EROSION | SWAP | AADRL
SWAP is a team of architects within Design Research Lab (DRL) at Architectural Association, School of Architecture in London. The EROSION book is the documentation of a 12 months research and final proposal of Design Through Erosion. Team members: Paola Salcedo (Ecuador), Wandy Mulia (Germany), Ashwin Shah (India) and Yue Shi (China).
EROSION PROTODESIGN AADRL V.3 BEHAVIOURAL MATTER STUDIO Robert Stuart-Smith Ashwin Shah (India) | Paola Salcedo (Ecuador) Wandy Mulia (Germany) | Yue Shi (China) EROSION PROTODESIGN AADRL V.3 BEHAVIOURAL MATTER STUDIO Robert Stuart-Smith Ashwin Shah (India) | Paola Salcedo (Ecuador) Wandy Mulia (Germany) | Yue Shi (China) Thanks to family and friends for their support. 4 SWAP Studio Brief In some cases our lives endure for twice the amount of time that the buildings we live, work or play within survive, while in other instances buildings exist for shorter time frames. We actually consume buildings, yet unlike other products, the life cycle of a building is rarely considered a design opportunity. In addition to buildings, other temporal cycles associated with socioeconomic and cultural activity shape and occupy our built environment. Our studio, Behavioural Matter explores how nonlinear design processes may be instrumentalised to generate a temporal architecture with a designed life-cycle. Whilst considering environmental principles such as PLM, DFD (Design For Disassembly) or Cradle to Cradle, we will focus on qualitative aspects of a building's life-cycle that may produce architectonic affects. We will investigate an architecture capable of organising and reconstituting material flows - qualitatively 5 EROSION INTRODUCTION 6 SWAP Thesis Statement Erosion has always been associated as a destructive force, however as seen in nature it can also produce striking aesthetic effects. Harnessing these potentials, erosion will be used as a constructive force that can act as an active agent in creating an architecture that changes over time. The aim is to produce a temporal architecture with a designed life cycle. During this life cycle, natural forces such as rain constantly change the users spatial experience through a topological modification of the building. An initial topological configuration of built surface, conditions the site's potential water flow, facilitating the dynamic process of erosion. Studying and simulating the erosion process enables the prediction and manipulation of erosion allowing the users to inhabit the space while it transforms. The erosion process acts as its own feedback, creating patterns that are highly complex and emergent. This time-based design evolves outside the digital realm, generating a flux between interior and exterior due to the self-organization of material, producing an architecture that is programmed over its life span. 7 EROSION INTRODUCTION SWAP CONTENTS Studio Brief Thesis Statement 01 - Proposal 02 - Initial Research 03 - Material Research 04 - Fabrication Research 05 - Water Movement 06 - Digital Simulation 07 - Prototypes 08 - Architectural Proposal 09 - Building Prototypes 10- Proposal On Site ----------------------------- 07 ----------------------------- 09 ----------------------------- 12 ----------------------------- 22 ----------------------------- 32 ----------------------------- 42 ----------------------------- 54 ----------------------------- 72 ----------------------------- 90 ----------------------------- 108 ----------------------------- 114 ----------------------------- 148 EROSION CONTENTS 1 PROPOSAL 12 SWAP Architecture and Weather Weather has a great impact in most aspects of our life, from holiday seasons to what we wear each day. Similarly weather has a direct impact on architecture. 13 EROSION 1 - PROPOSAL 14 SWAP Architecture vs. Weather Weather has greatly influenced architecture by influencing its design to adapt to the climatic conditions but this has only remained in the realm of the design phase. 15 EROSION 1 - PROPOSAL 16 SWAP Weather as a Constructive force We are exploring an architecture that can harness natural forces as a constructive force that brings about a change in its materiality. This phenomenon can be seen in nature as weathering and erosion. 17 EROSION 1 - PROPOSAL 18 SWAP Architecture through erosion Our aim is to create an architecture with a designed life cycle where natural forces such as rain create a constant feedback between weather and architecture. Erosion brings about a continuous change in the users spatial experience through topological and morphological modification, producing varying architectural effects such as enclosure, lighting, and ventilation. 19 EROSION 1 - PROPOSAL 2 INITIAL RESEARCH A study on the usage time of many products revealed that it is extremely short compare to its life-span, for example plastic six-pack rings, aluminium cans, disposable diapers and plastic bottles are all used for very short durations but its product life is very high. In some cases the percentage of usage time to the life span being as short as 0.22%. Product Lifespan Newspapers 1 day vs 6 weeks Aluminum Can 1 year vs 200 years Degradable Diaper 4 hours vs 1 year Plastic Bottle 1 hour vs 450 years Photodegradable 6 Pack Ring 2 days vs 6 months Plastic 6-Pack ring 2 days vs 400 years 1 year vs 50 years Tin Can ... 4 hours vs 450 years Disposable Diaper Microfilament Fishing Line 1 year vs 50 years ... 1 hour vs 50 years Foam Cup ... ... 22 SWAP Buildings Lifespan China 30 years vs 100 years UK 67 years vs 132 years New York 45 years vs 110 years Average 30 years vs 73 years Temporal and sesonal visitors MECCA 11 months = 1,700,000 hab 1 months = 3,000,000 pilgrims DAVOS 8 months = 11,248 hab. 4 months = 40,000 tourists Seasonal land use Apples Beans Beets Blueberries Broccoli Cabbage Cantaloupe Carrots Cauliflower Cherries Cucumbers Eggplants Garlic Greens Herbs Kohirabi Lettuce Mushrooms Nectarines Onions Peppers Spinach Tomatoes Greenhouse T. Watermelon SPRING SUMMER FALL Research on life-cycle patterns seen in agricultural areas and cities revealed that, cities have highly fluctuating population (comprising of habitants and visitors) through the year, with some having periods of overpopulation. This can be seen in cases such as Davos, where its population goes from 11,000 to 40,000 during four months of the year or in Mecca, which receives 3 million pilgrims for one month each year. 2 - INITIAL RESEARCH A similar behaviour pattern can be seen in buildings where its actual usage period is much shorter than the life-span of the building itself. On an average, a building is used only for 30 years compared to the 73 years of its potential life-span. After that period the property will loose its value, or will need to be remodelled or demolished. 23 EROSION These facts lead us to the question, why buildings are not designed specifically for the actual usage period? Do building materials get recycled or reused after being demolished? The answer is No. The material used for construction and fabrication determines the longevity of the buildings. In most cases the materials used have a long life-span, due to which buildings potential life-span extends beyond its actual usage time. Also, most of these materials cannot be reused or recycled after the building is demolished or disassembled, contributing to 1/3 of the total landfill. Due to this we seek to produce a temporal architecture with a designed life cycle, where its total life-span can be designed according to the actual usage time with the possibility to recycle or reuse the building material. To achieve this it is important to use low tech-material that have an economic cost of construction, reduce transport cost by using local materials and maintain low levels of energy consumption by maximizing the use of natural forces. The research topics were filtered into six major areas. The cloud cycle, the energy cycle in a photosynthesis process, coral life cycles, water cycle in erosion process, the cycle in a desert ecosystem / the desertification process, and the living cycle of the ant kingdom. Within the cycle itself, emphasis of research was on the natural form generations and environmental adaptation. 24 SWAP Clouds Formation One of the first researched topics was on cloud formation, and how different shapes depend on wind, temperature and high factors. Photosynthesis Our interest in photosynthesis was concerning its use of sun energy to transform carbon dioxide into its own energy and organic compounds while it acts as a natural air and water filter. Coral Reef In this case, coral reef where researched due to its gradual formation and new environments creation. As well as its integration of different life cycles. Erosion The self-organization characteristic of erosion had a particular interest on us. Working continuously in macro and micro scale in form and patterns generation through deposition or subtraction of material. Cactus Adaptation The cactus have several methods to adapt to its environment, such as, its waxy skin to retain water. But the most interesting characteristic is how its roots contract when there is no water and expand when it rains. 2 - INITIAL RESEARCH Ant Kingdom The emergent form generation is created due to the ants' behaviours and working cycle. The intriguing nonlinearity and adaptability in this swarm could be adopted into temporal architecture. 25 EROSION The definition of erosion by Cambridge Dictionary is `the process eroding or been eroded by wind, water or other natural agents ' which is caused by `fluid flow' i.e., when any type of fluid (water, air or ice) flows constantly across a surface it will facilitate the erosion process. Due to the constant flow over the surface, the material will weather out over time. This phenomenon is known as erosion. The material that gets eroded gets carried away by the fluid and is deposited elsewhere. The level of erosion will depend on many factors such as force of water, velocity of water, materiality of the surface, wind, temperature, vegetation and soil condition. Design through erosion 26 SWAP Erosion Types Wind Erosion This type of erosion is most common in areas with little or no vegetation. The wind collects material, as dust, that can be moved thousands of kilometres to be deposited elsewhere, constantly eroding and reshaping rocks or sand dunes according to various wind condition. Glacial Erosion Glacial erosion is probably the most powerful erosion method. It can break and transport heavy amounts of rocks and create astonishing effects. Stream Erosion In rivers or streams, the faster the water flows, greater the erosion effect. In streams erosion takes place through two techniques; by water eroding the surface, and through the force of sediments eroding the surface. Rain Erosion Rain erosion has two stages, when the impact of rain erodes the soil particles and when these loose particles are moved by flowing water. Erosion by Human Activities This is a less known type of erosion, where the human activities erodes the soil. Many activities such as military use, tourist, sport activities and over farming cause this type of erosion. Costal Erosion Costal erosion is produced by the continuous strike of waves against the shore. Chemicals within the sea water can accelerate this process as well. Waves can erode rock or sand. In some cases it responds to cycles where the sand is removed and redeposit in seasonal cycles. 27 EROSION 2 - INITIAL RESEARCH Material Life-cycle Eroded material can be collected as reused for construction of new structure creating a dynamic material flow. Along with the material, the rain water can also be harvested and be pumped back to maintain continuity to the erosion process. Site and Building Life-cycle_ Central Expansion The building cycle of the main structures have long longevity. This space expands using its own eroded material to create new spaces. The site experiences a growth in building "population", reducing the amount of outdoor spaces, while creating interior courtyards. Site Life-cycle Building Life-cycle 28 SWAP Site and Building Life-cycle_ Linear Expansion Different from the first cycle, here the new spaces are added in only a single direction, while the older structures are left to erode. The site will change as the buildings moves across it in a linear way, leaving a trace behind which will serve as semi-enclose spaces. Site and Building Life-cycle_ Shifting Positions Contradictory to the previous life-cycles, in this case, the new structures will be built completely independent of each other, creating a site where buildings shift to completely new position each season. Site Life-cycle Site Life-cycle Building Life-cycle Building Life-cycle 29 EROSION 2 - INITIAL RESEARCH 3 MATERIAL RESEARCH Material Test_ 1 Our tests started with building materials which are readily available and commonly used such as cement, clay, plaster, sand, wood (powder) and foam. In the first test, various combinations of two or three materials were formed into circular plates of 22cm dia. More than twenty plates, were tested with a pointirrigation system, with every plate inclined at 20�. A point-irrigation system was chosen to understand the basic process of water erosion by limiting the water drops at only one point. This simulation ran over four days with equal hours of water testing and drying time per day. These changing conditions of dry and wet impact the material tests, parallel to the natural erosion processes. Tests Samples (Material combinations) Close-up Details after Erosion 32 SWAP Material Combinations Shortlisted Materials 33 EROSION 3 - MATERIAL RESEARCH Material Shortlist The previous tests helped narrow the materials based on factors such as environmental friendliness, reusability and time-programmability of the material in the erosion process. For example, all mixtures with cement were mostly resistant to erosion due to its high degree of hardness. The materials short-listed were clay, plaster and sand. Clay and sand are not only used in the adobe walls and to produce bricks, but also used to clarify water in the Venezian wells. In the experiments, clay samples became soft in contact with water thus sand was mixed to create a mixture. A cement base was used to hole the mixture together. Unlike clay, plaster samples were more resistant against water and created stronger patterns on its surface. Parallel to the single point-irrigation tests, a rain simulation was used to test the mixtures of sand, plaster, styrofoam and cement. Styrofoam balls created a porosity without affecting the solidity of the sample. The force of water pushed the foam easily creating cavities in the material sample. Close up Details 34 SWAP Material Test_ 2 In second material tests, larger samples of clay-sand and plaster-sand were casted. The amount of sand in the mixtures range from 95% to 5%. The simulator settings were also improved with a higher and constant water pressure with a flow of 190ml water every minute. The angle of inclination of the samples was raised up to 45�. Analysis Sand Sand Clay Clay Sample with more amount of sand did not perforate after 78.5 hours of testing as the sand particles absorb the force of dripping water. > With a lower percentage of sand, a perforation at the dripping point was created after 62 hours. > 35 EROSION 3 - MATERIAL RESEARCH Material Test_ 3 In the third material tests, a clay-sand mixture of equal percentage was chosen due to its erodibility and erosion effects. The longevity of the mixture can be changed by experimenting with the binding agent. Eight various pre-programmed samples were casted, with one sample having higher thickness. Analysis Sand Sand Clay Clay The thicker sample in which the pool formed by the force of dripping water later absorbs the same force to avoid further deepening of the cavity. In a thinner sample, in two hours the force of water eroded through the thickness of the material. 36 SWAP Material test 3_Analysis This test had a 50-50 sand-clay version which was 3cm thicker than the previous versions with a total thickness of 5cm. The lower part of the sample was affected the most by the force of water. Within the first nine hours of the experiment, major changes were visible in this part. The test was stopped after 41 hours, due to stagnation of the erosion effect. A deep cavity was created at the dripping point. Water that gathered in the cavity absorbed the force of water, thus maintaining the depth of the cavity after it reached a depth of 3cm. This depth of the cavity will be directly proportional to the force of water. Embedded voids This sample was programmed with an integrated void. To keep the surface flat, this void was then filled with granulate sand which can easily be removed by water. 3 - MATERIAL RESEARCH Observation: In the beginning water dropped on the surface and flowed normally. After certain time the surface eroded thus changing the movement of water creating a constant feedback with erosion. 37 EROSION Material Selection_ Sand and Plaster Combination A combination of Sand and plaster was selected from the short-listed materials. This was due to two factors: � � The effect of erosion on the material combination. Structural strength on contact with water (unbaked clay becomes very soft). Lime-plaster can be used instead of normal plaster as it is more environmentally friendly and has more strength. 38 SWAP Material Deposition Water also became a medium for transportation and deposition of the materials. In the deposition process, sand which is the heaviest is deposited closer to the building while plaster and clay are carried further away. This facilitates the segregation of sand, clay and plaster. The diagrams below shows a simple process to separate sand with the other dissolved materials. Plaster or calcium sulphate hemihydrate, is soluble in water. Dried plaster can be recycled indefinitely by heating it up to 150� and grinding it into powder again. Sand deposition located closest to the sample. Wet sand Dissolved plaster/clay Natural separation of sand and other dissolved materials is visible. Dried condition of the deposited sand with some amount of the dissolved material. This amount was ranged roughly 5% to 50% from visible approximation. 39 EROSION 3 - MATERIAL RESEARCH Dried sand Dried plaster/clay Dried substance of the dissolved material with a very small amount of sand. After re-heating and grinding, this material can be use again as a normal plaster. 4 FABRICATION RESEARCH 3D-Printing 3D-Printing is a fabrication method where the forms are created by printing the material and glue in layers. This method of fabrication has a high level of precision, thus was chosen to print varying hardness gradients in one single object. test_01 (Dry granulate) In the first test, sand and plaster were deposited simultaneously. While the amount of plaster always remained the same, a variation in hardness was achieved by varying the amount of sand deposited. Water was used as the glue to bind the material. The advantage of this method is its speed of fabrication but the disadvantage being that they produce pyramidal forms. Also the strength of the product remains low. To solve these issues, support materials need be used and a better binding agent. test_02 (Wet granulate) In the second test, a liquid mixture of plaster and sand was used. Additional dry sand was added on top of each layer, to achieve variable hardness. As the initial mix is already in liquid form, additional binding agent is not needed. The advantage of this method is that the product is very strong but the disadvantage being, that the dry sand does not mix with the wet mixture. This method also requires higher precision to avoid deformation of the form. A solution to address this issue would be to use lateral guides in a contour-crafting machine. 42 SWAP 3D-Printing_Dry granulate The aim of this test was to create a flat panel with different hardness gradients. To achieve different hardness, the amount of plaster was been varied. By applying more plaster, a harder the material could be achieved. While plaster added strength to the panel, sand acted just as a support material. The amount of plaster was varied in within each layer and between different layers. This created cavities in between layer at locations which had no plaster deposition but only sand. This is because plaster binds together and hardens on contact with water whereas areas with only sand do not, enabling its removal after printing. 3D-Printing_Process The three-dimensional printer machine was simulated using a ruler with a funnel attach to it. The funnel moved in X-Y direction, similar to an actual 3D-Printer. The materials were deposited though the funnel and flattened by the ruler. At the end of each layer water was sprayed evenly on the layer. At the end of the printing process, once the material was dry, the loose sand was removed, revealing the panel. As expected the panel showed a variety of colours, which is indicative of its hardness. Cavities and valleys could also be seen on the removal of excess sand. Even though the mixture of plaster and sand had solidified, it was still very fragile. This is due to the fact that, enough water was not used and that the deposition of the material had no structural behaviour, leaving very thin layers of long cantilevers with no support. In the second test a similar method was used, but instead of creating a flat panel, the shape corresponded to a hyperbolic column. This enabled us to experiment with the hardness variations in a more three-dimensional shape. More water was used to achieve a harder object. The fabrication begins with a small circle that increases in radii as it grows. Sand was used as a temporary formwork to support the material. When the support sand was removed after fabrication, the model started to collapse. This revealed that the material was still not hard enough to achieve cantilevered forms. The column surface was highly textured as it was fabricated manually, thus each layer was not precisely above each other. Even though it was not possible to achieve the desired shape, these experiments showed that it is possible to vary the material hardness in one single object. 43 EROSION 4 - FABRICATION RESEARCH 3D Printing_Wet granulate As a response to the lack of hardness experienced with the dry granulated method, on the third test, a liquid mixture was used. Different composition of liquid plaster and sand mixture were taken in separate containers to achieve variable hardness. A curved wall was fabricated using this test with different plaster-sand composition in each layer. 3D Printing_Process This simulator consisted of 2 silicon machine guns that functioned as the containers for the liquid material. The support sand was added separately. A binding agent was not required as the material was in liquid form. By using premixed material in a liquid form the final form was more accurate, giving it enough strength to hold itself together. The disadvantage of this method was that the material would solidify inside the container before it can be printed. Also this method produced a sudden change in the hardness. Even though this fabrication method was more difficult to print, the final object had better strength. PS 44 SWAP Casting Instead of varying the material hardness to create different erosion effects, the same effects could be achieved by just varying the topology and thickness of the material. This enabled us to shift from 3D-Printing to casting as our fabrication technique. This diagram shows the various parameters that affect erosion. Casting_inflatables Here, an inflatable balloon became the formwork for casting. The advantage of the system is that the inflatable can be reused multiple times, but the design cannot be varied each time. 45 EROSION 4 - FABRICATION RESEARCH Soft Casting_1 This method was an attempt to create a soft formwork. Through well programmed soft formwork and surface patterning, a high degree of complexity and interesting spatial possibilities can be created. Soft Casting_2 The combination of fabric and inflatable formwork allow the casting of different material thickness by a simple casting procedure. Both fabric and inflatable are reusable to produce different forms. 46 SWAP Patterning_1 Systematizing a method of easy reorganization for creating different patterns. Generating complexity through simple patterning on the surface. Morphology vs Water Movement Interesting spatial patterns being created by simple patterning. Since most of the building surfaces will have water running over its surface, these ridges and channels are not only topological but also facilitate the programming of water movement. 47 EROSION 4 - FABRICATION RESEARCH Patterning_2 Soft rubber container with various surface organisations that are filled with the material. Through stretching and gravity, more spatial possibilities can be created. Patterns that will influence the water flow, can be modified easily through the pinching or twisting system. 48 SWAP The use of latex and fabric were researched in this fabrication technique. It is also the most economical form of casting as the fabric can be reused. Stitching and patterning of the fabric led to highly articulated designs. A grid system was used as the base for patterning, to maintain a control over the forms generated. Simple patterns could create interesting result by tweaking the fixed points. 49 EROSION 4 - FABRICATION RESEARCH Fabrication_Traditional Casting The process involves the building material in a semi solid state to be poured into a mold of the required shape. According to the scale and complexity of the formwork, either timber, metal or Styrofoam can be used as the mold. Styrofoam cut using a CNC-milling machine created the mold with a high level of precision. The process also involved painting (for reducing porosity of material) and then applying a layer on Vaseline (for lubrication) on the mold. The resulting cast is sanded to remove any unwanted Vaseline from the surface. 50 SWAP Reinforcement Tests 1 single material hardness 1 single material hardness + reinforsment soft skin mixture + hard structure mixture + reinforsment Traditional Casting_Selected Fabrication Method Traditional casting technique was selected as the final fabrication process due to the following reasons: � � � � � Does not limit the forms that can be generated This methodology produces highly precise results Economical Provides option to reuse the formwork The structural integrity can be maintained by controlling the thickness and providing reinforcements. 51 EROSION 4 - FABRICATION RESEARCH 5 WATER MOVEMENT Erosion Parameters_Physical The physical tests were done through simple but essential setups to understand the water behaviour. Slope_Dripping point 10 plates with a small hole were positioned on angles from 0o to 85o. Till about a 15o inclination, the water drips after passing through the hole, while for angles above 15o water runs along the interior wall. - 15 = Water drops + 15 = Water runs on interior wall Curve_Water distribution and collection Three samples with different curvatures having 5 holes at the top were tested. The samples were tested by dripping water in convex and concave positions. As it can be seen in the images, the samples with a greater curvature collects and distributes water faster, whiles decreasing the curvature takes a longer time. Models_Water paths Water behaviours were tested in 1:5 models. Here it can be seen how water would behave on the exterior and interior building walls. 54 SWAP Water Movement Inside Skin_Interior Network Programmed voids inside the structure can help in redirecting water. These voids are filled with sand when fabricating. On erosion when the void get exposed, the sand easily dissolves thus creating internal preprogrammed networks. 55 EROSION 5 - WATER MOVEMENT Water Programming_Digital Since dripping and flowing water is used to generate the erosion effects, programming of water movement is a very important parameter for the project. A water simulation in Maya particle system was started. The aim was to use the simple geometries to generate more complexity. Ridge Test Test showing water flow on a simple slope with patterned ridges to study the effect of water flows. Images below and on the following page show the dramatic effects little ridges can induce. 56 57 SWAP EROSION 5 - WATER MOVEMENT Ridge & Valley Combinations Water flows with little valleys, and various combinations of ridges and valleys were also tested. We can see that in the beginning that, water gets separated by ridges and then become increasingly complicated as it travels further. However, water eventually combines together due to little valleys at the lower part. This creates the transformations between complexity and simpleness through the control of these simple geometry. 58 59 SWAP EROSION 5 - WATER MOVEMENT Vortex Test Vortex is another very important simple feature but can create interesting effects of water flow. A hole in the slope can create a vortex. The size and shape of he vortex depends on the water speed. Through this technique water can be moved onto different planes. 60 SWAP Chaos Chaos is a technique of achieving complexity through simple starting conditions. It creates unpredictable and astonishing effects when water is let to flow over longer distances or in a field condition. As seen below, when the water emitter moves a little from left to right, the outcome drastically changes. 61 EROSION 5 - WATER MOVEMENT 3D Field Condition_Test 1 Water flows on a 3 dimensional field condition were tested. Water gets distributed both horizontally and vertically creating various spaces. Through this 3D model, the water movement can be controlled, helping generate surface organisation and spatial possibilities. 62 63 SWAP EROSION 5 - WATER MOVEMENT 3D Field Condition Test_ 2 3D Field Condition_Test 2 We tested the water flows on a 3 dimentional filed condition. Water flows were distributed both horizontally and vertically. As you can see how the water move and try to create the spaces. Through this 3D model, we can enable the water flows helping us to generate surface organisation and spatial possibilities. 64 65 SWAP EROSION 5 - WATER MOVEMENT Water Movement Reconfiguration_Canopy Structures Our initial proposal was a market, where the cultivation and sale of agricultural products take place. The canopies are placed to cover the major spaces where selling activities would take place. Rain water collected from these canopies are distributed around the fields. As the canopies get eroded and the new ones are being build, new water distribution patterns are created, which will respond to the cultivation necessities. Plan View_Video Timeframes 66 SWAP Constant Changing Field As seen in the video time frames, the plan is constantly changing due to erosion. Old canopies die, as the new ones are built, they together contribute as the main water emitters to provide an ever-changing erosion feedback loop. Field Condition_1 Field Condition_2 67 EROSION 5 - WATER MOVEMENT Field Condition_1 Field Condition_2 68 SWAP Plans There is a gradient transformation from the top views of the field condition which depends on the seasonal rain cycle. Canopies decay and are then rebuilt. 69 EROSION 5 - WATER MOVEMENT 6 DIGITAL SIMULATION Initial Water Position Cone of Vision Future Position of Water Mesh Outer Surface Water After Bounce Close Faces Closest Face Mesh Inner Surface Water Position Without Bounce Closest Face Distance Simulation is the act of imitating the behaviour of some situation or some process by means of something suitably analogous; it is a technique of representing the real world. Physical and digital simulation has been used in various fields, such as technological performance optimization, safety engineering, testing, training, and video gaming; they provide realistic experience and realistic feedback, which can be used to predict future behaviours. In recent years, simulation has also come closer to representing and generating an understanding of the complex functions of natural systems. This project uses simulation techniques as a fundamental method to show and project the eventual real effects of alternative conditions and courses of action, otherwise unknown in a short period of experimentation and research. 72 SWAP Two Particle Systems Two Particle System were set up in Maya Particle system to simulate the erosion process. The water and material particles were simulated with two particle systems that interact with each other. This concept is used as, through collision between particles and by controlling its attributes, we can simulate different erosion effects. Erosion Parameters The Erosion concept is the collision between particles and there are many important parameters(as below) to control the collision effect within these particle systems. 73 EROSION 6 - DIGITAL SIMULATION Material Properties_Hardness With the control of these parameters, different material properties can be simulated, for instance the hardness and stiffness, which highly influences the erosion process. 74 SWAP Cube Test Initial tests were on a simple cube and the particles were simplified as points. Water particles were emitted from the top onto the cube. Cubes with different hardness shows different behaviours. Replacing the points with mesh surface shows the change in geometry. 75 EROSION 6 - DIGITAL SIMULATION Slope Test Simulation of the effects parallel to the physical experiments; the slope model, and materials with different hardness. Water created a hole in the top area very quickly for the models with larger proportion of sand. However with the harder samples, water bounced once it hit the hard surface and eroded a larger area. Intensive Dripping Erosion In order to create a larger area of erosion, the number of water emitters was increased to gain more dramatic erosion effect. 76 SWAP Material Combinations Test Test showing combinations with different hardness in a single model. From the test, we can learn that the one with very high hardness can be used as structural parts and at the same time contribute to the erosion too as once the water hits the hard surface it will bounce and erode the other parts. 77 EROSION 6 - DIGITAL SIMULATION Curved Wall_Test 1 Through the test, it showed that the angle of the surface influences the erosion process. When the slope is very steep, it creates an average amount of erosion and as the angle is flatter (between around 40-60 degrees), clear pattern of water channels can be seen on the slope surface. However when it goes below 30, it creates a hole. As soon as the gaps are created, the water will run along the other side and to erode the inner surface. 78 SWAP Curved Wall_Test 2 Erosion was tested on more complex geometries as seen below, with different combinations between valleys and ridges. 79 EROSION 6 - DIGITAL SIMULATION Hollow Column Test By increasing the complexity of the geometry, more interesting effects can be seen for instance, in the hollow column test. As the angle increases, different erosion patterns and topological possibilities are created. 80 SWAP Large Scale Column The column was scaled up, deformed and eroded with intensive water emitters. The top part of the column is first eroded and on creation of holes, water runs along the inner surface of the column and erodes the inner surface. The erosion on the large scale model shows that erosion not only creates 2D surface patterns but also provides 3D spatial possibilities. 81 EROSION 6 - DIGITAL SIMULATION Processing Simulation There are various erosion simulations in use at the moment. Most are for the study of erosion on large terrains used for in the development and feasibility study of dams. Theses are single dimensional or two dimensional as they deal only with the effect on the surface. Also, the scale of these simulations is so large that one cannot see the aesthetic quality of the erosion. The need was to create a 3 dimensional erosion simulation where the building could be made of multiple layers, thus not only eroding the surface but also changing the topology like by creating `holes'. A simulation that let us control erosion by controlling various parameters such as topology, thickness of surface, water input, material strength. More importantly to help us study the aesthetic qualities of erosion, something that has been missing in all the other existing erosion simulations. This led us to develop our own simulation. Initially we started developing the software in both Maya and Processing. The aim was to develop a software that was very fast and could handle thousands of particles every frame. While Maya was quick to give results, it was limited by the speed of the system. It became important not to use the existing particle system so that we could specifically control the particles that need to be updated every frame. This was possible only through processing but has taken a long time to get it working in a manner that best simulated nature. Our initial attempt in processing was to create a system where the building was formed by millions of particles (representing actual sand particles) using the iso-surf technique. But this technique became highly complex and failed technically at certain point. This made us go back to the mesh logic, where the mesh represented just the surface. This surface would then get depressed to represent erosion. The voxel system of storing the surface was implemented to speedup the simulation speed. The erosion effect gets better with increase in mesh resolution, but then computing power restricts this resolution. Processing Simulation_Development Time-line The time-line shows the development of the processing simulation starting from a simple plane to complex geometries. 82 83 SWAP EROSION 6 - DIGITAL SIMULATION Erosion Control To understand and gain a control over the erosion process, basic parameters were initially tested. These parameters were then combined together in numerous ways to create more complex erosion effects through simple variations. Erosion Control_Thickness Studies on erosion effect with varying thickness. With higher thickness, the erosion effect gets stronger with deeper grooves while it creates holes faster in thinner versions. Erosion Control_Slope Studies on erosion effect with varying slope. Lower slopes create more chaotic patterns and get linear with increase in the angle of slope 84 SWAP Erosion Control_Curvature Studies on erosion effect on 2 basic curvatures, concave and convex. While convex has a distributing pattern, concave has a converging pattern. The spread of these patterns is dependant on the degree of curvature. 85 EROSION 6 - DIGITAL SIMULATION Erosion Control_Curvatures Combined Studies on erosion effect with combined curvatures. Simple convex and concave curvatures were combined together to create a field pattern. The erosion pattern gets more unpredictable with increase in the field size. 86 SWAP Erosion Control_Roof, Wall, Floor Studies on the articulation between roof, wall and floor were done by creating ridges, mound and valleys. 87 EROSION 6 - DIGITAL SIMULATION 7 PROTOTYPES Prototypes under Rain Simulator 90 SWAP 1.5 m 1.5 m Rain Simulation_Device The rain simulation device allows water to drop as a field and at precise points, which simulates rain and water manipulation in a real situation. Mechanism of the device is designed to collect the water and then pumped to the top, to be reused again. Sand filter avoid the clogging of the dripping hole. 7 - PROTOTYPES 91 EROSION Chunk Prototype_1 (Scale: 1:5) Prototype_Physical Ink Test The first prototype is the combination of previous wall and column study models, with roof and floor as additions. Before testing for erosion in the rain simulation, water movement was analysed on the prototype using ink tests. 92 SWAP Prototype_Digital Water movement analysis Video Time Frame Result 93 EROSION 7 - PROTOTYPES Prototype_Physical Erosion Test The total length of 90 days simulation was documented. The result is similar to the output predicted through the digital simulation. 94 SWAP The disk of the hollow column, where it merges with the roof, perforated on erosion allowing water to flow on the inner side of the column. Due to the steep geometry and the thickness, erosion created perforations and remarkable ornamental effects faster. The floor of this prototype was made plain, so that it could get ornamented through erosion. On the bottom of the column, small cavities were created, however, on the major part of the floor, a water surface hindered erosion. Aesthetic patterns formed on the ceiling allowing transparencies to emerge from the centre part of the roof. 95 EROSION 7 - PROTOTYPES Initial perforation on the roof allowed water to flow on the inner wall, eroding it. A hole was created on the inner wall due to water dripped from the roof. Chunk Prototype_2 (Scale: 1:5) Prototype_Physical Ink Test The second prototype examined a topology with smooth transition between roof, wall and floor. Three solid columns support the three pools on the roof. Perforations are programmed in the roof to allow water to flow onto the column, ceiling and the inner part of the wall. 96 SWAP Prototype_Digital Water movement analysis Video Time Frame Result 97 EROSION 7 - PROTOTYPES Prototypes_Physical Erosion Test The second prototype showcased the complexities and chaos by erosion in a building. There were two types of erosion seen; one from dripping water and another from flowing water. From the two, the rain drops, had a major impact in the creation of new openings in a surface, while the flowing water created surface articulations. 98 SWAP Erosion Time-line process. of the erosion Pools The top pools have small holes that distributes the water to the interior. In the first image in can be seen that while 2 pools are empty, the middle one gets filled. This is due to the clogging of the holes with the eroded material (second image). The third image shows the deposited materials inside the dry pool. Columns The columns that hold the top pools get eroded by the water seeping through the holes at the bottom of the pools. The erosion slowdown as these holes get clogged with the eroded material. 1 Water collected and redistributed to the interior through programmed perforation. 2 Eroded material from the surface starts to accumulate at the bottom of the pools. 3 The eroded material clogs the perforations. Thus the pool fill up and overflow redistributing the water. 99 EROSION 7 - PROTOTYPES Single dripping area When only a single dripping point is present, a hole is easily formed at the dripping point. Here, the overflowing water from the pools slows down the creation of openings on the surface. Multiple dripping areas When water drips on flowing water, its impact is absorbed by the flowing water thus avoiding the formation of a hole Inner wall The water that enters through the programmed holes in the roof, erodes the inner skin creating changing patterns. Small scratches direct the water for the first 3cm, after which the water takes its own path. 100 SWAP Exterior surface An even erosion occurs on the exterior of the roof, due to a constant water flow from rain and overflowing pools. Areas that are not in contact with the water maintain its texture and height, while the surrounding areas become thinner. 101 EROSION 7 - PROTOTYPES Large Scale Prototype_3 (Scale 1:2) Prototype_Physical Erosion Test As erosion happens only at 1:1 scale, the prototypes had to also be of similar scale to fully understand the erosion effect, surfaces changes, patterns formed, creation of openings and water distribution. The prototype consists of a curved wall with a designed water path at the micro level. Water source is located at the top as point positions. The two sides of the wall have different floor patterns to guide the water in a way that people can walk on the floor without stepping on water. The model was eroded for a period of 2 months to analyse the erosion effects at real scale. Water Movement Analysis 102 SWAP Prototype_Digital Video Frame Capture Result 103 EROSION 7 - PROTOTYPES Life-cycle Prototype_4 (Scale: 1:5) The prototype showcases the two different life-cycles present in a building. The difference in its life-span is controlled through controlling the thickness of the structure and water movement. Prototype_Digital Eroded Model Top View Video Time Capture Rain Dry Rainy season (Start) Rain starts the erosion process on construction of the entire building. Rainy season (Mid) Short cycle: Formation of holes modifying the topology. Long cycle: Starting of surface articulation. 104 Rainy season (End) Short cycle: Fully eroded (reaches limit of structural stability) Long cycle: Deeper surface articulation. Dry season (Start) Short cycle: Demolished SWAP Water Movement Pools and Deposition The chunks roof tops guides the rain water to the semi-enclosed pools. Water carries the eroded material depositing them in the interior pools. This material can be removed and reused during the dry seasons. Eroded Surface The top surface does not have a clear pattern as it bares the force of rain. Whereas, parallel patterns can be seen on the vertical walls corresponding to the movement of water. Dry Rain Dry Dry season (End) Short cycle: Reconstructed before the start of rainy seaon. Long cycle: Deeper surface articulation. Rainy season (Start) Erosion continues. Rainy season (Mid) Short cycle: Formation of holes modifying the topology. Long cycle: Surface articulation gets stronger 105 Rainy season (End) Short cycle: Fully eroded (reaches limit of structural stability) Long cycle: Beginning of topological modification. EROSION 7 - PROTOTYPES Repeat Cycle 8 ARCHITECTURAL PROPOSAL Design Criteria The following design criteria were determined through the extensive physical and digital research. Building design The building will have an initial design created by a topology that manipulates the flow of rain water, while allowing the natural erosion process to take places. The topology will be designed according to spatial, functional and structural needs of interior and exterior spaces. Erosion design The overall erosion process is manipulated by the topology of the building, facilitating erosion in specific areas, while reducing it in others. However despite the control of erosion at the macro scale, the micro scale cannot be predicted, not even through simulations. At this scale the erosion has an emergent behaviour, where different factors such as rain, wind, temperature, humidity, influence the erosion process. Additionally as the eroded material gets deposited in other locations, it creates a feedback loop to erosion process itself. Erosion produces highly articulated, emergent aesthetic effects that changes over time, while responding to the program, space and structural needs. Material cycle The materials used in the construction are locally available if not found on site. On erosion, due to the difference in weight of the base materials, they will get deposited and collected in different locations. The materials on drying regains its original properties and hence can be reused or recycled. Life cycle design The process of erosion determines the buildings lifecycle. Spaces have different temporalities according to its needs and uses, which can be from a few months to few years. After a building is eroded completely, its material can be recycled to create new structures. The new structures can either maintain or change its previous program. This architectural proposal breaks the notion that a building is static. Erosion induces a dynamism in the building, not just in its skin, but on the site as well. Program, spatial design The topology of the building is at constant change, creating a close relationship between form and program. Erosion can be classified into 3 levels, Level 3 Large scale openings that convert indoor spaces into open or semi-open spaces. This creates two types of scenarios, one that benefits from the changes in the perforation of the building while maintaining the program, and the other that changes the program with the changing conditions. Level 2 Medium scale of openings that change ventilation and lighting conditions. Level 1 Small scale openings that control the movement of water on the interior surfaces. Structural design Structural areas are kept intact by controlling the erosion area through an initial topological setup. Also erosion of structural areas can be further reduced through vegetation. Reinforcement can be added if needed. Water Rain will be the only source of water for erosion. The water will not just run across the building and site, but its flow through interior and exterior spaces will be controlled through collection and distribution. This can be done through different techniques such as creating ridges, valleys, holes, pools, slopes, canals, dykes, surface perforation and level variations, which is integrated into the building and terrain topology. 108 SWAP Urban Retreat Our proposal is a new typology that is a combination of a thermal bath and urban beach where water is intrinsic to the architecture. The architecture fuses with the landscape to generate various topological techniques and strategies for distributing and collecting water and creating pools that re-configure themselves through time. The process of erosion creates varying enclosure levels changing interior spaces to become exterior ones. It also brings about a change in the materiality, which directly influences its porosity, lighting condition and ventilation of the space. 109 EROSION 8 - ARCHITECTURAL PROPOSAL Precedent Study Precedent of thermal baths, urban park and beach were studied. This consists of a comparative analysis of area, circulation, water bodies, temperatures, privacy and enclosure levels. Water Body Location Roman Bath Thermal Baths Hungarian Bath Vals Thermal Urban Park Park Guell Urban Beach Place De La Bource 110 SWAP Interior vs Exterior Private vs Public Circulation 111 EROSION 8 - ARCHITECTURAL PROPOSAL 9 BUILDING PROTOTYPES Landscape_Building Prototype The goal of the first set of prototypes is to create complexity through simple setups. The initial form is based on ridges and valleys that distribute rain water to different sectors, while creating striking erosion effects. Type_1 Type_2 114 SWAP Simulation Time-frames 115 EROSION 9 - BUILDING PROTOTYPES 116 SWAP This image shows the variation of scales on the erosion effects, its convergence and divergence. 117 EROSION 9 - BUILDING PROTOTYPES Enclosure_Opening Prototype A studying on how to control the level of enclosure while maintaining structural integrity. This is done by varying the thickness of the roof section. Type_1 118 SWAP Simulation Time-frames 119 EROSION 9 - BUILDING PROTOTYPES 120 SWAP Erosion creates continuous articulation between all the building parts: roof, column, floor. Varying perforations create different ventilation and lighting effect in the interior. 121 EROSION 9 - BUILDING PROTOTYPES Semi-enclosed Pool The prototype consists of a semi-covered pool, with a roof top that channelizes the water towards the exterior and interior. 122 SWAP Simulation Time-frames 123 EROSION 9 - BUILDING PROTOTYPES 124 SWAP The erosion pattern becomes more predominant with the time. Holes are formed in the thinner areas, which allows water to be redistributed to the pool. 125 EROSION 9 - BUILDING PROTOTYPES Building Chunks Type_1 A roof pool is used for controlling the water flow across the walls. Two large openings are design to allow the water to flow on different levels of the building. Type_2 The manipulation of water flow is studied by creating two taller areas that collect the water and distribute it to specific areas. 126 SWAP Simulation Time-frames 127 EROSION 9 - BUILDING PROTOTYPES Type_3 A water loop is created by channelizing water from different parts of the building to its opposite side while also filling up the pools. Type_4 Surface articulation in exterior spaces with drastic topology changes. 128 129 SWAP EROSION 9 - BUILDING PROTOTYPES Complex Prototype Models Type_1 The collection pools on the roof have a specific angle of inclination that distributes the water in a specific direction. The prototype studies the creation of semienclose spaces through erosion. 130 SWAP Simulation Time-frames 131 EROSION 9 - BUILDING PROTOTYPES 132 133 SWAP EROSION 9 - BUILDING PROTOTYPES 134 SWAP The dynamic erosion process creates varying ambience in the interior space due to creation of holes in the wall-roof. 135 EROSION 9 - BUILDING PROTOTYPES Type_2 A bridge type of structure connects two ends of the site creating a semi-enclosed space while distributing water to different pools. 136 SWAP Simulation Time-frames 137 EROSION 9 - BUILDING PROTOTYPES 138 SWAP Exterior perspective views of the pools 139 EROSION 9 - BUILDING PROTOTYPES 140 SWAP Views of 3D-print 141 EROSION 9 - BUILDING PROTOTYPES Type_3 A combination of previous studies incorporated in this prototype to study enclosed and semi-enclosed spaces, exterior articulation, water distribution and pools. 142 SWAP Simulation Time-frames 143 EROSION 9 - BUILDING PROTOTYPES Perspective View 144 SWAP Top view Summary Studies on building prototypes gave a larger understanding on the relationship between water distribution, erosion and topology, to create various spatial condition for different scenarios. 9 - BUILDING PROTOTYPES 145 EROSION 10 PROPOSAL ON SITE Proto-site Cities in the subtropical region where analysed as possible locations due to its 2 season weather with high precipitation levels. Barcelona Mexico DF. Santo Domingo Fez Rome Sanya Goa Sao Paulo Sao Paulo Rome Goa Sanya Mexico DF. Barcelona Santo Domingo Fez 148 SWAP Sao Paulo The site is located in Itaquera, the north-eastern part of Sao Paulo. The area has a high density of 10,000 to 15,000 inhabitant per square kilometre. The quality of public spaces is very poor with poor development. The chosen site is currently an abandoned area. Green Areas Water Bodies Main Roads Location Main avenues Main access 149 EROSION 10 - PROPOSAL ON SITE 150 SWAP Site Top View 151 EROSION 10 - PROPOSAL ON SITE Site The proposal consist of two major life-cycles, one with a life-span of 10 years and the other having a life-span 1 year. Administration area, services, changing rooms and restaurant are housed inside the 10 year cycle, while the thermal bath is housed inside the 1 year cycle. Buildings Life-cycles Zonification Overall Water Paths 152 SWAP One-year Cycle Building Ten-year Cycle Building Ground Floor 153 EROSION 10 - PROPOSAL ON SITE General Plan Outdoor Urban Beach Plaza Restaurant Main Plaza Public Park Public Park Colonnade Outdoor pool Thermal Bath + Urban Beach Public Park Bar Kitchen Restaurant Main Entrance Office Cafe Reception Tech. Room Changing Rooms Terracing Pools Kids Pool Courtyard Main Pool Outdoor Pools Sauna Relaxing Pool Massage Rooms Hot + Cold Pools 154 SWAP Site Perspective View 155 EROSION 10 - PROPOSAL ON SITE Sections The site being sloped, the building is stepped emerging from the landscape, with the water collected from the top roof directed to lower roofs. The water distribution varies every season according to erosion levels. This distribution also changes every year due to different life-cycles of the structures. Section_1 Section_2 156 SWAP Sectional Side View Perspective Views 157 EROSION 10 - PROPOSAL ON SITE 158 SWAP Building Life-cycle The building life-cycle is programmed to re-configure water distribution according to the seasonal changes. It consist of a buildings with a life-span of ten-years and one-year. The one-year structures are reconstructed at the beginning of winter every year. This creates a enclosed thermal bath in winter and a semi-open urban beach in summer after the rains. 10 - PROPOSAL ON SITE During the dry cold season the building is programmed as an enclose thermal bath, with large exterior water bodies that function as collection pools and smaller water bodies that become part of the urban beach. During the rainy season, the one-year cycle structure gets eroded thus transforming the enclosed thermal bath gets integrated with the outdoor urban beach. By the beginning of summer with no need of a thermal bath, it transforms completely into an urban beach. 159 EROSION Building Life Cycle Month Temp. C Rain mm JULY 15.8 60 AUGUST 16.5 40 SEPTEMBER 17.5 30 Stage_1 Water collected during the rainy season is used to maintain continuous erosion cycle even in the dry season for the one-year cycle by pumping the water from the lower collection pools to the top collection pools. The one-year cycle structure is rebuilt in the beginning of the dry season. 160 SWAP OCTOBER 18.7 130 NOVEMBER 20 140 DECEMBER 21.3 190 On the onset of the rainy season all the collecting pools start to fill up. Erosion process starts on the entire site. The increasing volume of water in the pools re-configures the water movement at the site level. 161 EROSION 10 - PROPOSAL ON SITE Stage_2 Month Temp. C Rain mm JANUARY 23 240 FEBRUARY 25 250 MARCH 22 160 Stage_3 At the end of the rainy season all the pools are filled to its maximum level. The one-year structure is completely eroded while their is an increase in erosion for the ten-year structure. With the one-year structure completely eroded, interior thermal baths functions as an exterior urban beach. 162 SWAP APRIL 19 130 MAY 17.6 140 JUNE 16.4 190 At the beginning of the dry season (winter) the oneyear structure is rebuilt to again function as a thermal bath. The water collected on site during the rainy season is treated and used to fill the pools of the thermal bath. 163 EROSION 10 - PROPOSAL ON SITE Stage_4 Channels and pools configuration A combination of channels and pools re-configures itself with varying water volume. Water is distributed either by channels that guide the to remote pools or by overflowing to the surrounding area. Stage 1 A B C D E F G H Stage 2 A B C D E F G H Stage 3 A B C D E F G H 164 SWAP Pools Prototype Based on the pool and channel configuration, prototypes are created to study the relation between their size, position and the number. I II III IV V Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 VI VII VIII IX X Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 165 EROSION 10 - PROPOSAL ON SITE Pools Reconfiguration Through the seasons, quantity of water collection varies drastically, creating re-configuring pools due to the programmed channels arrangement. These channels also the exterior pools with the interior ones. August : Winter + Dry Water collected during the rainy season is treated and used to fill up the functional pools to continue its function as a thermal bath in the dry season. November The onset of the rainy seasons starts the re-configuration of the pools. January : Summer + Rainy The creation of perforations through erosion facilitates water distribution into the interior spaces. Wading pools are formed as the water volume increases. March In the late summer months, towards the end of the rainy season, the pools connect together and the function changes to an urban beach. 166 SWAP Path Reconfiguration With the re-configuring pool condition, the circulation path correspondingly readjusts itself through the season. In the dry season (winter), the paths are more flexible around the functioning pools. During this period, pools are introverted with the construction of the one-year cycle. With the onset of the rainy season, circulation paths and activities modify themselves as the pools re-configure themselves. During the rainy season, wading pools are created as the thermal bath starts to turn into an urban beach. By the end of the rainy season, the pools fill up to their maximum volume merging with other pools to form larger water bodies. The one-year building erodes to its maximum, creating openings and a flux between interior to exterior spaces. 167 EROSION 10 - PROPOSAL ON SITE 168 SWAP View of 3D-print showing interior spaces Interior view with partial erosion 169 EROSION 10 - PROPOSAL ON SITE Interior view with complete erosion 170 SWAP View of sectional chunk model View of private hot pools 171 EROSION 10 - PROPOSAL ON SITE 172 SWAP Interior view of thermal bath 173 EROSION 10 - PROPOSAL ON SITE 174 SWAP Northwest site perspective 175 EROSION 10 - PROPOSAL ON SITE 176 SWAP Southwest site perspective 177 EROSION 10 - PROPOSAL ON SITE EROSION Special Thanks to Robert Stuart-Smith Theodore Spyropoulos Knut and Jose Karl Tris Syed, Amos, George Rob and Will Security and Maintainance and to our friends Christian Nishanth Alfred Davidson Vibha Nicholette Maria Studio Tutor DRL Director Software Consultants DPL Model Workshop Computer Lab Staff Wood Workshop Staff Architecture Association PROTODESIGN AADRL V.3 BEHAVIOURAL MATTER STUDIO Robert Stuart-Smith Ashwin Shah (India) | Paola Salcedo (Ecuador) Wandy Mulia (Germany) | Yue Shi (China)