Restoring Nature, Spring 2013
This book is the second in a series about the Outback Preserve at Pitzer College.
Book Two: The Pitzer Outback Preserve Restoring Nature Pitzer College Claremont, California Spring 2013 Contents Introduction: The Pitzer Outback Preserve page 1 Part One: Restoration Process page 3 Restoring Nature Course Elements page 9 Invasive Plant Species page 47 Outback Preserve Recommended Plant List Outback Preserve Restorative Planting Improvements Outback Preserve Restoration Plot Planting page 50 page 55 page 57 Community Outreach page 61 The Pitzer Outback Preserve Site Plan page 65 Part Two: Project Evolution page 67 Future Stages page 69 Monitoring and Measuring for Success page 71 Conclusion: The Outback as a Preserve page 75 Acknowledgements page 77 Works Cited page 78 INTRODUCTION The Pitzer Outback Preserve The Pitzer Outback Preserve is a three acre site of Alluvial Sage Scrub that is being restored by the students and members of the Claremont College Community. The Outback Preserve Restoration Project uses an ecosystematic approach, where multiple scales and systems are considered and integrated in the planning and restoration process. Connections are made at local, watershed, and regional levels to establish patterns and processes, strengthen project relevance, and connect with the community and beyond. This book is the second part of a series that highlights the Outback Preserve Restoration Project. The first book, completed in Fall 2012, introduces the project background and goal, as well as outlines the scope of the restoration project. The first book provides macro scale context to the restoration project from the watershed level, with the underlying notion that seemingly minor site changes have powerful impacts on the greater whole. Occurrences on the site scale significantly impact the watershed at large. This second book transitions from the previous macro scale into the more intimate micro scale of the Outback Preserve and describes the site specific details of the restoration process. It serves as documentation for restoration activities while shedding light on the unique attributes of this special three acre site. This document contains the following sections: Part One: Restoration Process Part Two: Project Evolution Introduction. Page 1 The Outback Preserve Restoration Project Goal: To restore and preserve the Pitzer Outback Preserve as an adaptive and resilient indigenous landscape for the Pitzer and regional communities to experience, explore, and enjoy. PART ONE RESTORATION PROCESS Restoration Strategy Ecological restoration is the practice of restoring ecosystems as performed by practitioners at specific project sites, whereas restoration ecology is the science upon which the practice is based. Restoration ecology ideally provides clear concepts, models, methodologies and tools for practitioners in support of their practice. Restoration strategies incorporate perspectives from scientific ecology as well as social science perspectives. Strategies for restoration projects incorporate the perspectives of interested parties. Strategies for restoration projects incorporate lists of staffing needs, needed materials, and statements of use of pesticides. The principle design criteria for the project is to achieve Outback Preserve floral restoration to a state replicating the historical benchmark, while balancing this with the desirability of increasing access for the college community. Cultural resources like the currently existing walking paths will be assessed individually for their fit within the project goals. It must be understood that restoration of the Outback Preserve may be an idealized goal, but the reality is that achieving some degree of rehabilitation will be a benchmark of success. As one student in Restoring Nature indicated, â€œthe Outback is not undergoing a restoration so much as it is being rehabilitated from a severely degraded state.â€? Part One. Restoration Process. Page 5 The Pitzer Outback Preserve Map courtesy of Michael Schwartz and Warren Roberts NORTH NTS The Claremont Colleges, Claremont, CA Restoration Process Stage 1: Background Research and Precedents This initial stage involves the gathering of preliminary information pertinent to the project. This includes relevant materials related to the site such as photos, maps, and data. Background, precedents, innovations, and research are informed by literature review of relevant topics and consultation with stakeholders, community members and professional and industry experts. Stage 2: Inventory In this stage and inventory of relevant information is developed. This is conducted through the charting of environmental, spatial, atmospheric, demographic, economic, and physical site contexts, as well as through site visits and community stakeholder meetings. Information gathered during these first two stages provides a basis of knowledge pertinent to the study and informs the project team as it moves toward analysis and design. Stage 3: Program During this stage the project team collects information regarding the needs, preferences, and perceptions of project stakeholders, community members, and other experts involved in decision making about the Outback Preserve Restoration Project. Stage 4: Analysis The goal of this stage is to fully understand the interrelated issues associated with the project and develop opportunities and constraints. The project team assesses data collected as well as information provided by stakeholders to establish priorities and effective strategies towards design. Evaluations may include site mapping and GIS analysis. Analysis provides synthesized opportunities and constraints that will later inform design. Stage 5: Synthesis and Design During the synthesis and design stage, the project team coalesces research, analysis, and opportunities to formulate site designs that most effectively address stakeholder needs and issues established through stages of research and analysis. Stage 6: Production Through this phase, the project team produces materials that reflect physical restoration designs, guidelines, educational programming, and all aspects of the project. This includes presentations, programs, and physical documents outlining the restoration process. Stage 7: Implementation and Monitoring During this ongoing phase, the Pitzer Outback Preserve Restoration Project is implemented and monitored to ensure lasting success. Part One. Restoration Process. Page 7 Bart Oâ€™Brien, horticultural expert from Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. Glen Lukos and Sheri Asgari, restoration specialists from Glen Lukos Associates. Jerry Taylor, landscape architect, ecologist and professor from Cal Poly Pomona. Restoration Process Restoring Nature Course Elements Warren Roberts, GIS specialist from Claremont University Consortium. Professor Colin Robins, soil specialist from Keck Science. Background research and site analysis for the Outback Preserve is an integral part of the restoration process. As part of the research process, critical dialogue occurs with experts in fields related to restoration ecology. Restoration insight and recommendations offered to the Outback Preserve restoration team by a range of experts in fields related to ecological restoration provide a sense of collaboration and support within the professional community. Consultations from professionals in fields of plant science, soil science, landscape architecture and ecology, professional ecological restoration, and GIS strengthen project relevance and support. In addition to fostering community relationships, a deeper understanding of our restoration process and necessary next steps is subsequently gained from each visiting consultant and professional perspective. Part One. Restoration Process. Page 9 Restoration Process Restoring Nature Course Elements Restoration progress is visible in the Pitzer Outback Preserve. This collaborative restoration project continues to build community, strengthen biodiversity and support the survival of a sensitive ecosystem that exists on the Pitzer College campus. Diverse restoration activities have occurred in the Outback Preserve. Site analysis and planning, meetings with restoration experts, plant research, weekly field work, and individual student research and projects combine to create a successful restoration process. On-site restoration work includes: GIS mapping of the Outback Preserve, eradication of invasive species, installation of restoration planting plots, planting of appropriate native plant species, seed saving, propagation of native plants, installation of seating areas and benches, design and installation of signage, and trail improvements. The photographs shown here document aspects of the restoration process that have occurred since 2010. Part One. Restoration Process. Page 11 Restoration Process Restoring Nature Course Elements Part One. Restoration Process. Page 13 Restoration Process Restoring Nature Course Elements Part One. Restoration Process. Page 15 Restoration Process Restoring Nature Course Elements Outback Preserve signage designed and installed by students enrolled in EA 132 Practicum in Exhibiting Nature Part One. Restoration Process. Page 17 Restoration Process Restoring Nature Course Elements Outback Preserve signage designed and installed by students enrolled in EA 132 Practicum in Exhibiting Nature Part One. Restoration Process. Page 19 Restoration Process Restoring Nature Course Elements Sketches of Outback Preserve vegetation drawn by students enrolled in EA 131 Restoring Nature, Fall 2012 Part One. Restoration Process. Page 21 Restoration Process Restoring Nature Course Elements The contributions made by students enrolled in EA 131 Restoring Nature make a significant positive impact in the Outback Preserve restoration process. The greater goal of the restoration project is to engage the local and campus community. Student inquiry and investigation into various aspects of the Outback generates a valuable body of knowledge and experience to relate to restoration efforts and inform future restoration. The following pages highlight selected student projects in the Outback Preserve, several of which are ongoing experiments to be continued by students enrolled in future semesters of Restoring Nature. Part One. Restoration Process. Page 23 THE PITZER OUTBACK PRESERVE, AN EATER’S GUIDE. Adin Bonapart flora of Pitzer’s Outback Preserve, a blend of native California chaparral and alluvial sage scrub ecosystems. Historically, the plants found in the Outback Preserve have sustained the medicinal, cultural, and culinary needs of Indigenous communities and settlers. This book presents tasty recipes to promote creative and engaging modes of interacting with and understanding nature. The instructions, recipes, and pictures in this book reflect the research of a variety of sources including books, material from class, first hand experience, and online periodicals. Listed in alphabetical order by common name, this collection features 19 edible plants found in the Outback Preserve. Information about how to collect, prepare, and store certain plants is provided. This book is not a comprehensive examination of the ecology of the Outback Preserve, or of the uses of its plants, and should only be used as an introductory guide. The reader should feel free to alter these recipes and uses based on their own culinary experiences. “ - Adin Bonapart “In this book you will find information on the edible Restoration Process Restoring Nature Course Elements. Student Projects GOLDEN CURRANT Ribes aureum, Family: Saxifragacae Description: Medium sized, deciduous shrub. Flowers may be shades of cream to reddish, and are borne in clusters of up to 15. Berries are about 1 centimeter in diameter and contain several small seeds. Blooms February through April, with fruit appearing in spring and early summer. Uses: Ripe fruits, amber yellow to black in color, are edible. The flowers are also edible. Fruit can be eaten raw and is also good for jellies, jams, sauces, and pies. Shaking the bushes over sheets of plastic or blankets is a popular method of gathering the berries. CURRANT & PINE NUT PANCAKES Ingredients: Â˝ cup fresh currant berries 1 cup chopped pine nuts 1 cup all purpose flour Â˝ tsp. salt 2 tbs sugar 1 cup milk Mix all dry ingredients. Slowly beat in milk to make a smooth batter. Drop by spoonful onto greased skillet. Soy milk or water may be substituted for milk. Serves 4. Part One. Restoration Process. Page 25 GIS MAPPING OF THE OUTBACK PRESERVE. Michael Schwartz View 4 looking north View 8 looking southwest 7 8 5 6 3 4 View 3 looking east View 7 looking southwest 9 2 View 2 looking northeast 1 View 6 looking southwest View 1 looking north View 5 looking west NORTH NTS View 9 looking north Restoration Process Restoring Nature Course Elements. Student Projects The GIS mapping of the Outback Preserve benefits restoration activities of future student generations. Site features and restoration activities are mapped and documented using GIS. These elements combine together to create the Outback Preserve Restoration Site Plan, located on page 60. Further GIS mapping and documentation of the site is illustrated on the facing page, where critical viewsheds are spatially located and mapped. The goal of the viewshed documentation is to provide a method for monitoring the changes in the Outback Preserve over time. This method of photo documentation is useful in monitoring the evolution of the Outback Preserve and shall be continued in future semesters of EA 131 Restoring Nature. View 11 looking northwest, taken from the roof of East Hall View 10 looking northwest, taken from the roof of West Hall Part One. Restoration Process. Page 27 The Eradication of Mustard from the Pitzer Outback Preserve. William Morales and Margot McKelvie Plot #1 Hand Weeding Plot #4 Hoeing Plot #1 Before treatment Plot #4 Before treatment Plot #1 Three weeks after treatment Plot #4 Three weeks after treatment Restoration Process Restoring Nature Course Elements. Student Projects Abstract: Mustard is an invasive species of plant that serves as competition for the native plants of the Outback Preserve and has made their survival more difficult. Mustard is especially strong and dense in the Outback Preserve during spring, as climate conditions are more favorable and more ideal for its growth and generation. The aim of the project is to investigate and discover what method of eradication works the best with eradicating mustard from the Outback Preserve. Method: Six various mustard eradication methods are formulated to test on six different eight by eight foot plots filled with mustard. The first testing method is hand-weeding. The second testing method is the use of herbicides, in which the herbicide Round-Up is sprayed on the stems and flowers of each mustard plant. The third testing method is solarization, where a black plastic tarp is placed over a plot of mustard to allow heat to generate from the sun and subsequently kill what is underneath the plastic. The fourth testing treatment is heat-treatment, where a controlled-fire is staged through torching each individual mustard plantâ€™s lower stem. The fifth testing method is hoeing, in which a plot of mustard has its roots uplifted by hoeing. The sixth testing method is the combination of hand-weeding and herbicides, in which mustard is hand pulled and subsequently sprayed with herbicides if new mustard growth is encountered. Conclusion: The most effective methods of eradicating mustard are both hand weeding and hoeing. Plot #1 and #4 show the best results. In both plots, most of the mustard is cleared and does not yet show any new growth or regeneration. Both methods are successful due to the complete extraction of the deep roots of the plant. Future Investigation: Continued monitoring of each test plot and reapplication of mustard eradication methods by future student generations ensures long term results for effective mustard removal in the Outback Preserve. Part One. Restoration Process. Page 29 Experimentation with Seed Germination and Heat. Andrew Valenzuela Fire is an important part of Southern Californiaâ€™s native ecosystem. Many native plants within the Alluvial Sage Scrub habitat require fire to properly thrive. This project evaluates the level and speed of plant growth by exposing seeds to different types of heat to observe under which conditions seeds grow the largest and fastest. The experiment includes the following steps: 1. Identification of seeds which require heat to germinate. 2. Research of the proper temperature which native seeds need to grow and application of appropriate heating methods which include: propane blowtorch, boiling, and dry oven heat. The experiment uses seeds that have not received previous heat treatment. 3. Planting the heated and non-heated seeds in a designated treatment plot. 4. Creation of fencing and signage for treatment plots. Â Artemisia californica at Bonelli Park in San Dimas, CA, where seeds were gathered for the experiment. Restoration Process Restoring Nature Course Elements. Student Projects Separating the Artemisia seeds Planting the Artemisia seeds Finished seed-treatment plots, ready for treatment Information sign at treatment plots Part One. Restoration Process. Page 31 The Pitzer Outback Preserve Seed Bank. Elizabeth Burkhart-Carlson The Pitzer Outback Preserve Seed Bank is a collection of seed samples gathered from native chaparral plant species. Seed samples are harvested exclusively from the Pitzer Outback Preserve and the Bernard Field Station so that the seeds are guaranteed to come from local species found in the alluvial fan that originates from the San Gabriel Mountains. Collecting localized species for the seed bank is important because seeds can be used as a record of the plant life found in the Pitzer Outback Preserve, and also as a resource for future restoration efforts and species recovery projects. Collecting seeds from the Pitzer Outback Preserve and the Bernard Field Station requires knowledge of plant identification, seed harvesting, and a regulated storage system. Seeds can be found in berries, pods, and flowers depending on the species, but as a general rule seeds develop in close proximity to where the flowers first appear. The process of removing seeds from plants varies throughout species. Seeds from flowering plants, like Foothill Penstemon can be collected by shaking the seed from the dried up flower head. Seeds that come from species that produce berries, like Toyon have to be removed from the individual berries and dried before they are stored to prevent molding. The seeds that are collected for the Pitzer Outback Preserve Seed Bank are sorted into paper envelopes that specify the speciesâ€™ botanical name, common name, family, and date collected. For long-term storage, seeds need a dry and cool area (about 35 to 40 degrees Fahrenheit). Scale Broom Coast Prickly Pear Restoration Process Restoring Nature Course Elements. Student Projects As of May, 2013 the plant species that have been collected consist of: Foothill Penstemon, Penstemon heterophyllus Coastal Prickly Pear, Opuntia littoralis Golden Currant, Ribes aureum Laurel Sumac, Malosma laurina Scale Broom, Lepidospartum squamatum The process of collecting seeds is heavily dependent on the timing and life cycle of a plantâ€™s bloom. Seeds should be left to ripen on a plant until they are fully developed. You can usually tell if seeds are viable to harvest if the plant shows signs of deterioration. Flower heads dry up and release seeds, pods naturally split open, and berries wither and darken. At this time seeds have changed color from a whitish or green to a dark brown or black, signaling that they are matured and ready to be collected and stored. This process is usually completed within two to five weeks after a plant has blossomed, but many factors can alter this time line. Climate, elevation, exposure to light, rainfall, and multiple other environmental factors determine when seeds develop from year to year. Golden Currant Laurel Sumac Foothill Penstemon Part One. Restoration Process. Page 33 The Pitzer Outback Preserve Seed Bank. Elizabeth Burkhart-Carlson Fold in along dotted line and glue The Pitzer Outback Preserve SEED BANK Fold in along dotted line and glue Family: Common Name: Botanical Name: Date Collected: Characteristics: Noteworthy Aspects: Landscape Uses: Ethnobotanical Uses: How to Propagate: Restoration Process Restoring Nature Course Elements. Student Projects Seeds are collected from the Pitzer Outback Preserve and stored in customized packets shown above. Part One. Restoration Process. Page 35 Trail Improvements in the Pitzer Outback Preserve. Shaban Ayala-Torres Before trail improvements After trail improvements Restoration Process Restoring Nature Course Elements. Student Projects Before trail improvements and signage installation After trail improvements and signage installation Part One. Restoration Process. Page 37 Advocacy in the Pitzer Outback Preserve. Jonathan Rice Outback Advocacy: 1-on-1 and Groups Pitzer College Campus Map Outback Preserve North Commons Pitzer Road Mills Avenue Gold Fletcher Avery Keck Science Center II Glass Commencement Plaza & Recreation Area McConnell Apron 1. Basic Information It is important to provide the basics of the Outback Preserve such as: Keck Science Center Pool 19 Holden Sanborn Parking Holden Parking Pitzer Hall Admission East Mesa Parking McConnell Ninth Street -Ecosystem Type: Alluvial Sage Scrub, a mixture of California Chaparral and Coastal Sage Scrub, one of the Continued advocacy of the Outback Preserve results in the recent placement of the Preserve on the Pitzer most endangered ecosystems in the world. campus map. -Current Size: 3 acres, 7 before Phase II construction, 20 before major development on the west side of Pitzerâ€™s campus -Future Plans: Preserved for the long-term as part of the Phase II LEED Certification Process. The College cannot destroy the Outback Preserve without risking losing LEED status for the Phase II buildings. While members of the Pitzer community have used the Outback Preserve for recreational activities over the years, today its primary role is as a nature preserve and living classroom. Each semester, classes learn about ecological restoration in relation to the Outback Preserve and dedicate many hours to planting and weeding the Preserve. The Outback Preserve has potential uses in nonenvironmental analysis classes, such as mathematics. E. Sanborn Green Bike Program N. Sanborn Claremont Boulevard Foothill Boulevard One of the best ways to protect the Outback Preserve is Harvey Mudd College to make sure that others are aware of it. As the Outback Preserve is tucked away behind East and West Halls in Rodman Broad Center Greenhouse Citrus Grove Arboretum the North Corner of campus, many faculty, students, Grove Clocktower House Brant Field Platt Boulevard and staff are unaware of its existence. This guide offers Outdoor Classroom the framework to discuss the Outback Preserve with any Garden Bernard Broad Hall & Coop Scripps College member of the community, whether one-on-one or in a Benson CafĂŠ Mead larger group. There are three main components to include Auditorium when advocating for the Outback: East Hall Center Commons Center Courtyard West Hall Atherton South Commons Amphitheater Scott The Mounds Restoration Process Restoring Nature Course Elements. Student Projects 2. Flora & Fauna of the Outback The Outback Preserve is home to unique wildlife and plants. While speaking about the Outback, promote awareness of this unique flora and fauna to encourage visitors to the Outback. Highlights include: Flora -Ribes aureum, Golden Currant: An edible plant with edible berries that alternate between red, orange, and yellow by season. -Yucca, Our Lordâ€™s Candle: Plants have large leaves that stick out from a center point and eventually a blooming flower stalk emerges from the middle. -Toyon: Evergreen shrub with white flowers in the summer and red berries in the winter. Emblematic of the Outback Preserve. -Poison Oak: This plant causes a harsh rash if it comes into contact with skin. Be mindful of the different forms it can take depending on the season. Fauna -Coyotes, Quail, Rabbits, and Woodrats are regularly sighted in the Outback Preserve. -Black Widow Spider: Do not overemphasize, but mention so visitors are aware. -California Legless Lizard: Not a snake, but a unique lizard in California. Part One. Restoration Process. Page 39 3. Personal Story Even armed with all the information in the world about Alluvial Sage Scrub, ecological restoration, or the Outback Preserve itself, the best way to connect with others is to express oneâ€™s personal story related to the Outback Preserve. Consider the following discussion points: -When was the first time you heard about the Outback Preserve? What is your first memory or understanding of the Outback Preserve? -What kind of interactions have you had with the Outback Preserve? -How long have you been involved with the Outback Preserve? -What is your background? Are you an Environmental Analysis major, or something that one would not necessarily associate with the environment? Posing the above questions leads to productive conversation with individuals or groups regarding the Outback Preserve, which ultimately generates community engagement and awareness. Promoting Interdisciplinary Activity in the Outback Preserve. Kevin Jaatinen The Pitzer Outback Preserve The Pitzer Outback Preserve is a parcel of native sage scrub located on the Pitzer College Claremont community as an educational resource. It is a learning natural area conducive to outside of the classroom within all academic campus that is available to the Ideas for Mathematics Activities • Mathematics in the Outback Have you considered using The Pitzer Outback Preserve in your courses? To help you utilize Mathematic, we’ve designed a wish to utilize in one or more of your courses. the Outback in of plant branching and could be done through statistical analysis. • trail system. • Investigate the pattern leafing, and how it illustrates the Fibonacci sequence. This Introduce mapping problems using the Outback’s plant or animal populations, a healthy ecosystem. • Think of ways to Mathematically model disciplines. Incorporating the can provide students with hands-‐on perspective of how the applicable course situations. to material real few activities that you might and compare this analysis to incorporate the Outback and its natural systems into your teaching and research. Outback into your coursework is For additional information please contact Paul Faulstich life email@example.com Restoration Process Restoring Nature Course Elements. Student Projects The tri fold pamphlets shown here serve as invitations for faculty and students to consider integration of the Outback Preserve in projects and curriculum development. Great potential exists for diverse interdisciplinary activities to occur within this unique campus resource. Ideas for Language Activities • classroom setting. Writing • Interactive activities in t could bhe e conducted throughout the trail system Outback with different stations. This an outdoor space to practice speaking outside of the The Outback provides Ideas for Writing Activities • provide a calm and peaceful short stories or poetry. • provide a space for the natural world. • The Outback can The Outback can location for students to write Have you considered using The activity would b e similar to a Pitzer Outback Preserve in game in which students your cour ses? To help you demonstrate their utilize the Outback in Writing, proficiency of the language in we’ve designed a few activities order to win. that you might wish to utilize • Think of ways to in one or more of your courses. incorporate the Outback and its natural systems into your teaching and research. For additional information discussion for writing about incorporate the Outback and its natural systems into your teaching and research. Think of ways to please contact Paul Faulstich firstname.lastname@example.org Part One. Restoration Process. Page 41 Community Outreach Survey for the Pitzer Outback Preserve. Jack Shaked and Peter Rominger The restoration process includes survey responses from the Pitzer community regarding views of the Outback Preserve. Common patterns from the survey findings show that survey participants are aware of the Outback Preserve location, but are not clear about the purpose or future of the Outback Preserve. Survey participants that are fully aware of the purpose of the Outback Preserve are skeptical of its prolonged existence and assume the College lacks commitment to protect the land. A reoccurring theme of the survey is the feeling that the Outback Preserve has lost its charm and is no longer respected by newer students. One student response expresses how efforts of restoration will have a, “minimal impact to help reintegrate the Outback back into Pitzer identity” because of the fact that it has been so drastically downsized. This same student also adds that, “The space has been stripped of what made it awesome. Now it’s boring and lacks the draw it once had.” Ecological restoration is a dynamic process that must integrate the social with the ecological in order to achieve sustainability. Many students feel that they no longer have a stake in the Outback Preserve and that its purpose is solely for classroom study. City of Claremont lities Agency Inland Empire Uti n nic Garde a t o B a n anta A Rancho S ouncil C l a b i r gva T ium no Ton i l e i nsort r o b C Ga m y t retu versi o i n b r U t nA mon sts dma o Clare R ogi ents ion l n o h c d t Jo ce E e Stu Sta The n e i d g l Sc olle d Fie logy ity int C o r J r o ont itze r na he mun P e m T e B r e o f om Cla ol f th C o o ch nt ds S o n t e m Fri on re m a l re C Cla LOCAL OU TB ACK NAT I oc. of Gover alifornia Ass Southern C Southern California Chapter ASLA C a li f o rn ia N ative Plant S ociety N Nat Cali ational Park ura forn Env l Resoia Pres Service Am iron urc erva er t e A ica ud ment s Def ion Fdn e ub al P . n on rote nse C So o ct So cie u nc il ty Sie ciet ion Ag rra y of enc y La C nd lub sc ap eA rc hi te ct s Restoration Process Restoring Nature Course Elements. Student Projects IONA So cie L n i on m i lu rat A o t ge s le l R e l o a r C ogic e l tz Pi r Eco fo ty Many students, particularly those who have been at Pitzer since the Fall of 2009 consider the Outback less special as it formerly was. One student response expresses, “It was used as a private place students could explore and reflect in. Now the only students who use it are the classes. The Outback has lost its charm and legacy. I feel like the new students don’t appreciate it the way it was understood by us (seniors) when we were incoming freshmen.” Based on the survey results, there is a need to focus on programming and events to reintegrate the Pitzer Community to the Outback Preserve. Survey patterns express sentiments that the Outback Preserve is either just for classes or a waste of space. Many survey responses express a concern that the Outback Preserve will not remain much longer, leaving little incentive to help protect it. It is a critical time to continue spreading awareness of the Outback Preserve, as well as the notion that it is a place for the entire community to steward and enjoy in the future. RE GI ON AL He rs & Rive al t re Theodo he r pe ee t K tion ciety a as o Co und on S o C. O. r F dub ide Au rfr e l y Su anc eop serv eP Tre Con ains unt ds Mo rshe Wate O.C. ion oundat Payne F Ba y rnments Part One. Restoration Process. Page 43 Proposed Signage for the Outback Preserve. Professor Kathryn Miller “I’ve designed a three-dimensional entry-point sign for the Pitzer Outback. It is fabricated from Cor-10 steel, stands about 9 feet tall and approximately 1 1/2 feet wide and has a rusted finish. On the entry side there are cut outs of various paw prints and bird foot prints of the animals that inhabit the outback. I’ve also included prints for a GMO (genetically modified organism) to cover the future. On the backside as you head back out to civilization there are cut outs of symbols humans have used to denote various aspects of the landscape (sun, water, rain, desert, mountains, etc.) over time. The center spine of the sign simply has the word OUTBACK cut out, designating a formal name for this unique space on the Pitzer campus.” -Kathryn Miller Conceptual rendering of proposed signage Restoration Process Restoring Nature Course Elements. Interdisciplinary Collaboration Part One. Restoration Process. Page 45 Horehound, Marrubium vulgare Spanish Broom, Spartium junceum Black Mustard, Brassica nigra Italian Thistle, Carduus pycnocephalus Restoration Process Invasive Plant Species Leading Invasive Species of the Outback Preserve: Brassica nigra, Black Mustard Carduus pycnocephalus, Italian Thistle Marrubium vulgare, Horehound Spartium junceum, Spanish Broom Part One. Restoration Process. Page 47 Native Invasive Cobweb Thistle, Cirsium occidentale var. occidentale Italian Thistle, Carduus pycnocephalus Restoration Process Native & Invasive Plant Identification Native Invasive Scale Broom, Lepidospartum squamatum Spanish Broom, Spartium junceum Part One. Restoration Process. Page 49 Grasses Elymus condensatus, Giant Wild Rye Elymus glaucus, Blue Wild Rye Festuca californica, California Fescue Melica californica, California Melic Melica imperfecta, California Melic Muhlenbergia rigens, Deer Grass Stipa cernua, Nodding Needle Grass Stipa coronata, Giant Stipa Stipa lepida, Foothill Stipa Stipa pulchra, Purple Needle Grass Deer Grass & Blue Wild Rye California Fescue California Melic Purple Needle Grass Blue Wild Rye Restoration Process Outback Preserve Recommended Plant List Succulents and Cacti Hesperoyucca whipplei, Chaparral Yucca Opuntia littoralis, Coast Prickly Pear An essential aspect of the restoration process is the development of an appropriate restoration plant palette for the Outback Preserve. The following recommended plant palette is informed by research of local plant communities and meetings with horticultural and restoration experts. The following species occur within the Alluvial Sage Scrub plant community and are recommended as species to encourage the biodiversity and recovery of the site. Chaparral Yucca Coast Prickly Pear Part One. Restoration Process. Page 51 Shrubs Adenostema fasciculatum, Chamise Arcotstaphylos glauca, Big-berry Manzanita Artemisia douglasiana, Mugwort Ceanothus spp., California Lilac species Datura wrightii, Sacred Datura Diplacus/ Mimulus spp., Monkey Flower species Encelia farinosa, Brittlebush Epilobium californica, California Fuchsia Sacred Datura Mahonia nevinii, Nevinâ€™s Barberry Big-berry Manzanita Flowering Perennials Centaurium venustum, Beautiful Centaury Delphinium cardinale, Scarlet Larkspur Paeonia californica, California Peony Chamise Big-berry Manzanita California Wild Lilac Brittlebush Mugwort Restoration Process Outback Preserve Recommended Plant List California Fuchsia Scarlet Larkspur Nevinâ€™s Barberry Beautiful Centaury Sticky Monkey Flower California Peony Part One. Restoration Process. Page 53 Bigberry Manzanita California Fuchsia Giant Wild Rye Restoration Process Outback Preserve Restorative Planting Improvements. Spring 2013. Fuchsia Flowering Gooseberry California Fuchsia Sticky Monkey Flower Giant Wild Rye Toyon Bigberry Manzanita Part One. Restoration Process. Page 55 Restoration Process Outback Preserve Restoration Plot Planting Restoration plots implemented at the entrance of the Outback Preserve ensure a greater probability of survival for new native plantings. The plots protect young native plants from wildlife grazing and assist in ease of maintenance. Students enrolled in EA 131 Restoring Nature, design, implement, and steward each restoration plot. Four restoration plots currently exist and contain an appropriate selection of native plant species from the Outback Preserve recommended plant palette. Part One. Restoration Process. Page 57 Project Boundary LEGEND Entrance and Exit Pedestrian Trail Restoration Plot 1 Restoration Plot 2 Restoration Plot 3 Restoration Plot 4 Alluvial Sage Scrub Habitat The Outback To 210 Freeway 5 4 1 (North on Towne Ave.) D AT RM O U AV T HE . (North on Monte Vista Ave.) FO O TH B ILL L VD . P P To 210 Freeway HARVARD AVE. COLLEGE AVE. 22 19 B 23 24 21 3 4 1 P 10 6 5 7 9 P P P 12 Harvey Mudd College 11 13 14 19 17 18 20 8 PLATT BLVD. 23 15 TWELFTH STREET P 1 19 23 21 D 24 22 1 2 3 4 5 15 6 8 Pitzer 1 7 5 28 17 U 27 18 6 4 14 15 College 2 13 11 16 3 ELEVENTH STREET 7 CLAREMONT BLVD. DARTMOUTH PL. 2 3 15 16 24 22 21 Claremont Graduate University YALE AVE. P 2 4 P 20 COLUMBIA AVE. Scripps 9 College 1 4 8 7 6 TENTH STREET 12 NINTH STREET 14 P 5 9 11 26 16 12 P 10 11 12 10 P 13 15 E Claremont University Consortium H F 13 P 8 9 10 P 50 P G NINTH STREET P 3 7 5 1 2 1 2 4 W 10 9 8 12 13 23 22 14 25 26 37 35 36 34 P 44 38 43 39 40 P EIGHTH STREET EIGHTH STREET 6 SEVENTH STREET 2 1 3 4 5 COLLEGE WAY C P 10 P 9 70 AMHERST 16 26 17 18 J K S 14 13 11 12 16 15 V P 19 Claremont McKenna College 21 27 33 45 15 16 6 P 9 P 20 19 29 31 30 32 7 P 8 69 SIXTH STREET 38 37 36 HARRISON AVE 39 40 FOURTH STREET COLLEGE AVENUE 42 44 45 46 48 47 P 17 18 P 17 CMC-HMC-SCRIPPS Joint Athletic Facility 41 42 1828 35 34 33 32 DRAPER WALK P 31 30 20 21 P 46 STOVER WALK 48 47 Pomona College 41 Q 29 28 25 27 26 51 24 22 MILLS AVE. 49 49 50 P Cl aremont Villiage HARVARD AVENUE 43 BONITA AVE. 63 59 60 68 61 58 57 53 P 3 n 64 SECOND STREET 65 66 67 62 52 AMHERST 23 73 56 P 54 55 San Bernardino Freeway (I-10) One mile to FIRST STREET R M G REEN STREET w CFS 2006 e s 4 INDIAN HILL BLVD. THE OUTBACK PRESERVE Restoration Plots PITZER COLLEGE CLAREMONT, CALIFORNIA The Claremont Colleges ARRO H WW Y. THE OUTBACK PRESERVE NORTH Restoration Plots PITZER COLLEGE NTS N NTS N Restoration Process Outback Preserve Restoration Plot Planting Plot 1 White Sage, Salvia apiana Black Sage, Salvia mellifera Purple Needle Grass, Nasella pulchra Royal Penstemon, Penstemon spectabilis Plot 2 Beavertail Cactus, Opuntia littoralis Wild Rye, Leymus condensatus Royal Penstemon, Penstemon spectabilis Plot 3 Brittlebush, Encelia farinosa Coast Live Oak, Quercus agrifolia White Sage, Salvia apiana Black Sage, Salvia mellifera Wild Rye, Leymus condensatus Purple Needle Grass, Nasella pulchra Our Lordâ€™s Candle, Hesperoyucca whipplei Royal Penstemon, Penstemon spectabilis Plot 4 Purple Needle Grass, Nasella pulchra Sticky Monkey Flower, Mimulus aurantiacus California Fuchsia, Epilobium californica Nevinâ€™s Barberry, Mahonia nevinii Part One. Restoration Process. Page 59 Restoration Process Community Outreach & Engagement. The Outback Happening Restoration is not merely restoring the ecosystem. Restoration also incorporates the community into the landscape. This connection with the community is a major project goal for the Pitzer Outback Preserve. One way that this is accomplished is by making the site accessible and creating spaces within the Outback Preserve for community use. Students enrolled in EA 131 Restoring Nature, organized the first Pitzer Outback Happening community event on December 7, 2012. The goal of the gathering is to raise awareness of the Outback Restoration project within the community while celebrating the Outback Preserve. The community event included a traditional blessing ceremony by local Elders, food, live music, and studentled tours of the Outback. Students harvested White Sage from the Outback to make sage smudge-stick gifts for the celebration guests. Visitors had the opportunity to record their thoughts and insights regarding their experience of the Outback during the celebration. The campus event was noted in the local paper, La Nueva Voz. Where: The Pitzer Outback! When: Friday December 7th 12-3pm (rain or shine) What: A celebration of the Outback restoration project Enjoy Mexican barbecue (vegetarian and vegan options available), Live music by Pitzer bands, tours of the Outback, Native American drummers and a Tongva blessing Part One. Restoration Process. Page 61 The Outback Happening was mentioned in the local paper, La Nueva Voz. The following page highlights thoughts and impressions of the Outback Preserve recorded by visitors during the community event. Restoration Process Community Outreach & Engagement. The Outback Happening Part One. Restoration Process. Page 63 Project Boundary THE OUTBACK PRESERVE Restoration Site Plan PITZER COLLEGE CLAREMONT, CALIFORNIA NORTH NTS N LEGEND Entrance and Exit Pedestrian Trail Mustard Removal Test Plots Fire & Seed Germination Test Plots Viewshed Documentation Point Seating 2013 Restoration Planting Plots Alluvial Sage Scrub Habitat Restoration Fencing & Signage Signage Temporary Art Installation To 210 Freeway 5 4 1 Restoration Process The Outback Preserve Restoration Site Plan The restoration process of the Outback Preserve includes GIS site mapping, revegetation of native plants in restoration plots, removal of invasive species, trail improvements, installation of benches and restoration signage, viewshed documentation, experimental seed germination test plots, and mustard removal test plots. The Outback (North on Towne Ave.) D AT RM O U AV T HE . (North on Monte Vista Ave.) FO O TH B ILL L VD . P P To 210 Freeway HARVARD AVE. COLLEGE AVE. 22 19 B 23 24 21 3 4 1 P 10 6 5 7 9 P P P 12 Harvey Mudd College 11 13 14 19 17 18 20 8 PLATT BLVD. 23 15 TWELFTH STREET P 1 19 23 21 D 24 22 1 2 3 4 5 15 6 8 Pitzer 1 7 5 28 17 U 27 18 6 4 14 15 College 2 13 11 16 3 ELEVENTH STREET 7 Claremont Graduate University YALE AVE. P 2 4 P 20 COLUMBIA AVE. Scripps 9 College 1 4 8 7 6 TENTH STREET 12 NINTH STREET 14 P 5 9 11 26 16 12 P 10 11 CLAREMONT BLVD. DARTMOUTH PL. 2 3 15 16 24 22 21 12 10 P 13 15 E Claremont University Consortium H F 13 P 8 9 10 P 50 P G NINTH STREET P 3 7 5 1 2 4 W 10 9 8 12 13 23 22 14 25 26 37 35 36 34 P 44 38 43 39 40 P EIGHTH STREET EIGHTH STREET 6 SEVENTH STREET 2 1 3 4 5 COLLEGE WAY C P 10 P 9 70 AMHERST 16 26 17 18 J K S 14 13 11 12 16 15 V P 19 Claremont McKenna College 21 27 33 45 15 16 6 P 9 P 20 19 29 31 30 32 7 P 8 69 SIXTH STREET 38 37 36 HARRISON AVE 39 40 FOURTH STREET COLLEGE AVENUE 42 44 45 46 48 47 P 17 18 P 17 CMC-HMC-SCRIPPS Joint Athletic Facility 41 42 1828 35 34 33 32 DRAPER WALK P 31 30 20 21 P 46 STOVER WALK 48 47 Pomona College 41 Q 29 28 25 27 26 51 24 22 MILLS AVE. 49 49 50 P Cl aremont Villiage INDIAN HILL BLVD. HARVARD AVENUE 43 BONITA AVE. 63 59 60 68 61 58 57 53 P 64 SECOND STREET 65 66 67 62 52 AMHERST 23 73 56 P 54 55 San Bernardino Freeway (I-10) One mile to FIRST STREET R M n G REEN STREET w CFS 2006 e s Part One. Restoration Process. Page 65 The Claremont Colleges ARRO H WW Y. PART TWO PROJECT EVOLUTION Project Evolution Future Stages The Outback restoration process is multi fold and ever-evolving. Student projects and participation continue to enhance restoration progress while introducing new ways to reach the greater goal of the restoration project. Infrastructure is established for the continuation of student research and projects that assist in achieving restoration goals, including: The Outback Preserve Seed Bank, GIS mapping of critical viewsheds for long term monitoring, test plots to determine best methods for invasive mustard eradication, and establishment of an Outback Preserve advocacy framework to engage the community. These existing student projects, as highlighted in earlier sections of this book, serve as informative points of departure for future student investigation and monitoring. Part Two. Project Evolution. Page 69 Project Evolution Monitoring & Measuring for Success Protocols for Monitoring Monitoring the Outback is the responsibility of the Arboretum staff, under the direction of Arboretum Director Joe Clements. The staff will periodically assess the Outback, and conduct ongoing management, as needed, that is aligned with the Outback Preserve Restoration Plan. Arboretum staff will include students as appropriate in the ongoing monitoring. Strategies for Long-term Protection and Maintenance Success of the project over time is dependent on the ability to maintain low levels of invasive plants, and the elimination of unwanted anthropogenic use of the area (including campfires and other damaging activities). A critical measure of project success is assessing the goal of increasing community appreciation of the Outback Preserve, which will ultimately encourage its long-term preservation. Maintenance of the area will be under the purview of the Arboretum, which is charged with oversight of all grounds on the Pitzer campus. Part Two. Project Evolution. Page 71 CONCLUSION THE PITZER OUTBACK AS A PRESERVE CONCLUSION The Pitzer Outback as a Preserve Naming the Pitzer Outback as a preserve reflects a deeper level of honoring this special site. The dynamic restoration process occurring within the Outback Preserve embodies the unique quality and context of the site, with student activity and community engagement existing at its forefront. Future partnership and integration with the Robert Redford Conservancy for Southern California Sustainability ensures creation of deeper levels of community engagement, environmental stewardship, and restoration success. The restoration process continues to evolve and progress with each new semester, while concurrently maintaining the ultimate goal of restoring the site as an adaptive and resilient indigenous landscape for the Pitzer and regional communities to experience, explore, and enjoy. Investigation of the Outback Preserve at both the watershed and site specific levels highlights how seemingly minor activities have the ability to positively impact the greater watershed. This provides further affirmation and reinforcement of how the Outback Preserve Restoration Project is critical in its ability to be far-reaching and serve as an ecological model for land stewardship within the local and regional community. Conclusion. The Outback as a Preserve. Page 75 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Special thanks to: Glenn Lukos Sheri Asgari Bart Oâ€™Brien Jerry Taylor Colin Robins Warren Roberts Laurie Babcock Nicholas Galindo Margarito Matias Miguel Luis Garcia Jesus Bautista Juan Miguel The Outback Preserve Restoration Team wishes to acknowledge and thank those who have contributed to the restoration effort. We thank past and present students, faculty, staff, administrators, professional consultants, and local community members. Thank you for your contribution towards the restoration and protection of the Pitzer Outback for future generations to enjoy. We thank the support of the Marsha and Malcom Witter and the Dean Witter Foundation, who made this publication possible with their generous grant. This volume embodies a collaboration by students and staff in Professor Paul Faulstichâ€™s course, Restoring Nature, and was conceived and designed by Nisreen Azar, Pitzer College Restoration Fellow. Thank you to the following students: Spring 2013 Shaban Ayala-Torres Adin Bonapart Elizabeth Carlson-Burkhart Kevin Jaatinen Margot McKelvie William Morales Jonathan Rice Peter Rominger Michael Schwartz Jack Shaked Andrew Valenzuela Jacky Yao The Pitzer Outback Preserve Restoration Team: Paul Faulstich, Professor of Environmental Analysis Joe Clements, Arboretum Director Nisreen Azar, Restoration Fellow Acknowledgements. Page 77 WORKS CITED Faulstich, Paul. “Pitzer College Outback Restoration Project: Commencing Fall 2012.” 2012. Garden Web, “How and when to collect seed from my garden plants.” Garden Web. iVillage Home and Garden Network, n.d. Web. 1 May 2013. <http://www.gardenweb.com/auth/nph-logincheck.cgi?action=public_ profile&user=chemocurl>. “Outback Restoration Project.” Pitzer.edu. Pitzer College, n.d. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http://www.pitzer.edu/offices/arboretum/outback/index.asp>. Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden “Seed Conservation Program.” RSABG. Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, n.d. Web. 3 May 2013. <http://www.rsabg.org/seed-conservation-program>. Seed packet template created by Nisreen Azar (2013) IMAGE CREDITS Plant photos courtesy of Joe Clements, Paul Faulstich, and Nisreen Azar. Additional photographs by students in Restoring Nature. Graphic design by Nisreen Azar Historic Pitzer College photos courtesy of Pitzer College Archives, historic Claremont photos courtesy of Claremont Colleges Digital Libraries