Lighting Management System English
Book about complete solution in lighting management. (EN)
Lighting MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 2013 / SK Content LIGHTING QUALITY STANDARD .......................................................................................................... 6 LIGHTING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ................................................................................................... 10 Managing a lighting system .................................................................................................. 15 Comfort ............................................................................................................................................ 16 Saving electricity and CO2 ................................................................................................................... 16 Autonomous character ....................................................................................................................... 16 Flexibility ............................................................................................................................................. 16 Specification of components ................................................................................................................ 17 Aging of a lighting system ................................................................................................................. 17 Project structure ................................................................................................................... 19 Idea ................................................................................................................................................... 20 Analysis ............................................................................................................................................. 20 Luminous and Technical Project ......................................................................................................... 22 Electric Installation Project ................................................................................................................. 22 Installation ......................................................................................................................................... 24 Programming .................................................................................................................................... 24 Administration ................................................................................................................................... 24 Types of control ................................................................................................................... 27 Manual control ................................................................................................................................... 28 Automatic control ............................................................................................................................ 32 Combined control .............................................................................................................................. 46 Constant illuminance sensor ............................................................................................................... 47 Daylight simulation ............................................................................................................................ 48 Energy savings according to used management Lighting intensity .................................................................. 54 Motion detection ............................................................................................................................... 54 ............................................................................................................................. 54 Combined control ............................................................................................................................. 54 Manual control ................................................................................................................................. 55 Communication interfaces and buses .................................................................................... 57 DALI control ...................................................................................................................................... 58 Analog control 1â€“10 V ....................................................................................................................... 60 Analog control 0â€“10 V ....................................................................................................................... 61 DSI control ........................................................................................................................................ 62 DMX control ..................................................................................................................................... 63 Manual switch control ...................................................................................................................... 64 Control phase ................................................................................................................................... 65 Thyristor / transistor dimming Remote control PowerLine AC PowerLine DC 4 ........................................................................................................... 66 ................................................................................................................................ 68 .................................................................................................................................. 70 .................................................................................................................................. 7 I CONTENT Overview of Lighting Management Systems ........................................................................ 73 Manual control .................................................................................................................................. 76 Manual and sensor control ................................................................................................................ 78 Simple control system ....................................................................................................................... 79 Advanced control system ................................................................................................................. 80 Complex control system .................................................................................................................... 81 Complex colour control ..................................................................................................................... 82 APPLICATIONS .................................................................................................................. 84 Control by switch phase ..................................................................................................................... 88 Advanced DALI management system Sensor group control ................................................................................................ 90 ........................................................................................................................ 92 Daylight simulation ............................................................................................................................ 94 Combined control of luminaires and peripheral devices ..................................................................... 96 Scanning movement by switching sensor .......................................................................................... 100 Zone scanning of movement Cascade scanning of movement ........................................................................................................... 102 ....................................................................................................... 104 Combined RGB/W control ................................................................................................................. 108 Comfort control of lighting and peripheral devices ............................................................................ 110 Cascade scanning of intensity ............................................................................................................ 114 Complex management system RGB/W ............................................................................................... 116 Central Power Source control ............................................................................................................ 118 Complex lighting management system based on movement ............................................................. 122 Complex lighting management system based on intensity and scenic control ..................................... 124 Manual combined management RGB/W Comfort control RGB/W ........................................................................................... 128 ................................................................................................................... 130 .............................................................................. 136 ......................................................... 142 Manual and group control ................................................................................................................ 132 Simple management system with offset function Time management ........................................................................................................................... 140 Design and special-purpose lighting with central management Sector switching of lighting based on motion .................................................................................... 146 Architectural lighting .......................................................................................................................... 150 Scenic management of lighting ......................................................................................................... 154 Comprehensive lighting management of a whole building ................................................................. 158 Latest trends in lighting management ................................................................................ 161 Explanation/notes................................................................................................................166 CONTENT I5 LIGHTING QUALITY STANDARD A NEW SYSTEM OF LIGHTING QUALITY ASSESSMENT Many things need to be taken into consideration when designing a lighting system. Of course we must think about the standard requirements, but it is equally important to think about all the supportive elements that will contribute to the quality of the ﬁnal solution. The criteria used to judge the quality of a lighting solution have been so complex and disorderly that it has been almost impossible for a user make any informed decision. We here at OMS decided to change that. We wanted to create order from this chaos. We created the ‘Lighting Quality Standard’ (LQS). 6 I TYPY RIADENIA TYPY RIADENIA I7 What is the Lighting Quality Standard? We all know that often rules are there for our beneﬁt. Our civilisation has only survived thanks to the regulation and systemisation of behaviours; to bring ourselves out of chaos. At OMS we realised that the lighting industry needed to be brought out of chaos by introducing a regulated and systemised lighting assessment system which is transparent, simple to use, easy to understand, and will enable customers, purchasers, users and competitors to better judge lighting solutions. Until now there has been no uniﬁed system which could enable the complex assessment of a lighting solution. All producers preferred their own method. Consequently, customers have been getting lost in a ﬂood of criteria, the sheer quantity of which prevented them from being able to effectively compare lighting products and solutions. LQS covers all the necessary requirements and many more in order to become an industry standard. It will open up the lighting industry for both customers and the industry itself. We have chosen more than twenty quantiﬁable criteria by which to assess the luminaires and systems used in any given space. Each criterion has been given a value, each value contributing to the ﬁnal score of the solution. The higher the composite values, the higher the score, the higher the quality of the solution. We have developed specialised software to this purpose, ‘LQS Composer PRO’. This software calculates the values and ﬁnal score of a solution based on the data you input for each criteria. LQS is founded on six key elements: ERGONOMICS EMOTION ECOLOGY EFFICIENCY ESPRIT EXCEPTIONALITY Imagine a house. The ﬁrst four elements of LQS make up the walls, and are well known within the lighting industry. The ﬁnal two elements combine to create the roof which holds the building together, resulting in a solid and effective structure. The idea and content of a lighting solution is focussed on EFFICIENCY. This of course has a signiﬁcant impact on ECOLOGY, and together they work to improve the overall score of any lighting solution in combination with the other four elements. 8 I LIGHTING QUALITY STANDARD THE KEY IS ERGONOMICS Examine the impact of light on the human eye. The ability of a light source to reproduce colours of various objects realistically in comparison with ideal or natural light is the master rule in the world of lighting. 6 E ‘s EFFICIENCY Take advantage of innovation in the control and management of lighting. There are many possibilities to choose from when ﬁnding the right interface for the desired lighting effect. The decision should be made according to the type of space to be illuminated. EMOTION Uncover the inﬂuence of light on human emotions. Strong scientiﬁc evidence proves the effect on mood and perception through features such as colour mixing, biologically effective lighting or illumination of room surfaces. ESPRIT Realise that appearance matters and do not be ashamed when considering the design of luminaires. The aesthetic value of a form becomes an important part of interior design from an architect‘s perspective. ECOLOGY Control energy consumption and enviromental impact of light usage. The ratio of energy coverted to light is the measure of a light source‘s efﬁciency. This can be used for increasing the product‘s life while reducing maintenance costs. EXCEPTIONALITY Consider every customer as a unique individual. A customised solution adds more value and comfort. Trustworthy partners prepared for future economical and market instablities are a necessity in the world of lighting. LIGHTING QUALITY STANDARD I9 LIGHTING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Nowadays we are constantly reminded of how limited natural resources are becoming and we see how this impacts on the ever-rising costs of these resources and the energy they are used to produce. This has brought to the foreground the need to focus on effective and ecological solutions and has become the central concern of all industries, especially the lighting industry. A Lighting Management System offers a complex spectrum of solutions through which you can increase lighting efďŹ ciency within all types of spaces. 10 I TYPY RIADENIA TYPY RIADENIA I 11 What is a Lighting Management System? We here at OMS use EFFICIENCY and ECOLOGY as the key elements by which to judge the quality of a lighting solution. By adding them to the quantiﬁable parameters in LQS we have highlighted their importance and given them a decisive role to play. Signiﬁcant savings can be made by the customer when EFFICIENCY and ECOLOGY are used as the foundation for lighting solution design. An efﬁcient system can save on both energy consumption and maintenance. And of course, lower energy consumption has a positive effect on the environment. Several factors work towards the creation of an efﬁcient system; from the correct choice of light sources and luminaires and the appropriate layout of those luminaires within the space, to the utilisation of intelligent lighting management tools. A correctly designed and implemented Lighting Management System (LMS) will create an optimal state and maximise the saving potential. Further to the saving potential of an LMS, there are the equally beneﬁcial qualities of user comfort and simple controllability which stem from the inherent autonomy of a well-designed system. OMS has an extremely high level of know-how, as experts in the technologies of the lighting industry and with years of hands-on experience in the design and implementation of lighting solutions and management systems. With this book we wish to impart some of our expertise by showing you practical sample applications. We will explain to you the various tools available to use in an LMS and the importance of the lighting and electrical installation projects when designing a management system. Using illustrations, diagrams and charts showing potential savings, and by discussing the various control possibilities, we hope you will see the importance and beneﬁts of integrating an LMS into your lighting solution. 12 I LIGHTING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM TIMING INTENSITY CONSTANT ILLUMINANCE MANUAL SWITCHING MOTION LIGHTING SCENES MOTION DAYLIGHT SIMULATION REMOTE CONTROL CONFERENCE ROOM PRESENTATION ROOM COMBINED MANAGEMENT OFFICES MANUAL DIMMING ASTRONOMICAL CLOCK MOTION AND INTENSITY LIGHTING SCENES TRAINING ROOM CORRIDORS TOILETS TECHNICAL ROOM TOP MANAGEMENT OFFICE SHOWROOM DINING ROOM OPEN OFFICE ADVERTISEMENT PARKING PLACE STAIRCASE RECEPTION RGB GARAGE MOTION I 13 14 I TYPY RIADENIA Managing a lighting system Management of a lighting system is based on the constant assessment of the system output compared to the required output, and feedback as to what adjustments are needed. Output can be either user controlled, for example by manual control of pre-set parameters, or automatically controlled according to sensor input or programed parameters. Such adjustments can be made smoothly or incrementally. The complexity of the LMS needed depends on many variables, so each system must be designed especially for each space. TYPY RIADENIA I 15 How to manage a lighting system? Comfort Saving electricity and CO2 Autonomous character Flexibility SpeciďŹ cation of components Aging of a lightening system Comfort Two things determine the comfort of a lighting system. Firstly, functionality: the system must be suitably designed for the given space and usage. Secondly, control: the methods used to regulate the system should be there to simplify the process, such as buttons, touch panels and remote control. Autonomous character An autonomous lighting system is characterised by its functioning without control and regulation by the user. Such solutions are ideal for spaces with considerable saving potential but where it is not possible for the system to be operated directly by users. For example in larger lighting systems such as found in warehouses or manufacturing premises, but also smaller systems Saving electricity and CO2 such as in ofďŹ ces and corridors. The main The two most important ecological factors function of an autonomous system is to that must be considered when designing remove the factor of human failure, for a lighting system are energy consumption example, simply forgetting to switch it off. and consequently the volume of harmful substances produced by energy produc- Flexibility tion. Generally, the better the distribution It is often important to build flexibility into of light, especially in terms of intensity and a lighting system, especially if you wish to location, the higher the saving potential of maximise savings. In industry, for example in manufacturing premises where there the system. are regular changes to manufacturing procedures and therefore to lighting requirements, the system must be able to adapt easily and quickly. Using an LMS means you can make changes to the functionality of luminaire groups, such as lighting intensity, use of sensors and operating time, with simple software adjustments. This can be done with little or no disruption to normal activity. 16 I MANAGING A LIGHTING SYSTEM Specification of components The design of a lighting system consists of selecting suitable luminaires and the elements used for their control. The choice of which luminaires to use and their positioning within the space are deﬁned by technical calculations. However, the choice of which control methods to use is based on a speciﬁc design created for a speciﬁc space. Before we can design an LMS we must know exactly what functionality is required of it. Aging of lighting system A lighting system ages, therefore it must be designed to ensure the required illuminance is maintained. The aging of a lighting system is caused by declining luminous ﬂux and light source reliability and degradation of the reﬂective surfaces of the luminaire and the surfaces being illuminated. In order to prevent insufﬁcient illumination over time, this aging process must be factored into the design of the system. If this is not done correctly it can result in a system which is overdimensioned (consumes excessive amounts of energy) or under-dimensioned (provides insufﬁcient illumination). MANAGING A LIGHTING SYSTEM I 17 18 I TYPY RIADENIA Project structure Do you want the right amount of light just where you need it? Would like to be able to control that light just how you want to? Do you have so many options to choose from that you donâ€™t know where to start? Do you know how to assess if a lighting solution will give you the savings, comfort, ďŹ‚exibility and control you want? Here at OMS we guide and support our customers every step of the way, from the idea to the implementation of a solution. Whatever your requirements we will help you get the result you want. TYPY RIADENIA I 19 Project structure Idea Analysis Luminous Project Electrical Installation Project Installation Installation Programing Administration ADMINISTRATION IDEA Idea The functionality required of the LMS must be the foundation for each project. There are many ways to achieve the desired result, and only by knowing precisely what is needed at the very beginning is it possible to later fulﬁl expectations. Analysis All aspects of the LMS must be considered before the process can proceed to the next stage. The correct technology must be chosen, the functionality and suitability of the ﬁnal solution must be thoroughly examined, the saving potential and pay-back time for various options calculated, and of course ecological and health and safety factors must be thought through. 1. Technology There are so many different lighting technologies available and it is vital to have an overview of all products in order to effectively compare them and make a choice, and guidance from those who understand their speciﬁcations. One of the many strengths of OMS is that we are not lead by particular technologies and therefore not restricted in what we can use. Thanks to a carefully built network of suppliers we can offer the use of the best and most suitable products on the market for each individual project. Functionality and correctness of solution It is not always necessary to use the most complex or advanced technologies for each LMS. It is important that the chosen components suit the needs. The aim is to not use unnecessary technologies or overmanage systems which can ultimately lead to unsuitable and possibly unusable solutions. Each system should be perfectly tailored to each project. 7. ANALYSIS 2. PROGRAMING 6. LUMINOUS PROJECT 3. INSTALLATION 5. PROJECT OF ELECTRIC INSTALLATION 4. 20 I PROJECT STRUCTURE Energy economy Each solution has its limits. It is necessary in the early phases of the project to decide on what elements of the system take priority, and then to combine technologies and systems correctly to bring about the desired result. At this stage the ideas of efﬁciency and effectiveness come to the fore. LED technology is strongly linked with both as they compare well with conventional light sources. Yet we must not forget that the saving potential of a system is based not only on what light source is used but also the luminaire design and controls implemented, therefore whether the system will function based on motion detection or lighting intensity must be decided early on. Pay-back time and savings The decisive factor for almost every customer is of course the relationship between the initial investment and the pay-back time and future savings of the solution. When designing each system we calculate its ﬁnancial beneﬁts, specifying the pay-back time and pre-deﬁning the point from which the system will actually be proﬁtable. Environment One major theme in all industries is the need to be actively implementing and looking for more environmentally responsible solutions. In the lighting industry speciﬁc attention is brought to the amount of heavy metals such as mercury, and the silent killer CO2, are produced as by-products of the manufacture of technologies and systems and the energy they consume. Consequently, central to every project besides efﬁciency should be the impact it will have on the environment. Health and safety Finally, but no less important, is the aspect of health and safety. All solutions must be designed in such a way as to eliminate potential risk, and to meet or exceed all legislative requirements. PROJECT STRUCTURE I 21 Project structure Idea Analysis Luminous Project Electrical Installation Project Installation Programing Administration Luminous and Technical Project The Luminous Project involves choosing light sources from the correct class that can provide the necessary illumination, and luminaires with suitable corresponding optical systems; next is to deﬁne the optimal layout of those luminaires and optimal distribution of light, all to suit the requirements of the customer. When choosing an effective light source it must be able to illuminate the workplace appropriately without unnecessary over-dimensioning. Furthermore, an optimal maintenance plan must be outlined. Finally the quality of light must be considered, and the effect it will have on the physiology of the users of the space. Throughout this part of the process it is necessary for the customer to be aware of the role they play in the ﬁnal solution. Their decisions should not be reduced down to the idea of a ﬁnal investment sum, but take into serious consideration the quality of light and fully appreciate the beneﬁts or consequences. To complete this phase of the project we need certain information, for example the complete geometry of the space, its utilisation and occupancy, the positions and types of workspaces, the availability of daylight and other speciﬁc demands on the lighting quality. Electrical Installation Project To move onto the next phase of Electrical Installation, it is necessary to have a complete Luminous Project and all corresponding technical documentation. Here it is again important to refer to the original idea of the project and to propose what control methods could be used to manage the system. All of this is then combined to create the schematics of how the whole system will be connected. These schematics are merely one part of the Electrical Installation Project which also contains, amongst other things, composite lists of components and their layout, technical descriptions, wiring plans and mains connectivity. 22 I PROJECT STRUCTURE PROJECT STRUCTURE I 23 Project structure Idea Analysis Luminous Project Electrical Installation Project Installation Programing Administration Installation Generally the installation of a lighting system and its LMS is done by OMS partners. They install the system according to the Luminous, Technical and Electrical Installation Projects. Luminaires are installed, the wiring completed, and management components and sensors are ﬁtted. Fluorescent lamp systems must also be ‘worn-in’ or ‘seasoned’ by a minimum of 100 hours of use prior to the LMS being implemented to prevent the shortening of their lifespan. The LMS is then set-up and started by an authorised person along with an OMS technician. Programing Now that the whole system in installed and functional, the next step is to ﬁnetune system deviation and program the management components, for example the control unit and sensors. An IP address is assigned to the system and a program is created to control all components according to the deﬁned ideas and requirements of the customer. Administration The last phase of the project is making sure that the system can be operated. Users are trained, all technical documentation is given to the customer along with a comprehensive care and maintenance plan and a complete description of the system. Next a technical audit of the system is carried out which conﬁrms that all parameters are as they should be so that the system may be controlled remotely. Finally the technicians will check the functionality of the management program, control algorithms, control gears and components along with the light sources. Once everything is as determined, the project is complete. 24 I PROJECT STRUCTURE PROJECT STRUCTURE I 25 26 I TYPY RIADENIA Types of control Manual Automatic Combined Constant illuminance sensor Daylight simulation TYPY RIADENIA I 27 Types of control Manual Automatic Combined Constant illuminance sensor Daylight simulation Manual control / Basic The manual switching on and off or dimming of a light source or system constitutes basic lighting management. This type of lighting management is fully dependent on human control and is not very energy efﬁcient compared to more complex types of management. However it is of course less ﬁnancially demanding in terms of initial investment. Some form of button, switch or dial is the basic control component of manual lighting management. In this way the lighting can be switched on/off, smoothly or incrementally by either analog or digital control. Manual control / Scenic The manual setting of a lighting system according to speciﬁed values and positions (scenes) constitutes basic scenic lighting management. This type of management is widely used in manufacturing and ofﬁce spaces. Such systems are used where there is no need to achieve smooth dimming of light according to motion detection of lighting intensity. This kind of control is when a scene can be changed or implemented at any time by the push of a button. For example there could be buttons which change the lighting intensity to 100 %, 75 %, 50 %, 25 % and 0 %. The manual management of scenes is not as efﬁcient as automated control. However, it is advantageous in that it allows the lighting level to be set exactly according to the activity being carried out. Sensors are not generally used in this type of lighting management. day shift afternoon shift night shift round service cleaning Day shift: Only the walkways are illuminated. luminous ﬂux 100 % lighting intensity 500 lx current consuption 4700 W of electricity switch off Buttons on the control panel for the choice of scenes—description 28 I TYPES OF CONTROL 50 % Service: luminous ďŹ‚ux lighting intensity current consuption of electricity 50 % 275 lx 2820 W 25 % Cleaning: luminous ďŹ‚ux lighting intensity current consuption of electricity 25 % 149 lx 1692 W 100 % Dimmable control gears in a digitally switched-off state do have a minimal energy consumtpion as there is the so-called emergency regime. The maximum energy consumption of one dimmable control gear in this state is 0.3 W. Afternoon shift: Only the relevant workplace is illuminated. Night shift: Only the relevant workplace is illuminated. Round: Only the relevant walkway is illuminated. TYPES OF CONTROL I 29 Types of control Manual Automatic Combined Constant illuminance sensor Daylight simulation gr. D gr. A gr. C gr. A gr. B 100 % 100 % luminaires gr. A gr. B gr. C gr. D 0% 100 % Luminaires divided into control groups. Some luminaires belong to two groups. 50 % One luminaire can be included in several groups, and all luminaires can form one or several groups which work at one pre-set level of luminous ďŹ‚ux. Once the required group structure is designed and set up, it is possible to switch on or off the chosen groups of luminaires. Each individual lighting group and level of luminous ďŹ‚ux can be activated by the simple touch of a button. The same control functionality can, if needed, be used in more control units placed in several different locations. Each scene can have a designated purpose, for example, for everyday work, maintenance, cleaning and at a safety level. Lighting scene chosen according to requirements of current activity in each workplace. 30 I TYPES OF CONTROL Day shift Afternoon shift Night shift 50 % 50 % 100 % 100 % 0% 100 % 0% 50 % 0% 0% luminaires 50 % 50 % 100 % 100 % luminous ﬂux 50 % 50 % luminous ﬂux 0% 0 % luminous ﬂux Light control based on workplace occupancy. In the framework of different scenes different luminaires are shining or the luminaires shine with different intensity. The advantage of this type of control is that within the framework of one group of luminaires it is possible for each luminaire to have the same or completely different levels of luminous ﬂux. Each luminaire can be addressed independently allowing precise control of the lighting according to need. An example of this kind of control is that all luminaires in the middle of a room can shine with a higher luminous ﬂux than the luminaires at the edge of the room where there is daylight available. This kind of scenic management is characterised by its intuitive operation and is widely used in spaces where the demand placed on lighting requirements changes regularly. Luminaires are controlled through a programed management unit. Via this database software it is possible to change the groupings of luminaires thereby increasing the ﬂexibility of the system. This ﬂexibility means that changes can be made to the use of the system without the need to make electrical or technical changes or having any impact on the luminaires. This kind of control is extremely adaptive, and can even manage non-luminaire devices such as blinds or ventilation. TYPES OF CONTROL I 31 Types of control Manual Automatic Combined Constant illuminance sensor Daylight simulation Automatic control Automated control offers the highest level of comfort and maximum savings in energy consumption and CO2. Control can be implemented according to motion detection, lighting intensity or time. The combination of motion detection control and lighting intensity control offer the highest potential savings. Automated control is used where it is not possible or not suitable for users to adapt the lighting to the needs of the space. Such management ensures sufďŹ cient illumination at any given time and location, and little or no illumination when and where it is not required. This decreases the pay-back time of the system installation and maximises the saving potential. Automatic control based on motion detection Control of lighting based on motion detected within a space ensures that luminaires only shine when it is necessary. As it is automatic it is comfortable for the user whilst at the same time providing signiďŹ cant savings in energy consumption. The functionality of this control method is dependent on a sensor which detects the presence of a person in a space by their body temperature. This is done with passive infrared (PIR) technology. The sensor detects heat radiation only but does not emit any radiation, and can therefore be called passive. The sensor functions by infrared scanners detecting the heat radiated by the person which is transformed into an electronic signal analysed by the sensor. 0% Where no heat from a person is detected by the sensor the lighting remains switched off. 32 I TYPES OF CONTROL 15.1 째C 37.6 째C Infrared photo of heat radiated by moving people and static objects in the scanned space. Real photo of the scanned space. 100 % 100 % 10 % 0% When the sensor detects heat radiated from a person the lighting is switched on. The sensor can be set in such a way that the lighting does not switch off immediately after the person leaves the space, but will switch off after a delay or dim gradually, either smoothly or incrementally. TYPES OF CONTROL I 33 Types of control Manual Automatic Combined Constant illuminance sensor Daylight simulation PIR sensors can be utilised in both indoor scanned angle and outdoor applications, be installed at sensor various heights and work at different levels of sensitivity. The area that can be scanned depends on the height of installation and set sensitivity. The sensitivity of the sensor depends on various things. The ambient temperature of the space compared to the temperature of the person moving within the space, the diradius of the rection of scanning and the extent to which scanned area the sensor is able to scan the movement. Maximum sensitivity in terms of move- Depiction of the detection area ment detection is when the person passes through the â€˜sightâ€™ of the sensor at a right angle. When movement is parallel to the sight of the sensor sensitivity is decreased. In spaces where the scanning area is limited by various objects it is possible to use high-frequency movement sensors. High-frequency sensors are able to detect movement even through glass and thin walls, even the slightest movement, all independently of any changes in temperature. In order to achieve maximum coverage it is useful to overlap the scanning areas of individual sensors. scanned area For an ideal coverage of the space it is in general suitable for the scanning areas of the individual movement sensors to partially overlap each other. minimal distance = X+Y sensor A sensor B height of sensor location minimal vertical scanning area X Y Suitable location of the movement sensors with partially overlapped scanning areas scanned area non-scanned area Scanning area of the passive infrared sensor (PIR) Scanning area of the high-frequency movement sensor 34 I TYPES OF CONTROL height of sensor location 100% lighting intensity movement 10% 0% time Time progress of the movement sensor—without delay 100% lighting intensity movement delay time 10% 0% time Time progress of the movement sensor—with delay 100% lighting intensity movement delay time delay time time 0% Time progress of the movement sensor—with double delay Incremental gradual increase (t=0s) Incremental gradual decrease (t=0s) 100% lighting intensity movement 0% time Smooth gradual increase (t>0s) Smooth gradual decrease (t>0s) 100% lighting intensity When we use motion detection based lighting control it is often apt to incorporate a delay in the dimming of the luminaires after the person has left the space. This means that the luminaires remain on for a deﬁned time after presence is no longer detected. How long this delay will be depends very much of the type of space and the assumed frequency of movement or occupancy. The dimming can be set at a certain level, for example 10 % of the luminous ﬂux, or even 0 % where this is appropriate. A reduced luminous ﬂux level approximately 10 % is used as a safety measure so that the space is not entirely dark, or that security cameras may still effectively operate, and also to prolong the lifespan of the light source. This functionality is often referred to as ‘the corridor function’. The system can also be set so that the lighting is reduced to 0 % after a subsequent delay. Once motion is again detected the luminaires switch on. The lighting level can be increased or decreased immediately or gradually, either smoothly or incrementally. The advantage of this graded change, possibly taking two seconds, is that the human eye is not strained by a sudden change in visual conditions, and also the light source lifespan is not shortened by extreme changes. This type of solution is ideally suited to spaces with a high frequency of occupancy and movement, for example in warehouses and corridors. movement 0% time Time progress of the movement sensor—with smooth regulation of luminous ﬂux TYPES OF CONTROL I 35 Types of control Manual Automatic Combined Constant illuminance sensor Daylight simulation Sensors can be used to detect both occupancy which is characterised by small movements such as writing or typing, or movement such as walking, according to their set sensitivity. When positioning PIR sensors we must bear in mind that the functionality can be limited by various factors such as air circulation from heating, air conditioning, ventilation or other movements of air by animals, printers and fax machines or the opening and closing of doors and windows. Motion detection can also be affected by the clothing of the person present which can limit the amount of body heat to be detected, or by the ambient temperature of the space (the sensor is obviously more sensitive to the body temperature of a person when the ambient temperature is lower and the difference is more pronounced). Also sensors must be positioned at a suitable distance from luminaires which also give out heat. Movement sensors can be used both independently to control the lighting system, or as one of several inputs to a master control unit. motion sensor location of the sensor (height) 3 1 360째 2 diameters of scanned areas A B C A B C 1 2 3 direct walk (large movement) A walk at right angle (large movement) B sitting position (small movement) C motion sensor Sensitivity zones of the motion sensor 36 I TYPES OF CONTROL TYPY RIADENIA I 37 Types of control Manual Automatic Combined Constant illuminance sensor Daylight simulation Automatic control based on lighting intensity The management of luminaires based on lighting intensity can achieve high savings in energy consumption. The more natural light available in a space, the more efﬁcient the lighting. An illuminance sensor controls luminaires based on scanned light levels reﬂected from the scanning plane. The advantage of this system is that here daylight and artiﬁcial light are used together, they complement each other. If daylight is decreased, either earlier or later in the day, as the sun moves through the sky, or due to bad weather, the level of artiﬁcial light increases to ensure a pre-determined level of luminous ﬂux is maintained. And vice versa, if daylight is increased, such as at midday, the level of artiﬁcial light decreases accordingly. This type of control can be implemented either gradually, in increments or immediately, and if there is enough natural light the luminaires may even be switched off entirely. In larger spaces such as open ofﬁces, several sensors are needed to effectively assess the lighting level by creating an average. This kind of control is fully automatic and not only saves on energy consumption but has a signiﬁcant effect on user comfort. 38 I TYPES OF CONTROL NON-CONTROLLED SYSTEM lx 1500 1 000 625 500 0 6:00 12:00 18:00 CONTROLLED SYSTEM BASED ON LIGHTING INTENSITY artiﬁcial lighting over-dimensioning of the original system by maintenance factor 0.8 required level of lighting Daylight 24:00 h lx 1500 1 000 500 0 6:00 12:00 18:00 artiﬁcial lighting over-dimensioning of the original system by maintenance factor 0.8 required level of lighting Daylight 24:00 h lx 1500 1 000 500 0 6:00 12:00 18:00 daylight lx 1500 1 000 500 0 daylight 24:00 h 6:00 12:00 18:00 24:00 h lx 1500 1150 1000 500 0 6:00 8:00 12:00 18:00 24:00 h lx 1500 over-dimensioning 1 000 500 0 6:00 8:00 saving 12:00 18:00 24:00 h MODEL SITUATION AT 8:00 a.m. 500 lx 625 lx 500 lx MODEL SITUATION AT 8:00 a.m. 0 lx 1125 lx 500 lx Incorrect solution – over-dimensioned level of lighting Correct solution – required level of lighting TYPES OF CONTROL I 39 Types of control Manual Automatic Combined Constant illuminance sensor Daylight simulation There is an alternative to this type of control, called ‘the offset function’. This kind of control maintains a uniform level of luminous ﬂux throughout a space by sensing the differences within the space and not only working with an average. The availability of daylight within a space causes a non-uniform level of lighting intensity. Lighting intensity in proximity to windows is higher than in areas with more limited access to daylight. This system is based on luminaires being controlled in two groups, one group by the windows and another group where there is more limited daylight. If there is daylight entering the space the luminaires in the group by the window will shine at 40 % luminous ﬂux and the luminaires in the group away from the window will shine at 70 % (these pre-determined levels have been calculated based on research and experience), creating a uniform level of luminous ﬂux throughout the whole space. If, however, these is little or no daylight falling into the space both groups of luminaires will shine at the same intensity. 1 THE FIRST GROUP OF LUMINAIRES: CLOSE TO THE WINDOWS 2 2 THE SECOND GROUP OF LUMINAIRES: IN THE SPACE 1 2 2 SENSOR FALLING INTENSITY OF DAYLIGHT 1 DAYLIGHT FALLING THROUGH THE WINDOWS 2 2 1 2 2 THE FIRST GROUP OF LUMINAIRES: CLOSE TO THE WINDOWS FALLING INTENSITY OF DAYLIGHT 1 40% 2 70% 2 70% THE SECOND GROUP OF LUMINAIRES: IN THE SPACE ARTIFICIAL LIGHT Classiﬁcation of luminaires in the space according to the groups 1 2 luminaire group 1 (dimmable) luminaire group 2 (dimmable) 40 I TYPES OF CONTROL 70 % 70 % 40 % Utilising daylight using the offset function TYPES OF CONTROL I 41 Types of control Manual Automatic Combined Constant illuminance sensor Daylight simulation The advantage of intensity sensors is that the lighting is controlled according to the lighting levels and requirements of the space at any given time, and can constantly adapt ensuring an even level of illumination is maintained. Such control can be utilised for a single luminaire or a whole group. In order for the regulation to function effectively it is important that the luminous ﬂux of one group does not interfere with the sensor of another group, and that the scanning areas of sensors do not overlap; such occurrences would destabilise the whole system. Intensity sensors must be placed at an appropriate distance from the window or luminaire so as to avoid parasitic light interfering with the readings. luminaire sensor The scanning process happens directly Correct layout. underneath the sensor, consequently the sensor must be positioned in such a way as to be able to scan the luminance on the surface which is being illuminated by the luminaires it regulates. 7 7 7 7 8 7 8 8 8 8 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 5 6 6 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 3 4 4 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 luminaire sensor luminaire sensor Incorrect layout – Division of luminaires that have the scanning areas of the sensors to illuminate part of the space for must not overlap. the corresponding sensor. unsuitable placement of the sensor parasitic light—glare caused by reﬂection of sunbeams suitable positioning of the sensor unsuitable placement of the sensor parasitic light—glare from the luminaire Correct placement of the intensity sensor which excludes undesirable inﬂuences. 42 I TYPES OF CONTROL CONTROL PANEL technical drawing (750 lx) reading, writing (500 lx) work with PC (300 lx) cleaning (100 lx) + - OFF 1 2 DIMMABLE LUMINAIRE REQUIREMENT 500 lx SUNSHINE 4 3 500 lx SENSOR RESULTING VALUE 100 lx 5 400 lx 1. The user sets the value of the level on which the lighting is to be maintained through the control panel. 2. The required value is delegated to the control system (sensor). 3. The sensor scans the luminance and compares the current value with the required one. 4. After detecting the difference the system carries out the change (the luminaires either switch on, off, or work at a reduced intensity). 5. The resulting lighting intensity on the working plane is made up from daylight and complementary artiﬁcial light. The scanned level of luminance very much depends of the reﬂectivity and colour of the scanned area. If there is a change in these conditions, for example placing a dark laptop on a white desk, it changes the readings; in this case the sensor would detect a decrease in luminance and the luminous ﬂux of the luminaire would increase. This can be partially overcome by implementing a gradual change to the level of luminous ﬂux so that it is less visible. Another way to limit or prevent this from happening is to position the sensor so that it scans an area where the properties of the environment do not change often. In order to calibrate the system effectively and avoid ﬂaws, it is necessary that the initial setup is carried out at the lighting level at which the system is to be operated, without the presence of daylight or with as little daylight as possible. Where this system is to be installed in an outdoor application, such as for outdoor lighting, billboards or shop windows where there is a very high level of available daylight, we can use a twilight scanner which will break the switching contact once the available daylight exceeds a set level. Intensity sensors are available with various mountings. They can be recessed into the ceiling, ceiling surfaced, placed within a luminaire or for anchoring to a ﬂuorescent light source. In spaces where there is air-conditioning you can expect further reductions in energy consumption due to decreased heat being created by the luminaires compared to a non-regulated lighting system, and therefore a reduction in the need to cool the air. There are also more complex systems which allow the regulation of lighting intensity to various levels, not only a single pre-set level. TYPES OF CONTROL I 43 Types of control Manual Automatic Combined Constant illuminance sensor Daylight simulation Automatic control based on time (timer, Astronomical Clock) Precise pre-determined activity within the LMS can function based on time. This type of control is ideal for automatic switching on and off of a system, or the changing of lighting scenes. It can also be set that the system automatically changes to a different kind of control at a particular time, such as combined control. Time-based management software allows one-time and repeated actions. This kind of control is an advantage in spaces with a set pattern of activity, such as manufacturing premises with deﬁned lunch breaks or sports facilities with a ﬁxed schedule of activities all of which require different lighting. If the lighting needs to be controlled according to the rising and setting of the sun, for example in the case of street lighting, it is possible to use the Astronomical Clock function. In Astronomical Clock you can deﬁne the latitude, longitude and the date and time, using this it will calculate the exact time of each sunrise and sunset throughout the whole year. The calculated times can then be adapted (with a difference +/-) so that the lighting is turned on 15 minutes before sunset and off 15 minutes after sunrise. Generally Astronomical Clock is used for this purpose, but the logic can also be programed into other types the night hours where there is an assumed of management systems, in control units reduction in trafﬁc or movement frequency or subordinate software applications. The in the space. advantage of Astronomical Clock control is that no twilight sensor is required. Twilight sensors used in such applications can sometimes incorrectly evaluate the need for a change in luminance, maybe due to cloudiness or pollution levels. A further way to reduce energy consumption in suitable systems is to set into the control an automatic reduction of luminous ﬂux, for example to 50 %, during ASTRONOMICAL CLOCK ASTRONOMICAL CLOCK NIGHT DAY luminous ﬂux DAY astronomic midnight 100 % 50 % 0% time the reduction of luminous ﬂux during night hours the possible time difference of switching on the possible time difference of switching off Luminaires during night hours with reduced luminous ﬂux 44 I TYPES OF CONTROL THE CHOSEN SCENE IN THE GIVEN GROUP THE BUTTON FOR THE LIGHTING SCENE CORRESPONDING TO THE LEVEL OF LUMINOUS FLUX IN THE GIVEN GROUP THE GROUPS OF LUMINAIRES BEING CONTROLLED THE VALUES OF THE LUMINOUS FLUXES FOR INDIVIDUAL GROUPS OF LUMINAIRES DIAGRAMS OF TIMERS FOR INDIVIDUAL GROUPS OF LUMINAIRES REAL DATE AND TIME DAILY REPETITION OF THE TIMER THE GIVEN ACTION IS CARRIED OUT FOR ALL GROUPS LIST OF TIMERS THE TIME WHEN THE TIMER IS TO OPERATE THE DATE WHEN THE TIMER IS TO OPERATE (ONE-TIME ACTION) 15:13:29 11.10.2012 LIGHTING CONTROL Group Actual level 10% 10% 10% 10% 10% 10% 10% 10% 10% OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF 7% 100% 75% 75% 64% 52% 12% 98% 51% Schedule diagram PRESET1 PRESET2 PRESET3 PRESET4 PRESET5 PRESET6 PRESET7 PRESET8 Scheduler Repeat once day day once once astro day once All GROUP GROUP All GROUP GROUP GROUP GROUP Group Action 100% AUT 50% 75% OFF 100% 10% AUT Time 19:20 05:00 17:30 13:16 22:00 St 15:45 08:30 Date/Day 11-10-12 Every We DELETING THE TIMER 19-10-12 11-10-12 Mo + 10 min Mo, Su 28-10-12 ALL WEEK DAYS SELECTED STARTING THE TIMER A NON-ACTIVE BUTTON FOR CONTROLLING THE GIVEN GROUP OF LUMINAIRES IN AUTOMATIC (SENSOR) MODE GROUP1 GROUP2 GROUP3 GROUP4 GROUP5 AUT AUT AUT AUT AUT AUT AUT AUT AUT 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 75% 75% 75% 75% 75% 75% 75% 75% 75% 50% 50% 50% 50% 50% 50% 50% 50% 50% 25% 25% 25% 25% 25% 25% 25% 25% 25% THE ACTION WHICH IS TO BE ACTIVATED BY THE TIMER DEFINING THE SUNSET AND SUNRISE SELECTED DAYS WHEN DAILY REPETITION WITH DELAY WILL BE ACTIVE DESCRIPTION OF INDIVIDUAL GROUPS OF LUMINAIRES GROUP6 GROUP7 THE AUTOMATIC (SENSOR) OPERATION IN THE GIVEN GROUP GROUP8 GROUP9 SELECTED DAYS WHEN DAILY REPETITION WILL BE ACTIVE ADDING A TIMER Off Schedules Classify Add Schedule _ X Service POWER CONSUMPTION 32,8 CURRENT POWER CONSUMPTION OF THE SYSTEM kW Summary Detection ONLINE SERVICE MODE THE BUTTON FOR THE LIGHTING SCENE CORRESPONDING TO THE LEVEL OF LUMINOUS FLUX IN THE GIVEN GROUP CONSUMPTION HISTORY ONE-TIME TIMER OPERATION AUTOMATIC ASTRONOMICAL CLOCK CONTROL BASED ON SUNRISE AND SUNSET EXCEPTIONS FOR TIMER SETTING CLASSIFICATION OF THE GRAPHICAL VISUAL FOR THE TIMERS THE CURRENT STATE FOR CONNECTING TO THE CONTROL UNITS FOR ILLUMINATION OMS lighting control application used for scenic and time–based control A SELECTED GROUP OR SEVERAL GROUPS OF LUMINAIRES CHOSEN FOR A PARTICULAR ACTION DETECTING THE CURRENT STATE OF ALL LUMINAIRES TYPES OF CONTROL I 45 Types of control Manual Automatic Combined Constant illuminance sensor Daylight simulation Combined control Combined control connects the functionality of scenic and automatic control. Combined management offers a high level of comfort and practicality as it can be both fully automated or can be userinitiated via various controls, from buttons to remote PC regulation. The combination of motion sensors with lighting intensity sensors offers the highest energy saving potential. If the combined sensor is also ﬁtted with a remotely controlled IR sensor it becomes a multisensor. According to the method of control installed, changes in lighting can be activated either smoothly or incrementally. movement of persons 0:00 h 24:00 h 100% Incremental regulation: When motion is detected within the space the luminaires switch on incrementally. This happens only if the ambient lighting intensity is lower than the required level of luminous ﬂux, if the ambient lighting intensity is higher the luminaires will not switch on. This type of combined control does not require the use of dimmable control gears. luminous ﬂux of luminaires 0% 0:00 h 24:00 h 100% Smooth regulation: When detecting motion within the space, luminaires will increase illumination smoothly until reaching the required level of luminous ﬂux. If occupation continues, the system will regulate the amount to which the luminaires shine according to the level of ambient light available so as to maintain the required level of luminous ﬂux. This type of combined control requires the use of dimmable control gears. luminous ﬂux of luminaires 0% 0:00 h 24:00 h 46 I TYPES OF CONTROL Constant illuminance sensor Luminaires and their lighting capability deteriorate over time. This is caused by the aging of the light source and its loss of reliability, as well as the degradation and dirtying of the optical parts of the system. To ensure that the required level of luminous ﬂux is continually and reliably given by the luminaires it is useful to purposefully over-dimension a system. By doing this the required level of light can be given even at the end of the system’s lifetime. To begin with the system will, of course, produce un- used light. This issue can be easily remedied by the use of a constant illuminance sensor, which behaves as a lighting intensity sensor, allowing the luminaires to be used at a lower level to begin with and at an increasingly higher level as their output deteriorates. This is called maintained illuminance. Such a method of control can provide considerable savings in energy consumption as less energy is used by a system which is working at a reduced output level. Each lighting system must be designed with this functionality taken into account. A system cannot be designed only for im- mediate use, but so that the required level of illumination is provided throughout its lifetime. One factor to take into account when calculating how much a system needs to be purposefully over-dimensioned is knowing how much of a reduction in luminous ﬂux can be expected. Also, it is assumed that the given maintenance plan will be adhered to, if it is not then the reduction in luminous ﬂux will happen faster, and to a greater degree. Maintenance includes, amongst other things, regular cleaning of luminaires and changing of light sources as required. The greater the expected reduction in luminous ﬂux over the lifetime of the system, the more the system needs to be over-dimensioned. 100 irreversible losses 80 A B C C C D relative illuminance (%) } 1. changing the light sources 1. cleaning the room surface 3. cleaning of luminaires beneﬁt from cleaning at regular intervals maintained system 60 40 C 1. cleaning of luminaires 2. cleaning of luminaires non-maintained system 20 0 0 2 1 4 6 2 8 3 10 12 4 14 (thousands of hours) (years) operation time Changes of illuminance during the lighting system lifespan. A – Aging of room surfaces (curve) B – Aging of light source (curve) C – Aging of luminaire (curve) D – Maintained illuminance (curve) TYPES OF CONTROL I 47 Types of control Manual Automatic Combined Constant illuminance sensor Daylight simulation Daylight simulation As humans, 80 % of the information we receive is visual. Light has a vitally important role to play in our visual perception of the world around us. But what about our non-visual perception? Science has shown that light also has a role to play here, and that lighting intensity has a direct inﬂuence on our psychological perception. Much research has been done into the effect of light on humans, and it will come as no surprise that we fair far better under natural light. Therefore when using artiﬁcial light it is highly beneﬁcial to try and copy the properties of natural light as closely as possible. In response to this fact the lighting industry developed daylight simulation. The foundation principle of daylight simulation is that natural light is not monotonous—its properties change according to the time of day, the weather, the changing of seasons. These changes of course affect our perception of the world. By using daylight simulation we can achieve a lighting intensity and colour which correlates with that of natural light. In order to simulate daylight using artiﬁcial illumination we must use luminaires that have ‘TunableWhite’, this allows the correlated colour temperature of light in a room to be changed. To be able to tune the light colour, two light sources are used together. Each light source produces a different colour of light, one cool white of 6500 K, and one warm of 3000 K. By changing the output of each Supraschiasmatic Nucleus (SNC) Pineal Gland Visual Corterx light Melatonin Retino-hypothalamic Tract (RHT) Spinal cord Superior cervical ganglion Inﬂuence of light on the excretion of hormones light source a mixed light of varied temperature can be given. For example, if the cool white light source has a lower output, and the warm white light source has a higher output, then the light given will be warmer; or if the cool white light source has full outProgression of daylight 5000 put, and the warm white light source has no output, the light given will be the coolest possible. Different colour temperatures have various biological effects on the human organism. illumination level (lx) 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 day-time daylight biological effect of daylight artiﬁcial light biological effect of artiﬁcial light 48 I TYPES OF CONTROL TYPY RIADENIA I 49 Types of control Manual Automatic Combined Constant illuminance sensor Daylight simulation The change of colour temperature can be done smoothly or incrementally. To best simulate daylight ‘TunableWhite’ is often used together with an illuminance sensor which helps to regulate the light intensity in partnership with changes in light colour. Daylight simulation can be useful in many types of space. Each application must respect the use of the space and the desired effect it will have on its users. It is possible to choose from several types of daylight simulation: NATURE, DYNAMIC, COLOUR or ACTIVATE. NATURE This method of tuning copies the natural changes in daylight. The beginning of the sequence is characterised by warmer light as at sunrise, during the day the colour is cooler, and then later in the day the colour is warmer as at sunset. This type of simulation is suitable for spaces where a prescribed chronology is required, or for places with no available daylight. The goal of daylight simulation is to achieve light conditions in interior spaces which mimic as closely as possible the properties of natural daylight. COLOUR It is possible to induce a feeling of wellbeing by using cyclical changing of colour temperature from warm to cool white. Such a method of tuning light is especially suitable for relaxation areas. illumination level illumination level 0:00 6:30 12:00 18:80 24:00 ACTIVATE This method of simulation mainly uses cooler lighting temperatures. It is scientiﬁcally proven that blue light actively effects DYNAMIC the metabolism, causing increased secreThis method uses slow and continuous tion of serotonin which in turn increases changes in light intensity at a constant col- the energy and productivity of those using our temperature. It can increase the visual the space. acuity of those where visual fatigue is expected. 0:00 6:30 12:00 18:80 24:00 illumination level 0:00 6:30 12:00 18:80 24:00 illumination level 0:00 6:30 12:00 18:80 24:00 cool white 6500 K warm white 3000 K 50 I TYPES OF CONTROL 8:00 6500 K 12:00 3000 K 13:30 6500 K 16:30 4000 K Good morning Cool white light increases energy and productivity. Lunch A short break is suitable for gaining energy. Warm white light creates a relaxing atmosphere. ‘Afternoon slump’ To avoid the afternoon slump it is beneﬁcial to increase the proportion of cool white light in the room similarly to natural daylight. At the close of the day Cool white light will prepare people for active relaxation after work. For those people who work longer, it is beneﬁcial to increase the proportion of warm light which will create a homely atmosphere. illumination level (lx) 900 800 700 600 500 8:00 cool white 6500 K warm white 3000 K 13:30 12:00 16:30 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 time TYPES OF CONTROL I 51 52 I TYPY RIADENIA TYPY RIADENIA I 53 Energy savings according to the type of management used Motion detection Lighting intensity Combined control Manual control It is approximated that lighting systems account for 19 % of the electricity consumed in the operation of a building. Due to ever rising energy prices this 19 % can grow to quite a sum. There are two fundamental aspects affecting the energy saving potential of new and reconstructed buildings: Firstly, there must be a suitable luminous design including the correct choice of each luminaire and of its positioning within the space. The properties of a luminaire depend in its design, the light source used and its internal electronic makeup. Secondly, and in terms of energy savings the more important of the two, is the regulation of the luminaires and LMS including automatic control via various sensors, the possibility of time based management, scenic management and efﬁcient control devices. Also, individual control systems can be connected into one so-called combined system which offers further savings. In order for the system to fulﬁl its saving potential the LMS project must be prepared thoroughly. Such an exactingly designed system, when compared with a non-controlled system (which allows only the switching on and off of luminaires), can present a saving potential of up to 80 %. The table opposite shows how the relationship between the space and type of management used transfers to potential savings. The table deﬁnes two basic types of automatic control: regulation according to motion detection, and regulation according to lighting intensity. The amount of energy saved is not only reﬂected in ﬁnancial costs but also in ecological costs. CO2 is an unavoidable by-product of the current manufacturing processes used to create electrical energy. For each kWh of energy consumed in the EU approximately 0.5 to 0.6 kg of CO2 is produced. This EU constant expresses the average across all EU states, reﬂecting the production of energy by individual producers, ECO power stations (wind, sun, water powered) through to the nuclear power plants and thermal plants which create the biggest burden. Compared to the EU there are countries such as China who achieve a constant of approximately 1 kWh = 1 kg of CO2, which is almost double. For all types of buildings—administrative premises, schools, shops, industrial zones, warehouses, sports halls and various others, it is possible to quantify the percentage of energy savings, and the burden rate to the environment. Savings—Motion detection We determine the effectiveness of this type of management according to the frequency of occupation in the given space. The more frequent the movement, the more frequent the switching on and off or dimming of the luminaires, with reduced energy consumption only for short intervals. This environment offers the lowest saving potential, and in contrast an infrequently used space offers the highest saving potential. Savings—Lighting intensity We determine the effectiveness of this type of management according to the availability of daylight and illumination rate of the given space. The illumination rate depends on the geographical position, window and skylight size and orientation (south facing windows and skylights are the most efﬁcient as they offer the greatest access to daylight). The illumination rate in divided into three levels: low, medium and high. Saving potential increases corresponding to an increased illumination rate. Savings—Combined control If the situation allows, we recommend the combination of both motion detection and lighting intensity control. This combined control will provide higher savings than one alone. The table clearly shows that the 54 I ENERGY SAVINGS ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF MANAGEMENT USED highest savings can be made in corridors with low frequency of occupancy combined with a high level of available daylight. In such cases up to 80 % can be saved on operating costs and the lifespan of luminaires is increased. the factor of human failure, for example, to Savings—Manual control When manual control is used in a space it is turn off the system. not possible to calculate the saving potential, and it is therefore deﬁned as 0 %. We cannot exclude from this kind of control Energy saving according to the control system used (%) manual control types of control method progress of control ofﬁce meeting room corridor classroom shop industrial space warehouses Explanations: occasional movement normal movement greater movement low light intensity medium light intensity high light intensity switching on and off motion sensor lighting intensity sensor automatic control combined control system 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 40 50 40 10 10 30 10 35 30 20 5 5 20 0 30 0 15 0 0 10 34 32 34 33 31 31 19 52 50 52 51 48 48 29 60 58 60 59 56 56 34 47 59 67 60 38 38 43 62 70 76 70 53 53 50 68 75 80 75 60 60 54 41 56 54 46 35 35 35 57 67 66 60 51 51 43 64 72 72 67 58 58 47 34 53 34 43 31 31 27 52 65 52 58 48 48 36 60 70 60 65 56 56 40 0% 1-25% 26-50% 51-80% ENERGY SAVINGS ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF MANAGEMENT USED I 55 56 I Communication interfaces and buses DALI control Analog control 1â€“10 V Analog control 0â€“10 V DSI control DMX control Manual switch control Control phase Thyristor / transistor dimming Remote control PowerLine AC PowerLine DC I 57 Communication interfaces and buses DALI control Analog control 1–10 V Analog control 0–10 V DSI control DMX control Manual switch control Control phase Thyristor / transistor dimming Remote control PowerLine AC PowerLine DC DA+ DA– AC L N PE DA+ DA– L N PE DA+ DA– L N PE DA+ DA– DALI FEEDING SOURCE DA– DA+ 1 2 L N PE DA+ DA– L N PE DA+ DA– 3 COMBINED DALI SENSOR 4 DALI CONTROL PANEL ADDRESS: 01 ADDRESS: 02 L N PE DA+ DA– L N PE DA+ DA– DALI control The name ‘Digital Addressable Lighting Interface’ (DALI) is self-explanatory. It enables the digital management of dimmable lighting systems in the range of 0-100 % of the luminaire’s luminous ﬂux. This open standard uses a polarity-free twin core cable, the conductor cross-section of which depends on the size of the installation. In general, however, we recommend the use of cable with a diameter of at least 1.5 mm2, and a maximum length of 300 m. Each DALI bus enables the addressing and control of 64 units which can be divided into 16 groups. It is possible to combine L N PE more DALI buses in order to create a larger and more complex system. Besides the DALI controlled luminaires it is also possible to control peripheral equipment and signalling through addressed components. This type of control means you can control each luminaire independently if you choose. Another advantage of DALI is the feedback, which can inform you of the state of any luminaire and their control gear, including lighting levels or any damage. DALI can be controlled easily by many different devices, from the standard wall push button to touch screens and remote controls, using several parallel management locations. DALI BUS 1x2x1,5mm2 L N PE DA+ DA– DALI CONTROL GEAR LUMINAIRE ADDRESS: 03 DALI CONTROL GEAR LUMINAIRE ADDRESS: 04 DALI CONTROL GEAR LUMINAIRE ADDRESS: 64 The basic block scheme of the DALI bus 58 I COMMUNICATION INTERFACES AND BUSES KOMUNIKAČNÉ ROZHRANIE A ZBERNICE I 59 I 59 Communication interfaces and buses DALI control Analog control 1–10 V Analog control 0–10 V DSI control DMX control Manual switch control Control phase Thyristor / transistor dimming Remote control PowerLine AC PowerLine DC – + 1-10V L N PE – + L N PE – + L N PE – + L L‘ N Analog control 1–10 V / 0–10 V 1–10 V In this method of control the luminaire is regulated by changing the input voltage to the electronic control gear between 1 and 10 Volts DC. The required dimming value is set by changing the resistor load on the control device, which in this case can be a dial or slider. Voltage is supplied to the control device directly from the electronic control gear which at the same time assesses and changes the voltage. For such an installation it is necessary to use two sets of twin core cabling, one for the switch phase (on/ off) and one for the control phase (dimL N PE ming). The switching contact on the control device is current limited and therefore can only operate a certain number of luminaires, to control a larger number of luminaires additional switching relays need to be added. The main advantage of this type of control is that it needs relatively low initial investment compared to digital controls. Disadvantages are that luminaires cannot be individually addressed and only controlled as one group per control phase, and that control can only be initiated from the one location where the control device is installed. This type of system is limited to a maximum 300 m control phase with a conductor diameter of 1.5 mm2, unless a signal ampliﬁer is used. 100 % within the standard framework a typical curve luminous ﬂux (%) 0% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 operating voltage (VDC) Ratio characteristic of dimming 1–10 V for controlling the electronic control gears As this is an analog control system polarity must be maintained in all components. L N PE L‘ – + CONTROL PANEL 1-10V L N PE – + L N PE – + L N PE – + 1-10V CONTROL GEAR LUMINAIRE 1-10V CONTROL GEAR LUMINAIRE 1-10V CONTROL GEAR LUMINAIRE Block connection scheme 1–10 V 60 I COMMUNICATION INTERFACES AND BUSES 0–10 V This is very similar to 0–10 V. The main difference is that this type of control requires an independent voltage supply for the control device as the voltage is not provide by the electronic control gear. Therefore an external voltage source must be connected to the system, and the electronic control gear only assesses the change in voltage supplied by the control device. The ratio of regulation is approximately linear with 5 V equating to 50 % luminous output. One advantage of 0–10 V over 1–10 V is that luminaires can be fully dimmed to 0 % meaning no extra phase is needed to switch on and off the system. L N PE L N PE – + + – 12-24V L N PE – + – + L N PE – + L N PE – + L N PE – + L N PE – + 0-10V CONTROL GEAR LUMINAIRE L N PE – + 0-10V CONTROL GEAR LUMINAIRE Block connection scheme 0–10 V L N PE – + 0-10V CONTROL GEAR LUMINAIRE POWER SUPPLY 230V/12-24V CONTROL PANEL 0-10V COMMUNICATION INTERFACES AND BUSES I 61 Communication interfaces and buses DALI control Analog control 1–10 V Analog control 0–10 V DSI control DMX control Manual switch control Control phase Thyristor / transistor dimming Remote control PowerLine AC PowerLine DC L N PE DA– DA+ T1 1 2 3 4 PUSH BUTTON 1 2 3 4 DSI CONTROL UNIT 1 2 3 4 L N PE DA– DA+ L N PE DA– DA+ L N PE L N PE DA– DA+ DSI control DSI stands for Digital Signal Interface and is similar in functionality to 1–10 V control. The difference between DSI and analog control is that DSI allows the use of digital components such as sensors, remote controls and control devices. The disadvantage of this type of control is that all components included in the system including luminaires, sensors etc., cannot be individually addressed. However its advantage is that sensors can control the dimming level according to a pre-set regime. Luminaires are switched on and off by the DSI signal so there is no need for an additional switch phase to disconnect the power to the system. For the switching on and off and dimming of the luminaire a button, motion or lighting intensity sensor can be used. Each control device, generally, can only be connected to a set number of luminaires unless a signal ampliﬁer is used in which case a higher number of luminaires can be incorporated. It is an advantage of this control that several control devices can be used increasing user comfort. For this type of installation we recommend the use of 0.5–1.5 mm2 twin core cable with a maximum length of 205 meters. Sensors must be placed no further than 10 m from the control device. L N PE DA– DA+ DSI CONTROL GEAR SENSOR 1 SENSOR 2 LUMINAIRE Block scheme of DSI connection 62 I COMMUNICATION INTERFACES AND BUSES L N PE DA– DA+ DSI CONTROL GEAR LUMINAIRE DMX control DMX (Digital Multiplex Transmission Standard for Dimmers and Controllers) allows multi-channel digital control along one phase. With DMX all luminaires and components in the system are individually addressed. The DMX control unit sends a signal to all components at the same time and therefore facilitates fast, almost immediate changes to values. Each component within the system is ďŹ tted with a DMX decoder, for example when DMX is used to control an RGB light source the decoder will decode the signal to a triple-analog signal (one signal for each colour). If several components are addressed in the same way they will behave as a group even though individually controlled. As this control method is faster than DALI it is ideal for use in RGB and dynamic lighting applications such as scenic lighting and colour control. The disadvantage of DMX though is that the communication is only one way, the system can only send or receive information. For this kind of installation standard LAN cable is used with RJ45 connectors. The maximum length of cable is 1200 m meaning DMX is suitable for large scale installations. FTP cat.5e FTP cat.5e FTP cat.5e FTP cat.5e RJ45 RJ45 RJ45 RJ45 RJ45 Dual connector Output1 Output2 Output3 Output4 DMX POWER SOURCE FOR LED DMX512 DMX512 IN OUT RJ45 FTP cat.5e RJ45 36 LED LUMINAIRE 36 LED LUMINAIRE 36 LED LUMINAIRE 18 LED LUMINAIRE 18 LED LUMINAIRE RJ45 RJ45 DMX CONTROL PANEL DMX512 DMX512 IN OUT RJ45 L N PE Other devices Block scheme of DMX connection L N PE COMMUNICATION INTERFACES AND BUSES I 63 Communication interfaces and buses DALI control Analog control 1–10 V Analog control 0–10 V DSI control DMX control Manual switch control Control phase Thyristor / transistor dimming Remote control PowerLine AC PowerLine DC L L‘ N L N PE L N PE L N PE L N PE L N PE L‘ Manual switch control (Switch phase) This is one of the oldest and most widely used types of control which is facilitated via a simple wall switch which connects and disconnects the power supply to the system. The advantage of this kind of control is that it is not necessary to add an additional phase. This control method is now out of date and users are much more inclined towards intelligent control methods. The main reason for this is the lack of any saving potential associated with manual switched control, and of course a lack of comfort and the inability to use control devices such as sensors (except switching sensors) or remote control, etc. Lighting is either on or off and must be manually controlled by the user. STANDARD SWITCH LUMINAIRE LUMINAIRE LUMINAIRE Block scheme of the switch phase connection 64 I COMMUNICATION INTERFACES AND BUSES Control phase (touch DIM, switchDIM) This type of control is a simple method that only requires luminaires to be equipped with dimmable electronic control gears. It is not necessary to use any kind of digital control elements such as DALI or DMX. A standard push button is all that is required to control the luminaires in this kind of system. The control gears used for the luminaires must be equipped with touch DIM or switchDIM; most dimmable electronic control gears come as standard with this functionality. An unlimited number of push buttons can be used as control devices, however all luminaires in the sys- tem will be controlled as one group as with DSI. Control is simple. A short push of the button for a period shorter than 0.5 seconds either turns the system on or off. A longer push of the button for a period of time longer than 0.5 seconds will dim the luminaires from 1–100 %. Each subsequent pressing of the button will have the opposite effect as the previous, for example, if the button is pushed for several seconds and the luminaires reduce their light output, when the button is pushed again for several seconds, the luminaires will increase their light output. When the system is switched on for the ﬁrst time, or if a damaged electronic control gear has been replaced, the luminaires can be unsynchronised and have different light outputs. To resolve this issue we must use so-called synchronisation. Each manufacturer uses a different method, so it is necessary to use the same control gears for all luminaires so that they can all be synchronised by the same method. One method is to push the button for a period longer than 10 seconds after which all the luminaires will automatically dim to 50 % luminous ﬂux. Another method is to use various combinations of short and long pushes of the button, or double clicks. Single core cable is used for this type of installation, with a diameter of 1.5 mm2. L N PE L N PE L‘ L N PE DA+ DA– L N PE DA+ DA– PUSH BUTTON L N PE DA+ DA– L N PE DA+ DA– L N PE DA+ DA– DALI CONTROL GEAR LUMINAIRE DALI CONTROL GEAR LUMINAIRE DALI CONTROL GEAR LUMINAIRE Block scheme of touch DIM connection L N PE DA+ DA– COMMUNICATION INTERFACES AND BUSES I 65 Communication interfaces and buses DALI control Analog control 1–10 V Analog control 0–10 V DSI control DMX control Manual switch control Control phase Thyristor / transistor dimming Remote control PowerLine AC PowerLine DC TRANSISTOR OR THYRISTOR DIMMER LUMINAIRE LUMINAIRE LUMINAIRE Thyristor / transistor dimming This is an analog method of control where the luminaires are dimmed according to a change in the input voltage. There is no data bus so this method is not suitable for electronic control gears, only magnetic ballasts. In such systems it is possible to use incandescent or halogen light sources and some kinds of LED. The thyristor (TRIAC) or transistor dimmer is connected directly to the power phase and the input voltage is regulated by means of a dial or slider. The maximum number of luminaires that can be connected to one output from the dimmer is limited according to its load switching caL N PE pability and performance. When choosing a transistor (TRAIC or IGBT) it is necessary to check if it is compatible with the load, as not all luminaires can be controlled by both types of dimmer. Trailing Edge (IGBT) dimmers function in the opposite way, they cut the trailing edge, or second half, of the input voltage sine wave. This works by the premature cutting off of the wave in its second half. The main component is an insulated-gate Leading edge (TRIAC) dimmers stand- bipolar transistor (IGBT). ardly work by cutting the leading edge, or ﬁrst half, of the input voltage sine wave. This works by delaying the switching on for every ﬁrst half wave which reduces the input voltage to the system according to the setting of the control device. The system components in this way receive less voltage than if the whole sine wave was delivered to it. L N PE L‘ L L‘ L N PE L N PE L N PE Block scheme of connection thyristor / transistor dimmer EXTENT EXTENT voltage time time time ON OFF TRIAC IGBT Cutting of the sine wave for TRIAC and IGBT 66 I COMMUNICATION INTERFACES AND BUSES KOMUNIKAČNÉ ROZHRANIE A ZBERNICE I 67 I 67 Communication interfaces and buses DALI control Analog control 1â€“10 V Analog control 0â€“10 V DSI control DMX control Manual switch control RECEIVER Remote control Remote control is mainly used to improve user comfort. It is a manual control device designed for control of a lighting system. Through such a device the system can switched on or off, lighting scenes can be chosen, RGB applications can be set and lighting intensity can be changed. Most remote control devices use infrared radiation (IR). The communication is only one-way. IR radiation is not visible to the human eye so it is an ideal way of facilitating communication between devices. One disadvantage is that there must be clear visibility between the transmitting (remote control) and receiving (receiver) components or else the signal will be blocked, therefore thought must be given to the position chosen for the receiver. IR receivers are designed as either separate units or as part of a multi-sensor which also includes sensors for movement and lighting intensity. Additional to the need for clear visibility between components, IR devices are limited by distance and only suitable for close range control. Control phase Thyristor / transistor dimming Remote control PowerLine AC PowerLine DC IR REMOTE CONTROL INACCESSIBLE SPACE OBSTACLE PARTIAL ANGLE DISPERSION DIRECT VISIBILITY IN ONE DIRECTION IR remote control and the principle of emitting the control signal 68 I COMMUNICATION INTERFACES AND BUSES If these issues prove to be problematic within a system design then it is possible to use control devices that communicate via radio control (RC). Radio waves can partially pass through obstacles which means that the receiver can be located in the ceiling or even another room and so not interfere with the design of the space, and also be suitable for more complex spaces. Also it is not necessary to direct the remote control directly at the receiver making its use easier. RC is capable of covering larger distances so is far more adaptable than IR. The increased comfort these devices offer is now more frequently carried out by universal remote controls, such as smartphones and tablets. These modern and intuitive devices use wireless communication and ensure accurate and detailed control of lighting systems. A tailor-made user interface which runs on a personal smart device means that regulation can be done simply, intuitively, any time and almost anywhere. RC RECEIVER PARTIAL PASSAGE OF SIGNAL OBSTACLE CIRCULAR BROADENING OF RADIO SIGNAL BOUNCED SIGNAL iOS and Android control devices RC REMOTE CONTROL Wireless communication uses Wi-Fi technology, and often the access point, controller and control unit are all contained in one device. How complicated the system topology is depends on the lighting system structure. Illumination can be managed at the most basic level by scenic control, but further components such as sensors can be integrated also. This kind of control can be for single rooms within the control of a whole building, with the possibility to connect to a superior management system with different user accessibility. RC remote control and the principle of emitting the control signal CONTROL ELEMENTS CONTROLLING COMPONENTS LUMINAIRES Tablet, smartphone Wireless access point Controller Control unit Luminaire The basic topology of communication for smart devices COMMUNICATION INTERFACES AND BUSES I 69 Communication interfaces and buses DALI control Analog control 1–10 V Analog control 0–10 V DSI control DMX control Manual switch control Control phase Thyristor / transistor dimming Remote control PowerLine AC PowerLine DC L N PE Power supply communication wiring L N PE PowerLine AC This is a kind of digital control done via mains 230 V AC. The carrier (control) signal has a frequency of 130 kHz which is modulated to the standard 230 V and 50 Hz sine wave of the domestic power supply. Communication is sent along this signal in packets. It is possible for several communication points to function within the framework of one power network. Each communication point has its own 6-byte address. Various types of digital (such as DALI) and analog (such as 1–10 V) controls can be transmitted via the mains power line. To transmit a DALI command along the power line it is modulated, or packed, into a format which can be sent along the carrier signal to the destination point. Once it reaches its destination the packet is demodulated and the original command is read and acted upon by the DALI interface. This kind of system not only ensures bi-directional communication but it also means that an installation need not include any additional communication wiring, which in certain applications is simply not possible or feasible. Another advantage of this control method is that no additional DALI power supplies need be used as they are already installed directly on the PowerLine receivers. The maximum length of cable is 300 m, and it can be used between buildings which are separately metered. DALI DALI DALI L N PE DA+ DA– L N PE DA+ DA– L N PE DA+ DA– L N PE DA+ DA– L N PE DA+ DA– L N PE DA+ DA– SWITCHING PUSH BUTTON (DALI) POWER FED FROM DALI BUS CONTROL PART POWERLINE SENDER POWERLINE RECEIVER (GROUP 1) LUMINAIRE WITH DALI CONTROL LUMINAIRE WITH DALI CONTROL CONTROLLED PART POWERLINE RECEIVER (GROUP 2) Block scheme of the connection PowerLine AC using DALI 70 I COMMUNICATION INTERFACES AND BUSES L N PE DA+ DA– LUMINAIRE WITH DALI CONTROL PowerLine DC PowerLine DC is bi-directional communication operating over 48 V DC power lines. With this kind of communication it is not only possible to control the individual luminaires in the system but also to monitor their state, such as the temperature or the overall time of operation. To transmit commands along the DC power line it is necessary to modulate them, and once they are received they are demodulated and read by the device. This requires that more sophisticated electronics be used in both the transmitting and receiving components of the system, which is re- ﬂected in the price, however with it comes a higher level of intelligence and possibility of control. PowerLine DC communication allows speciﬁc addressing of individual devices and groups. In this way it is possible to send commands to several devices simultaneously which is mirrored by the visual reactions of the devices, such as the dimming of several luminaires together. Various sensors, transmitters, receivers and remote control devices can be incorporated into the system which means that PowerLine DC can become one part of a more comprehensive network using DALI or Ethernet for example. Advantages of this type of control include the reduced number of wires required in an installation, the possibility to monitor equipment due to the high communication speed (up to 115,200 baud), and that ﬁrmware updates can be carried out whilst the system is operational. Disadvantages include the limited cable length that can be used and the maximum number of devices that can be connected. It is also necessary to expect higher losses caused by the transmission of DC power dependent on the cable diameters used and the input power of individual components, in comparison with PowerLine AC. L N PE –48 V DC +48 V DC FEEDING AND COMMUNICATION TWO CORE WIRING L N PE – + 1 2 1 2 1 2 L N PE 1 2 CENTRAL FEEDING SOURCE with control (CPS) LED LUMINAIRE LED LUMINAIRE SENSOR .. . Block scheme of the connection PowerLine AC COMMUNICATION INTERFACES AND BUSES I 71 Overview of lighting management systems Here we categorise control systems, from the simple, the comfortable and the energy efďŹ cient, to the autonomous control of TunableWhite and RGB applications. User control elements serve as input interfaces which inďŹ‚uence the behaviour of the luminaires, whether according to user command, sensor regulation or management by a superior system. Input devices send commands to control units which assess them. If there is no control unit included in a system then the logic is carried out directly in the dimmable electronic ballasts, or the luminaires are controlled manually by switches. Fluorescent and LED luminaires contain electronic control gears, others are controlled by transformers via relay switches. Manual control Manual and sensor control Simple control system Advanced control system Complex control system Complex colour control system Overview of lighting management systems MANUAL CONTROL switch manual dimmer MANUAL AND SENSOR CONTROL switch button RC switch RC remote control SIMPLE CONTROL SYSTEM switch button control panel ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM touch IR switch control control remote button control panel panel panel TunableWhite PowerLine AC PowerLine DC control user input interface combined sensor intensity sensor switching movement sensor RC receiver combined sensor multi-sensor IR button input receiver component combined sensor control unit control devices phase (switched, TRIAC or IGBT) 1–10 V / 0–10 V control phase (touch DIM, switchDIM) switch phase 1–10 V DALI 1–10 V DSI Astronomical Clock DALI source DALI PowerLine AC transmitter switch phase PC DALI AC PowerLine CPS – central power source PowerLine AC receiver supply components electronic ballast transformer electronic ballast transformer LED source electronic ballast transformer LED source electronic ballast electronic ballast transformer LED source LED source DC PowerLine light sources and devices lamp ﬂuorescent lamp halogen light source ﬂuorescent lamp halogen light source LED ﬂuorescent lamp halogen light source LED ﬂuorescent ﬂuorescent halogen lamp lamp light TunableWhite source LED LED TunableWhite 74 I OVERVIEW OF LIGHTING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS COMPLEX CONTROL SYSTEM iOS / Android switch button touch panel control panel IR remote control IR remote control RC remote control COMPLEX COLOUR CONTROL SYSTEM wall RGB controller switch button PC touch panel wall RGB panel control desk switching movement sensor movement sensor WIFI multi-sensor sensor input member button input component IR receiver IR receiver RC receiver button input component PC kit :bus Access Point controller DALI central control unit supplementary control unit PC ETHERNET central control unit PC ETHERNET superior control system Combined control unit and LED source DMX/DALI ballast DMX DALI DMX multi-channel DALI relay electronic ballast transformer LED source dimmer electronic ballast electronic ballast LED source LED source multi-channel LED source motor other ﬂuorescent driven blind peripheral lamp control devices halogen light source LED RLC load LED RGB ﬂuorescent lamp color ﬂuorescent lamp TunableWhite LED LED TunableWhite LED RGB LED RGB dynamic lighting effect OVERVIEW OF LIGHTING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS I 75 Overview of lighting management systems Manual control Manual and sensor control Simple control system Advanced control system Complex control system Complex colour control system Manual control The second type of manual control is There are two types of manual control. The manual dimming. This is controlled via Thyﬁrst is the most widely used, the switching ristor, TRIAC or transistor dimming of the on and off of a system. This type of control luminaire resistance load (not compatible does not allow dimming. The only way to with all types of luminaire). An advantage provide any potential for saving is to sepa- of this control method over switching is rate a system into groups, and switch on that all luminaires can be dimmed in unison and off groups independently, meaning that and therefore maintain uniform illuminanot all luminaires in the system are turned tion. If this type of control is required for on if it is not necessary. Disadvantages of dimmable electronic control gears it will this kind of control are the human factor, be necessary to use either Analog 1–10 V and the fact that luminaires deteriorate at or 0–10 V protocol. Dial or slider control different rates depending on if they belong devices are used, however they must be to an often or less used group, which can manually operated by the user. create imbalances within the system. MANUAL CONTROL switch manual dimmer user input interface supply components control devices phase (switched, TRIAC or IGBT) 1–10 V / 0–10 V electronic ballast transformer light sources and devices lamp ﬂuorescent lamp halogen light source 76 I OVERVIEW OF LIGHTING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PREHĽAD SYSTÉMOV RIADENIA PRE OSVETLENIE I 77 I 77 Overview of lighting management systems Manual control Manual and sensor control Simple control system Advanced control system Complex control system Complex colour control system Manual and sensor control Manual control supplemented by sensors designed to detect motion and lighting intensity, or working as remote control receivers. This kind of control combines manual and automatic regulation achieving either a gradual or incremental change. An incremental change is used in the case of motion sensor control, when movement is detected the luminaires are switched on (by switch phase). After motion is no longer detected and a pre-set delay has elapsed, the luminaires are switched off. If using 1–10 V control it is possible to add the continuous regulation of a lighting intensity sensor which includes an additional control phase designed for the manual dimming of luminaires with dimmable electronic control gears, no further control device beside the wall switch (in this case a dial or slider) is required. To ensure further comfort a combined sensor or RC remote control could be used. The disadvantage of such a system is that control phase management is limited by the number of luminaires it can control. MANUAL AND SENSOR CONTROL switch button RC switch RC remote control user input interface combined sensor intensity sensor switching movement sensor RC receiver supply components control devices control phase (touch DIM, switchDIM) switch phase 1–10 V electronic ballast transformer LED source light sources and devices ﬂuorescent halogen lamp light source LED 78 I OVERVIEW OF LIGHTING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Simple control system Simple control systems are designed for simple applications which require little management, such as smaller ofﬁces, classrooms and hallways. This type of management can control a larger number of dimmable luminaires compared to manually or sensor controlled management. Regulation works according to information received from a combined sensor (motion and lighting intensity). To scan a larger area it is possible to use several sensors and the scanned levels are averaged. The choice of sensor depends on the type of mounting needed, ceiling recessed or ceiling surfaced. Scanning and level set- ting are activated via button control. This type of system includes a range of pre-set modes from which the user selects the most suitable during installation. As combined sensor control can be automated we can also offer information about potential energy saving along with low initial cost. Another type of simple control system is the switching on and off of luminaires according to an Astronomical Clock. This is done incrementally following sunrise and sunset. SIMPLE CONTROL SYSTEM switch button user input interface combined sensor control unit control devices Astronomical Clock DALI 1–10 V DSI switch phase supply components electronic ballast transformer LED source light sources and devices ﬂuorescent halogen lamp light source LED OVERVIEW OF LIGHTING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS I 79 Overview of lighting management systems Manual control Manual and sensor control Simple control system Advanced control system Complex control system Complex colour control system Advanced control system This kind of system is designed for small and medium sized intelligent lighting systems such as for administrative spaces, smaller production and warehouse areas, sports facilities and theatres, etc. Control can be based on motion detection, lighting intensity, and pre-set scenes. Communication is done via a DALI bus, which needs a separate feed through a DALI source. Control functionality must be ﬁrst programed by computer. This type of system does not use logical or time based control, and luminaire groups can generally only be created within the scope of the DALI bus. Various control devices can be used such as sensors, remote control, buttons, contacts, smartphones, touch panels or tablets. Management based on TunableWhite can also be included in these advanced systems. It is possible to use central power line communication where, in the case of lighting reconstruction, it is not possible to add a separate control line but the dimming capabilities of luminaires must be maintained. control panel IR remote control ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM touch control switch control panel button control panel panel TunableWhite PowerLine AC PowerLine DC user input interface multi-sensor IR button input receiver component combined sensor DALI DALI source control devices PowerLine AC transmitter PC DALI AC PowerLine Central Power Source (CPS) PowerLine AC receiver supply components electronic ballast electronic ballast transformer LED source LED source DC PowerLine light sources and devices ﬂuorescent lamp ﬂuorescent halogen light source lamp TunableWhite LED LED TunableWhite 80 I OVERVIEW OF LIGHTING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Complex control system This kind of system is designed for extensive intelligent lighting systems such as for large administrative buildings, hotels, sports facilities, production and warehouse areas, and other spaces where there is a higher number of luminaires and input / output elements. Basic communication is done via a DALI bus. These buses no do require an external power supply as power comes directly from the control unit. The number of control units used depends on the size of the installation. Communication between control units is carried out via an Ethernet connection using TCP/IP protocol. After establishing the required structure of the control units (each unit can control several DALI buses) it is possible to connect more than 10,000 DALI devices consisting of luminaires, external relays, sensors, dimmers, and various other input units. The system supports OPC communication (standard within the lighting industry) and therefore can be further connected to a BMS (Building Management System) and Ethernet I/O and emergency devices. The input controls can be buttons, remote controls, touch panels, smartphones and tablets. Such a system allows control via a graphical, user created computer software program. A system like this can also be used for smaller applications where the user requires very speciďŹ c control including especially convenient elements such as touch panels, tablets and smartphones. From all DALI devices it is possible to create more than 15,000 groups, and each luminaire can be pre-set for up to 128 lighting scenes. This kind of system, even though smaller, must still be programed by computer. DALI can be used to control other peripheral devices such as blinds, gates, alarms, pumps, heating and air conditioning. Time control can also be utilised allowing one-time and repeated time activated events. Logical functionality can also be programed into the system. It is possible to incorporate both DMX and DALI protocol. DMX is especially suitable for RGB applications. When more than one protocol is used it is possible to use a superior control system such as KNX which offers further operational options. COMPLEX CONTROL SYSTEM iOS / Android switch button touch panel control IR remote panel control switching movement sensor user input interface movement multi-sensor sensor button sensor input input member component WIFI IR receiver access point controller DALI central control unit supplementary control unit control devices PC ETHERNET superior control system supply components multi-channel DALI relay electronic ballast transformer LED source dimmer light sources and devices motor other ďŹ‚uorescent driven blind peripheral lamp control devices halogen light source LED RLC load OVERVIEW OF LIGHTING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS I 81 Overview of lighting management systems Manual control Manual and sensor control Simple control system Advanced control system Complex control system Complex colour control system Complex colour control system RGB can be used in many ways, from mood lighting in individual rooms to the illumination of large buildings and public places. RGB allows you to choose the precise colour, brightness and saturation you want for a speciﬁc time, space or event. This type of system can be controlled by remote devices such as Infrared sensors, Radio Control, buttons and tablets. In such applications DMX buses are used, they are the most appropriate for this kind of application due to their speed and method of communicating. The desired effect is accomplished via pre-set scenes which use one or a combination of colours for the whole area being illuminated. It is also possible to use dynamic lighting which is a timed transition between scenes, the transition can be of varied lengths. The user can easily save lighting scenes to be used again at a later time. It is also possible to activate lighting scenes using time control. This kind of system generally needs programing with a computer. In order to achieve the desired RGB effect or TunableWhite functionality, it is necessary to use various light outputs, radiation angles and construction. IR remote control RC remote control COMPLEX COLOUR CONTROL SYSTEM wall RGB controller switch button PC touch panel wall RGB panel control desk user input interface IR receiver RC receiver button input component PC kit :bus central control unit ETHERNET PC control devices combined control unit and LED source DMX/DALI ballast DMX DALI supply components DMX electronic ballast electronic ballast LED source LED source multi-channel LED source light sources and devices LED RGB ﬂuorescent ﬂuorescent lamp lamp color TunableWhite LED LED TunableWhite LED RGB LED RGB dynamic lighting effect 82 I OVERVIEW OF LIGHTING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS TYPY RIADENIA I 83 APPLICATIONS OFFICES CORRIDORS, STAIRCASES, TOILETS AND GARAGES EDUCATION AND SCIENCE LIVING AREAS RETAIL AND SHOPPING MALLS HOTELS, RESTAURANTS AND PUBS FACADES AND ARCHITECTURE SPORTS FACILITIES FREE TIME AND WELLNESS MANUFACTURING SPACES AND WAREHOUSES HEALTH AND CARE ROADS AND PUBLIC SPACES * The highlighted icons in individual applications show which spaces the described management system can be used. 84 I TYPY RIADENIA 86 I TYPY RIADENIA OFFICES Ofﬁce buildings, and especially the rooms and ofﬁces within them, are generally used for more than 10 hours per day. To meet the requirements of such spaces means to create an optimal control system. Using control systems in such applications is the way to ensure that not only basic needs are met, such as illuminance level, but that there is saving potential. The most basic control requirement is the manual or automatic change of illumination according to need. When this is combined with motion and lighting intensity sensors we will have achieved an automatic system which offers the greatest possible saving potential. Simple and intuitive controls, which could be as little as a single wall switch, will minimise inconvenience and its application will bring maximum efﬁciency. A busy conference room requires a speciﬁc kind of lighting solution. The requirements placed on the lighting system will vary greatly depending on the use of the space at any given time. These needs can be met by lighting scene control. With the touch of a button on a wall panel the scene for a meeting can be chosen, or the scene for a presentation. It can be made easier and more convenient still be having remotely controlled lighting scenes. Also, other devices can easily be integrated into the management system, for example blinds and projection screens. The whole system can be controlled via a touch LCD device such as an iPad, with an interface tailor-made for each user and environment, and the graphics can even be adapted to communicate a speciﬁc company image. TYPY RIADENIA I 87 Applications Control by switch phase (Sample applicationâ€”OfďŹ ce) Control via a simple wall switch is one of the most basic and widespread methods used. Switch phase control works simply by connecting or disconnecting the power supply. This method of switching luminaires on and off is not automatic, and does not offer additional user comfort or saving potential. A conventional wall switch is used in this case, which connects and disconnects the current going to the luminaire. The number of luminaires controlled by a switch depends on the amount of current they use and the limitation in current load of the switch contacts. Another disadvantage is that all luminaires on the circuit will be switched on or off together. To split the luminaires into groups would require more switches and more wiring, increasing the initial cost of installation. 2 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 main lighting (non-dimmable) accent lighting (non-dimmable) power supply switch ASSESSMENT OF THE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT COMFORT AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER 0% ENERGY SAVING 88 I APPLICATIONS 0% 0% OFF When the wall switch is off, all luminaires are off. 100 % 100 % ON When the wall switch is on, all luminaires (both the main and accent ones) are on and working at maximum luminous ďŹ‚ux without any possibility of dimming. APPLICATIONS I 89 Applications Advanced DALI management system (Sample application—Ofﬁce) DALI offers a modern method of lighting control for ofﬁce use. Ease of use is ensured by the control devices, a remote control or wall mounted push button panel. A multifunctional DALI sensor placed on the ceiling or within a luminaire scans for movement and lighting intensity, and at the same time serves as an IR receiver for the remote control. The DALI control is used to power the data bus. Setup and adjustment of the system are done via computer programing. 3 3 2 main lighting (dimmable) power supply data bus (DALI) control panel IR remote control multi-sensor DALI power source ASSESSMENT OF THE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT COMFORT AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER 34-68 % ENERGY SAVING 90 I APPLICATIONS DIM 0-100 % When putting the lighting system into automatic mode the luminaires light when a movement occurs, relative to the intensity of daylight which is entering the room via the windows. 80 % By use of the control elements (wall push button panel or remote control) it is possible to choose, besides the automatic regime, a pre-set lighting scene (e.g. 80 %). Motion and lighting intensity detection is deactivated with this type of operation. 0% If sufďŹ cient lighting intensity is entering the room through the windows the luminaires are automatically off even if a movement is detected. APPLICATIONS I 91 Applications Sensor group control (Sample application—Open ofﬁce) From the point of view of saving potential in an open ofﬁce application it is most effective to separate luminaires into groups and to control them independently. Management in this sample application is done using two simple control systems. The ﬁrst group is regulated by a combined motion and lighting intensity sensor which is placed within one of the luminaires in the group. The control device is a simple wall button which can switch the luminaires on or off, and set the lighting level via a separate twin core control phase to the control unit. This phase is separate from the data bus which controls the luminaires. Depending on the control gear used DALI or 1–10 V protocol can be used. The second group of luminaires is connected similarly. To better be able to scan the area in the second group an additional sensor is positioned in the area near the door. Sensors are connected to the control unit via two twin-core lines. The way this system controls is based upon the continuous regulation of lighting intensity and movement and a pre-deﬁned switching delay. This kind of system does not utilise scenic control. If movement detection is not possible due to the layout or occupancy of the ofﬁce it is possible to use only lighting intensity regulation. 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 1 3 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 luminaire group 1 (dimmable) luminaire group 2 (dimmable) power supply data bus (DALI) control line connection line push button control unit combined sensor ASSESSMENT OF THE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT COMFORT AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER 34-68 % ENERGY SAVING 92 I APPLICATIONS group 2: DIM 0–100 % group 1: DIM 0–100 % During regular working hours the luminaires dim autonomously according to the amount of available daylight. At the same time the luminaires automatically switch on and off based on motion detection or based on the manual intervention of a user through a control push button. group 2: 100 % group 1: 100 % Where sunlight does not enter the room through the windows, in order to maintain the required lighting conditions the luminaires have to light at 100 % luminous ﬂux. group 2: 100 % group 1: 0 % If there is no movement detected under the ﬁrst group of luminaires, these lighting ﬁxtures are off. Group lighting management helps increase energy savings not only in open ofﬁces. group 2: 0 % group 1: 100 % When the occupancy of the space changes the illumination automatically adapts. APPLICATIONS I 93 Applications Daylight simulation (Sample application—Open ofﬁce) A daylight simulation system which uses TunableWhite (tuning the colour of white light) requires a central control unit and corresponding control devices. A touch panel plays the role of the central control unit whilst at the same time being the control device. All luminaires behave as one group. As the connection to the DALI bus is direct it means that the dimmable luminaires and data cables can be used for management. The power source for the data bus is directly in the control panel. Luminaires are controlled by an automatic sequence of smooth and continuous change in colour temperature which cannot be registered by the human eye. Luminaires can also be controlled using pre-set lighting scenes. Use of a slowly developing continuous pre-set sequence, which simulates natural daylight, supports people’s productivity and energy levels. Another possibility is to loop a sequence throughout the day. It is of course beneﬁcial to add to this system motion and lighting intensity sensors which will increase system autonomy, and offer higher saving potential. 3 2 main lighting (TunableWhite) power supply data bus (DALI) touch panel TW ASSESSMENT OF THE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT COMFORT AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER 0% ENERGY SAVING 94 I APPLICATIONS 2700 K The change of correlated colour temperature is carried out automatically according to a pre-set logic. The correlated colour temperature of white light in the speciﬁed space is 2,700 K. 4000 K The correlated colour temperature of white light in the speciﬁed space is 4,000 K. 6500 K The correlated colour temperature of white light in the speciﬁed space is 6,500 K. APPLICATIONS I 95 Applications Combined control of luminaires and peripheral devices (Sample application—Conference room) Using this type of control system we can change from a lighting scene set for a meeting to one set for a presentation or a coffee break. In this sample application the touch panel is only the control device. One sensor situated in the centre of the room scans the lighting intensity. The system also manages the blinds and backlighting of the company logo. The switch control deﬁned for managing the blinds receives commands via the DALI bus from the touch panel. The company logo is also controlled via the DALI bus which switches the power phase. By a single touch on the touch panel the room is prepared for a presentation. The backlighting of the company logo is turned off, the luminaires near the projection screen are turned off and the remaining luminaires are set at a level of, for example, 30 % luminous ﬂux. Once the presentation is concluded, another touch of the same button on the touch panel returns the room to its previous state. Through an individually designed graphical interface on the touch panel device we can create intuitive control for any user, enabling control of the entire system within the room. Before operation the system and control device must be computer programed. 4 2 3 3 LIGHT-LOGO SCREEN main lighting (dimmable)) power supply switched power phase data bus (DALI) touch panel multi-sensor DALI power source multi-channel DALI relay motor-driven blind control ASSESSMENT OF THE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT COMFORT AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER 32-58 % ENERGY SAVING 96 I APPLICATIONS 0% If availability of daylight is at a sufďŹ cient level the lighting system will start in automatic mode. In this mode the system is regulated according to the level of lighting intensity, and if possible the luminaires will be switched off. 90 % The motor-driven blind control can be controlled via DALI. In this way the blinds can be drawn to any level. The lighting can also be changed at any time. 0% 30 % Presentation lighting scene. The luminaires near the projection screen are off in order to achieve better contrast of the image. The luminaires which are further away from the screen are dimmed to 30 % to avoid being distracting whilst at the same time ensuring the room is not completely dark. APPLICATIONS I 97 CORRIDORS, STAIRCASES, TOILETS AND GARAGES Corridors are one of the spaces within a building where there is great saving potential as they are not in continuous use. These spaces require a speciﬁc kind of lighting solution that can take full advantage of their inherent characteristics. When designing the illumination it is vital to place enough emphasis on safety, and to focus on the functionality and mood of the lighting rather than placing undue signiﬁcance on aesthetics. In this way we can ensure the best possible saving potential. The use of motion sensors is the most effective method of regulation for such applications; when a corridor is effectively covered by the sensors the lighting will switch on only when necessary. From a safety point of view, and in order to minimise the risk of injury during busy times, it is useful to have a delay in switching off the luminaires, and that the switching off is not complete but to a ‘safety level’ (this is called the corridor function). In such cases the luminous ﬂux is reduced to 10 % which ensures sufﬁcient visibility, even when there is no movement detected. This type of solution reduces the need for a large number of switches and control devices. 98 I TYPY RIADENIA TYPY RIADENIA I 99 Applications Scanning movement by switching sensor (Sample application—A simple corridor) In such cases that corridors have no available daylight it is possible to control the lighting solely on the base of movement and occupancy. Luminaires in these types of application need not be dimmable. Control is carried out simply by switching the supply phase to the luminaires, and all luminaires will behave as one group. Switching is automatic, based on movement within the space. It is necessary that the sensor be suitably positioned so as to effectively scan the area. Different types of sensor can be placed at different heights, with differing scanning angles and various assembly options, so there will always be a sensor which is suitable for your application. For added convenience it may be beneﬁcial to use DALI or 1–10 V dimming which will improve the saving potential. If using a dimmable system it is necessary to use smooth and comfortable transitions between lighting levels to ensure the visual comfort of users. 3 3 3 3 non-dimmable luminaire Switch phase scanning area of sensor movement switching sensor ASSESSMENT OF THE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT COMFORT AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER 0-50 % ENERGY SAVING 100 I APPLICATIONS 0% Until the motion sensors detect any movement, the luminaires are off. 100 % When detecting a movement the luminaires switch on in one step (using the switching sensor) to maximum luminous ďŹ‚ux. 100 % If there is no movement detected there is a delay and then the luminaires switch off. This is caused by disconnecting the switching sensorâ€™s contact. The time of delay is set according to the presumed rate of occupancy within the space. As a matter of safety, and at the same time to increase saving potential, it is possible to control luminaires using the corridor function where after the delay has elapsed they are dimmed to 10 %. 10 % APPLICATIONS I 101 Applications Zone scanning of movement (Sample application—A complex corridor) If the corridor has a more intricate layout then it is necessary to use more sensors to scan a larger area. Each sensor can control its own group of luminaires (the ﬁrst group in the sample application). An additional sensor, a so called slave sensor, can be added to the system (the second group in the sample application). The switching of the supply phase is done by the master sensor. Slave sensors deliver information to the master sensor via a single line. The number of feeding lines depends on device hierarchy. The most important thing to ensure is that all sensors are fed by the supply phase. The sample application corridor has some available daylight so it is worth also using lighting intensity sensors so that if movement is detected and the daylight available meets the required level of luminous ﬂux the luminaires will not switch on. Whether the luminaires will switch to maximum luminous ﬂux or to a dimmed level, depending on available daylight, depends on the type of sensor used. If a simple switching sensor is used the change will be incremental, if a dimming sensor is used the change will be smooth and gradual. If it is deemed necessary to use a larger number of luminaires than the sensor can control an external switching relay will need to be used. The corridor function provides higher saving potential with a higher level of user comfort. 2 – MASTER SENSOR 1 2 – SLAVE SENSOR 2 3 4 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 2 3 1 3 3 3 4 1 – MASTER SENSOR 1 1 2 luminaire group 1 (non-dimmable) luminaire group 2 (non-dimmable) switch phase control line scanning surface of the sensor MASTER 1 scanning surface of the sensor MASTER 2 scanning surface of the sensor SLAVE 2 movement switching sensor ASSESSMENT OF THE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT COMFORT AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER 34-80 % ENERGY SAVING 102 I APPLICATIONS 100 % 0% If a movement is detected only in the ďŹ rst zone, only the luminaires situated there switch on. 100 % 100 % When movement is detected in the next scanning zone, the luminaires in the next zone switch on. 0% 0% If no movement is detected and the delay time has elapsed the luminaires switch off. 0% 0% If the space is sufďŹ ciently lit with daylight and the illuminance level meets the required pre-set requirements, the luminaires in both zones do not switch on even though a movement may be detected. APPLICATIONS I 103 Applications Cascade scanning of movement (Sample application—Staircase) As with corridors, staircases in public places have a high rate of occupancy. Controlling the lighting via a standard wall switch is not user-friendly, whilst having continuous full illumination is not economically advantageous. This problem is easily resolved by the use of cascade scanning of movement. The lighting on each ﬂoor can be independently managed, or all groups on above-ground ﬂoors can be controlled as one group and below-ground ﬂoors as another group. By connecting one master and two slave sensors for above-ground application all above-ground lights can be controlled as one. The functionality of these sensors is as in the previous section ‘Zone scanning of movement’. If it is a space with no available daylight required levels of luminous ﬂux and timing can be set remotely or manually directly in the sensor. Controlling each ﬂoor independently will provide higher saving potential. It is possible to use PIR sensors in corridors as well as high-frequency sensors. SLAVE 1 SENSOR 2. ﬂoor SLAVE 1 SENSOR 1. ﬂoor 3 MASTER 1 SENSOR ground ﬂoor MASTER SENSOR MASTER 2 SENSOR basement 3 4 3 1 ground ﬂoor scanning plane of sensor luminaire (non-dimmable) switch phase control line from SLAVE sensor movement switching sensor ASSESSMENT OF THE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT COMFORT AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER 34-80 % ENERGY SAVING 104 I APPLICATIONS 0% GROUND FLOOR BASEMENT 0% Until any movement is detected on any of the ďŹ‚oors, all luminaires are off. 100 % 0% Should any movement be detected above-ground, all luminaires in the above-ground group switch on. 100 % 100 % If a person should go to the basement movement will also be detected there. If the person remains there for any length of time the luminaires aboveground will switch off. The basement space behaves as a different lighting system. APPLICATIONS I 105 LIVING AREAS In our technological era, intelligent lighting management within the home takes its place beside audio visual, home cinema and security systems. Lighting, besides its basic function of providing sufďŹ cient illumination, has the ability to affect the wellbeing of residents and can become a design tool by which to implement an overall atmosphere and image in the home. Great advantages of an intelligent lighting system are the ease of control and how tailor-made it can be for each particular application. Regulation based on lighting intensity can, without any intervention from the user, create the light needed. If RGB technology is incorporated, by using a simple control it is possible to change the atmosphere of any space using lighting scenes. The stylish look of control devices such as remote controls and touch panels complete the overall elegant look of such a state-of-the-art living area. External illumination for gardens, paths and swimming pools, etc., are also popular options for residential lighting. Exterior lighting can be regulated automatically, remotely operated or manually controlled from the comfort of the home. Thanks to such intelligent systems not only do residents experience a much higher level of comfort combined with beautiful design, but also great saving potential. 106 I TYPY RIADENIA TYPY RIADENIA I 107 Applications Combined RGB/W control (Sample application—Bedroom) By using RGB lighting you can create the atmosphere you want in the bedroom. If RGB is used in combination with white you can further extend the effects you can create. The combined control unit used in the sample application can independently control three RGB channels. For added comfort the system is ﬁtted with an IR remote control and IR receiver. Data communication in this sample application is between the IR receiver, control unit, LED source and the push button control device, and achieved by a speciﬁc data bus on the control phase. The central control unit connects the data bus with the dimmable luminaires in such a way as to create a complete lighting system. General illumination is controlled by the DALI bus, and the push button device added into the system by an additional bus is used to control lighting scenes. When the system is installed it is necessary to program the software’s functionality and system properties. The primary function of the solution is to create a comfortable and dynamic design, not to save energy, although this too can be achieved. 1 1 2 1 1 3 2 4 2 4 2 1 2 main lighting (dimmable) ambient RGB lighting (dimmable) power supply data bus (DALI) control line speciﬁc data bus LED source switch IR remote control push button input device IR receiver central control unit combined control unit and LED source ASSESSMENT OF THE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT COMFORT AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER 0% ENERGY SAVING 108 I APPLICATIONS DIM 0â€“100 % RGB OFF During the morning, day or evening when daylight enters the room through the windows, it is possible to manually dim the main lighting to the required level. The ambient RGB lighting can be off. 100 % RGB OFF If daylight does not penetrate the space from outside, the luminous ďŹ‚ux is at 100 % according to the chosen lighting scene. 10 % RGB ON For inducing a relaxing atmosphere or other moods into the room, the RGB ambient lighting can be set for various colours. General lighting is dimmed. APPLICATIONS I 109 Applications Comfort control of lighting and peripheral devices (Sample applicationâ€”Living room) Thanks to intelligent electrical systems it is now possible to control almost anything within a building, not only the lighting. The solution outlined in the sample application shows lighting management within a living space controlled by smartphone. Together with controlling the luminaires it is possible to add peripheral devices such as blinds, TV, audio equipment and satellite, etc. The independent groups of white luminaires can be individually dimmed to any level. RGB LED luminaires create atmospheric lighting options for the space, maybe for sitting with visitors, watching sports on TV or relaxing and listening to music. Communication between the control system and smartphone is done by Wi-Fi so control works remotely. The graphical control application can made according to the needs and desires of the user. Besides use of a smartphone it possible to use devices with iOS or Android, touch panels and universal remote controls. There is also a wall panel at the entrance to the space where lighting scenes can be chosen. At installation it is necessary to program the functionality of the system and create a graphical interface for all control devices. 5 6 4 1 1 3 6 4 3 2 AUDIO TV SAT 1 3 2 1 2 3 2 2 4 2 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 white luminaire (DALI) white luminaire (DALI) white luminaire (DALI) RGB/W luminaire (DALI) LED RGB luminaire (DALI) blinds (electric motors) power supply switch phase data bus (DALI) Ethernet network control panel iOs / Android central control unit access point controller multi-channel DALI relay engine-driven control of blinds ASSESSMENT OF THE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT COMFORT AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER 0% ENERGY SAVING The primary function of the solution is to create a comfortable and dynamic design, not to save energy, although this too can be achieved. 110 I APPLICATIONS Spotlights shine at a low level of luminous ďŹ‚ux and complete the design of the room also during the day. The decorative RGB luminaires illuminating the wall behind the TV can be set at any colour from the whole colour spectrum. Control through a smartphone enables all luminaires and peripheral devices (TV, audio, satellite, blinds, etc.) to be controlled via Wi-Fi from one device. All luminaires emit a white colour and the blinds can be drawn down to any level. The central RGB atmospheric lighting creates an atmosphere for various activities, e.g. sports or relaxation, and the blinds can be drawn down completely. APPLICATIONS I 111 RETAIL AND SHOPPING MALLS Lighting plays a key role in the retail environment. To best display goods the type of lighting used, and its distribution, must be adapted to each need. A well illuminated sales area can attract attention to goods and speciﬁc brands and is one of the best tools to increase proﬁt. As energy prices rise efﬁcient solutions are needed but without compromising functionality. Such solutions inevitably require intelligent management systems. Improving the appeal of a space can be achieved by dynamic changes in lighting intensity and periodic changes of colour. Using pre-set lighting scenes as the primary control method can make it easy and quick to change the lighting intensity and colour character throughout the day with no physical intervention required from the user. In such cases as where daylight is available it is worthwhile installing lighting intensity sensors which adapt the level of artiﬁcial light according to how much daylight falls in the space. This can offer signiﬁcant saving potential especially in systems with a focus on lighting uniformity. 112 I TYPY RIADENIA TYPY RIADENIA I 113 Applications Cascade scanning of intensity (Sample application—Shop) One of the least expensive yet most effective solutions for a space with available daylight is 1–10 V control. It is clear in the sample application that the individual lines of luminaires moving away from the window each have their own group 1–10 V sensor. In this way it is possible to ensure uniform illumination of the space. During the day each line of luminaires shines only to the extent needed. The sensor for each individual line of luminaires is always placed in one main luminaire which functions as the master and communicates with the data bus, and through which the line is controlled. The chosen level of lighting intensity can be set directly on the sensor. As regulation is constant, changes in lighting intensity are slight and unrecognisable by the human eye. Switching on and off of the lighting is done through one wall switch which controls the power supply to the luminaires by switch phase. 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 2 4 CASH DESK 3 main lighting power supply data bus (1–10 V) switch sensor of intensity ASSESSMENT OF THE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT COMFORT AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER 31-56 % ENERGY SAVING 114 I APPLICATIONS 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % If there is not sufﬁcient daylight available (such as during evening hours) all luminaires automatically work at full luminous ﬂux. 33 % 70 % 15 % 0% If the room has large windows and during the day there is sufﬁcient daylight it is suitable to use cascade scanning to dim the luminaires. For maintaining a uniformity of lighting throughout the whole space the luminaires are automatically dimmed more at the windows. APPLICATIONS I 115 Applications Complex management system RGB/W (Sample application—Boutique) Boutiques require a high quality lighting solution speciﬁc to the space. The personality of the store and its goods are best communicated by combining white and RGB light with suitable light distribution. In this sample application all luminaires are centrally regulated via a control panel. The white luminaires are DALI controlled using dimming and lighting scenes, and the RGB luminaires are DMX controlled. Lighting in the storage space can be controlled from the central control panel but can also be switched on and off separately by a wall switch. Non-dimmable luminaires are used for advertisement lighting and are integrated into the system through a DALI relay. Luminaires used in the window are standardly DALI controlled. The entire store is controlled via an LCD touch panel. Individual DALI controls, lighting scenes, colour setting, and the switching on and off of the whole system including storage spaces, ﬁtting rooms and shop windows, is all done from one location. Before the system is used we must program its functionality. Such lighting systems do not focus on saving energy (although this can be included in the design in various ways) but on modern controls, specialist design and a high degree of comfort. 3 4 1 CASH DESK 2 4 2 1 4 STORAGE 1 1 FITTING ROOMS 1 3 3 1 1 1 1 5 4 1 SHOP WINDOW 2 3 2 2 2 MANNEQUINS 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 2 DALI luminaire white DMX luminaire RGB DALI LED RGB strip DALI luminaire non-dimmable luminaire power supply LED power source data bus (DALI) switch phase control line data bus (DMX) push button touch panel push button input component central control unit LED source multi-channel DALI relay ASSESSMENT OF THE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT COMFORT AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER 3 4 5 0% ENERGY SAVING 116 I APPLICATIONS RGB luminaires enable dynamic colour changes. This change runs continuously with a sufďŹ ciently long time interval so that the change of colour does not have an unpleasant distracting effect on customers and employees. The RGB application together with white lighting completes the space during operation. When the goods are being replenished, during stock-taking or cleaning, all luminaires are shining white. The lighting scene during the night also attracts passers-by to the shop. Changing RGB lighting draws attention to the store and the goods on sale. APPLICATIONS I 117 Applications Central Power Source control (Sample application—Supermarket) PowerLine DC is an innovative management method functioning via the power supply to the LED luminaires and their Central Power Source (CPS). The CPS system used in this sample application uses an intelligent interface between the central system (the Master) and the connected luminaires (the Slaves) which communicates via a +48 V DC power line bus. By centralising the power supply it lowers the price of the luminaires as they no longer need individual control gears. This in turn reduces their size and weight making them easier to accommodate in terms of practicality and design. The interface built directly into the CPS can dim connected luminaires, activate lighting scenes and monitor the system from almost anywhere via the internet. This sample application uses LED spotlights which are controlled together in one group. The system is regulated by a wall mounted PowerLine DC control panel, but the actual functionality such as dimming levels, are set directly on the CPS. Using the CPS as an interface PowerLine DC can be incorporated into other protocols (LAN, DALI, 1–10 V). When connecting to the superior system, for example DALI, the CPS is taken as one DALI address. The advantage of this is that if a luminaire needs to be replaced, maybe due to malfunction, it is not necessary to re-program PowerLine DC. The 48 V power line which is also the data communication line, is partially ﬁtted 2 2 3 luminaire without control gear on the track system (dimmable) AC power supply DC power supply control line Central Power Source (CPS) control panel PowerLine DC ASSESSMENT OF THE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT COMFORT AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER 0-15 % ENERGY SAVING within the track system meaning that even during installation savings are being made (due to simple installation which requires less wiring). 118 I APPLICATIONS 85 % All luminaires have the same luminous output, functioning as one group. DIM 0â€“100 % The possibility to connect a lighting intensity sensor means the CPS can also control the luminaires autonomously based on available daylight. APPLICATIONS I 119 120 I TYPY RIADENIA MANUFACTURING SPACES AND WAREHOUSES Industrial buildings are challenging locations where light must be economical, ﬂexible, adaptable and responsive to activity and users. Lighting systems in these spaces should integrate daylight and artiﬁcial light, improve the working environment and stimulate productivity. The lighting must do much more than be functional and provide the required level of light. The lighting in manufacturing premises needs to illuminate a wide range of tasks. It should be easily adaptable to changes in activity within the space, and to be easily modiﬁed via well organised layouts, lighting scenes and sensor control. The luminous and technical design are based on the operational requirements of the system, and if incorporating sensor control, offer a compromise between an ideal and economical result. Complex management systems used in manufacturing and warehouse spaces can offer savings of up to 50 %. TYPY RIADENIA I 121 Applications Complex lighting management system based on movement (Sample application—Warehouse) 5 4 2 2 3 4 3 4 2 3 4 4 4 The idea behind functional lighting in 2 2 4 3 warehouses, whether large or small, is always the same—the emphasis is on 1 2 saving energy. Generally, warehouses are large spaces with many aisles with racks and open areas where many luminaires need to be installed. 1 2 It is necessary to ensure sufﬁcient and ap1 propriate illumination is provided speciﬁcally where there is the movement of people or 1 2 vehicles. Regulation is stepped and often controlled by motion sensors or a combination of motion and lighting intensity sensors. In such cases, when movement 1 2 is detected the luminaires will only switch on if there is insufﬁcient daylight available. 1 luminaire group 1 (dimmable) In aisles with racks the corridor function is 2 luminaire group 2 (dimmable) used. 3 luminaire group 3 (dimmable) When selecting the right kind of sensor 4 luminaire group 4 (dimmable) we must take into account the installation power supply height of the luminaires. As industrial premdata bus (DALI) ises usually have high ceilings and lumiscanning area of sensor naires are installed at, for example, a height control line of 10 m, High Bay sensors need to be used. It is beneﬁcial to divide lighting in these push button complex spaces into individually regulated groups. Each part of the warehouse, the movement sensor aisles with racks, handling areas, loading bays and walkways, all need a speciﬁc lightpush button input ing solution. There should be the option to control the luminaires not only in single central control unit groups, but also together if it is useful. One or more cooperating control units create the central control system. Each control unit collects information from its inputs: application is done using a DALI bus. Such sensors, control devices, a superior system managed systems provide high saving poand the luminaires themselves. Communi- tential. A system of this scope can be either cation between control units in this sample 3 3 2 3 3 3 ASSESSMENT OF THE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT COMFORT AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER 27-54 % ENERGY SAVING centrally or remotely administered. During system start-up it is necessary to program all functional properties. 122 I APPLICATIONS 0% 0% If a movement is detected in the aisles with racks but a sufﬁcient amount of sunlight enters through the skylights, the luminaires do not switch on and remain off in order to reduce energy consumption. 10 % 100 % If there is insufﬁcient daylight available and the sensor in the corresponding part of the warehouse detects a movement, the luminaires shine with the maximum (pre-set) luminous ﬂux for the given space (the given aisle). The rest of the warehouse shines at a safety level of, for example, 10 %. 10 % 10 % After the (adjustable) delay passes without any movement all luminaires gradually dim to the safety level. APPLICATIONS I 123 Applications Complex lighting management system based on lighting intensity and scenic control (Sample application—Industrial hall) Lighting of manufacturing spaces must fulﬁl the legislative requirements set out for the activity performed. The advantage of using complex management is that many activity deﬁned settings can be included in one system, that changing activity within the whole space or within certain areas of the space can easily and quickly be adapted to without there being any need to change the wiring or installation. As such premises are often operational also at night it is advisable to consider daylight simulation as part of the system design. Group control of luminaires allows the immediate adaptation of the lighting to the activity being carried out. The fully automatic system (user controlled via PC) allows each luminaire to also be controlled individually. Time-deﬁned management is especially suitable for such spaces so that luminaires can be dimmed or turned off according to predeﬁned break or lunch times, or for cleaning and maintenance operations. Lighting intensity is measured by one central lighting intensity sensor placed either on the ceiling of the building or in a selected skylight. This kind of system can be controlled by many devices, from standard wall switches to tailor-made smartphone or tablet applications that can work on iOS or Android. This sample application shows the space divided into several groups, each group can be controlled individually and automatically based on daylight availability. When a pre-set lighting scene is chosen the luminaires function at a deﬁned level of luminous ﬂux. At this point the sensors are non-operational. Control is facilitated from FIRST CONTROL PANEL 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 SECOND CONTROL PANEL 1 2 3 lighting group 1 (dimmable) lighting group 2 (dimmable) lighting group 3 (dimmable) power supply data bus (DALI) Ethernet network control panel lighting intensity sensor PC central control unit ASSESSMENT OF THE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT COMFORT AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER 31-56 % ENERGY SAVING 124 I APPLICATIONS two locations, one with a push button control panel, one a PC. The user software application not only allows direct control of the system but also the monitoring of energy consumption and equipment functionality. Communication between devices, luminaires, sensors and control devices is done via a DALI bus. The central control unit communicates with the PC via Ethernet. During system start-up the functionality of the system needs to be programed. A complex lighting system used in such large installations as found in industrial premises will certainly provide signiﬁcant saving potential. DIM 0–100 % DIM 0–100 % DIM 0–100 % Control based on lighting intensity. The individual groups of luminaires can be independently put into automatic mode (regulation based on lighting intensity) or a speciﬁc pre-set lighting scene. 100 % 100 % 100 % If there is no available daylight the luminaires work at full luminous output. 0% 100 % 100 % Scenic control can independently manage any group of luminaires at any luminous ﬂux level. 0% 0% 100 % During the night hours and during breaks it is possible for the luminaires to illumine only above the walkways and for the other luminaires to turn off or shine only at a safety level. APPLICATIONS I 125 126 I TYPY RIADENIA HOTELS, RESTAURANTS AND PUBS Hotels, conference halls, entertainment centres, bars, coffee shops and restaurants are all spaces offering huge potential for the use of atmospheric ambient lighting. For the lighting to be effective is it necessary to use intelligent controls which allow the lighting to be changed according to the needs and desires of the user. Trends in commercial lighting have become more apparent as of late as the relationship between architecture and light has moved from a functional partnership to one where light plays a vital role in the appearance of a space and is viewed as a central element of any design. RGB control systems can be integrated into superior management systems that can also control, for example, air conditioning and multi-media devices. TYPY RIADENIA I 127 Applications Manual combined control RGB/W (Sample application—Reception) Whether a hotel has a modern or period styled reception area, it is always beneﬁcial to enhance the design and functionality by use of suitable lighting. It is possible to create a simple management system only for the reception area which will enable the creation of the all-important ﬁrst impression for visitors. If desired, you could go further and base a central control for the entire building in reception. The sample application shown here uses two wall controls. One for RGB and the other for the white luminaires. These controls do not allow for the creation of lighting scenes, but they do allow the changing of light colour, intensity and saturation simply at the touch of a button. RGB data communication runs via a DMX bus, and for the white luminaires through a DALI bus. DMX needs an external power source, while DALI is powered directly from the control panel. This kind of system requires no programing before use. Illumination of such spaces is not focussed on energy saving but more on the need to create a pleasant, welcoming atmosphere and a focal point for visitors. 3 2 3 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 DALI luminaire white DMX luminaire RGB power supply data bus (DALI) data bus (DMX) control panel wall panel RGB ASSESSMENT OF THE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT COMFORT AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER 0% ENERGY SAVING 128 I APPLICATIONS White lighting. The RGB luminaires can shine with white light. RGB/W lighting. APPLICATIONS I 129 Applications Comfort control RGB/W (Sample application—Bar) Creating the right ambience is crucial in such spaces as bars, whether a disco bar where you go for a wild party, or a cocktail bar where you go with friends or business partners to relax. For this sample application, a disco bar, comfortable and simple control of dynamic lighting is required. The change from dynamic to static lighting can be made by the touch of a button on a built-in touch panel or remote control. The white spotlights used are of the DALI type. Communication between the touch panel and RGB luminaires is done via a speciﬁc data bus. The resistor dimmable luminaires can be controlled via a dimmer. If you wanted to add non-dimmable luminaires and peripheral devices this could be done easily by adding a switch phase controlled via the control panel. An RC remote control means that all devices can be controlled from anywhere in the room. This type of system requires programing before operation. This type of lighting system is not focussed on energy saving but on the comfortable control of a dynamic system which creates the required atmosphere easily within the space. 3 2 3 3 2 3 4 2 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 3 white spotlight luminaires (dimmable) RGB LED luminaires (dimmable) white luminaires (resistor dimming) power supply data bus (DALI) controlled power phase speciﬁc data bus RC remote control touch panel RC receiver central control unit dimmer ASSESSMENT OF THE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT COMFORT AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER 0% ENERGY SAVING 130 I APPLICATIONS RGB/W lighting scene for creating atmosphere. White lighting scene. APPLICATIONS I 131 Applications Manual and group control (Sample applicationâ€”Canteen) This sample application uses an RC receiver which allows for the independent control of two separate groups of luminaires. The push button control device is located by the door, via this control it is possible to turn the luminaires on and off and to set the luminous output level. To make this system more comfortable we use an RC remote control. This allows for the control of a maximum of four groups of luminaires via two RC receivers. It is not necessary to use remote control, but it is a comfortable and practical option. Manual dimming allows the light to be adapted to the use of the space, a lunch break which requires a high level of illumination, or cleaning and servicing where a lower level of luminous output is sufďŹ cient. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 luminaire group 1 (dimmable) luminaire group 2 (dimmable) power supply switched power phase control line push button RC remote control RC receiver ASSESSMENT OF THE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT COMFORT AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER 0% ENERGY SAVING 132 I APPLICATIONS 0% 30 % Through the push buttons it is possible to set any level of luminous ďŹ‚ux for each group of luminaires. Therefore it is possible to manually create a ratio (the so called offset function) between the luminaires at the windows and further into the space. 100 % 100 % If there is no available daylight the luminaires are manually switched on to maximum luminous output. 100 % 0% Group control enables switching on of the luminaires only in that part of the space where it is needed. APPLICATIONS I 133 EDUCATION AND SCIENCE Educational buildings are spaces where students and teachers spend a lot of time and are required to concentrate more than usual. A correctly planned and intelligently controlled lighting system is essential not only to create ideal conditions for learning, but also for safety. The kind of control methods used in these buildings changes according to the particular use of each space. An intelligently controlled lighting system enables the creation of a suitable environment but can also offer signiďŹ cant saving potential. In classrooms, lecture theatres or any other space where learning is the goal, it is possible to promote wellbeing whilst also saving electricity by using intelligent control tools. This is achieved by combining motion and lighting intensity sensors with a simple on/off switch. 134 I TYPY RIADENIA TYPY RIADENIA I 135 Applications Simple management system with offset function (Sample applicationâ€”Classroom) In the sample application we use a combined motion and lighting intensity sensor with an additional motion sensor to ensure ideal coverage of the space. Pre-set lighting scenes are created to optimise both convenience and saving potential. This system allows manual selection of lighting scenes directly on the sensor. Adaptations based on the time of day or what lighting level to use when there is nobody in the room can be regulated by software. Such a system can be used for other spaces too, such as ofďŹ ces, corridors and lounges. This system includes the offset function, which enables luminaires to shine at different levels according to how close they are to the windows. In this installation the main control unit is placed directly in the master luminaire, the other luminaires are slaves. Two DALI buses are used, one for the group of luminaires by the windows (1), and one for the luminaires further into the room (2). The same power line can be used for all luminaires. The additional lighting by the board (3) is controlled by a standard wall switch. If necessary (if it is not appropriate to control on the basis of movement) it is possible to change the scene based only on lighting intensity. 1 1 1 3 2 COMPONENT OF LUMINAIRE 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 3 luminaires by the window (group 1 dimmable) luminaires in the room (group 2 dimmable) accent lighting of the board (3 non-dimmable) power supply data bus (DALI) panel control switch push button movement sensor combined sensor control unit ASSESSMENT OF THE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT COMFORT AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER 43-75 % ENERGY SAVING 136 I APPLICATIONS 40 % 40 % 10 % 0% If the sensor detects movement and also a reduced amount of available daylight (it is overcast, or earlier or later in the day) the luminaires will shine at a pre-set luminous output to ensure constant illumination of the space. To give uniform lighting the luminaires will shine according to the offset function, for example, the luminaires closer to the window will shine at 10 % and further into the room at 40 %. The additional board lighting is switched off. 0% 0% 0% 0% If there is a sufďŹ cient amount of daylight coming into the room the sensor will detect this and the luminaires will be switched off. 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % If there is no daylight entering the room and movement is detected all luminaires will shine at 100 %. The additional board lighting can be manually switched off. 0% 0% 0% 0% If the sensors do not detect any movement during the day or night, the luminaires are switched off. Luminaires are switched off automatically (with the possibility of a double delay) or manually when everyone leaves the room. APPLICATIONS I 137 ROADS AND PUBLIC SPACES The term ‘public’ means to be beneﬁcial to society. When we add the word ‘lighting’ to this term it means not only the lighting of external spaces but also an overall increase in lighting quality during night hours. Effective lighting of streets and roads imposes numerous demands on a lighting system. When the illumination is correctly designed it can offer both saving potential and improved conditions for users of the space. If roads are properly lit this improves the visual acuity of drivers and their reaction times are reduced and trafﬁc safety is improved. Quality lighting of public areas contributes to reduced accident rates, and higher levels of illumination have a strong inﬂuence on reductions in criminality. Developments made in light sources designed for public lighting mean that there is now a signiﬁcant saving potential within any external lighting system. The wide variety of control methods available can meet the needs of even the most exacting customer. One of the most suitable control methods for this type of lighting is control based on time. Systems that incorporate wireless communication can be monitored remotely, and any faults or failures within are reported real time allowing for their fast resolution and ensuring higher safety in these areas. 138 I TYPY RIADENIA TYPY RIADENIA I 139 Applications Time management (Sample application—Public lighting) Most of the public lighting around us now indicates as to when it was installed or last serviced by the design and quality of light output. Newly built and reconstructed lighting offers numerous possibilities with regard to design and more importantly with regard to control. Modern LED and ﬂuorescent lamp luminaires allow full or partial dimming. It means that the luminous output can be modiﬁed according to the utilisation and level of occupancy within a space, for example of different parts of a town or village. This immediately provides a signiﬁcant saving potential. Depending on the demands placed on road lighting, it is possible that as certain times, maybe during the very late hours and early hours of the morning, to reduce the luminous output. Such an application is suitable for back streets and quiet areas, but of course not acceptable for such places as major roads and high frequency routes. One simple control method is the double-circuit switch clock (Astronomical Clock) which is placed directly in the power distributor. Using this double phase control luminaires have different luminous outputs according to whether one or both phases are switched. It is also possible to use lighting intensity sensors instead of or in addition to time based control (twilight sensors) which can be set at a reference lighting intensity level. By this control method luminaires are switched on when the measured level of light drops below the reference level. The luminaires then shine until sunrise when they switch off once the measured level of light exceeds the reference level. By com- 4 ASTRONOMICAL CLOCK public lighting (two phase control) power line (two phase) double circuit Astronomical Clock ASSESSMENT OF THE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT COMFORT AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER 15-30 % ENERGY SAVING bining this function with time control we can create an ideal regulation where luminaires provide full luminous output from sunset when they are switched on by the twilight sensor, and after, for example, three hours when there is an assumed reduction in movement frequency in the streets, the luminaires reduce their output to 50 % by astronomical control. Then approximately two hours before sunrise the luminaires again increase their output to 100 %, and after a time they are turned off once the ambient light exceeds the refer- ence level of the twilight sensor. A similar functionality can be used for lighting billboards and advertisements. If it is not feasible to build or reconstruct such a system using separate data lines it is possible to use PowerLine AC which communicates all the required control commands directly via the power lines that supply the luminaires. 140 I APPLICATIONS The public lighting switches off automatically during sunrise. The public lighting automatically switches on during sunset, it possibly changes (reduces) luminous ďŹ‚ux during the night hours. APPLICATIONS I 141 Applications Design and special-purpose lighting with central control (Sample applicationâ€”Architecture and surroundings) To highlight elements of a buildingâ€™s architecture we can use RGB or white lighting, or a suitable combination of the two. The selection depends on the type of building and its purpose. Building illumination can be achieved indirectly by the lighting of surrounding paths, parklands and fountains. Illumination of facades and outer surfaces can be centrally controlled from within the building by use of intuitive PC control. This type of application allows time management of lighting scenes and automatic starting of RGB sequences. In this sample application the facade is illuminated using RGB controlled through a DMX bus. The path illumination is controlled by a DALI bus. If it is not possible to create a data link between the luminaires, as with the luminaires used to illuminate the trees in the sample application, then Wi-Fi communication is an option. The non-dimmable luminaires used by the fountain are switched by a DALI relay. As this type of lighting is used only when desired, manually turned on and off, it can offer saving potential. 2 2 3 2 1 3 2 1 2 2 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 4 1 4 4 1 2 3 4 DALI luminaire white RGB luminaire with Wi-Fi communication DMX luminaire RGB non-dimmable luminaire power supply switch phase data bus (DALI) data bus (DMX) Ethernet network PC central control unit multi-channel DALI relay ASSESSMENT OF THE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT COMFORT AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER 0-20 % ENERGY SAVING 142 I APPLICATIONS The RGB lighting of the trees completes the lighting design. The chosen colour can be different on each of the trees. All RGB luminaires can also produce a white colour for illuminating the facade. Through changing the lighting scene it is also possible to switch on illumination of the paths. APPLICATIONS I 143 144 I TYPY RIADENIA TYPY RIADENIA I 145 Applications Zone switching based on movement (Sample application—Underground garages) Similar to corridor lighting, the illumination of garages is focused on meeting the requirements stipulated for such a space. Many garages have no access to daylight so motion sensors are the obvious control methods to use. Luminaires are divided into groups, each with an independent PIR switching sensor or one which uses high-frequency radio waves. These sensors only switch the power phase of the luminaires—turning them on or off. The delay before the luminaires are switched off after movement is no longer detected can be set manually or by remote control (depending on the type of sensor). When using a more sophisticated lighting management system, as in the sample application, it is possible to use the corridor function—here the luminaires do not switch off fully but to a reduced luminous output, a safety level of maybe 10 %. This function uses a switching sensor and two phase control where the level of luminous output depends on whether one or both phases are switched. In order to implement the corridor function all luminaires must be dimmable. An additional functionality is when the system is set in such a way as to lead drivers to vacant parking spaces. The overall switching off of the luminaires is done by switching the power phase and disconnecting the system from the power supply. 1 2 2 3 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 4 1 2 2 3 1 2 3 luminaire group 1 (dimmable) luminaire group 2 (dimmable) luminaire group 3 (dimmable) power supply scanning area of sensor switch movement switching sensor ASSESSMENT OF THE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT COMFORT AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER 30-50 % ENERGY SAVING 146 I APPLICATIONS 10 % 100 % 10 % 10 % If the sensors do not detect any movement, the luminaires shine at the safety level of 10 %, except for those illuminating the pedestrian exits from the garage where, owing to safety reasons, a higher illuminance level is required. 10 % 100 % 100 % 10 % If a movement is detected in a zone, the luminaires switch on and after movement is no longer detected they dim gradually, after a delay, to the safety level. 10 % 100 % 10 % 100 % The detection of movement in another zone causes the luminaires to switch on. APPLICATIONS I 147 148 I TYPY RIADENIA FACADES AND ARCHITECTURE Just as light can be used to complete the design of an interior space, it can also be used to highlight the external facades of buildings, drawing attention to important or historically valuable places. Cool white or RGB illumination that changes dynamically is suitable for modern glass walled buildings. On the other hand historical buildings beneďŹ t from warmer white lighting. By implementing control elements into external lighting solutions we can increase the functionality of the system and consequently the appeal of selected buildings, especially during evening hours. Smart programing of management systems enables the dynamic lighting of facades using many colours, or highlighting of the company logo. Such systems do not offer much saving potential, however if LED luminaires are used in combination with effective programing and the use of sensors (such as twilight sensors), it will increase the saving potential to its maximum. TYPY RIADENIA I 149 Applications Architectural lighting (Sample application—Facade illumination of buildings) When designing architectural lighting it is vital to consider the type of building being dealt with, whether it is historical, culturally important or modern, as each requires a very different lighting solution. The purpose of lighting the facades and frontages of buildings is to draw attention to their architecture, not only at night but also during the day, to highlight their value, importance and/or advertising function. Illumination can be either direct or indirect. The required effect can be achieved by use of various and appropriate types of luminaire. Projector luminaires can create a so called ‘wall washing’ effect or be used to highlight the size of a building, while linear luminaires accentuate the outline of a building. LED panels can show videos of various qualities and resolutions, or they can be used to create lighting effects. This type of lighting is a hugely variable and adaptable tool in the hands of designers and architects—they have at their disposal a large number of luminaires suitable for accentuating the building facade. If it is not possible to build in a separate control line, control can be facilitated via the current power line using PowerLine AC. RGB control can be done wirelessly—see the control of the projector luminaire in the sample application. In this application the facade illumination is provided by LED line luminaires controlled through a DMX bus. Overall control is provided by one central touch panel and video converter (for video visualisation). It is necessary to program system functionality prior to start-up. 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 RGB linear luminaire ‘highlighting the building outline’ (DMX) RGB projector luminaire ‘wall’ washing effect (DMX/Wi-Fi) ASSESSMENT OF THE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT COMFORT AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER 3 LED RGB panels ‘video effect’ (DMX) 0-20 % ENERGY SAVING Saving potential can be offered by the switching on of the system (manually or automatically or based on time) only when necessary. The primary focus of such a system is not energy saving but comfort of use and the effect created by the lighting used. The whole system must adhere to the required IP (Ingress Protection) level corresponding to its location and use. 150 I APPLICATIONS The building without facade illumination during evening hours. The building is illuminated by luminaires which create a ‘wall washing’ effect on the walls. Overlapping the lighting colour is done according to a pre-set sequence schedule.. The building illuminated by a ‘wall washing’ effect with outline lighting of the roof. Control is via a central touch panel. To increase building illumination the frontage is ﬁtted with LED panels. Videos are input into the system through a video converter. APPLICATIONS I 151 152 I TYPY RIADENIA SPORTS FACILITIES Indoor and outdoor sports facilities are spaces where large numbers of people participate in many types of sporting activities. When designing the illumination for such spaces it is necessary to bear in mind that each location and sport place different demands on the lighting and the luminaires themselves. With the use of suitable management tools it is possible to create illumination ﬁtting particular sporting activities and the level of event taking place. The majority of control can be accomplished via pre-set light scenes. If the structure of the sports ground and the type of luminaires used allow, it is beneﬁcial to use lighting intensity sensors. In this way, by a simple touch of a button the lighting level can be adapted to the activity in the space, from a particular sport, to a break, to maintenance; and it will be possible to adjust the lighting level throughout the whole facility, or in one speciﬁc area, all without rewiring. If we take into account that maintenance and training need a lower level of illumination than competitions and matches, there can be a signiﬁcant saving potential within the system. TYPY RIADENIA I 153 Applications Scene management of lighting (Sample applicationâ€”Sports hall) Multi-functional sports hall, gyms, ice rinks and other such places, are best managed by scenic control. If used in combination with LED or ďŹ‚uorescent DALI luminaires it is possible to make considerable energy savings. It is necessary to adapt the level of illumination to the activity, for example with regard to an ice rink, it is not necessary to have such a high level of illumination during resurfacing as during a hockey match. With the simple touch of a button or through a PC application (time management) it is possible to reduce or increase the illumination as needed. This offers saving potential and reduces operating costs whilst still providing uniform lighting. In multi-functional halls which are used for a range of sporting activities, for example tennis, volleyball and badminton, it is possible to control luminaires in groups so that illumination is provided only in the area needed. A pre-set automatic schedule can enable lighting to be controlled with no intervention from an operator. Lighting intensity sensors can be used in places where there is available daylight and will provide a high level of saving potential. The sample application shows a multifunctional hall with dimmable DALI luminaires. The control components are placed directly in the power distributor that feeds the luminaires. The functionality of one or several control locations can be programed by computer when the system is started-up. 2 5 5 2 2 5 2 1. CONTROL PANEL 2. CONTROL PANEL 5 CENTRAL CONTROL UNIT main lighting (dimmable) power line control line data bus (DALI) push button push button input member central control unit ASSESSMENT OF THE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT COMFORT AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER 10-30 % ENERGY SAVING 154 I APPLICATIONS 100 % 0% During a match or training it is sufﬁcient for the luminaires to shine only above the main pitch. 0% 100 % During breaks it is not necessary for the main pitch to be illuminated—only orientation lighting is turned on in the stands to ensure the safety of spectators. DIM 0–100 % DIM 0–100 % SCENE 1: 100 % (TV transmission) SCENE 2: 75 % (match) SCENE 3: 50 % (training) SCENE 4: 25 % (maintenance) SCENE 5: 10 % (cleaning) SCENE 6: 0 % (off) The DALI lighting system enables lighting scenes to be pre-set and used, i.e. the required lighting intensity for a selected space in the hall can be pre-deﬁned. Each luminaire can be adjusted to any level of luminous ﬂux within the framework of the lighting scene (dimming). These lighting scenes can be chosen simply via control buttons or through a computer application. APPLICATIONS I 155 156 I TYPY RIADENIA COMPREHENSIVE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF A WHOLE BUILDING A comprehensive management system for a whole building can be applicable for small buildings and the largest high-rise or manufacturing premises. This kind of management can incorporate various systems and can be used to control many operational elements such as air conditioning and heating. Lighting is standardly one of the most centrally controlled systems. Convenient control is provided in several central control locations, as well as local control in each room or area. Central monitoring and control of the system and its components is beneďŹ cial with regard to maintenance. Should any malfunction or failure occur it is immediately noted, speciďŹ ed and pinpointed so that a repair can be made. One push of a button in one location can put the whole building into night mode where lighting is dimmed to a level suitable for safety and security purposes. Changes to settings can be made through the central control. Additionally the central control can monitor energy consumption and keep you aware of the energy savings being made. TYPY RIADENIA I 157 Applications Comprehensive lighting management system of a whole building As a comprehensive lighting management system for a whole building must control many luminaires and peripheral devices and operations, it is necessary to incorporate several systems, as DALI and DMX have limited capacity. Their joining together can be achieved by a standard LAN (Ethernet) connection without limiting sensor integration or control optionality. One big advantage is that it is possible to create a single control location, or several with the same functionality, meaning that the user or building adminis- highest level of saving potential due to its trator can have an overview of the whole intelligent, speciďŹ c and all-encompassing building, not only from a particular loca- control. tion, but even remotely through the internet from anywhere in the world. Combining several control methods such as analog, digital and switch phase allows the control of several separate systems within one interface. The system also allows local control in individual rooms or areas. Peripheral devices too can be controlled, all through a device such as a smartphone or iPad. It is necessary to program the functionality of the system at start-up. Such a comprehensive system offers the COMMUNICATION ELEMENT ETHERNET SECUNDARY BUS POWER ELEMENT CONTROL ELEMENT SUPERIOR LIGHTING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ASSESSMENT OF THE LIGHTING MANAGEMENT COMFORT AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER CONTROL ELEMENT POWER ELEMENT PRIMARY BUS 1 DALI PRIMARY BUS 2 DALI 0-80 % ...64 1 2 3... ...64 1 2 3... ENERGY SAVING 1-64 addresses of DALI devices (luminaires, sensors, control elements, dimmers, control gears, relays) Topology of DALI lighting system connection 158 I APPLICATIONS WI-FI CONTROLLER CENTRAL CONTROL UNIT DALI DALI WI-FI ETHERNET CENTRAL TOUCH PANEL DALI RELAY SWITCH PHASE SMARTPHONE REGULATOR OF BLINDS CENTRAL CONTROL UNIT DALI DALI DMX SWITCH PHASE ETHERNET ETHERNET DIMMER REGULATED PHASE CONVERTER DALI / 10–10 V PC LAN SWITCH ETHERNET CENTRAL CONTROL UNIT DALI 1–10 V DALI DALI RELAY SUPERIOR LIGHTING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM INTERNET SWITCH PHASE APPLICATIONS I 159 160 I TYPY RIADENIA LATEST TRENDS IN LIGHTING MANAGEMENT Recent developments in lighting management provide users with new possibilities, creating the potential for linking systems and in-depth personalisation according to the needs of each customer. This not only improves the user experience but also the saving potential that is inherent in an intelligently controlled system. TYPY RIADENIA I 161 Latest trends in lighting management In spite of ever-increasing energy costs and a determination to make savings in this area, the majority (approximately 80 %) of lighting systems do not include any management tools. This means users cannot adjust the system in any way that can provide energy savings. A further 15 % of users use only the simplest kinds of analog control enabling manual dimming which provides a very limited saving potential. The remaining 5 % use DALI digital control which provides sophisticated lighting management and signiﬁcant saving potential but at the same has the limitation that an additional driver needs to be installed in each luminaire, and the number of luminaires that can be controlled by each bus is limited. The aims of development in this ﬁeld are to bring new ideas to existing management tools and to remove the restrictions currently linked with their use. OMS, which has many years of experience in the development, design and implementation of LMS tools focuses its attention particularly on the advancement of RFID (Radio Frequency Identiﬁcation), lighting intensity and correlated colour temperature sensors (ambient light sensor), wireless DALI buses and the manual tuning of white light (TunableWhite) technologies. RFID control Ambient light sensor Wireless DALI Manual TubnableWhite RFID control RFID—Radio Frequency Identiﬁcation—is an extensive lighting management system based on the wireless transmission of information between the scanning device and the identiﬁed equipment—the RFID tag. Transmission is carried out using short range radio waves, over a distance of a few metres for passive RFID tags which do not require any energy source, and up to tens of metres for active RFID tags which contain a power source. RFID tags—examples (pendants, bracelets…) 162 I LATEST TRENDS IN LIGHTING MANAGEMENT Currently the RFID systems come in various versions, commonly used for contactless identiﬁcation of materials and people, for example in the form of an attendance system. If we add to this system further communication devices and modify the software, it is possible to also use it for the management and regulation of lighting systems. Speciﬁcally it can be linked with DALI. A user equipped with an RFID tag (in a card, bracelet or pendant) activates illumination to a pre-deﬁned level in the space entered by passing a scanning device located at the door or gate, also the time and date of entrance can be recorded. Additional functionality such as automatic unlocking of doors and opening of electronic blinds can be included. System elements The following components are essential for RFID operation with minimal conﬁguration: RFID scanning device (gate), RFID control component with DALI interface, and RFID tag for the user. The functionality is quite simple. When a user passes an RFID gate (carrying an RFID tag), a control component is activated and transmits a unique data chain from the RFID chip. This chain is compared with the chains in its internal database and when a match is found it adjusts the pre-deﬁned illumination level for the attached luminaires through DALI. When the chip passes again, and if there is no other chip present within the space, the luminaires are switched off. It can be either immediate or with a pre-set delay. Another extension of this system is its attendance functionality where employees and materials can be monitored. RFID is fully scalable and allows the connection of several sub-systems which results in more precise and appropriately set control, and consequently provides higher saving potential. This system is suitable for use in enclosed spaces with deﬁned inputs, from homes, to ofﬁces to large warehouses. RFID scanner—example LATEST TRENDS IN LIGHTING MANAGEMENT I 163 Latest trends in lighting management RFID control Ambient light sensor Wireless DALI Manual TubnableWhite Ambient light sensor Luminaires which allow the dimming or setting of correlated colour temperature (TunableWhite) work one-way, without feedback. It means that the user can set the parameters of the light being emitted, but the parameters of the light falling on the task area are unknown. It may be that there are other sources of light, such as daylight, which are not taken into account when setting the luminaire. In this case an ambient light sensor can measure the light falling on the task area and whether it meets the required parameters. An ambient light sensor is positioned in the region of the task area, and digitally measures lighting intensity and correlated colour temperature in real time. This data is wirelessly transmitted to the control unit which in turn adjusts the output of the attached luminaires through a DALI interface. In this way the parameters are deďŹ ned at the task area and not at the output of the luminaire. This is called intelligent feedback. Two components are needed for this sensor to function. A sensor and a control unit. This system is suitable for spaces with higher lighting quality and stability requirements, or hygiene requirements, for example healthcare facilities, laboratories, schools, et DALI CONTROL UNIT light light radio waves sensor Sensor activityâ€”example 164 I LATEST TRENDS IN LIGHTING MANAGEMENT Wireless DALI DALI is the most common interface used for the individual control of luminaires. However this interface dictates the use of two additional drivers to interconnect the luminaire control with the control device (dimmer, touch panel). Wireless DALI is a way to connect multiple segments of a DALI system even if they cannot be physically connected by wires. Bridging components can be placed directly in the luminaire or as a separate part of the installation. Manual TunableWhite Correlated colour temperature (CCT) is one of the basic parameters of light which is perceived by the human eye as a shifting of white towards yellow (warm white) or blue (cool white). This parameter is ﬁxed in classic light sources, however there are special LED light sources that allow for the tuning of the white light output to various temperatures, and is commonly done using DALI. However, in practical application, there is not always a DALI bus attached the luminaire, such as with track lighting systems. Such lighting is typical for shops, manufacturing premises or exhibition areas. In these cases moving of the luminaire (or of the illuminated objects) means that the colour temperature of the emitted light must also be changed. ‘Manual TunableWhite’ is designed speciﬁcally for these applications. It is done by controlling the power supply to each LED within the luminaire, one LED emits cool light, one warm light, and depending on the level of current being fed to each the colour of the emitted light changes. This is controlled by two buttons, one increasing the colour temperature and one reducing it. This allows users to quickly and easily change the CCT of the luminaire. Low price, small dimensions and simple use combined with the ability to use it with many standard components are big advantages of this solution. DALI VARIANT 1: wireless communication 2700 K 2700 K 5000 K 5000 K 5000 K wireless DALI module 2700 K VARIANT 2: DALI Wireless connection of several DALI devices 4000 K 4000 K 4000 K 2700 K 2700 K 2700 K This type of illumination is suitable for spaces where it is not possible to install a complete DALI control line. The simplicity and small size of the luminaires means that Adjustment (change) of CCT in the lighting system without any need to change luminaires and with no DALI—example. incorporation in an existing DALI system is easily achieved. LATEST TRENDS IN LIGHTING MANAGEMENT I 165 Explanatory Notes User and input interfaces Switch Everyday wall rocker switch, for switching the power phase to the luminaires. Push button Standard wall switching push button for switching the electric contact. Manual dimmer Wall transistor or Thyristor manual dimmer for some types of LED luminaires or classic and halogen lamps. Touch panel Sensitive touch LCD display which uses a creative and intuitive interface for controlling the lighting system and associated devices. Touch panel TW Control panel for dynamic white controlled by either choosing pre-set lighting scenes or by fully automatic changes in colour temperature through the day. Wall panel RGB Wall panel RGB is for the direct adjustment to any colour within the spectrum, and the saving of pre-set lighting scenes, communication is via a DMX bus. Control panel DALI control panel made in various designs, with a different number of push buttons for choosing lighting scenes or dimming. The panel is ďŹ tted with an IR receiver. IR remote control Manual remote control using infrared radiation (IR) for controlling and managing the lighting system. Wall Control RGB A wall control device used for controlling RGB lighting. Communication is via a speciďŹ c data bus. Control panel PowerLine AC This is a switch or button panel which transmits along the power lines using a digital or analog bus. RC switch Multi-channel radio wall switch for controlling the luminaires by touch DIM without any need to use a control line. RC remote control The RC remote control uses radio waves to communicate and the signal can partially penetrate obstacles (it depends on the distance and material substance). Typically used for RGB control. iOS / Android A device using iOS or Android. Such personal devices are primarily determined for telephoning and multimedia and can be used also for wireless control of lighting and associated peripheral devices. Control panel PowerLine DC Rotational or button control panel for direct connection to a central power source. Control panel A DMX universal control panel with the option of controlling the DMX channels on which the DMX luminaires and devices are addressed. By connecting to the input of the central control unit it is possible, via bus decoders, to drive the lighting DALI, 1â€“10 V or DSI luminaires. 166 I EXPLANATORY NOTES Push button and sensor input Enables the connection of a switching device into the system for the purpose of control. IR receiver Equipment determined for receiving commands from an IR remote control with the subsequent retransmission of the order to the data control network. RC receiver Receiver device for the IR remote control or RC switch, with the possibility that it can be placed in an unseen, obscure position. PC kit PC software and USB adapter through which we can connect a PC with the management system and thus set the lighting scenes or RGB sequences directly. Lighting intensity sensor A sensor used to regulate the luminous output of luminaires based on the measured level of illumination in the space. Movement switching sensor Passive Infrared (PIR) motion sensor with variable sensitivity. Can be positioned at various heights and mounted in various ways. The sensor uses a standardly open contact which loses when movement is detected. Motion sensor A sensor with the DALI data output for direct incorporation into the data control network. It does not contain a switching contact. Combined sensor A sensor combining lighting intensity and movement detection within a space, with a pre-deďŹ ned scanning area. Multi-sensor An automatic sensor determined for achieving high energy savings. It scans movement and lighting intensity in open spaces. The sensor is ďŹ t with an IR receiver. Control elements Control unit A pre-programed module for controlling the lighting based on a selected schedule and input information from sensors and control push buttons. Central control unit It creates the main control element of a lighting management system. It contains one or two DALI buses with integrated DALI sources or a DMX bus for control of RGB. Connecting expansion units enables the creation of a more extensive lighting system containing over 100,000 luminaires. Central Power Source (CPS) The central power source determined for feeding and controlling the luminaires through PowerLine DC communication. Astronomical Clock Facilitates automatic switching of illumination based on time, with the option to switch on based on the deďŹ ned sunrise and sunset throughout the whole year. PC Personal computer used for programming, controlling or administering (through implementing software applications) the lighting system and associated peripheral devices. EXPLANATORY NOTES I 167 Explanatory Notes Superior management system The LMS can be integrated into the central management of a building and can receive commands for controlling a speciﬁed luminaire or a group of luminaires, or to furnish information about the state of the lighting system to a superior system. Wireless access point Access point which allows information to be transferred between two or more points that are not connected by wires. It connects network communication devices. Controller This is the basic unit of the system and serves as an input device for processing commands from devices using iOS and Android. It then delegates the commands further to the lighting management system or other peripheral equipment. Transmitter and receiver PowerLine AC The transmitting and receiving module for communication via PowerLine AC along standard AC power lines connected to the electric grid. DMX / DALI converter Connects DMX and DALI buses, i.e. it is possible through DMX control to also control DALI devices. Ballastrpower components Electronic control gear Electronic device which powers the light source and increases saving potential compared with conventional ballasts. Can be used for digital or analog dimming. Transformer Halogen lamps are designed to run on lower voltage than standard mains electric, so must be ﬁt with a transformer. LED source This is an electronic ballast for powering LED light sources. Multi-channel LED source This is an electronic ballast designed for powering several LED light sources with independently controllable channels. Control is done via a DMX bus. DALI / 1–10 V / DSI converter Connects DALI to a 1–10 V or DSI bus, i.e. it is possible through DALI control to also control 1–10 V and DSI type luminaires. The combined control unit and LED source The combined control unit and LED source serve as a multi-channel power source for RGB(W) luminaires controlled through a speciﬁc bus. It enables the pre-setting of RGB(W) static scenes and sequences. DALI power source An independent power source for the DALI bus. Dimmer A universal dimmer in various load versions for adjusting lighting intensity in incandescent, halide or low-voltage halide lamps. Multi-channel DALI relay A component used for switching on/off the data (control) of peripheral devices. 168 I EXPLANATORY NOTES Lighting sources and devices Incandescent lamp A type of light source where electricity is converted to heat by passing a current through a metallic ﬁlament made of tungsten, producing light from the radiance emitted from the ﬁlament by Joule Effect. Fluorescent lamp A light source which converts electricity to light using an electrical discharge in mercury vapour. LED RGB The result of putting together three monochromatic LEDs which emit red, green and blue. Through a reciprocal regulation (proportion) of the output of individual colours we can achieve any colour from the whole colour spectrum. Halogen lamp Halogen gas-ﬁlled lamp. Operates at higher temperatures leading to higher efﬁciency and brightness than incandescent lamps. Dynamic lighting RGB lighting heads designed for rapid colour changes and movement controlled by motor. Fluorescent lamp TunableWhite Standard ﬂuorescent lamp with an adequate colour temperature of 2700 K–6500 K used for daylight simulation. Fluorescent lamp colour Standard ﬂuorescent lamp of a red, green and blue colour used for RGB applications. LED A Light Emitting Diode is a semiconductor component that emits narrow spectrum light when electricity passes through it in one direction. One way to get a white colour from the light source is to use a phosphor layer which changes the emitted light from the LED to the desired colour. LED TunableWhite There is minimally a pair of LEDs of different colours where one colour represents the bottom limit of the colour temperature (e.g. 2,700 K) and the other the upper one (e.g. 6,500K). By mixing the colour and changing the individual intensities we can create a daylight simulation. Load RCL A device with resistive, induction or capacity load, for example the combination of incandescent lamp, transformer, electronic control gear, etc. Motor control of blinds and other peripheral devices Can be turned on and off by switching relay, the speed of the motor can be regulated. EXPLANATORY NOTES I 169 170 I TYPY RIADENIA TYPY RIADENIA I 171 The manufacturer reserves all rights to make changes in materials and components used in the production of lighting ﬁttings. Autors: Ing. Marián Slávik, OMS, spol. s r.o., Ing. Tomáš Hutta, OMS, spol. s r.o. Graphic design: © Jozef Jagušák, RECO s.r.o., Prepress: RECO s.r.o., Photo: Milan Noga, RECO s.r.o.