also stabilize for future enjoyment and use. But unlike roads, sewer and airports, parks and open space embody shared community YDOXHVWKH\DUHSODFHVWRVKDUHDQGUHČ?HFWWRH[HUFLVHDQGOHDUQWR commemorate and celebrate. The VISION PLAN recommendations are based on an understanding that competing funding for infrastructure needs requires prioritization and support. Our review of related Park planning documents, spanning nearly ten years, indicate that the need is long past due to begin prioritizing funding for a re-investment in Winonaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s â&#x20AC;&#x153;greenâ&#x20AC;? public realm infrastructure. Like sewer repairs, WUDIČ&#x152;F LPSURYHPHQWV DLUSRUW XSJUDGHV WKH SURSRVHG 9,6,21 PLAN improvements build upon established policies (2007, etc) that clearly articulate a need. Like other infrastructure projects, the improvements to the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;greenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; public realm often require a broad public consensus that starts with expert opinion; the VISION PLAN provides that opinion to leverage future re-investment.

8. SUSTAIN SUPPORT The realities of todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economy and municipal organizational structures provide new opportunities for public engagement EH\RQG YROXQWHHULQJ WR PDLQWDLQ WKH QHLJKERUKRRG Č?RZHUEHGV $ critical aspect of successful riverfront communities in the US is the development of local riverfront organizations that can support the multi-faceted and unique aspects of urban riverfronts. These organizations are partners of parks and ports, not adversaries, and provide necessary leverage for a broad spectrum of support. This support can include grant writing and fundraising for capital improvement projects (i.e. many of the recommendations provided herein) and assistance with educational outreach. However, one of the most important aspects to project success is sustained eladership. Given their focus â&#x20AC;&#x153;just on the riverfrontâ&#x20AC;?, n nz s c n g s n A S in open space management and event programming, liaison between various constituencies-either across topics or jurisdictions, and other key supporting activities that build momentum and consensus. In the US, these organizations can take a variety of non-governmental organization structures that are best suited to the characteristics of the local community, its leadership and its politics. One common theme is representation of a cross section of interests, including civic leadership, advocacy and various special interests. :HVXJJHVWWZRČ&#x152;UVWDFWLRQVIRUWKHQRQSURČ&#x152;W 1) Consider continuing riverfront revival momentum by shifting WKHFXUUHQWDGKRFULYHUIURQWFRPPLWWHHLQWRDIRUPDOL]HGF and 2) Continue the Live@ events, but drop the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Leveeâ&#x20AC;?, with a contest LQ6XPPHUWRǤ5HQDPH/HYHH3DUNÇĽWRČ&#x152;QGDQDPHPRUH encompassing of the public space, its past and its potential than as currently named. Nashville West Riverfront Park VKRZQZLWKČ?RDWLQJVWDJHRQEDUJHVHDVRQDOWHPSRUDU\XVH

Nashville, TN

9. MIX OF FUNDING SOURCES Single-source funding is often a challenge in the current funding climate. Because the Vision has a number of parts that can be implemented as opportunities present themselves, funding from a variety of sources seems most realistic. Funding for large- scale improvements will need to be a mix of public and private funds. Some potential funding sources include; Local government funding: City’s capital funds, TIF districts and bonding, use fees State funding: State Park and Trail Legacy Funds: Funding from the Parks and Trails Legacy Fund will probably be dependent in the future on getting on the Greater Minnesota Parks and Trails priority list. Local match funding has increased the chance for Legacy funding in the past. State Bonding: State bonding is dependent upon local support from the local government, advocacy by local legislators, and the willingness for the local legislators to vote for the bonding bill. Federal funding: United State Corps of Engineers: Currently the U.S. Corps is looking at upgrading aging federal facilities. Opportunities for this funding may be dependent upon the condition of the levee and its relationship to the condition of other U.S. Corps facilities. Strong support from local members of Congress often help projects like this receive funding. United States Fish and Wildlife Service Winona’s position relative to the Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge may

provide some opportunities for the Service locate some facilities adjacent to Levee Park that could strengthen its presence in Winona and add some activity to the riverfront that could support Levee Park through federal appropriations. Federal-State grants- for healthy living and for non-motorized transit. Private sources: Foundations: Strong local citizen support strengthens the opportunity for funding from foundations that are interested in funding economic development projects that have cultural, recreational, and environmental dimensions. Business and Industry; Winona’s strong and successful industries DQGEXVLQHVVHVPD\SURYLGHIXQGLQJIRUVRPHRIWKH9LVLRQǢVVSHFLȌF elements. Leadership from this sector could seek contributions from individual entities under a new or existing organization that focuses upon Levee Park .Park. Individuals: :LQRQDKDVEHQHȌWWHGLQWKHSDVWIURPFDSLWDOFDPSDLJQGRQDWLRQV and funding from local people who wish to focus their philanthropy locally. Focused efforts to fund and construct discrete pieces of the Vision has the potential to engage large numbers of community members, an effort that will help residents reclaim the riverfront as their own. Once park improvements are in place with proper support services, a source of revienue can be in the form of park use fees, such as concession lease agreements, % of receipts, and facilty rental fees.

“Ribbon Bench” and temporary skating rink atop water feature. Canal Park, Washington DC

nature requires specialized project experience in riverfront landscape architecture and engineering and consultants with regulatory agency experience on complex riverfront open space projects. The nature of this work, while minor within the larger context of the riverfront, will very likely require project approvals required of the USACE Section 404/Individual Project permit and the MNDNR Public Waters Work Permit. Minor alterations to the parkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s shoreline bulkhead, or the construction of the overlook may fall within the requirements of the USACE Section 10 Nationwide Permit. Open comment periods for interested stakeholders are an important part of the project approval process and securing project support in advance of the permitting process is an important aspect to building support necessary for approvals. Consideration for the sequence of work and project approvals is required. Portions of the Park improvements may be completed without regulatory approval. These include minor adjustments WR WUDIČ&#x152;F SDWWHUQV DQG RWKHU PDWWHUV XQGHU WKH RSHUDWLRQDO RU standing permit jurisdiction of the City. Where earthworks and other primary, large scale repairs are necessary, the proposed work should be designed, permitted and constructed as one project to meet regulatory requirements and expedite approvals. For example, repair work to allow the lower portion of the park to be functional will require raising the elevation of the shoreline. To compensate for the increase in shoreline elevation, portions of the shoreline and backslope earthworks will need to be removed as compensatory storage. As is customary, due diligience investigative reports will be necessary to serve as the basis of design. These will include underwater inspection- manually and/or by side-scan radar- of existing underwater structures. Geotechnical borings and the recommendations of a geotechnical engineer will be required before improvements are designed atop the existing levee. 7KH Č&#x152;QDO GHWHUPLQDWLRQ DV WR KRZ WKH SURMHFW ZLOO EH SHUPLWWHG should be part of the professional scope of services by the project landscape architect with experience in riverfront projects and the USACE regulatory process. With that in mind, this process typically commences with a meeting between the design professionals, the project sponsor (City/NGO/NPO) and the USACE and MN DNR. We encourage the Park Committee to be active and to meet with regulatory agencies to discuss the project, but please note that as the Park Committee is currently an ad hoc group of stakeholders, any meetings between the Park Committee and the regulatory agencies should be considered advisory for informational and courtesy purposes.

7KH /RQJ 5DQJH 9LVLRQ 3ODQ SURSRVHV Č?H[LEOH LPSOHPHQWDWLRQ whereby no one portion of the Vision Plan can be an obstacle to achieving other portions of the Plan. For example, given the location and scope of the Latsch Island Overlook, fundraising, design and construction for the proposed sculpture and the surrounding improvements could occur without undertaking the more thorough MN DNR or US Army Corps permitting, or substantial changes to Levee Park (other than the closure of Cal Fremling Ave). In another example, the proposed Switchyard Gardens realistically anticipates the continued decline of active rail lines in urban downtown areas throughout the United States. The Gardens responds by envisioning a series of public walkways and garden spaces with interpretive stations and sculptures that recall the importance of rail freight in the development and vitality of Winona. The Gardens are proposed not as a vehicle to replace the rail, but rather, as a vision of what can occur after rail freight service in downtown is no longer warranted.

AREA A and AREA M: Levee Water Front Trail Connections As discussed in the 2007 Riverfront Revitalization Plan, the multimodal trails along the existing provide an important opportunity to create connections throughout the community and riverfront. The 2007 Revitalization Plan prescribes improvements to Vision Plan Areas A and M. Area A proposes the widening of the levee on the â&#x20AC;&#x153;City sideâ&#x20AC;? so as to create adequate width necessary for the Waterfront 7UDLO  )URP D UHJXODWRU\ SHUVSHFWLYH WKH SURSRVHG PRGLČ&#x152;FDWLRQV would require coordination with adjacent land owners as well as design and engineering plans and USACE permits for required top RIOHYHHPRGLČ&#x152;FDWLRQV $UHD % SURSRVHV WKH PRGLČ&#x152;FDWLRQ WR WKH ULYHUVLGH RI WKH OHYHH ZHVW RI +XII 6WUHHW 7KH  UHSRUW UHFRPPHQGV VLJQLČ&#x152;FDQW PRGLČ&#x152;FDWLRQWRWKHULYHUVLGHRIWKHOHYHHE\SODFLQJWKHZDWHUIURQW trail at an elevation below that of River Drive. In addition to the grade separation, pedestrian/vehicle separation is enhanced with a vehicle safety barrier at the shoulder of River Drive. Given recent tragic issues concerning life safety at River Drive, an accelerated review to prioritize the construction of the proposed grade separated trail and vehicle barriers along River Drive from Huff to the Marine Art Museum is strongly recommended.

AREA B: Latsch Island Overlook and Sculpture Lawn

President Lincoln State Memorial Louisville, KY riverfront

Situated at the current junction of Cal Fremling Drive and the terminus of Walnut, the Latsch Island Overlook is a gathering place near the H[LVWLQJČ?RRGZDOORSHQLQJLQ/HYHH3DUN)URPWKLVHOHYDWHGSRVLWLRQ the visitor has panoramic views upstream and of the new riverfront park, across the river to Latsch Island, downstream and along the length of the proposed Cal Fremling Esplanade and Dock. These views and elevated position provide the setting for the Latsch Island Overlook. The elliptical outer form of the Overlook provides a multiIXQFWLRQDO RXWGRRU URRP /RZKHLJKW ZDOOV GHČ&#x152;QH WKH HOOLSVH DQG provide opportunities for informal seating, locations for interpretive panels and memorialization of loved ones. Overlook benefactor acknowledgement should be clearly separated from the memorial portion of the wall. The seatwalls, granite pavers and a ring of redbud WUHHV GHČ&#x152;QH D KXPDQ VFDOH RXWGRRU URRP ZKLFK SURYLGH D VHQVH of enclosure and human scale around a commemorative sculpture of John Latsch. Given the anticipated active and concentrated use of the area, the ground plane should consist of granite paving and reinforced turf grass and the area around the base of the Latsch sculpture should be free of ornament and garden plantings so as to allow direct access to â&#x20AC;&#x153;Latschâ&#x20AC;? for photos and close inspection of the sculpture. Relevant Examples: Louisville Waterfront Abraham Lincoln Memorial Walker Art Center Sculpture Garden Minnesota Landscape Arboretum

Cherry Tree blossoms signal start of spring Portland, OR riverfront

President Lincoln State Memorial Louisville, KY riverfront

AREA C: Main Street River Gateway Presently the Winona downtown lacks a recognized pedestrian hub and the proposed Main Street River Gateway provides such an opportunity ZKLOHDOVRDGYDQFLQJDFOHDUDQGUHDGLO\LGHQWLČ&#x152;DEOHSHGHVWULDQJDWHZD\WR Levee Park. The VISION PLAN focuses downtown on the river and draws people from downtown to the river by opening up the view of the river and Latsch Island at the present terminus of Main Street. Other features that draw people to the river include a water feature in the multi-use space on Main north of Second Street and programming for the space as the farmersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; market , an art/craft show space, a street dance space, etc.. If the rail line is ever removed in the future, the rail gardens could also draw attention to the importance of rail to the city.

Removable Floodwall at highway bridge Grand Forks, ND

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Be River Focusedâ&#x20AC;Śby focusing on and capturing the natural allure of the river andappreciation for its history through appropriate land useâ&#x20AC;Ś.Strategic goals will include enhanced visual and physical access for both land- and water based visitors, preservation and interpretation. â&#x20AC;&#x153; S&LW\RI:LQRQD&RPSUHKHQVLYH3ODQ 

The : Main Street River Gateway replaces everyday vehicle access on Main Street from 2nd Avenue to its terminus. On street parking (+/- 20 spaces) are removed and replaced with support services for market vendor stalls DQGWKHVWUHHWZRXOGEHUHGHVLJQHGIRUČ?H[LEOHXVHDVDSHGHVWULDQSOD]D Current curb and gutter is replaced with storm water management rain gardens and other best management practices so as to minimize paved area runoff. The linear rain gardens will provide an area for the growth of replacement canopy street trees that can provide shade on the plaza and sitting areas along the edge of the plaza near the rain gardens. The center portion of the plaza will be repaved and an ornamental water feature with in-ground spray jets will provide interactive visual interest. Along the west edge of the plaza, a series of light masts extend from Second St to 5LYHUIURQW/DQGLQJ7KHRSHQǤČ?RRUSODQÇĽRIWKHSOD]DFDQEHFRQČ&#x152;JXUHG for a variety of uses, including a continuation of the weekend Farmerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Market, along with tent/vendor space for art and craft fairs, music events/ street dance, carnivals, and car shows. In the area where the plaza crosses WKHUDLOWUDFNVWKHFXUUHQWIRRWZLGHSDWFKRIDVSKDOWZLOOEHUHSODFHG with new pedestrian paving over much of the area. The new paving, along with paving striping, tactile warning and signage, will provide a clearly LGHQWLČ&#x152;HGDWJUDGHFURVVLQJWKDWDOORZVLPSURYHGSHGHVWULDQDFFHVVWRDQG from the park in a manner that improves safety and visibility by focusing a visitor on whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s down the tracks as opposed to tripping on the tracks underfoot and is ADA compliant. Relevant Examples:

Shaw Center for the Arts Public Plaza, Baton Rouge, LA Sunset Triangle Plaza, Los Angeles, CA Allen Street, Chinatown, NYC

Removable Floodwall at Winona Marina was installed by USACE as part of the Winona levee project (the same project that built Levee Park)

Sunset Triangle Plaza Los Angeles, CA

Example of creative re-purposing of street with minimal capital improvements Sunset Triangle Plaza Los Angeles, CA

AREA D: Switchyard Gardens Switchyard Gardens realistically anticipates the continued decline of active rail lines in urban downtown areas throughout the United States. The Gardens are proposed not as a prioritized replacement for the rail, but rather, as a vision of what can occur after rail freight service in downtown is no longer warranted. The Gardens respond by envisioning a series of public walkways that mimic the alignments of the previous rail lines that exist between 2nd Avenue and Levee Park (see Image #). Interspersed between the pathways are gardens of various plants VSHFLHVWKDWUHȍHFWVHWWOHPHQWRIWKHPLGZHVWDQGWKHKHULWDJHSODQWV that would be brought from home countries or shipped in from abroad. Within the gardens are wood shade structures and wood benches inspired by the stacks of sawn lumber that dominated the Winona riverfront railyards while it was a “lumber town”. The mobile benches, tables and structures slide on tracks so they can be repositioned either for use as seating-a picnic table for 4 or forty-for relaxing or simply as mobile sculpture. Where the ground is not covered with planting beds, alternating mulched beds of crushed trap rock ballast and coal provide additional material references to the local and national importance of railroads in the early development and vitality of Winona. In areas along the park edge, wide sidewalks also provide permitted parking spaces for food vendors and their tents or trucks during celebrations. Until such time as the tracks are removed, improvements to the crossing at Main Street are needed to meet safety and ADA standards. Given potential costs for annual upkeep and insurance (think Wilkie), we do not recommend relocating full size rail cars or engines to the Park for permanent display. “Until the railroad switching yard is relocated, create comfortable and safe access to Levee Park over the railroad tracks at all feasible access points.” p. 17 City of Winona Downtown Revitalization Plan (2007),

Relevant Examples:

New Orleans Riverfront Park *(under construction) Sante Fe Railyard Park

All images this page and opposite: Sante Fe Railyard Park Sante Fe, NM

AREA E: Levee Park Levee Park is the primary public open space in downtown Winona. Its location RQ WKH ULYHU DW WKH FHQWHU RI GRZQWRZQ UHČ?HFWV WKH ODWH WK FHQWXU\ HIIRUWV to create a public space in what was otherwise an industrial river frontage. The Parkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s design included a wide promenade along the length of the sloping shoreline wharf, with Main Street bisecting the park. The park was slightly elvevated from the surroundings and its layout included formal pathways and plantings along with canopy trees. As evidence in historical accounts and photos, the park was used as a large community space, and through time, was programmatically complemented by the swimming beach and bathhouse on Latsch Island. Together, both sides of the river provided a broad spectrum of community programs. Today, both sides of the Winona riverfront open space continue, albeit with diminished programmatic function, with the loss of the SXEOLFEDWKKRXVHVRQWKHLVODQGDQGWKHFRQVWUXFWLRQRIWKHČ?RRGZDOOLQ/HYHH Park. 7KH 9,6,21  3/$1 SURSRVHV VHYHUDO PRGLČ&#x152;FDWLRQV WR /HYHH 3DUN  7KHVH PRGLČ&#x152;FDWLRQVDUHEDVHGXSRQH[LVWLQJ&LW\SROLF\ 3ODQQLQJGRFXPHQWV  Committee programming, an analysis of physical, programmatic and regulatory contexts, as well as current events that have began to re-enliven the Park as a public space. The VISION PLAN is based on an understanding that Levee Park needs a complete redesign as discussed in the 2007 Plan.

Cumberland Park Nashville, TN

The redesign is an opportunity for the Community to reprioritize the value of SXEOLF RSHQ VSDFH RQ WKH ULYHUIURQW E\ UHEDODQFLQJ WKH Č?RRG SURWHFWLRQ ZLWK stated community goals and desired programming. This opportunity is a reinvestment in the public open space of Winona for the next century.

AREA F: River Jetty Overlook River Jetty Overlook recognizes the existing outward point into the river that exists just upstream from Levee Park at the termination of Johnson Street. At this point, a sweeping new walkway extends above the shoreline and provides a dramatic overlook up and down the river. Between the outward existing landform and the walkway 10 to 20 feet above water level (depending on season) the overlook provides dramatic views up and down the river. Where the overlook meets the top of the levee, a small plaza with embedded bronze indicates the cardinal directions and geodetic datum location. The current USGS river gage structure is redesigned so as to continue to house the river gage but to also do VRLQDPDQQHUWKDWSURYLGHVDGLVSOD\RIWKHFXUUHQWULYHUHOHYDWLRQDQGČ?RZ rates. Interpretive panels at the redesigned structure provide information on WKHULYHUJDJHVLQWKH86WKHGDWDWKDWLVFROOHFWHGDVZHOODVKLVWRULFČ?RZUDWHV

Cumberland Park Nashville, TN

Cumberland Park Nashville, TN

â&#x20AC;&#x153;North Fork, South Branch and Puddles were designed for the Brightwater Environmental Education & Community Center to capture and channel storm water runoff from the roof. South Branch was inspired by observing the water dripping from a pruned grape vineâ&#x20AC;? Cris Bruch, Artist

AREA G: WaterWorks Park and Flood Marks

Blessings Jane Tsong and Judith Roche, Artists Brightwater Center, Seattle, WA

The history of Winona is tied to the river and water and this relationship VKDSHVWKHSK\VLFDOHQYLURQPHQWRIWKH&LW\IURPČ?RRGSURWHFWLRQWR the river valley itself. The scenic and commercial aspects of the river are those most often valued, yet the river as the historic source of drinking water and the aquifers underlying the Park and the Park ZHOOČ&#x152;HOGVLVDULFKDQGFRPSHOOLQJVWRU\)URPWKHLQLWLDOSDVVLYH stilling basins, to the early brick water tower near Johnson Street, to the deep wells located in levee Park, the story of drinking water is complex and important to Winona. This story is made even more interesting when one considers the existing park was designed to SURWHFWGRZQWRZQDQGWKHZHOOČ&#x152;HOGIURPČ?RRGLQJ,QHVVHQFHWKH park was designed to protect water from water. Infrastructure for both the potable water and storm water are concentrated near the downtown riverfront and provide an opportunity to share knowledge regarding both infrastructure systems. During riverfront festivals and other events, the Johnson Street Water Plant can be opened to the public so as to help tell the story of water supply in Winona. Water based events- such as â&#x20AC;&#x153;Follow the Dropâ&#x20AC;? can educate the public on the growing importance of water conservation and the urban water cycle, including storm water. The levee areas around the Water Works (outside of the EPA mandated security fence) can provide opportunities to interpret KLVWRULFČ?RRGLQJHYHQWVLQ:LQRQD$VHDFKČ?RRGKDVDSHDNRUFUHVW footpaths and interpretive markers can be installed along the cityside of the levee to mark the various historic high water marks that are part of the Cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water-based identity.

North Fork Cris Bruch, Artist Brightwater Center, Seattle, WA (Seattle Public Works Water Treatment Facility)

Brightwater Water Education Center, Seattle, WA (Seattle Public Works Water Treatment Facility)

Waterworks Garden, Seattle, WA BrightWater Waster Water Treatment Plant, Seattle, WA

9LHZRI:LQRQD5LYHUIURQWFD01+6 For a descipt on of the history of water infrastructure on the Winona Riverfront, please see http //www c tyofwinona com/city-services/public-works/water-plant/

AREA J: RIVERFRONT ASCENT/DESCENT The new Highway 43 bridge provides an excellent opportunity to provide a pedestrian and bicycle connection between Minnesota and Wisconsin. Unlike vehicles that are utilizing the bridge for quick transport, the bridge provides an opportunity for pedestrians and bicylists to experience stunning views of the river and the valley. It should be assumed that bridge overlooks can become a destination unto its own. It is very reasonable to assume that pedestrians and bicycles will not be using the bridge as a “facility” for commercial or commuting purposes, but rather will be enjoying the bridge for recreational, physical exercise, leisure and scenic purposes. In this manner, the bridge pedestrian or bicyclist is as much a “visitor” to the bridge as they are to adjacent park or public spaces. This is a clear distinction between vehicle ”use of the bridge”. Therefore, the access approaches for the pedestrian and bicycle should be designed to encourage visitation of the bridge and its overlooks. This design is different- yet of equal importance (not ancillary/decorative)- to the uses of the bridge by commerical or commuter vehicles.

Big Four Pedestrian Bridge Access Louisville, KY

Just as bridge design must consider criteria for vehicle use, proper bridge design must also consider criteria for pedestrian and bicycle use. These two criteria are not the same. For example, the current Highway 43 bridge design assumes that pedestrians and bicycles VKRXOGEHURXWHGWRWKHVDPHDFFHVVDSSURDFKHVDVKLJKZD\WUDIȌF The VISION PLAN recommends that the pedestrian and bicycle access VKRXOGEHGHVLJQHGZLWKFULWHULDVSHFLȌFWRSHGHVWULDQDQGELF\FOH use. With this in mind, the proposed Riverfront Ascent/Descent provides a tremendous opportunity to consider bridge access that is designed for the pedestrian and bicycle experience and obvious adjacency to riverfront park, levee trail, downtown and the MRT. The proposed nautilus-style design of Ascent/Descent asserts that the design and engineering criteria for vertical change for visiting pedestrians and bicyclists is fundamentally different than that of vehicles. While both pedestrian and vehcile access should provide safe access, pedestrian and bicycle access should also consider the fundamental difference in pedestrian versus vehcile movement requirements and the visceral experience of the environment that is part of the pedestrian experience of a place.

Big Four Pedestrian Bridge Access Louisville, KY

East Bank Esplanade Portland, OR

East Bank Esplanade Portland, OR

For example, the current bridge design requires vehicles and pedestrians to return to ground elevation near 4th street, due to a variety of vehicle design criteria, including VDIH VWRSSLQJ GLVWDQFH WUDIČ&#x152;F TXHXLQJ GHVLJQ VSHHG vertical clearances, ramp inclination and sightlines, for example. These vehicle criteria are not the same criteria for the pedestrian or the bicycle and routing pedestrian or bicycles along the same access routes to the bridge as vehicles may discourage intended visitor use. Rather, the pedestrian experience should consider safety factors such as ramp inclination and sightlines, other design criteria should also be considered given the bridgeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s location at the Mississippi River and adjacent waterfront parks and open spaces. These criteria include physical routing based on connections to primary pedestrian pathways at the riverfront, adjacent bicycle trails and their associated destinations (which may or may not be the same destinations as vehicles). The design criteria should also account for the fundamental difference in why the bridge is accessed for the pedestrian and the bicyclist, which is not commuting or commercial transport. Rather, given the bridgeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s location directly adjacent to the historic downtown and riverfront parks, and the Mississippi River Trail, it can be reasonably assumed that the pedestrian or bicyclist will be a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;visitorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and rarely a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;commuterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. As such, the design criteria should account for not only safe access, but also access that is visually and viscerally appropriate for the visitor. Finally, design criteria for pedestrian and bicycle access should be designed for universal accessibility. While the proposed steps at Second Street provide direct access for those without mobility impairment, the steps are not accessible to those with mobility impairment and will be GLIČ&#x152;FXOW IRU WKRVH ZLWK VLJKW LPSDLUPHQW ,Q OLHX RI WKH steps, the Vision plan assumes that universal accessibility to/from the bridge is a fundamental requirement and that the access should not be dictated by vehicle routes, but rather by enjoyable experiences for the pedestrian and the bicyclist that encourage visitation of the bridge for the sake of visiting the bridge, while also providing a rich, visceral experience beyond the non-experiential criteria for vehicles. Examples include many of the Allegheny river bridges in downtown Pittsburg that connect riverfront parks and trails directly to bridges, Louisvilleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Big Four bridge,

AREA H GATEWAY UNDER 43 BRIDGE Connections, access, and additional programming to Riverfront Park and the Mississippi River are currently underutilized beneath the Highway 43 bridge. As a critical connection to the park and regional trails, this space has the opportunity to create greater visibility and identity between Winona’s city core and the riverfront. In order to do so, the proposed recommendations include: providing spaces with multiple programming, showcasing public art, ensuring safe access for bikes and pedestrians at all times of day, and establishing a direct connection to the riverfront for recreationalists. A highly visible entrance point is suggested at the bridge underpass and Second Street that would create clear physical and visual access to Riverfront Park and the Mississippi River for pedestrians, bicyclists, and water recreationalists. This would include illuminated pathways with overhead path lighting or specialty lighting to ensure safety during evenings. The connection between the Second Street entrance and the river should provide spaces with multiple programming opportunities that will not only include bike and pedestrian pathways, but incorporate areas for small events that can accommodate small festivals, markets, arts exhibitions, and recreational races. Designs should create areas for seating along WKH HGJHV ZLWK FHQWHU DUHDV UHVHUYHG IRU ȍH[LEOH SURJUDPPLQJ RI individuals and small groups, spaces designated for interactive arts sculptures that people of all ages can enjoy, space for multiple tables and pop-up tents, and provide access for light utility trucks

Underpass Park Toronto, ONT

'HVLJQ PXVW WDNH LQWR DFFRXQW QRLVH SROOXWLRQ DQG VLJQLȌFDQW VKDGH from bridge when considering programming and vegetation. Vegetation in the form of rain gardens and groves of trees should be located along the periphery of the the bridges, with varying sun and shadow conditions accounted for in species selection. Rain water from the bridge and under bridge areas should be managed with best management practices that are integrated with the vegetation at the periphery. If areas for stormwater detention are necessary, the design should avoid surface detention ponds that require fencing; in lieu, subsurface cistern structures or open void space of permeable concrete paving and base FRXUVHV VKRXOG SURYLGH LQWHJUDWHG UDLQ ZDWHU VWRUDJH IRU LQȌOWUDWLRQ RU UHXVH (DFK RI WKHVH FRQVLGHUDWLRQV LV VLJQLȌFDQW WR FUHDWLQJ DQ active, safe, and accessible place that will strengthen and highlight the FRQQHFWLRQWR5LYHUIURQW3DUNDQGWKH0LVVLVVLSSL5LYHUZKLOHUHȍHFWLQJ Winona’s identity as a community who embraces arts and the outdoors. Astoria Bridge Skate Park, New York, NY Horton Street Bridge Swings, Milwaukee, WI Buffalo Bayou Promenade, Houston, TX Underpass Park, Toronto, ONT

Astoria Bridge Skate Park New York, NY

2013 Riverfront+Levee Park Steering Committee: Mark Peterson, Mayor of Winona Frank Pomeroy, Chair Eric Sorenson, Vice-Chair Tina Anderson Pam Eyden, Winona City Council Tom Fassbender Jason Gilman Mike Kennedy Bernadette Mahfood Rod Nelson Gaby Peterson Jack Richter Natalie Siderius Mary Stefanski Mike Walsh Chad Ubl, staff Carlos Espinosa, staff

This research project was produced and completed in 2013-14 by The Center for Changing Landscapes (CCL) of the College of Design at the University of Minnesota. The project contributors include: Matthew Tucker ASLA Co-Principal Invest gator Assistant Professor Department of Landscape Arch tecture

Mary Vogel Co-Principal Invest gator CCL Co-Director

Emily Lowery CCLResearch Fellow

Erin Garnaas-Holmes CURA Research Assistant