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Indianapolis WATER STOP [southside water center]

How the provision of clean water can remediate land, people, and community Rebecca A. Staley

[southside water center] How the provision of clean water can remediate land, people, and community

Rebecca A. Staley | ARCH 602 | spring 2011 Advisors: Wes Janz + Ana de Brea

Table of Contents Introduction Taxonomy Abstract

Research Case Studies “Critical Vehicles” Portland Loo “Bubble House” “Zero Yen House” “Urban Rest Stop” St. Joseph’s Rebuild Center

Context Indianapolis Service Network Partners in Housing Maps + Overlays

Site Conditions Resources

Water Stop Program Water Systems Integration

Conclusion Appendix 01

appendix

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summary

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context

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research

introduction

Story after story from cities large and small across the United States indicates that every day, millions of Americans could be one job loss, one major illness, one family divorce or death, one fire, one natural disaster or accident away from falling into DISASTER. This constant near-proximity to disaster is often unrecognized by the general population, and consequently, effective responses are not addressed in enough detail to provide lasting results.

case studies

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introduction The nature of each type of disaster leads to varying circumstances within each location and context, but a commonality among most is often reduced to the need for basic shelter and sanitation. Regardless of the scale, such episodes often result in homelessness or poverty in some form or another. The United States is regarded as one of the most prosperous nations in the world, yet every night there are hundreds of thousands of citizens who do not have a safe place in which to sleep, a secure source of food, a way to maintain basic hygiene, adequate health services, and secure storage for belongings. Once a person enters this cycle, he or she frequently loses access to the cohesive structure needed to regain footing in society. Without a network of reinforcement, people have extreme difficulty overcoming these hurdles.

context

Additionally, thousands of smaller scale events with disastrous effects happen every day with little to no awareness from the majority of the population. For the people involved, however, the effects can be permanent.

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job loss, property loss, injury, chronic illness, poverty, addiction, depression, and broken family and support networks.

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Commonly overlooked are the less-visible array of after-effects spurred by disaster events, which often have equally devastating results:

summary

The most commonly recalled disasters are the largest scale events with highly visible, widespread effects: the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center, Hurricane Katrina, the BP oil spill, the earthquake in Haiti, or flooding in Pakistan.

appendix

Entering this project on the topic of disaster consequences and relief efforts, a taxonomy was created to chart types of disasters and results. It quickly became apparent that no location on Earth exists without the potential of a disastrous occurrence. Whether natural or man-made, they can occur at any place and at any time. One can strike in an instant or creep up in a slow progression; however, no matter the time frame, the effects can be devastating for an individual and an entire nation.

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here are some of those stories: People displaced by Hurricane Katrina were scattered around the country in order to escape destruction. This in turn led to financial and emotional destruction of many who escaped the initial environmental disaster. For example, James Scott took his brother, his sister, and his sister’s two children to Atlanta, GA, for refuge. Once there, they were forced to live out of James’s car because they had run out of money. James attempted to panhandle at a mall in the wealthy Buckhead neighborhood to earn enough money for a hotel. Due to Atlanta’s harsh solicitation laws, James was instead arrested even after showing proof that he was a Katrina evacuee. In James’s case, a large scale disaster led to his arrest and his family’s homelessness in Atlanta (National Coalition for the Homeless, 2005). A large scale man-made disaster, such as the current economic crisis also has widespread personal effects. In the United States, the land of opportunity, the work has dried up leaving families stranded without income. Interviewed in January 2010, Rodrigo Saldaña lives in New York City while his wife and five children live in Ecuador. He has not worked in the last month and sleeps on trains or by the railroad tracks at night. “‘Do you want to know what the worst part is?’ Mr. Saldaña said. ‘My wife says I’m lying when I tell her there’s no more work in New York’” (Santos, 2010). At the other end of the spectrum are individual disasters. Nathaniel Ayers studied music at Julliard 30 years ago. He suffered a breakdown that landed him on Skid Row in Los Angeles, CA, where he battles schizophrenia in addition to being homeless (Lopez, 2005). “Grandpa,” an 84-year-old homeless man has grossly swollen, maggot-infested legs. His advanced peripheral vascular disease is exacerbated by being constantly on his feet. His legs and feet stay dirty, a focus of gangrene and flies in summer. Constant elevation of his feet is needed to drain the fluid and reduce the swelling, but this isn’t possible living on the street. Police won’t let him sit or lie down anywhere for long. Grandpa is representative of a large group of homeless street folk (“bag people”) whose mental illness is the gravitational force around which everything else orbits. A mild paranoid schizophrenic, his symptoms aren’t bad enough to warrant institutionalization, according to judges who have repeatedly overruled requests for his admission (Post, 1998).

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How can a community address basic needs in an open, non-binding, non-judgmental, dignified manner? How can personal infrastructure generate stability in social or economic realms while working alongside the people of a neighborhood?

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According to a 2010 count conducted by the Indiana University Public Policy Institute, 4,500 to 7,500 people are homeless in Indianapolis each year. On the day of the count, there were 1,500 homeless, and 39% were families. Additionally, more than 25,000 households, not individuals, are earning 30% or less of the city’s mean income, or $14,000 per year: the US poverty line as deďŹ ned for a family of two.

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introduction The design investigation addresses one of the most basic human needs: WATER. Encompassing the need for clean drinking water, water for bathing and washing clothes, the Water Center provides short and long term infrastructure and resources to the near-southeast side of Indianapolis. It would provide users the ability to remain clean in order to gain or maintain employment and to reduce health risks caused by inadequate sanitation. Additionally, it offers gathering and socialization space in conjunction with a café and an existing neighborhood farmers’ market. By engaging a strong, but overlooked neighborhood, it aims to integrate into and strengthen the Indianapolis network by adding a unique set of services and amenities.

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Locally, a map was generated to identify and categorize the existing components in Indianapolis, such as meal suppliers, shelters, medical services, affordable housing, day centers, and other social services. This research located strong areas and gaps, and when overlayed with city target areas for future development, foreclosure rates, and income as compared to the city average, it led to a site selection on the near-southeast side of the city. Located adjacent to a large industrial plant, the facility will assist in preliminary remediation of the environmental surroundings.

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This project synthesizes issues from three scales of efforts aimed to serve homeless or impoverished people in Indianapolis. On a broad scale, first-hand videos, personal blogs, community service data, and a study of successful homeless-serving efforts around the US built a knowledge base for the project. An investigation of small scale personal infrastructure, i.e. acquired, modified, or created carts to house personal belongings and wares, looked at individual responses to personal security and storage common among homeless people. A study of affordable housing options reinforced the need for large scale, permanent services in a community for long term impact.

summary

Responses must work within a larger network woven through the city.

appendix

Such complex issues as homelessness and poverty cannot be changed overnight or with isolated efforts.

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Homeless or displaced persons are often at HIGH RISK LEVELS on a daily basis. Lack of personal or private space can lead to victimization through harassment, violence, law enforcement efforts, and destruction. Risks include destruction of property or the theft of possessions by the general public, other homeless people, or law enforcement agencies removing settlements from public spaces. During street sweeps, people are frequently relocated and possessions are destroyed or discarded. This is often an attempt to force relocation and motivation to find housing. Instead, it puts the displaced at an even higher disadvantage. These measures conducted by a city can also result in the homeless being jailed, and consequently, being placed in the court systems, instead of a rehabilitation program. Once the person is released from jail, he or she is still homeless.

“Inside the shelter, there’s usually no place to store one’s stuff. Many people sleep fully clothed, shoes and all, to make sure that nothing is stolen. Add to that the questionable hygiene and mental instability of the person on the cot next to you, and it can be quite scary” (Raymond, 2010). . “I have a bicycle with a trailer attached. This is a good solution to having to constantly carry around one’s belongings. It’s a lot more useful, and less ‘unattractive’ than the stereotypical shopping cart. However, shelters typically do not offer any kind of secure options for one’s belongings, usually severely limiting how much one can even carry in. This forces people to a ridiculous minimum of belongings; one of the factors that actually contributes to perpetuating a person’s homeless predicament” (Why I Choose Streets Over Shelter, 2009).

In addition to the high disease risks, individuals can easily slip into a cycle of illness and homelessness that is selfperpetuating. Mental disorders, addiction, violence, and infectious diseases are know to be “conditions that increase the risk of homelessness,” but they also fall into the category of “conditions that homelessness may cause or exacerbate” (Herman & Manuel, 2008). Also included in the latter category are complications from exposure, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, accidents and trauma, asthma, and cancer. A lack of access to affordable and regular health care keeps these seemingly common and treatable conditions among housed populations a source of deadly risks for the homeless. Many of these conditions could be significantly reduced if adequate hygiene was readily attainable. The rarity of facilities such as the Urban Rest Stop in Seattle, WA, speak to this massive need for personal hygiene resources among homeless populations. .

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“Exposed to numerous deprivations and adverse environmental influences, such as inadequate nutrition, poor hygiene, exposure to the elements, and victimization, homeless adults are at increased risk of developing a broad range of physical health problems. During periods of shelter living, homeless persons typically stay in unclean and overcrowded settings in which infectious diseases are easily transmitted” (Herman & Manuel, 2008).

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According to blog author known only as “SlumJack Homeless,” “shelters are often euphemized as ‘emergency shelter’...but the emergency is that you have nowhere else to just be and operate, so being at a shelter is the emergency” (Why I Choose Streets Over Shelter, 2009).

summary

“Staying in many emergency shelters [can] lead to lice, bed bugs, athlete’s foot, the common cold, and lots of other things that are no big deal if you can stay home in bed, but can kill you if you’re homeless” (Raymond, 2010). To some, the answer is simple:

appendix

“why don’t the homeless just go to a shelter?”

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In addition to the safety, security, and health risks of numerous facilities within the current shelter system, another series of qualities makes them largely unsuccessful. The rigid rule structure of many shelters, designed to eliminate alcohol or drug abuse and other illegal activities from the premises, is highly restrictive to individuals who wish to spend their evenings socializing, working, job searching, or participating other activities. According to homeless advocate, Eric Sheptock, people frequently have to make difficult decisions, such as, check into a shelter at 4:00 PM or 5:00 PM, or work one’s scheduled hours at job from 9:00 AM to 6:00 PM. If the person chooses to earn the money, he sleeps on the street. If he checks into a shelter, he loses the money, and possibly even the job. (Sheptock, 2010). Eric also states that “we

should see housing as a human right. Housing should not be treated as a commodity sold to the highest bidder. It should be...treated as a necessity to be afforded to everyone” (Sheptock, 2010). The emergency shelter system is not the sole approach to housing. Housing units range from single-person sleeping units scattered in a city, tent cities, SRO’s, and large shelters. The diverse types of people living on the streets, much like the diverse housed populations, cannot all be placed into the same “one-size-fits-all” housing approach. The book Designing for the Homeless: Architecture That Works explains that in order for shelters to succeed, they must be much more than just a bed in a space. A sense of belonging is key to becoming part of a community and working toward a more stable life. Shelters must fit into the city CONTEXT and add to the local quality of life. They must reach farther than just the immediate clients served. A shelter cannot succeed alone. It must connect with a system of transitional housing, long term housing, and support networks such as public space, local businesses, and community organizations.

approximately 60% of the Urban Rest Stop clients are employed. They use the facility to clean before work each day. This potentially provides assistance in maintaining a job to thousands of people in the city of Seattle. Even with a steady job, there is a growing disparity between the living wage and earning minimum wage: $7.25 per hour in Indiana. A 40 hour work week earns a person $1160 per month before taxes. Affordable housing, defined as paying 30% of one’s income, equates to slightly less than $350 a month for rent. The average rent for a two-bedroom apartment is $765 per month, indicating that minimum wage earners are unlikely to access to affordable housing. Paying such high percentages, 50% or more, of their earnings for housing is unsustainable and prevents one from covering other costs, such as utilities, food, transportation, and childcare.

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A key element to the journey out of homelessness is steady source of income. According to Ronni Gilboa:

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The Culinary Job Training program run by Second Helpings in Indianapolis employs the homeless and unemployed while teaching on-the-job kitchen skills. Upon completion of the program, students are assisted with job placement. It is life-changing for those with the opportunity to enroll, but the unemployment rates still far outweigh the available training positions in these types of programs.

summary

“Idon’thavethebestworkhistoryandhavehadafewrun-inswiththe law… when an intelligent man has a checkered past, his knowledge and skills are no longer desired by society” (Sheptock, 2010).

appendix

Many individuals remain employed during time without housing, but maintaining a job becomes increasingly difficult. How does one stay clean and presentable when living outdoors or in emergency shelters? For those searching for employment, how do they find someone willing to hire a person without a regular place to stay? And for those out of work for lengthy periods of time, how do they regain necessary job skills to succeed?

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Within an urban context, numerous service-oriented projects infill an existing structure, often directly on the street front with little or no indoor waiting area.

How do people feel when they must line up along the side of a building in the sidewalk, street, or other place within the public realm in order to get a meal, a shower, or wash clothing?

How does it affect one’s dignity when he or she must bring all personal items and valuables along with them? How long must one wait while being stared at, judged, and harassed by passers-by? In less urban areas, buildings are isolated, neglected, and enclosed. Rarely can one see into or out of homeless services buildings in a way that connects people with the local context. Many are enclosed for security reasons, but enclosure creates unrelatable and outcast areas. Often the design or re-design process comes in a “top-down” manner, with the big ideas coming from investors, government officials, professional designers, and program managers. But what about the people who will be USING the space?

What can we learn from a person who can live in a storage shed, a portable bathroom, a tent, or under a bridge? Budget constraints in projects for the homeless are typically the driving force in the design for a facility. However, some of the most successful programs are very well designed within strict material and budget limits.

Conversation with Ronni Gilboa Manager of Seattle’s Urban Rest Stop October 2010

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“Design must allow for people to have dignity in receiving aid or utilizing services. They must be integrated into the community, not shoved in some back alleyway. Hiding these resources is an attempt to hide people and disassociate from those who do not ‘fit in’ with how the majority views a city or region.”

summary

Other times, directors are willing to spend the extra money for a quality product. According to Father Joe from the Joan Kroc Center in San Diego even says, “good architecture is critical to helping the homeless, even though it requires more money. His architects often suggested ways to reduce costs, but he argued that these cost savings would be counterproductive...details and embellishments are integral to the success of the building and the programs within” (Davis, 2004).

appendix

In addition to meeting the required spatial needs, the center provides a generous landscaped entry and courtyard where guests can wait off of the streets in a calm area. Attention to scale, lighting, and proportion can change a structure from imposing to inviting in the simplest deign moves.

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The material palette is simple, concrete, wood, and landscape elements, but the connections and color palette are well refined and detailed.

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A highly regarded example is the Downtown Drop-In Center near Skid Row in Los Angeles, California. “The building was built on a very tight budget...but contains architectural elements usually reserved for private, more expensive buildings” (Kimm, 2001).

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”An initial proposal, the project is not put forward as a finished product, ready for use on the streets. Rather, it is conceived as a starting point for further collaboration between skilled designers and potential users. Both parties will have to play roles in the design and production of future versions of the vehicle...Only through such cooperation can the vehicle function usefully.” (Wodiczko, 82). Designed to call attention to the issue of homelessness in the city, the carts have a larger profile than a typical shopping cart and contain secure areas for storage of belongings and sleeping. Wodiczko synthesized feedback from local homeless people in an attempt to make a vehicle more optimized for life on the streets made of welded steel, wire mesh, and large wheels. The carts expand or rotate to accommodate various functions. “Although never intended as a solution to the problem of homelessness these vehicles, designed in consultation with homeless men, do provide temporary refuge for those unwilling to subject themselves to the institutionalized system of shelters” (Ascher).

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In 1988 the artist Krzysztof Wodiczko explored the traditional shopping cart used by much of the homeless population in New York City. He designed new variations and had homeless people use them in the city. After a period of use, Wodiczko had a dialogue about the strengths and failures of the carts.

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Wodiczko understood the power of DESIGNING WITH NOT FOR his client. By sharing ownership of the process and product, he created something much more meaningful than a donated object.

The research issues of safety + security and health + hygiene are addressed in a short term manner by Wodiczko’s Critical Vehicles and the Portland Loo. They provide basic resources but are not designed to solve large-scale complex issues such as homelessness and poverty. They do, however, express the need for:

a range of facilities from the scale of an individual to that of a city, WORKING TOGETHER, to provide services for all members of the community.

Toilet , button-activated hand wash feature

Lighting: Skylight, PV powered battery light, motion sensors Use:

Up to 20 minutes per use, 400 uses a day

Ventilation:

Upper & lower louvers angled for privacy

Accessibility: Module: Image:

Large enough for bike/cart, ADA compliant Size of one city parking space

Contemporary, poster space on outside of door

Cost $60,000 to manufacture, $1500/month to maintain [Much less than clean-up + social impact of not having it]

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Systems:

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Steel, replaceable side panels, graffiti-proof

appendix

Materials:

case studies

To begin addressing public health and hygiene issues, cities must consider resources that will benefit a wide variety of people. A small, simple piece like the Portland Loo is inviting, widely accommodating, easily maintained, and functional. Something that can be embraced by the surrounding neighborhood can promote local ownership and unofficial monitoring of facility by the community. If the area feels a sense of ownership and accessibility, the piece will have increased longevity.

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It serves ANYONE in the area, providing a dignified place to use the restroom.

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The public restroom unit located in Portland, Oregon, is a designed response to the lack of restroom facilities open to the public. It currently exists in three locations, one being near Union Station and the Greyhound bus terminal due to higher amounts of neighborhood complaints of people using any available surface as a restroom.

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High levels of mobility wear heavily on a person.

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How does continuous mobility affect people mentally, physically, and emotionally?

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Homeless and near-homeless people are frequently forced to pack up and move to new locations. Moving can provide access to much needed services or be the result of forced evacuation. The act of moving one’s belongings on a regular basis is physically and mentally draining. It makes accumulation and retention of possessions, even just the basics, extremely difficult. Personal items and documents often get lost or taken during the moving process. Many people who stay in shelters are limited on personal items due to lack of storage space and the risk of theft. Single-person dwelling units exist worldwide in response to homelessness, poverty, mobility, and design-romanticized ideas about temporality. While vastly different in appearance, the Bubble House and the Zero Yen Solar House attempt to resolve similar issues. Originating from opposite ends of the design spectrum, one from an architectural firm in Spain seeking to explore upward mobility, and the other from a homeless man in Japan seeking shelter and security. Both saw a need for shelter, storage, and basic utilities. The Bubble House, a prototype of a temporary living space for one or two individuals developed by Studio MMASA, was installed in various locations to study relationships that citizens exhibit with new objects in the urban landscape. The designers see the dwelling unit as a part of a contemporary lifestyle allowing people to “gradually settle in the city” (Bubble, 2010). They imply that it could also be applied to displacement situations but provide no further exploration into

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issues p r i v a c y s e c u r i t y

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Both houses have been represented in nearly the same manner from opposite sides of the world: a clear stepby-step assembly, disassembly, and transportation. Each requires one to two people to unload and assemble the unit. Both developers illustrate sections to convey three-dimensional qualities and systems. They draw each individual component to indicate quantity of pieces and location within the design.

summary

The Zero Yen Solar House is an ongoing work by a homeless man who has built it as his shelter on the streets. As he ďŹ nds new materials, he adds to and changes the unit for better function. Like Studio MMASA, the man understands every detail about his shelter. Fully documented by designer Kyohei Sakaguchi, it contains arguably a more in-depth level of detail and analysis.

appendix

such conditions or the required adaptations for disaster use. Such an application would be vastly dierent from installation merely for observation and interaction.

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The Urban Rest Stop is an infill project in Seattle, Washington. The program is simple: laundry facility, restrooms, and shower rooms serving thousands in Seattle. An open laundry area occupies the front of the building with bathroom facilities behind. There are large men’s and women’s restrooms and five separate shower rooms. Soap, shaving cream, razors, toothbrushes, towels and other hygiene supplies are all available upon request, according to their website. The rest stop celebrated 10 years of service to nearly 30,000 unduplicated individuals.

“One has to wonder what people did before we opened our doors” (Gilboa,2010). The use of an historic building allows the rest stop to recede into the cityscape and maintains the architectural character of the block. A small extended sign states the name, but the most important feature is the rest stop’s ability to blend into its context. The basic storefront windows were maintained, which ensures visibility on the street. Nothing says, “homeless services” or “free laundry.” During an interview with Ronni Gilboa, she expressed the importance of not hiding such facilities off of back alleyways. People using the services must be allowed dignity. Attempting to hide these resources is an attempt to hide a group of people and disassociate from those who do not “fit it” with how the majority views a city or region. She discussed the value of dignified projects that encourage clients to become more integrated into the local community. This facility allows visitors to use the same streets as the local housed population.

“Thirty years ago when I went to England, they had public restrooms and showers. They have them in Rome and in Paris and there’s no reason why we can’t have them here, too.” Ronni Gilboa (Willis,1999)

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context According to Healthcare for the Homeless: A Family Medicine Perspective, the main issues in disease are unsanitary living conditions and poor hygiene. This contributes to skin conditions, dental issues, infections, and others. Since access to healthcare services is often unpredictable, increased hygiene could reduce strain on immune system and lessen (slightly) the need for health services. Hygiene services can also increase one’s ability to care for and keep clean wounds or injuries.

summary

“Urban Rest Stop - 10 year track record - 29,000 served” “Urban Rest Stop, A Clean Break” “Julie Apartments To House Seattle’s 1st Public Hygiene Center” “Remodeled Downtown Hygiene Center Already at Capacity” “Urban Rest Stop lifts up the city’s down and out” “A unique appoach to helping Seattle’s homeless” “Rest Stop an urban oasis for Seattle’s homeless” “Urban Rest Stop - City should be commended”

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headlines

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context

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aordable housing social services health services food supplier industrial business auto sales/services retail education fast food/drink parks + public areas religious

E. Washington St.

Monument Circle

Pleasant Run Creek

TE SI

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Interstate 70

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1 mile radius 2 mile radius

1/2 mile radius

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Indianapolis homeless data gathered by the Indiana University Public Policy Institute in January 2010

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15%

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26%

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To address heath and hygiene issues, basic human comfort, and access to clean water, the Water Stop would be situated immediately north of Wilcher’s Southside Farmers’ Market.

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Within a 1-mile radius of the site, further analysis was conducted to identify features vital to a community’s potential for success: educational facilities, religious organizations, businesses, retail and commercial areas, and recreational space. (Details in appendix.)

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cited as ss son foesrs a lessn

A site on the near-southeast side at the corner of South Keystone Ave. and Prospect St. was selected due to it’s connection to an existing farmers’ market, industrial adjacency, and active but struggling surrounding neighborhood.

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In order to determine that context, the map to the left was created to label and locate all service-oriented organizations and facilities within the city. These consist of affordable housing, transitional housing, medical services, food services, and social services.

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A key component to siting a project is the existing network of Indianapolis service entities. The success and longevity of the project hinges on how it would integrate into its context.

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Analysis of Marion County data on foreclosure densities, percentages at or below 120% of the area’s median income, and target areas of Indianapolis neighborhood stabilization programs pointed to the near-southeast side of the city as potentially needing additional resources. (See appendix for maps.)

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Responses to such complex issues as homelessness and poverty must work within a larger network woven through the city. This project synthesizes issues from three scales of efforts aimed to serve homeless or impoverished people in Indianapolis.

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A residential and industrial neighborhood, the area contains mostly occupied but dilapidated homes and businesses. The area is underserved by public amenities, but it does not lack community spirit. Many residents have been in the area for decades. Family-owned Wilcher’s Southside Farmers Market is an area staple but is also stuggling to survive.

M. Heidelberger

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The site is bounded to the north and east by a now-shut down heavy industrial area. An industrial coke plant for nearly 100 year, the property poses environmental hazards as it slowly becomes reappropriated into lighter industry and commercial space (Citizens Gas Utility Plan)

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M. Heidelberger

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Coke Utility Gas Storage

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k il ree Tra C n t Ru nt Run n a as asa Ple Ple Wilcher’s Market Site

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S. Keystone Ave. Twin Aire Drive-In

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W A T E R . S T O P V I S I T O R S homeless people housed.people people living in shelters employed.people unemployed.people on.the.way.to.work on.the.way.to.school after.work.or.school industrial.workers

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overcrowded.families

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unaccompanied.youth market.truck.drivers farmers.market.vendors job.applicants community.gardeners market customers

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one-stop-shop style facilities can’t solve a community’s problems all in one place

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“There’s this bogus theory that if people get hungry and dirty enough, they’ll get a job. But how can you get a job if you’re not clean? If we want people clean and healthy, if we want a healthy community, we need to do this.” Ronni Gilboa on Seattle’s Urban Rest Stop, January 2008

water for housed lacking adequate plumbing additional facilities for overcrowded families allows industrial workers to clean up after work allows the homeless to wash personal carts outdoors allows people to clean household linens + blankets bio-remediation landscapes help ďŹ lter industrial toxins out of ground water and soil on the site rain water collection and gray water reuse lessen burden on city water infrastructure provides a hub in an underserved neighborhood draws people to an existing market needing support

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keeps employees clean allows employees to clean clothing enables unemployed to search for jobs and look presentable at interviews

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reduced risk of infection decreased healing time of prior infections reduced aggravation of other conditions reduced the demand for medical attention allows pet owners to provide water for animals

summary

It is a basic human need.

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Water has the ability to oer personal infrastructure to individuals or families working to live their lives in the best way they can.

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W A T E R - S T O P water core collection ďŹ ltration redistribution laundry + shower facility visibility across site bio-remediation extended farmers’ market cafe

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Phasing Stage 1: Repair roof and structure of Wilcher’s Southside Farmers’ Market Add front windows and door to proposed expanded market area Build arbor over proposed market area Stage 2: Plant bio-remediation gardens to pull toxins out of the ground. Trees and large plants are removed and replaced after 5 years. Replace topsoil for community garden plots Stage 3: Build Water Stop facility and surrounding outdoor seating spaces Build adjoining cafe and kitchen space

Site Movement

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summary

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Vehicle traffic, deliveries

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Delivery truck parking Market food movement, sales to community, supply to cafe kitchen

A facility with high water consumption must take advantage of natural resources in order to lessen the burden on aging city infrastructure.

] ] ]

supplied by collected gray water

supplied by Indianapolis Water

*Demand calculated as an average monthly need of 177,000 gallons

ROOF COLLECTION AREA

PERMEABLE TRUCK PARKING

SITE WATER MOVEMENT

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PERMEABLE MARKET AREA

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ROOF COLLECTION AREA

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At the front of the Water Stop is a water collection meter to indicate the amount of rainwater available for reuse within the building at any given time.

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WATER FILTRATION GARDENS

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[ [ [

supplied by harvested rain water

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WATER NEEDS

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Rain water harvested and used onsite deomonstrates the need for resource conservation in all project types. “Sustainability” practices are not to be reserved for elite clients.

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the WATER STOP

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1 laundry area, comfortable seating + work stations 2 individual shower rooms with storage space 3 facility storage + loading dock + staff room 17 4 entry courtyard with seating + water feature 5 front desk check-in area 6 public restroom area with shared sinks 7 cafe dining area, waiting area 8 cafe sales area 9 cafe kitchen + community kitchen 14 10 rain water storage area 11 cart + bike storage 20 12 outdoor spigots 13 bio-remediation gardens (see appendix for more detailed information)

Encompassing the need for clean drinking water, water for bathing and washing clothes, the Water Stop provides short and long term infrastructure and resources to the near-southeast side of Indianapolis. It would provide users the ability to remain clean in order to gain or maintain employment and to reduce health risks caused by inadequate sanitation. It offers socialization spaces in conjunction with an proposed adjacent café and the existing family-owned farmers’ market and trucking service. By engaging a strong, but overlooked neighborhood, it aims to integrate into and strengthen the Indianapolis network by adding a unique set of services and amenities. 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

outdoor market expansion area temporary market stands Herb garden plot for cafe Truck + delivery entrance Additional truck parking Covered outdoor eating + gathering area Shared parking for market, Water Stop, and Cafe

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1 shared kitchen for apartment rooms 2 short-stay apartments 3 facility storage + staff space 4 comfortable seating + children’s play area 5 private shower room 6 office space for case work, counseling, etc. 7 administration office 8 gray water collection + filtration 9 rain water filtration 10 rain water storage area

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OVERALL WATER SYSTEM NETWORK

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Supplies 36% of needs uses: washing machines showers

Wa ter

co ll

ec

tio

nf

ro m

ma

rke t

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Supplies 8% of building needs uses: toilets, landscape

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collected from sinks, washing machines

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Amount collected from building

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Supplies 56% of needs

Additional calculations and data on water collection, estimated water demand, rain fall, and gray water catchment can be found in the appendix.

[

]

reference: average monthly residential water use for a family of 4 = 12,000 gallons

=

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uses: sinks, drinking water, dishwasher, showers not supplied by rain water

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B I O F I LT E RS planted beds used to filter discharged gray water on site. Will provide filtered water for community garden plots immediately to the north.

L A R G E LO C K E R S for carts, bikes, or other possessions, visible from the laundry area. A place welcoming to carts and personal storage offers an added layer of security to those using the Water Stop.

O U T D O O R S EAT I N G for individuals and groups facing the street and onsite garden areas. Seating will invite people to gather and linger on the site, encouraging neighborhood discourse and connections

WAT E R G UAG E to indicate current levels of rain water stored on site. Places water at the forefront of the facility.

introduction research LOA D I N G D O C K for donations, supplies, and mechanical work.

CART ENTRANCE for facility users bringing personal items into shower rooms.

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WAT E R STO R AG E area for collection rain water from roof surfaces including Wilcher’s.

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OUTDOOR MARKET addition to Wilcher’s Southside Farmers’ Market.

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OUTDOOR MARKET for local vendors to sell produce and other wares

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T R U C K AC C E S S for deliveries and back access to all buildings

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OUTDOOR SHADING on south cafe seating area, facing Wilcher’s Farmers’ Market

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The main underlying issues in diseases among the homeless and near-homeless are unsanitary living conditions and poor hygiene. This contributes to skin conditions, dental issues, infections, and other health issues. Since access to healthcare services is often unpredictable, increased hygiene could reduce strain on one’s immune system and lessen the need for emergency health services. Hygiene services can also increase one’s ability to care for and clean wounds or injuries, preventing them from becoming larger problems. WA I T I N G A R EA for shower rooms or laundry machines. Seating also lines the main hallway through the Water Stop, following skylights and the path of collected rain water.

R A I N C O L L EC T I O N from roof is visible on the main axis of the building. Water is stored in holding tanks immediately outside and filtered in basement.

C H EC K- I N D E S K for reserving shower and laundry time. Also contains information and referrals to other social services in the Indianapolis area.

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L AU N D RY M AC H I N E S 10 washing machines and 12 dryers.

LIVING ROOM S T Y L E S EAT I N G for relaxed waiting during laundry time or in shower line up.

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I N D I V I D UA L S H OW E R RO O M S with storage area and space for personal belongings that clients do not wish to leave in lockers. Individual rooms allow for privacy of clients.

F O L D I N G TA B L E S

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WO R K STAT I O N S W I D E A I S L ES with computer for easy movement space so users can of carts, laundry maintain online bins, and other contacts, check storage methods. email, job listings, F O L D I N G S PAC E and news. with views to outdoor storage area and bio-remediation gardens.

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In focusing on a single element, water, the Water Stop is highly specific but able to serve a broad range of people. By providing resources needed by everyone, it becomes flexible to a neighborhood’s needs.

Its aim is not to solve an entire city’s problems but to demonstrate that one resource, well-thought out and highly detailed, can fit into its context and reinforce the other existing resources. The resource is layered to address varied issues surrounding water. At the site level, rain water is harvested to help supply the fixtures without overburdening local infrastructure. Plantings absorb toxins from industrially-polluted ground water and soil. After bio-remediation and renewed soil, the landscape will provide space for community members to maintain small garden patches. The building collects and filters gray water for reuse inside the facility and to help maintain the planted areas at the north end of the site. Its footprint is small enough to allow the Wilcher family to continue occupying a large portion of the site for their trucking business. People who use the Water Stop can benefit from a clean water source for drinking, bathing, cleaning clothing or other possessions, reducing health and infection risks, and feeling dignified in the process. As a water destination, the wide range of people using the site would bring traffic to the adjacent farmers’ market. It could encourage interaction among various factions of the neighborhood that usually remain separate, strengthening the community dialogue.

Most importantly, the Water Stop demonstrations that EVERYONE deserves dignified access to clean water.

Recreation: Showers and bathrooms could adjoin biking and other excercise along the Monon Trail and other linked trails around the city. Clothing: Laundry facilities can join local used clothing businesses to create a clothing and household linens exchange.

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introduction Social Areas: Near the downtown bar area and around concert and festival venues, the Water Stop could have additional single public bathroom units much like in the sports areas.

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Sports Arenas: Near the various sports facilities in the city, the Water Stop could provide single public bathroom units in areas where large groups of fans congregate before and after sports games.

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Downtown: A commuter biking hub would serve downtown workers who bike into and around the city on a regular basis. It would house showers and individual bathrooms, bike storage, bike repairs, and a coee shop.

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If successfully developed, the Water Stop could become part of its own new network weaving through Indianapolis with satellite facilities based on individual neighborhood characteristics.

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Future expansion and development potential

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appendix 55

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Contents Indianapolis + Marion County Maps of Neighborhood Analysis Indianapolis Service Network Map Site mapping data Rain water collection calculations + building water calculations Site Zoning

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Indianapolis Homeless Study Data

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Bio-remediation

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HEALTH SERVICES: Gennesaret Free Clinic Gennesaret Dental Clinic Gennesaret Mobile Clinics HealthNet Care Center

OTHER: Pogue’s Run Grocery Co-Op Indianapolis Central Library

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While not strongly reliable, this system is often the only transit available to people using the network of services listed. Riders often wait long periods of time in harsh weather, as the majority of stops consist of nothin more than a sign with a route number. Few have benches, and even fewer have shelters to escape rain, wind, and snow.

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FOOD SERVICES: Second Helpings Gleaners Food Bank St. Vincent de Paul Food Pantry Cathedral Kitchen

SUPPORT SERVICES: Hoosier Veterans Assistance Foundation (HVAF) Coalition for Homelessness Intervention and Prevention Horizon House Danny’s Closet of Hope Dress for Success John H. Boner Community Center School on Wheels Wheeler Mission Wheeler Mission Center for Women and Children Holy Family Shelter Catholic Charities Dayspring Center Neighborhood Christian Legal Clinic Salvation Army Women and Children’s Shelter Salvation Army Center Salvation Army Food Center Salvation Army Worship Center + Adult Rehabilitation Services Compassion Center Coburn Place Good Shepherd Community Center Lighthouse Mission Outreach Indiana Indy Housing Authority Damien Center

INDYGO BUS ROUTES: Run primarily across Washington Street but also cross the city at several north/ south routes. Most run from the edge of the city to the center and back over the course of the day.

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Holy Family Transitional Housing One Step Two Steps Red Maple Grove Laurelwood Apartments Rowney Terrace Twin Hills Blackburn Terrace Beechwood Gardens Hawthorne Place Concord Village Indiana Ave. Apartments Lugar Tower Apartments John J. Barton Apartments Amber Woods Cooperative Bishop Joseph D. Farris Living Center Byrne Court Apartments

HealthNet Dental Center HealthNet OB/GYN HealthNet Administration Office Health Recovery Program

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HOUSING: The Georgetown Colonial Park Gladstone Linwood Manor Mozingo Place Blue Triangle Burton Apartments Crown Pointe Apartments Guerin Place Mapleton Park (Partners in Housing projects)

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AUTO SERVICES: Auto Sales (2)

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FOOD + BEVERAGE Restaurant (2) Fast Food Grocery Store Liquor Store (2) Bar

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PARKS + RECREATION: Parks (4) Pleasant Run Trail Southeast Community Organization EDUCATION: Elementary School (2) Early Childhood Center Daycare Christian School

AFFORDABLE HOUSING (6) COMMERCIAL + RETAIL Ace Hardware Roofing Company (2) Gas Station (2) Barber Family Dollar Cash Advance Appliance Sales + Service

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SUPPORT SERVICES (5)

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INDUSTRIAL BUSINESSES: Dairy Plant Materials Handling Warehouse Indianapolis Drum Services Ewing Light Metals Interstate Warehousing Midwest Machinery Tool + Supply Shop Indy Recycling and Transfer Station Metal Finishing Engineered Coatings Storage Facility OmniSource Metals Toyoshima Steel Plywood Distribution Hydraulics Advanced Municipal Equipment Appliance Recycling

RELIGIOUS FACILITIES (12)

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The dashed yellow triangle is the site selected for the Indianapolis Water Stop facility and bioremediation gardens

Tire Sales (2) Auto Parts (3) Auto Service + Repair (6)

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SITE SELECTION: The dashed empty box on E. Washington St. is a potential historic renovation of the Mallory Building into affordable housing units

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Month Inches Jan 2.3 Feb 2.5 Mar 3.8 Apr 3.7 May 4 Jun 3.5 Jul 4.5 Aug 3.6 Sep 2.9 Oct 2.6 Nov 3.3 Dec 3.3 Totals

Fixtures Shower Washing mach. Bathroom sink Toilet Kitchen sink Drinking water Dish washer

Qty 11 10 19 18 3 2 1

(in ft.) 0.192 0.208 0.317 0.308 0.333 0.292 0.375 0.300 0.242 0.217 0.275 0.275

Supply gray gray gray gray city city city

Water Stop Roof Collection Wilcher’s Roof Collection 3 3 Ft. Gallons Ft. Gallons 1,449 10,837 2,818 21,075 1,575 11,779 3,063 22,908 2,394 17,905 4,655 34,819 2,331 17,434 4,533 33,903 2,520 18,847 4,900 36,652 2,205 16,491 4,288 32,071 2,835 21,203 5,513 41,234 2,268 16,962 4,410 32,987 1,827 13,664 3,553 26,573 1,638 12,251 3,185 23,824 2,079 15,549 4,043 30,238 2,079 15,549 4,043 30,238 25,197 188,471 49,000 366,520

Collect yes yes no no no n/a yes

Outflow gray gray black black black minimal gray

GPM 2 2 0.5 1.6 1 0.5 2

Gal/Use Time (mins)Daily Use Units 20 10 170 washes 15 25 100 washes 2.5 5 600 mins 1.6 n/a 300 ushes 10 10 10 users 1 2 100 users 10 60 2 washes

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Total Daily Use Collected Gray Water

5900 4674

79.2% recovered

Montly Water Demand total water 100% 177,000 gallons rain water

36%

63,796 gallons

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8%

14,400 gallons

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56%

99,120 gallons

Total % Demand 31,912 18.0% 34,687 19.6% 52,724 29.8% 51,337 29.0% 55,499 31.4% 48,562 27.4% 62,436 35.3% 49,949 28.2% 40,237 22.7% 36,074 20.4% 45,787 25.9% 45,787 25.9% 554,991 annually

Gal/Day Gal/Mon. Collect/Day Collect/Mon. 3400 102000 3230 96900 1500 45000 1425 42750 300 9000 480 14400 100 3000 100 3000 20 600 19 570 5900

177000

4674

140220

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According to HUD’s definition, a person is considered homeless if he or she meets one of two different classifications: 1) resides in a place not meant for human habitation, such as a car, park, sidewalk, abandoned building, or on the street (unsheltered person); or 2) resides in an emergency shelter or transitional housing for persons who originally came from the streets or emergency shelters (sheltered homeless). Findings There were 1,488 individuals experiencing homelessness in Marion County on the date of the count. According to Table 1, that is an increase of 34 people from the Winter 2009 count. The number of people in emergency shelters decreased while the numbers in transitional housing increased and the number of unsheltered that we found decreased. As discussed below, an additional 143 individuals would have been homeless at some point leading up to and possibly including the night of the count but for the positive impact of prevention initiatives and a new federal program for prevention and intervention with individuals with low barriers to housing. In addition, anecdotal information available from shelters and service providers suggests that the number of unsheltered individuals found on the night of the count would be higher but for the negative impact of the inclement weather on that night and individuals who elected not to participate in the survey. Of those who answered the question (825 adults), a total of 19 percent reported that they were employed (down from 25 percent in 2009), and another 15 percent reported that they were in school (up from 12 percent in 2009).

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http://www.policyinstitute.iu.edu/PubsPDFs/Homeless_PPI_Pr4.pdf

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Birch Trees (chromium) Broadleaf Arrowhead + Water Hyacinth (selenium) Perennial Ryegrass (petroleum products) Vicia villosa Willow Trees (benzene)

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The following plants would help to clean the Water Stop site and lessen the negative environmental impact of the industrial site.

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The bio-remediation areas would line the property edge shared by Wilcher’s and the railroad and occupy the northern part of the site closest to the utility plant.

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In order to begin detoxifying the area surrounding the now-closed Indianapolis Coke Utility, plants known to absorb chemicals and metals from the ground or to filter water.

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Images 11 __ Urban Rest Stop client http://www.seattlepi.com/default/article/Rest-Stop-an-urban-oasis-for-Seattle-s-homeless-1182095.php#

12 __ Partners in Housing, Colonial Park Apartments Google street view

12 __ Resource Access Center, Portland, OR

http://chatterbox.typepad.com/portlandarchitecture/2009/09/resource-access-center-for-homeless-goingforward-after-urban-renewal-settlement.html

13 __ Second Helps Culinary Job Training School http://www.secondhelpings.org/culinary-job-training

15 __ Downtown Drop In Center

images 1 - 3: http://www.lehrerarchitects.com/inst/dropin/dropin.htm images 4 - 5: http://www.architectureweek.com/2001/0411/design_2-1.html

18 __ Critical Vehicles

sketch: http://www.xcp.bfn.org/ascher.html images: http://www.xcp.bfn.org/ascher.html

19 __ Portland Loo

http://www.portlandonline.com/water/index.cfm?c=51250&

20 __ Bubble House http://bubbleprototype.blogspot.com/

21 __ Zero Yen House

sketches + image: http://www.0yenhouse.com/en/A_Solar_Zero_Yen_House/

22 __ Urban Rest Stop

left: Google street view top right: http://www.urbanreststop.org/ bottom right: http://www.urbanreststop.org/urban-rest-stop-laundry.html

30 __ Indianapolis Citizens Gas Coke Utility top: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mmheidelberger/tags/indianapoliscoke/ sewer: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mmheidelberger/4302031326/ industry: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mmheidelberger/sets/72157613726407062/ with/3274912875/

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31 __ Wilcher’s Southside Farmers’ Market Google street view

32 __ Neighborhood houses Google street view

57 __ Neighborhood Stabilization + Density Maps

http://www.indy.gov/eGov/City/DMD/Community/Pages/home.aspx

65 __ Zoning

Indiana GIS

66 __ Indianapolis Homeless Count

charts: http://www.chipindy.org/uploaded/ 2010%20Homeless%20Count%20Report%20Final.pdf

69 __ Bio-remediation

birch tree: http://www.panoramio.com/photo/28024716 broadleaf arrowhead: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SALA2 water hyacinth: http://amuraquatics.com/problemweeds1.html ryegrass: http://www.dlfis.com/R_and_D/Forage_Breeding/Italian_ryegrass.aspx vicia villosa: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Vicia_villosa.jpeg willow tree: http://www.dlfis.com/R_and_D/Forage_Breeding/Italian_ryegrass.aspx

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“A Dream Denied: The Criminalization of Homelessness in U.S. Cities.” National Coalition for the Homeless. Web. 25 Nov. 2010. <http://www.nationalhomeless.org/publications/crimreport/ meanestcities.html>. Citizens Energy Group. Proposed Reuse Vision. Rep. Indianapolis: CAMS, 2009. City of Indianapolis and Marion County. Web. <http://www.indy.gov/eGov/City/DMD/Community/Pages/ home.aspx>. Davis, Sam. Designing for the Homeless: Architecture That Works. Berkeley: Univ. of California, 2004. “Design.” BuBbLe. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http://bubbleprototype.blogspot.com/>. Gilboa, Ronni. Personal interview. 05 Oct. 2010. Herman, D B, and J. Manuel. “Populations at Special Health Risk: The Homeless.” (2008): 261-68. Elsevier. Web. Invisiblepeopletv. “Eric.” YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=6g2gewmzx6U&feature=player_embedded>. Kimm, Alice. “ArchitectureWeek - Design - Downtown Drop-In Center - 2001.0411.” ArchitectureWeek - 2010.1201. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http://www.architectureweek.com/2001/0411/design_2-1.html>. Libby, Brian. “The Portland Loo: Design, Entrepreneurship, NIMBYism.” Chatterbox. 24 Sept. 2010. Web. 01 Dec. 2010. <http://chatterbox.typepad.com/portlandarchitecture/2010/09/the-portland-loo-designentrepreneurship-nimbyism.html>. Littlepage, Laura, and Jaree Ervin-Weeks. Focusing on Rapid Re-Housing Combats Family Homelessness in Indianapolis. Rep. Indiana University Public Policy Institute, Jan. 2010. Web. Nov. 2010. <http://www. chipindy.org/uploaded/2010%20Homeless%20Count%20Report%20Final.pdf>. Lopez, Steve. “Life on the Streets.” Los Angeles Times. 2005. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http://www. latimes. com/news/local/la-me-lopez16oct16-series,1,1478819.special>. Post, Pat, ed. “Operation Safety Net: Outreach to Unsheltered Homeless People.” Healing Hands 2 (Nov. 1998): 1. Breaking the Links between Poor Health and Homelessness. National Healthcare for the Homeless Council, Nov. 1998. Web. Feb. 2011. <http://www.nhchc.org/Network/HealingHands/1998/ hh.11_98.pdf>. Raymond, Josie. “Why Many Homeless People Choose Streets Over Shelters.” Good News. Web. 08 Dec. 2010. <http://www.tonic.com/article/why-many-homeless-people-choose-streets-over-shelters/>.

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Santos, Fernanda. “In the Shadows, Day Laborers Left Homeless as Work Vanishes.” New York Times. 01 Jan. 2010. Web. 10 Nov. 2010. <http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/02/nyregion/ 02laborers. html?_r=2&scp=1&sq=In%20the%20Shadows,%20Day%20Laborers&st=cse>. Schmader, David. “A Clean Break: Urban Rest Stop.” The Stranger - Seattle’s Only Newspaper. Web. 23 Nov. 2010. <http://www.thestranger.com/seattle/Content?oid=490774>. SlumJack. “Why I Choose Streets Over Shelter.” Web log post. Poverty in America. 03 June 2009. Web. 02 Dec. 2010. < http://news.change.org/stories/why-i-choose-streets-over-shelter >. Usatine, Richard P., Lillian Gelberg, Mary H. Smith, and Janna Lesser. “Health Care for the Homeless: a Family Medicine Perspective.” American Family Physician 49.1 (1994): 139-46. Willis, Ragan. “Julie Apartments Will Combine Seattle’s First Public Hygiene Center and Lowincome Housing.” Seattle DJC Newspaper. 18 Oct. 1999. Web. 1 Dec. 2010. <http://www.djc. com/news/re/10059535.html>. Wodiczko, Krzysztof. Critical Vehicles: Writings, Projects, Interviews. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1999. “YouTube - MsBassgurl’s Channel.” YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. June-July 2010. Web. 12 Mar. 2011. <http://www.youtube.com/user/MsBassgurl>.

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Indianapolis Water Stop: Southside Water Center