Prattfolio "125th Anniversary Commemorative Issue"
This commemorative issue of Prattfolio celebrates the Institute's extraordinary achievements and impact during its first 125 years. From architects who form the environments in which we live and work, and designers who elevate functional objects to sources of joy, to artists, writers, and information specialists who capture and transmit ideas, Pratt’s students, faculty, and alumni use their talents to transform our world and shape our experiences. Many of their innovations and iconic works are presented in the pages that follow. Together, they form a visual representation of Pratt’s legacy—and its promise.
2 125 anniversary pr attfolio New York Times magaziNe DesigN DirecTor arem Duplessis (M.S. Communications Design '96) designed the 125th Anniversary Prattfolio cover. "I wanted to do something celebratory, something COLOSSAL!" he says. "At first I was leaning toward illustration or photography, but didn't think it would achieve the immediacy I was seeking. Type seemed like the best solution--big type with a big message. It made sense to go across the spine to give the copy some real presence. A century and a quarter is a HUGE achievement! The largeimpact type combined with the silver foil stamp helps convey the magnitude of such a significant occasion." As for his time at Pratt, Duplessis credits legendary Professor Tony Di Spigna with teaching him lessons about type that he holds with him to this day. "Pratt really helped me develop an eye for detail and the ability to present and sell my work," he says, adding that his time in the program also taught him tenacity along with "a million" other lessons. "When I first attended Pratt, I was living in the Bronx. I used to commute on the subway, which took about two hours. After leaving the computer lab on the Brooklyn campus, generally around 1 AM, I would begin my commute home, which inevitably ended with the conductor waking me in some crazy place past my stop. They say if you can survive in New York, you can survive anywhere. I certainly survived!" Today, Duplessis leads a department that was named Design Team of the Year by the Art Directors Club for both 2009 and 2010. During his tenure, the magazine has received nearly 100 awards from the Society of Publication Designers and the Art Directors Club. The Type Directors Club and the American Institute of Graphic Arts also have recognized his work. Duplessis received the Pratt Institute Alumni Achievement Award in 2012. a presiDeNT's perspecTive 4 An interview with President Thomas Schutte by Kurt Andersen BuilDiNg a legacY 8 An architectural history of Pratt by Francis Morrone makiNg HisTorY 14 A decade-by-decade look at Pratt's 125-year history and the iconic work by alumni and faculty that influenced the world The founding years 16 The Turn of The CenTury 20 The Teens and TwenTies 24 The ThirTies 28 34 The forTies 44 The fifTies 54 The siXTies 64 The seVenTies 72 The eighTies 80 The nineTies 88 The 2000s 94 celeBraTiNg 125 Years Kickoff coverage; The Memory Project; Upcoming events; and Pratt pride at 125 100 You curaTe An invitation to help build a virtual gallery of the greatest works by Pratt alumni and faculty alumNi views PeTe haMiLL 42 edward Koren 52 syLVia PLaChy 62 70 Lynn saViLLe 78 PeTer KuPer 86 sTefan sagMeisTer o THe magaziNe of praTT iNsTiTuTe n behalf of Pratt InstItute and the Board of Trustees, it gives me great pleasure to present this special commemorative issue of Prattfolio, which celebrates the Institute's extraordinary achievements and impact during its first 125 years. The world has changed a great deal since my great-great-grandfather, Charles Pratt, established the school and the first group of 12 drawing students began classes in October 1887. It is a testament to the founder's vision that Pratt Institute has remained at the forefront of that change, adapting to the times and, at the same time, helping to shape them. From developing the airplane for Charles Lindbergh's historic transatlantic flight to designing medical diagnostic equipment for use in rural Africa, Pratt alumni and faculty members have ushered in many of the pioneering ideas that paved the way to a better life for us all, decade after decade. Having two artists as parents--a photographer and an actor--I have a strong and very personal appreciation for the impact that creativity has on both the individual artist and on society. By capturing or interpreting a specific aspect of the world to which they felt connected, each gave form to those very personal experiences and created something special to give back to the world. At Pratt, a similar process takes place every day. From architects who form the environments in which we live and work, and designers who elevate functional objects to sources of joy, to artists, writers, and information specialists who capture and transmit ideas, Pratt's students, faculty, and alumni use their talents to transform our world and shape our experiences. Many of their innovations and iconic works are presented in the pages that follow. Together, they form a visual representation of Pratt's legacy--and its promise. I'm extremely proud of all that we have achieved over the past 125 years and hope that you, as valued members of the Pratt community, share my sentiments as you consider the remarkable impact that the Institute has made on the world. Pratt's heritage is your heritage, and your achievements are a living contribution to the Institute's tradition of making history. I look forward to all that we will accomplish together as a Pratt community in the decades to come. Sincerely, Prattfolio is published by the Office of Communications in the Division of Institutional Advancement for the alumni and friends of Pratt Institute. �2012 Pratt Institute praTT iNsTiTuTe 200 Willoughby Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11205 www.pratt.edu vice presiDeNT for iNsTiTuTioNal aDvaNcemeNT Todd Michael Galitz photo: ren� perez execuTive DirecTor of commuNicaTioNs Mara McGinnis arTicles eDiTor Alix Finkelstein eDiTorial maNager Abigail Beshkin wriTer Adrienne Gyongy creaTive DirecTor Christine Peterson seNior arT DirecTor Anna Ostrovsky mulTimeDia DesigNer Joshua Graver seNior proDucTioN maNager Jennifer Ashlock coNTriBuTors Jenny-Lind Angel Amy Aronoff Laura Bourgeois Yelena Deyneko Karelisa Falkner Charlotte Savidge KC Trommer Kate �nver Anna Welch priNTiNg Conceptual Litho Special thanks to Paul E. Schlotthauer, librarian and archivist, Pratt Institute Library, and the staff of the library's Visual Resources Center. Please submit address changes to firstname.lastname@example.org or call 718-399-4447. The editorial staff of Prattfolio would like to hear from you. Please send comments, ideas, and questions to email@example.com. Mike Pratt Chair, Board of Trustees Unfortunately, we cannot publish all unsolicited submissions, but we consider all ideas and greatly appreciate your feedback. All historical photographs courtesy of the Pratt Institute Archives unless otherwise indicated. 2 125 anniVersary pr attfolio PRATT INSTITUTE | PLANNED GIVING "Making a planned gift to Pratt for scholarships was the perfect way for me to help future generations launch their creative careers." your Vision for the future -- Laura Bohn, B.F.A. '77 Create a Legacy, Lead the Way Over the past 125 years, Pratt Institute has established a creative legacy that has impacted every aspect of the art and design world. A planned gift to Pratt is an easy way to leave a legacy to tomorrow's visionaries. Your investment in them can benefit you, too. There are many giving options that can help fulfill your charitable and financial goals. Make a pLanned gift to pratt today through a bequest or Life inCoMe pLan. www.pratt.edu/planned_giving � 718.399.4296 � plannedgiving @pratt.edu 125 anniVersary pr attfolio 3 A PR E S I D E N T'S PhotograPhs by sheiLa Metzner, b.F.a. '60 aT T h e s Ta r T o f P r aT T ' s 1 2 5 T h a n n i V e r s a r y y e a r , K u r T a n d e r s e n , w r i T e r a n d P r aT T T r u s T e e , s aT d o w n w i T h P r aT T P r e s i d e n T T h o M a s f. s C h u T T e i n h i s h o M e aT T h e C a r o L i n e L a d d P r aT T h o u s e i n B r o o K Ly n T o Ta L K a B o u T L e a d i n g P r aT T f o r n e a r Ly T w o d e C a d e s a n d w h aT ' s neXT for The insTiTuTe. KurT andersen: When Pratt opened, electrification and THOMAS F. SCHUTTE: The world is catching up to telecommunications were new, urbanization was happening at an incredible pace, and American architecture and art were just taking off. In retrospect, it was great timing to have started Pratt Institute at a moment when modern America was being created. Now we're in the middle of another such inflection point and it strikes me that it's a moment when Pratt almost needs to be refounded. If you think about the changes we're going through, is Pratt changing as much now as it was at the time it began? Pratt. Today, art and design are receiving so much visibility and attention. Some even talk about the M.F.A. degree as "the new M.B.A." I have been a college president within the arts arena for a number of years and never have I experienced what we are experiencing now with the visibility of design, the appreciation of good design, the importance of design in problem solving, and the connectedness of design to the way things look, the way things work. To me, this is very exciting. I think it's a major moment. 4 125 anniVersary pr attfolio Ka: You can't open a book or a magazine without seeing the phrase "design thinking" used, which puts Pratt in a very good place. It seems to me that it is important to represent the pure aesthetic side of things, as well. Do art and design feed each other at Pratt? tfS: One of the things that we worked on when I first came to Pratt almost 20 years ago was to convert Pratt from essentially a local commuter school into a national residential college. We had about 2,700 students then and we have 4,700 students today. When I started, about 75 to 80 percent of the school was local and commuting. Today, about 90 percent of freshmen live on campus. We also set about to diversify the student body, attracting new talent from the West Coast, East Coast, North, and South. And we achieved it, and opened up an awareness of Pratt that didn't exist in some regions and brought a greater number of applications to us. Another thing that we did was to take a student body that was very heavily part-time and focus on building a core undergraduate population that was largely fulltime. Today, 99 percent of our undergraduates are full-time and 85 percent of our graduate students are full-time. tfS: Absolutely. At Pratt, one of the things we're actively promoting is interdisciplinary studies and linkages of one kind of department with another department--faculty in industrial design working with faculty in painting, for instance. The aesthetics of the fine arts are so critically important for educating, informing, and developing design. A designer leaves Pratt with some fine arts in him or her. Ka: Are the inevitable tensions that exist between various disciplines a healthy thing? Is part of the job of Pratt to figure out how to use that tension constructively? tfS: Yes, we use it in a productive way. I think that we are in an era now when there is such excitement about cross-disciplinary work that a painter working with a graphic designer, for instance, has real respect and regard for the benefits of collaboration. Ka: Compared with other schools of art and design, is there a philosophical difference between the kind of education that takes place here at Pratt? tfS: Pratt has a practice of focusing on conceptual and theoretical thinking. At the same time, we have a terrific practical training on how to apply skills learned here to the real world. The fact that we have a blend and a balance of theory and application is one of the things that makes Pratt so remarkable. Ka: Your 19 years here have corresponded almost precisely with the world's digital revolution. Do you feel as if Pratt has kept up, in terms of accommodating those very different ways of making art, design, and architecture, and of distributing work? Ka: I've been involved with the Institute for practically a decade, and what struck me is that last thing you said, that there is intellectual discourse here, but it's also very much a hands-on place of workshops. That is, it seems to me, the vital tension that you're administering, right? tfS: I would say that we are not only keeping up, we're on the cutting edge. There's also a related phenomenon that I've watched with incoming PE R S P ECT I V E freshmen, who now come with technical aspirations along with knowledge, skills, and abilities. tfS: Yes. A couple of years ago, the dean of our School of Architecture, Tom Hanrahan, asked the students if they had thoughts about Pratt's architecture curriculum. One of the things that surprised us was the outpouring of student interest in all the labs and the hands-on work. They noted that many other architecture schools don't have all of that. Ka: When Pratt began, photography was still pretty new, and all these new tools began to transform the nature of visual communication and design. We're at a moment now that's similar in terms of the world being changed. It strikes me that the great artists, architects, and graphic designers I know are all broadly educated and curious about the world. They read and know things other than how to spec type or about building materials or how to mix colors. If Pratt is doing its job, in addition to the technical training to be an architect, painter, or designer, you're not going to be great if you don't have a larger sense of the world, how it connects, and what happened one hundred years ago. Ka: So computer-aided design is fine, but people still want to get their hands on the stuff. tfS: Absolutely. Ka: One hundred twenty five years ago, Brooklyn was not yet part of New York City. Even 30 years ago, if anyone had said Brooklyn was about to become the stylish, cosmopolitan, creative-class epicenter of New York, the response would have been, "Ah, sure, good luck with that." But it's become that. Brooklyn is arguably the center of the creative world, and Pratt is right in the center of it. I wonder how that is changing the nature of the Pratt education and the way Pratt thinks about itself? tfS: Pratt has one of the very best liberal arts and science programs of any college of art and design in the country. The faculty in our School of Liberal Arts and Sciences help students to understand the liberal arts and to apply what they are learning in their work and lives. tfS: Well, it's no longer a secret that Brooklyn is this hot spot for creativity and innovation. The economy has helped us because there's been such a movement to Brooklyn because there's more affordable space. Ka: How has a Pratt educational experience changed over the past few decades? 125 anniVersary pr attfolio 5 Ka: What Soho was in the '60s and '70s, Brooklyn is now. tfS: Yes, exactly. And we've got a number of historic districts now in Brooklyn, as well as a thriving community of creative professionals and entrepreneurs, which Pratt is nurturing through its Design Incubator for create new residential environments for students, for instance. New and renovated studio spaces are critical to the educational experience and will be a major focus. Ka: Turning to another important topic: Globalization is a catchword but it obviously is among the most important driving factors of culture and the economy today. And thinking again about the students and faculty at a The faCT ThaT we haVe a BLend and a BaLanCe of Theory and aPPLiCaTion is one of The Things ThaT MaKes PraTT so reMarKaBLe. place like Pratt, my sense is that studying abroad is not as large a part of the Pratt experience as it could be. Is that true? tfS: For the reasons you mention, it's definitely important for us to expand these opportunities. We've got several major study abroad programs. We have student exchange relationships with about 15 institutions around the Sustainable Innovation in the Brooklyn Navy Yard. The neighborhood is much safer than it used to be, and Pratt has been a central player in the whole revitalization effort. world. For instance, we have an architecture program in Rome that's a whole semester in the spring. So, altogether, somewhere around 15 to 20 percent of our undergraduates currently have an international study experience. We agree that's not enough, and we have just created a new staff position to direct all international programs. It's exciting that we're expanding these opportunities now. Ka: It's as though the "brand" of Pratt and the "brand" of Brooklyn sort of rose at the same time. The physical campus, when I first visited here 9 or 10 years ago, just immediately made me fall in love with the place, although even 10 years ago it was a bit tattered. That's been a significant focus of what you've been doing the last decade, right? Ka: First you turned Pratt from a commuter school to a national school. Now it's on to the rest of the world. tfS: When I came to Pratt, we didn't need lawn mowers. We hardly had two blades of grass that needed to be cut. We had mud holes. Buildings were practically falling down and roofs were leaking. But the entire community recognized and understood the difference it makes when the grounds are beautiful and when there are benches to sit on and grass to put blankets so you can sketch or paint or sleep. tfS: Yes, and remember, at the international student level, 70 countries are represented at Pratt today. Ka: There are other art and design schools in New York and all over the country that are for-profit businesses, but Pratt is a traditional nonprofit educational institution. Given that Pratt doesn't have a huge endowment and is not a profit-making business, does that shape the nature of the education that takes place here? Ka: So much has been done, but it's not finished, right? There's still a lot of work to do. tfS: Since you mention the endowment, I'll note that increasing it is a top priority for us. And I would hope that it becomes a priority for our alumni and all members of the Pratt community to help us build through contributions. Endowed scholarships are such an important way for us to guarantee that current and future generations of talented students continue to have the same life-altering experiences as earlier generations had. They are continuing a great Pratt tradition. And this ties very closely to your question about what makes Pratt different from for-profit institutions. Our goals and core values would be very different if we were a profit-making institution. One of the fundamental aspects of what makes Pratt special is the tremendous bond, respect, and interaction between the student and Pratt, tfS: There is much more work to do. We are going through a strategic planning process right now to prioritize our most urgent building needs for the next decade and beyond. These will likely include studios, spaces to showcase student work, technology-enhanced classrooms, on-campus residential needs, and spaces that generally meet the needs of the campus community. One of our trustees, Bruce Newman, just gave us a major gift to focus on important upgrades to our campus grounds. We are also committed to campus renovations that are environmentally sustainable and which, when appropriate, address historic preservation. We are currently undertaking an important renovation of historic townhouses on campus to 6 125 anniVersary pr attfolio the student and the faculty member, the student and the department. It's not a financial transaction. THEN | NOW PresidenT sChuTTe TooK offiCe in 1993 and, sinCe Then, P r aT T a n d B r o o K Ly n h aV e s e e n a d r a M aT i C T r a n s f o r M aT i o n . Ka: If you had to say, "These are the most important things we did at Pratt, which were the right things to have done," what would they be? p r att ToTaL enr o LLM enT f r es hM an aPPLiCaTio ns aCCePTanCe r aTe r es idenTiaL s TudenTs faCuLT y s Cho L ar s hiP / f inanCiaL aid endo w M enT def iCiT f t. Greene/C l i nto n Hi l l M edian Pr iCe s ingLefaM iLy ho M e* 1993 2 ,994 1 ,179 77% 9 16 5 28 $ 6.9M $ 1 3M $ 1 5.6M 2012 4,722 5,78 4 4 6% 1, 623 1 , 0 32 $37.7M $1 0 0 M tfS: I don't know if I could say just one or two things. I think it is the accumulation of improvements that make Pratt what it is today, including the strength of our students and faculty, the vitality of our enrollment, the increasing widespread interest in the Institute, and the vibrancy of our campus and community. Ka: Twenty-five years from now, when Pratt reaches its 150th anniversary, what are the biggest changes at Pratt, or within the realm of art and design higher education, that you think people will look back on and remark upon? tfS: Well, I think that one of the things that has been in transition is the continuous development of so many of our visual arts departments, especially those where changing technology plays a huge role like film, photography, and digital arts. The continued strengthening of our departments and continuing to break new ground will be important. And I believe Pratt is going to keep doing that. One of the things that's happened at Pratt is that we can tangibly feel our success without boasting. We're $0 1993 < $ 41 2K 2012 $1�$2M *according to data provided by the furman Center for real estate and Public Policy. draw that line for the last 20 years, it's a pretty steep upward climb. Is it BrooKLyn is arguaBLy The CenTer of The CreaTiVe worLd, and PraTT is righT in The CenTer of iT. reasonable to imagine that Pratt can continue on the same trajectory? tfS: I expect that trajectory will continue. Year after year I am awed by the talent and ingenuity of our faculty and students. Pratt is already known as a world leader in art and design higher education, but I also see the Institute becoming a global force in addressing societal problems and challenges through the work we do. We've already seen this through our efforts with regard to sustainability design education. Tackling issues of sustainability is paramount to many of the artists, designers, library scientists, and other scholars working here today. And I would hope that Pratt would continue to be a place that applies its creativity and knowledge to helping find solutions to the problems of the day. p looking at very strong departments from the standpoint of how can we make them even stronger, with the right mix of students, the right faculty, and the best facilities. Ka: You can draw a line for all kinds of metrics--the scores and grades of the students, national rankings of Pratt's various programs, etc. If you about the photographer: After graduating from Pratt, which she attended on a full scholarship, Sheila Metzner (B.F.A. Advertising Design '60) became the first female art director at Doyle Dane Bernbach and today is known as a contemporary master in fine art, fashion, portraiture, still life, and landscape photography. "President Schutte is a marvelous man and a great subject for photography. His inner life and his dedication to Pratt shone through during the time we spent together," said Metzner about the shoot for this piece. "It was an honor to be asked to document this historic anniversary and a delight to shoot in the Carolyn Ladd Pratt House." Metzner's most influential professors at Pratt were Abstract Expressionists James Brooks and Jack Tworkov. "If it weren't for them, I might never have become a photographer," she says. "I owe my life to those four years at Pratt." 125 anniVersary pr attfolio 7 building wriTTen By franCis Morrone The distinguished building heritage of Pratt institute is fitting given its status a s a c o l l e g e w i t h o n e o f t h e wo r l d 's m o s t e s t e e m e d a rc h i t e c t u re s c h o o l s . i n 2 0 1 1 , a rc h i t e c t u r a l d i g e s t i n c l u d e d P r a t t o n i t s l i s t o f t h e c o u n t r y 's 1 0 m o s t architecturally significant american college campuses�along with those of h a r v a r d , ya l e , t h e u n i v e r s i t y o f V i r g i n i a , a n d t h e i l l i n o i s i n s t i t u t e o f Te c h n o l o g y. The magazine specifically cites the modern steven holl design for higgins hall, and the skidmore, owings & Merrill design for Leo J. Pantas hall, built in the Left to Right: MeMorial Hall was built in 1925 in the Romanesque Revival style as a lecture hall. Main Building was the Institute's first building, where 12 students arrived on opening day. SoutH Hall opened in 1892 and housed the High School of Pratt Institute. For a period during World War I, it was a Navy barracks. 8 125 anniVersary pr attfolio 1 a legacy i L L u s T r aT e d B y B r e T T a f f r u n T i , B . f. a . ' 0 8 1 9 8 0 s , b u t n o t e s t h a t , i n t h e e n d , " i t 's t h e d o z e n s o f s t r u c t u re s b u i l t b e t we e n 1 8 8 5 a n d wo r l d wa r i i t h a t p u t P r a t t o n t h e n a t i o n a l r e g i s t e r o f h i s t o r i c P l a c e s ." n e a r l y a l l o f P r a t t ' s h i s t o r i c b u i l d i n g s h a v e b e e n o f f i c i a l l y d e s i g n a t e d n e w yo r k C i t y o r n e w yo r k s t a t e l a n d m a r k s , a n d P r a t t ' s e n t i r e c a m p u s i s o n t h e n a t i o n a l r e g i s t e r of historic Places. The more recent buildings continue to win awards for their innovative designs. it is this blend of old and new that makes the Pratt institute c a m p u s a n a r c h i t e c t u r a l m i c r o c o s m o f i t s g r e a t c i t y. FRANCIS MORRONE is an architectural historian and author of multiple books on New York City and Brooklyn. He is well known for his city tours, and served as an art and architecture critic for The New York Sun for nearly seven years. 125 anniVersary pr attfolio 9 t he Institute's founder, Charles Pratt, moved cautiously, as he was not sure that his enterprise would pan out. "Pratt Institute was opened today, but owing to the fact that work on the building has not progressed so rapidly as was expected, only one department, Drawing, begins its sessions," reported The Brooklyn Daily Eagle on October 17, 1887. Then, Pratt Institute's Main Building, the structure to which the Eagle referred, did not face a lawn, much less a sculpture park, but a city street. Pratt had hired Hugh Lamb and Charles Alonzo Rich to design the Institute's first building. Pratt, like many builders, worked with only a few trusted architects--Ebenezer Roberts, Lamb & Rich, and William B. Tubby. Lamb & Rich was already known for designing houses. Main Building was its first academic commission, but the firm went on to shape the campuses of such colleges as Dartmouth, Barnard, and Smith. On Ryerson Street, however, its work had an industrial, rather than collegiate, look. This was not inappropriate for a school dedicated to training in the manual and mechanical arts, but it also reflected Charles Pratt's thinking: If his Institute did not succeed, its buildings might be converted into factories. P r aT T ' s o r i g i n a L B u i L d i n g s Main Building is Romanesque Revival in style, which was highly popular in the 1880s. The building is medieval and fortress-like, its window design willfully varied (here, a single window, there, a double or a triple window). In 1894, the Institute's directors ordered a portico, twin-arched and jutting from the center bay of the building, which was designed by the renowned architect William B. Tubby. This simple gesture lent a distinctly nonindustrial touch to the structure. Today, when students seat themselves with books and iPods on the porch's balustrades, no sight quite says "college" like Main Building. Tubby had apprenticed with the architect Ebenezer Roberts, who designed Charles Pratt's personal mansion at 232 Clinton Avenue (now part of St. Joseph's College). When Roberts died in 1890, Tubby took over the practice and received several Pratt commissions, including design of the mansion for Pratt's oldest son, Charles Millard Pratt. Now the residence of Brooklyn's Catholic bishop, the mansion was one of four built by Pratt for each of his first four sons. The only one that remains in the school's possession is the Caroline Ladd Pratt House. Named for the wife of the home's original owner, Frederic Bayley Pratt, it was designed by Babb, Cook & Willard and built in 1895. Known as Pratt House, it remains one of Brooklyn's most splendid Beaux Arts mansions. Beautifully restored in the early 1990s, the house is now used for Institute events and includes private residences for the current president and rooms for several students. today, when students seat themselves with books and ipods on the porch's balustrades, no sight quite says "college" like Main building. Before Charles Pratt's sudden death in 1891, he commissioned three additional buildings--now known as East Building, the Student Union, and South Hall--and all were connected along Ryerson Street. Classical in style, East Building, originally known as the Mechanic Arts Building, was built to house the Institute's mechanical plant, which was listed in 1977 as a National Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark. In 1896, three steam engines were installed to provide electric power to the Institute's buildings and to serve as a teaching tool. (The engines provided power to the Institute until 2004.) Also completed in 1887 was the Trade School Building (now the Student Union), a Colonial Revival-style building also designed by Tubby, where courses in bricklaying, plumbing, and sign painting were taught. Ten years later, it was remodeled into a public gymnasium with a swimming pool. Tubby also designed South Hall, a Romanesquestyle building. Top: Built in 1896, the Pratt liBrary was open to all Brooklyn residents until 1940, when the Central Library of the Brooklyn Public Library opened at Grand Army Plaza. Left to Right: tHe CHeMiStry Building was built in 1904 to accommodate the growing number of courses demanding knowledge of physical sciences. tHe MaCHinery Building went up in 1914. tHe engineering Building was built in 1928 as Pratt's science and technology departments expanded. M y r T L e aV e . P r aT T ' s B r o o K Ly n CaMPus w i L L o u g h B y aV e . h a L L s T. 1 3 2 2 5 d e K a L B aV e . L a fay e T T e aV e . s T. J a M e s PLaCe B r o o K Ly n ' s f i r s T f r e e L i B r a r y In 1890, the Institute opened one of the country's first library schools, with the Pratt Free Library, located in Main Building, serving as its laboratory. Since it was the city's only free public library, excessive demand for its services led to the construction of a stand-alone library building. The Brooklyn Daily Eagle reported on January 20, 1895: "Pratt Institute's new library building...is gradually nearing completion. When ready for occupancy it will be one of the most imposing structures in this big city." The dedication on May 26, 1896, was a grand event led by Pratt President Frederic Bayley Pratt, the founder's second of six sons. (He had two daughters.) The Pratt Library, designed by Tubby, is a Rundbogenstil, or roundarch-style building with splendid interiors, including ornamental iron staircase railings, columns of Siena marble, and tessellated floors all designed by the Tiffany Glass and Decorating Company. In 1912, Tubby added the Children's Portico to the rear of the building (today's front) 4 C a M P u s g r o w T h 1 8 8 7� 2 0 1 2 1 8 8 7� 1 9 0 7 Main BuiLding easT BuiLding sTudenT union souTh haLL LiBr ary Townhouses CheMisTry BuiLding 1914�1928 MaChinery BuiLding ThrifT haLL MeMoriaL haLL engineering BuiLding 1954�1970 deKaLB haLL i n f o r M aT i o n s C i e n C e C e n T e r norTh haLL e s T h e r L L o y d -J o n e s h a L L acQUireD: �Willoughby hall � P r at t S t u d i o S �higginS hall �Steuben hall 1974�2010 aCTiViTies resourCe CenTer Cannoneer CourT L e o J . Pa n Ta s h a L L V i n C e n T a . s Ta B i L e h a L L P r aT T s T o r e higgins haLL CenTer seCTion JuLiana Curran Terian design CenTer MyrTLe haLL 3 so children could enter the Children's Reading Room from Library Park without disturbing the adults. In 1982, Giorgio Cavaglieri and Warren Gran restored the building and added the south terrace, and the Children's Portico was moved to outside the Activities Resource Center (ARC), where it stands today. The infLuenCe of howeLLs & sToKes The firm of John Mead Howells and I. N. Phelps Stokes shaped Pratt's campus during the first quarter of the 20th century. Several buildings went up on the east side of Grand Avenue under President Frederic Bayley Pratt, including the Chemistry Building, which was designed in the "arcaded" style of many late-19th-century warehouses and skyscrapers. Howells & Stokes later designed the Manual Training Building, now the Machinery Building, and Howells designed the Engineering Building. It is remarkable that this group of buildings-- Chemistry, Machinery, Engineering--maintains such a unity of style though they were built over a 25-year period. houses were built on Steuben Street and Willoughby Avenue in 1907. Designed by Hobart A. Walker, these units served for many years as Pratt faculty housing and are currently undergoing renovation to become housing for undergraduate students. Thrift Hall, designed by the prolific apartment building architects Shampan & Shampan, is a Georgian Revival building of red brick with limestone trim that originally housed a savings-andloan bank founded to help working people obtain mortgages. The bank closed in the 1940s, and the building has since housed Pratt administrative offices. By the time the stock market crashed in 1929, Pratt Institute 4 had spread out with buildings on Ryerson Street, Grand Avenue, Steuben Street, and Emerson Place between DeKalb and Willoughby avenues. But these were all still through streets--and the elevated train still shadowed Grand Avenue and filled it with clangorous noise. Following the stock market crash, economic depression and war halted the Institute's physical development until the mid-1950s. Poised for a new era In January 1954, the City of New York unanimously approved an urban renewal project, spearheaded by Robert Moses, as chair of the Mayor's Slum Clearance Committee. With this, and the dismantling of the elevated train line on Grand Avenue, Pratt was poised for a new era. A "superblock" was created, which meant that Ryerson Street, Grand Avenue, Steuben Street, and Emerson Place between DeKalb and Willoughby avenues were closed to traffic. Two of the streets, Ryerson and Grand, continue to connect DeKalb to Willoughby, but only as pedestrian paths. The other two were truncated. With the construction of several new Pratt buildings, and with the infilling of the spaces among Pratt's buildings with lawns and walkways, what had been a jumble of buildings on the bustling streets of Brooklyn became a proper, enclosed campus. The dominant architectural firm at Pratt Institute in the 1950s was the legendary McKim, Mead & White. Their Pratt works--in the unornamented modernist style that characterized the urban renewal projects of the 1940s (think Stuyvesant Town in Manhattan)--include the Information Science Center (originally a women's dormitory), DeKalb Hall (originally a men's dormitory), and North Hall (originally the Student Union). The major architectural advancement for Pratt Institute in the What had been a jumble of buildings on the bustling streets of brooklyn became a proper, enclosed campus. Howells designed Memorial Hall, an assembly hall honoring Charles Pratt's second wife, Mary, which completed the main row along Ryerson Street. Sculptor Ren� Chambellan completed the highly stylized relief sculpture--it was not at all unusual for Art Deco to be combined with Romanesque Revival--on the building's exterior. Two other developments rounded out Pratt's building program before it would experience a long hiatus. Picturesque red brick row Top: HigginS Hall is made up of three sections, with the north and south buildings dating back to the 19th century. The center section opened in 2005. Right: tHe Juliana Curran terian deSign Center was created in 2007 by linking Pratt Studios and Steuben Hall with a glass pavilion, which serves as a design gallery, and was designed by Hanrahan Meyers Architects. 12 125 anniVersary pr attfolio 1960s was the acquisition of two buildings that housed the former Adelphi Academy. Both are large, prominently gabled Romanesque Revival structures, which ultimately became Higgins Hall, home to Pratt's School of Architecture. The 1970s brought to Pratt the ARC, designed by Ezra Ehrenkrantz and Daniel Tully. The 1980s at Pratt belonged to Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, which contributed two residence halls, Leo J. Pantas Hall and Cannoneer Court. Both employ a light-handed postmodernist style in brick and were meant to be more "contextual" than the campus additions of the 1950s and 1970s. The boldly scaled Vincent J. Stabile Hall design by Pasanella, Klein, Stolzman, Berg, Architects was built in 1999, and recalls the work of the modern master Louis Kahn. That same year, the Institute acquired a stately 1896 Renaissance Revival� style building on West 14th Street in Manhattan designed by Brunner & Tryon--stylistically akin to Howells & Stokes's buildings on the Brooklyn campus. The new MillenniuM Higgins Hall suffered a disastrous fire in 1996, but redemption came in 2005 when Pratt opened a new central section to replace what had been damaged. Unlike the 1980s, when work at Pratt sought to blend in with the older campus, designer Steven Holl felt the right solution at Higgins Hall was something dramatically different. Described by one commentator as a "phosphorescent light box," Holl's "intervention" (an architectural term) brought to Pratt its most dazzling piece of au courant design and was the architect's first work in New York City, though his world-renowned practice had been based in the city for 25 years. A similar intervention occurred a year later when Hanrahan Meyers Architects, the firm of Th