Staff of the Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs Bertha G. Holliday, PhD, Senior Director Alberto Figueroa-GarcĂa, MBA, Assistant Director Sherry T. Wynn, Senior Program Associate Mariam Abushanab, Intern Sarena Loya, Intern (202) 336-6029 (202) 336-6040 FAX (202) 336-6123 APA TDD email@example.com http://www.apa.org/pi/oema/index.aspx
Cover page designed by David Spears
MELBA J. T. VASQUEZ, PHD First Latina PRESIDENT-ELECT Of The American Psychological Association A Well-Deserved Achievement!
IN THIS ISSUE… OEMA UPDATE Bertha G. Holliday, PhD, Senior Director. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
SPECIAL SECTION: Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention and Training ASSOCIATION REPORTS New Staff in Government Relations Office.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 APA’s Strategic Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 APA’s Interim Diversity Implementation Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Update: The APA Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Update: The Council of National Psychological Associations for the Advancement of Ethnic Minority Interests (CNPAAEMI). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Call for Nominations CNPAAEMI Henry Tomes Awards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Now Available: Psychology Education and Training From Culture-Specific and Multiracial Perspectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Dues Credit to APA Full Members Who Are Also Members of a National Ethnic Minority Psychological Association.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 New Members of Color on APA Standing Boards and Committees.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 APA Committee of State Leaders Diversity Initiative.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 AI/AN Section within Division 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 The Inaugural APA Division 45 Conference.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
PUBLIC POLICY AND ADVOCACY Commentary: Confronting Immigration Challenges in a Nation of Immigrants: A Call for APA Action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
IN THIS ISSUEâ€Ś Public Policy Update. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 APA Testimony before U.S. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 U.S. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs Oversight Hearing on Youth Suicide.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Health Care Reform (HCR) and Health Disparities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 APA Members Participate in Congressional Black Caucus Veterans Braintrust. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Get Involved in Advocacy!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Advocating for a Mental Health Workforce that Meets the Needs of our Aging and Ethnic Minority Populations: $900,000 IOM Report Authorized.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 APA and The Coalition on Health Disparities: Position Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Update on Health Disparities Provisions in Health Reform Legislation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Briefing Sheet: Provisions of The Indian Health Care Improvement Reauthorization and Extension Act of 2009. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
FOR YOUR INFORMATION ANNOUNCEMENTS OBITUARIES
Harriette Pipes McAdoo, PhD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Gerald Mohatt, PhD, Founding President of Sinte Gleska College.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Gary A. Simpkins, PhD, Founder of Black Students Psychological Association. . . . . . . . . . . 73 Division 55 To Honor Memory of Dr. Eduardo Caraveo (Major, US Army). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 K UDOS! New Director for the Indian Health Service Division of Behavioral Health.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 New NIMH Associate Director for Special Populations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Claude M. Steele, PhD, Named Provost of Columbia University. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 -ii-
IN THIS ISSUE… FOR YOUR INFORMATION Newly Appointed Senior Vice Provost at University of New Hampshire.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Nashville Police Department Receives International Victim Services Award. . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 National Alliance for Hispanic Health Named Organization of the Year. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Recipients of the 2011 National Multicultural Conference and Summit (NMCS) Distinguished Elder Awards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 S PECIAL OPPORTUNITIES Improve Your Practice and Help Your Community: Become a Volunteer HIV Trainer!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 RESEARCH AND TRAINING ISSUES SCHOLARSHIPS, FELLOWSHIPS, GRANTS, AND INSTITUTES
APA Advanced Training Institutes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 APA Division 44, Richard A. Rodriguez Student Travel Award. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Comprehensive SDSU/UCSD Cancer Center Partnership Post-Docs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Pew Hispanic Center 2010 Summer Internship Opportunity.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Postdoctoral Fellowship in Behavioral Health Services Research. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Post-Doctoral Fellowship in Latino Mental Health. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Research Postdoctoral Position in Latino Mental Health. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Scholarships for Institutional Capacity Building Training for Tribal Members. . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Division 12 Rising Star Program Internship Opportunity – Summer 2010. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 University of California, San Francisco Postdoctoral Traineeship in Drug Abuse Treatment/Services Research Training Program.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
IN THIS ISSUE… FOR YOUR INFORMATION CALL FOR PAPERS AND PROPOSALS
Call for Abstracts 22nd Annual Native Health Research Conference: Translating Research into Policy &Practice in Native Health”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Asian Journal of Counselling Call For Papers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Open Call for Manuscripts on Client Life Events that Impact the Life of the Psychotherapist – Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Call for Papers – Fourth CICA-STR Annual Conference: Aggression, Political Violence and Terrorism - An Interdisciplinary Approach for a Peaceful Society - Cartajena, Colombia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Call for Proposals National Multicultural Conference and Summit: Unification through Diversity: Bridging Psychological Science and Practice in the Public Interest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Call for Papers New Journal: Statistics, Politics and Policy (SPP).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Call for Papers: Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational Culture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Trauma, Dissociation, and Intimate Relationships: A Special Issue of the Journal of Trauma and Dissociation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Call for Manuscripts for Special Issue on Social Action Research in the Journal for Social Action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Call for Proposals: The 10th Annual Diversity Challenge: Race and Culture in Teaching, Training, and Supervision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 CALL FOR NOMINATIONS AND AWARDS
Call for Nominations: APA Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Call for Nominations 2010 National Latina/o Psychological Association Awards.. . . . . . . . . 86 Puerto Rican Studies Association Dissertation Award. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
IN THIS ISSUE… FOR YOUR INFORMATION Call For Nominations – Division 48 Annual awards.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Call for Nominations: Editor Social Issues and Policy Review.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 UPCOMING CONFERENCES AND CONVENTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 IMPORTANT RESOURCES BOOKS
Examining Tuskegee: The Infamous Syphilis Study and Its Legacy Susan M. Reverby. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Environment and the People in American Cities, 1600s-1900s: Disorder, Inequality, and Social Change Dorceta E. Taylor.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Race, Gender, and Sexual Orientation Derald Wing Sue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Multiracial Americans and Social Class, The Influence of Social Class on Racial Identity Kathleen Odell Korgen, Editor.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Racial Domination, Racial Progress: The Sociology of Race in America Matthew Desmond and Mustafa Emirbayer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 ON THE WEB
Abriendo Las Cajas (Opening Boxes). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 American Indian/Alaska Native Web Pages at the Suicide Prevention Resource Center. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Brochure on NIGMS Diversity Programs Available. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Éxito Escolar: A Toolkit for Academic Success in the Latino Community. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 IOM Report translated into Spanish and Chinese. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
IN THIS ISSUEâ€Ś FOR YOUR INFORMATION Haiti Earthquake: Mental Health Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Job Negotiation Tips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 New Journal: Environmental Justice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 NLPA and Section VI of APA Division 12 Collaboration Effort. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Research that Benefits Native People: A Guide for Tribal Leaders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 SAMHSA and Ad Council to Launch Mental Health Campaign for the African American Community. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Sharing Wisdom: Ethnic Minority Supervisor Perspectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Taiwan Psychology Network (TPN) Translates APA Help Center Articles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
OEMA UPDATE Bertha G. Holliday, PhD OEMA Senior Director
Over The Hump Last year was difficult for both the American Psychological Association (APA) and its Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs (OEMA). The global financial crisis came to APA, necessitating the cutting of budgets and the termination of staff. OEMA's direct costs budget (not including CEMRRAT grants which were "paused" in 2009 and 2010) is now 69% of its 2008 budget and its staff FTE level is 50% of that in 2008 (so please be understanding if our responses to your concerns are a bit delayed). However, due to budget cutting, strict and disciplined restrictions on expenditures, and unanticipated revenue from the earlier than planned release of the APA Publication Manual - Sixth Edition, APA ended 2009 with a surplus of approximately $6 million. APA's investment portfolio has started to rebound. And recently, APA launched its new, technologically advanced website (www.apa.org). These events suggest that APA is "over the hump" and is now re-positioned to increasingly focus on its future. Two major initiatives that are under development will play major roles in guiding that future. APA's CEO Norman B. Anderson, PhD and the APA Board of Directors have declared that APA's governance/program/ services/ budget priorities and associated staff alignment and structure will be guided by the first-ever APA Strategic Plan (see Association Reports section of this Communiqué). In addition, the APA Interim Diversity Implementation Plan (see Association Reports section of this Communiqué) will serve to ensure that APA is a welcoming organization with diversity as an integral part of its structure and functions. OEMA encourages you to review and monitor the development of these plans and provide your comments on their possible positive and negative impact on APA and psychologists and communities of color to your Division and SPTA APA Council representatives, APA executive staff, and colleagues. The draft Strategic Plan further suggests that public policy and advocacy will have greater prominence in APA's future. This Communiqué's Public Policy section provides an update of APA's advocacy activities- especially related to ethnic minority issues including health disparities. This section also presents a Commentary by Manny Casas, PhD that calls for APA to take increased action on public policy issues related to psychological and mental health aspects of immigration.
OEMA COMMUNIQUĂ‰ Consistent with a focus on the future, this issue's Special Section focuses on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention , and Training, with special emphasis on those historical and social contextual factors that promote or impede increased evidenced-based efforts to diversify academic departments and their related professions. As we look to the future, I wish you health and peace and power.
Special Section: ETHNIC MINORITY RECRUITMENT, RETENTION, AND TRAINING
SPECIAL SECTION TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I HISTORY AND OVERVIEW Thoughts of Our Elders on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III A Timeline of Critical Events in Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention and Training in Psychology.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI A Statistical Overview: Race/Ethnicity of Doctorate Recipients in Psychology in the Past Ten Years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XVIII Excerpts: Executive Summary of an 8â€“Year Progress Report on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention & Training In Psychology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXII LEVERS FOR CHANGE The Federal Agencies' Perspectives on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention and Training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXVI Accreditation Bodies and Diversity Standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXII The Associations' Perspectives On Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention and Training: Elementary School Through Graduate Studies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXVII SPECIFIC STRATEGIES The Mentoring Relationship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XL Mentoring Programs: What Works and What Doesn't Work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XLIV A Program for Mentoring American Indian Graduate Students. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XLVIII Attracting and Retaining Ethnic Minority Students: Experiences, Perspectives, and Challenges from a Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology. . . . . . . . . . LI Evaluating Scientific Enrichment Programs When Control Groups Are Not Feasible.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LIV Recruitment and Retention of Ethnic Minority Graduate Students in Psychology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LVII Inoculation in Paradise or Keeping Us Recruited, Retained, Trained, or Sane (Enough): A Sprinkling of Qualitative Data Gathered Since 1985 or What I Have Down So Far.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LXI
Introduction Bertha G. Holliday, PhD The underrepresentation of persons of color and the related need for ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training strategies have been concerns of the American Psychological Association (APA) for nearly 50 years. APA first entered the arena of ethnic minority affairs in 1963 when the APA Board of Directors, in response to a request from the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI- APA Division 9), established the Ad Hoc Committee on Equality of Opportunity in Psychology (CEOP), CEOP, charged to "explore the possible problems encountered in training and employment in psychology as a consequence of race" , surveyed 398 Black psychologists and found that they were underrepresented in both the profession and APA, and were alienated from mainstream U.S. psychology (Wispe et al, 1969). Since then, APA has sought progressive change in ethnic minority participation and representation. Yet it was not until 30 years after the establishment of CEOP, that the APA Council of Representatives (C/R) passed a resolution declaring the recruitment and retention of ethnic minorities as a high priority of the Association. And not until more than 15 years after that did C/R adopt a resolution that formally linked ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training with APA's federal advocacy and workforce research efforts. These and other efforts have positively affected grand victorious strides â€” e.g., the tremendous increase of ethnic minorities in APA's governance structure, the establishment and thriving of Division 45 (Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues), the tremendous diversification of the APA workforce, and the progressive increase of ethnic minority participation in psychology's educational pipeline. But there also have been significant and sometimes bitter barriers and setbacks to progress â€“ e.g., the continuing marginality and microaggressions experienced by students of color in psychology, the elimination of the NIMH Center for Minority Mental Health Programs that provided ethnic minority access to major federal training and research grants, the termination of NIMH funding for the Minority Fellowship Program and other minority training programs, the "pausing" of APA funding for the CEMRRAT Implementation Grant program and its oversight task force, and the failure to get 2/3's of the APA membership's vote in support of APA Council seats for the national ethnic minority psychological associations. This special section on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention and Training seeks to examine this topic within broad historical and social contexts and includes the perspectives of both elders and prospective entrants (i.e., graduate students of color). Consequently the special section is divided into three sub-sections. !
History and Overview presents perspectives on ethnic minority recruitment, retention and training of 3 elders who have actively promoted this issue throughout their
careers; comparative statistical data on ethnic minority participation in psychology and other disciplines; and historical and current information and data related to the status of ethnic minorities in psychology. !
Levers for Change provides information on various organizational/institutional contexts (i.e., associations, federal training and research funding agencies, accreditation bodies) that can facilitate and provide levers for increased diversity and broader participation in educational and research pipelines, and suggests some potential ways that APA might impact such levers to increase their influence.
Specific Strategies examines some of the emergent strategies for enhancing ethnic minority recruitment and retention, with emphasis on examining the components of "effective" mentoring programs and their impact, limitations and preconditions â€” and attendant needs for self-care.
W e hope this special section will serve to enrich the reader's understanding of problems and solutions related to ethnic minority recruitment, retention and training in psychology. W e extend our warmest appreciation to those authors/interviewees who so generously contributed their time and effort to this special section. References Wispe, L., Awkward, J, Hoffman, M., Ash, P., Hicks, L. H. & Porter, J. (1969). The Negro psychologist in America. American Psychologist, 24, 142 -150.
HISTORY AND OVERVIEW
Thoughts of Our Elders on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training Connie Dekis OEMA Intern - The George W ashington University In this article, you will find interviews with three "elders" of ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training in psychology; Dr. Joseph White, Dr. Richard Suinn, and Dr. Patricia Arredondo. The interviewees share their unique perspectives and methodology along with their views of the major challenges confronting psychology if it is to meet the challenge of a multicultural psychology in the 21st century. The interview questions were developed based on Dr. Richard Suinn and Dr. Evelinn Borrayo's compelling manuscript, "The Ethnicity Gap- the Past, Present, and Future." Joseph L. White is often referred to as the 'godfather' in the field of Black psychology. He helped found the Association of Black Psychologists during the 1968 convention of the American Psychological Association. In 1994, Dr. W hite was awarded a Citation of Achievement in Psychology and Community Service from President Bill Clinton. He is a Professor Emeritus of Psychology and Psychiatry at the University of California, Irvine where he spent most of his career. OEMA:
Joseph L. White, PhD Mental health services, education, and the governance structure within the American Psychological Association are some relevant areas to which the recruitment, retention, and training of ethnic minorities is pertinent. Besides the topics stated above, what are some other areas that could be looked at in order to meet the challenge of a multicultural psychology in the 21st century?
Dr. White: W e have to strengthen the pipeline to recruit people form underrepresented groups. In undergraduate psychology courses there is very little representation of anything that looks like ethnic students. There is no connection between who they are and what the psychology is all about. If you are going to go to graduate school in psychology you need to start building your GPA. If you don't discover psychology until later in college the path to a PhD program may already be blocked. Assuming that ethnic students pursue psychology there are still problems afterwards. If a person of color wants to go back into the community and help -III-
other minorities, this may not be easy. The models we have in psychology are Euro-American models by in large. W e claim we are going to be multicultural but that means one class in graduate school. Once in the field, ethnic minority graduate students in psychology don't get exposed to the kinds of tools that help them do what they want to do and we need to change that. OEMA:
What is the most compelling research you have done in regards to mental health and minorities? Why?
Dr. White: In science you have a context of discovery and a context of confirmation. Back in 1970, I wrote an article in Ebony Magazine written in the context of discovery. I didn't confirm any ideas but I put some on the table. I said there was such a thing as Black Psychology and this is something psychologists needed to look at. The theories we were using in 1970 talked about Blacks being dumb and inferior and that didn't fit the existence I had come out of. So I wrote this article and subsequently not only did Black Psychology develop but Asian American, Native American, and Mexican American etc. Following that article a whole set of ideas emerged and the door extended. OEMA:
The APA Commission Accreditation permits the diversity requirement to be met with one course. What specific plan of action can you think of to infuse the concept throughout the entire curriculum?
Dr. White: That one course is usually taught by a young female assistant professor, untenured, just the little-bittiest thing in the department. That says nonverbally that the course isn't important. W e need to think about models that saturate and infuse the curriculum [with multiculturalism/diversity] throughout the 5 years of graduate school so that it becomes part of psychologists' identity. The senior faculty determine the curriculum but unfortunately they were trained in the 20th century when diversity wasn't part of their identity. So, we are asking them to do something they were never trained to do and may not believe in. Deeper than racism is competence. If you The senior faculty determ ine the h a v e a 5 5 y e a r o ld curriculum but unfortunately they were department chair who has trained in the 20th century when diversity had his ticket punched all the wasn't part of their identity. So, we are way doing what he has been asking them to do something they were doing and I come along and never trained to do and may not believe ask him to change that â€” he in. Deeper than racism is competenceâ€Ś isnâ€™t going to like that.
What attracted you personally to the field of psychology and what motivated you to continue training?
Dr. White: I took the required freshman psychology class and saw how Pavlov worked that dog. I said, “This is the way to teach people and condition them.” They say the Black male is dumb and oversexed. Pretty soon that becomes a fact if you have heard it since you were 3. If you see a Black man you immediately start acting nervous. In that class I realized this is how they work a game on people — social conditioning. You teach society who is good and who is bad and that way you don't have to say it anymore. Two weeks later in class they talked about the subconscious and defense mechanisms and I said to myself, "Yeah…they pour that stuff into children when they are young and it becomes part of their subconscious". They don't have to ask who is superior in America, they already know that. Then, they got defense mechanisms to prevent them from seeing another person's reality. So I could tell them you are misusing Black folks…but they couldn't see it. So, I said, "This is for me…I am going with this.” I almost left psychology though. After I got my PhD I was 28 years old, married, and I had done 2 years in the military. I had all my tickets punched and I still couldn't rent a house. I said, "This is really crazy! I've done all these things these W hite people have asked me to do and now I have got to go through a lawsuit". I said, "To hell with establishment". But then somebody told me: "Look, if you don't like what is going on then you can either leave or you could work to change it.” So we decided hey, if there is going to be a Black psychology then we have to develop it. You can't go to your oppressor for affirmation…that is a contradiction in terms. So we decided to do it ourselves. Then the Asians followed, the Chicanos, and I said, "To hell with establishment". even W hite women got their But then somebody told me. "Look, if o w n th e o rie s . E v e ryo n e you don't like what is going on then you jumped on the band wagon! I can either leave or you could work to mean we aren't at the promise change it.” So we decided hey, if there land but we are a lot further is going to be a Black psychology then than we were 50 years ago we have to develop it. when I left graduate school.
Dr. Richard Suinn is a Professor Emeritus in Counseling Psychology at Colorado State University. He is also a past president of the American Psychological Association. Dr. Suinn is well known for his work in such areas as anxiety management, ethnicity, and sports psychology. He is the author of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale, the most used measure by researchers studying Asian-American acculturation. Dr. Suinn lives in Fort Collins, Colorado where he was also the mayor. OEMA:
Richard Suinn, PhD Mental health services, education, and the governance structure within the American Psychological Association are some relevant areas to which the recruitment, retention, and training of ethnic minorities is pertinent. Besides the topics stated above, what are some other areas that could be looked at in order to meet the challenge of a multicultural psychology in the 21st century?
Dr. Suinn: I believe an overlooked area is identifying the unique strengths which various cultures provide their peoples. For too long, ethnic minority status has been viewed as being a negative factor, and in many ways this is accurate. But the contributing factors are the variables associated with minority status such as the influence of racism, poverty, restricted educational opportunities, environmental demands, etc. On the other hand some studies have surfaced suggesting that being from an ethnic culture can bring protective and positive influences. Among Asian Americans, there is documentation that Asian parental beliefs in the role of effort - not native intelligence - on school tasks produces better academic performance among Asian children compared to W hite children. The "Hispanic paradox" has long been recognized, showing that being a foreign born Latina confers a protective effect against low birth rate despite other risk factors. A recent 2009 study reported that African-American churches provide more health programs to their congregations than W hite churches. And, of course, there was the University of Michigan report suggesting that W hite students experiencing contact with ethnic minority students, personally gained in various ways. OEMA:
What is the most compelling research you have done in regards to mental health and minorities? Why?
Dr. Suinn: Since my retirement, research activities have been through students I supervise, such as identifying variables which influence MSE (m a th /s cience/engineerin g ) c are e r d e cis io n s a m o n g b ilin g u a l Spanish-speaking students. A by-product of this study was the development of a Spanish version of my mathematics anxiety scale. Another quite interesting study had results suggesting that the effects of matching ethnic clients to counselors based on counselor ethnicity may be influenced by the nature of the presenting problem. Specifically matching on ethnicity might be more important for personal problems but less so for academic performance concerns. The findings of the MSE research can point the way to increasing the numbers of Hispanics considering educational or career paths in the mathematics/science/engineering directions. And, results from the matching study suggest a refinement in service delivery that could entail more efficient matching. OEMA:
What attracted you personally to the field of psychology and what motivated you to continue training?
Dr. Suinn: Probably the attraction was that it blended scientific thinking with people-issues, as well as being somewhat allied to medicine. Coming from an Asian-American background, I knew my parents were pulling for me towards a medical profession and psychology is readily identifiable as an allied health profession.
Collaborating with students has been the energizing force for me over the years. When added to the creativity and discovery process generated in research endeavors, being a faculty member is an unbeatable experience!
I would actually identify teaching as my real "field". I have enjoyed the student contact and have taught in the full range of educational settings: from a liberal arts undergraduate college to a medical school to a graduate research university. Collaborating with students has been the energizing force for me over the years. W hen added to the creativity and discovery process generated in research endeavors, being a faculty member is an unbeatable experience! OEMA:
What are the benefits of standing diversity committees?
Dr. Suinn: As with most standing committees, a diversity committee has the advantage of sending the message that its mission is considered valuable enough to assign resources and attention. The committee members can also focus their -VII-
fullest energies and creativity to seeking ways to achieve positive outcomes. Finally, they can serve as a "conscience" to remind others of the importance of their goals and to continue the challenging task of advocacy. OEMA:
In 25 years, what progress do you anticipate will be made in multicultural psychology?
Dr. Suinn: The day in which ethnic "minorities" will be in the majority is right around the corner. Currently about 1 in 3 individuals is a person of color. Census projections are that by 2050 ethnic minorities will become the majority totaling 52.3% of the U.S. population. In fact the U.S. Census Bureau reported that the minority population in the U.S. is larger than the total population of all but 11 countries. With such growth, new leadership, new scientists, new educators, new service providers will be in place. Diverse effective and efficient interventions and methods of treatment will be in development. Health promotion takes on a major role as more knowledge surfaces regarding positive factors protecting emotional and physical health. However the pace of such changes and the level reached may be slower than we would like.
Dr. Patricia Arredondo is the Associate Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs, Interim Dean for the School of Continuing Education, and Professor of Counseling Psychology in the School of Education at the University of W isconsin-Milwaukee. She is recognized for her brilliant work in the development of multicultural counseling competencies, research on Latina/o issues in higher education, and research with immigrant groups. Dr. Arredondo is the author and co-author of five books, hundreds of articles and book chapters, and multiple counselor training videos and DVDs in English and Spanish. Patricia Arredondo, PhD
What is the most compelling research you have done in regards to mental health and minorities? Why?
They all have to do with immigrants - their mental well-being is dependent on the sense of self efficacy and the sense of personal empowerment. I studied individuals who were immigrant adolescents transitioning into young adulthood and the extent they felt control in -VIII-
their destiny and their planning. That they could feel competent in what they had achieved in this period of transition from one culture to another was very meaningful to them. It gave them a sense of self acceptance in terms of who they were - in terms of identity and congruence with their own values. You don't feel as distressed psychologically if you consolidate who you are and I saw this over a 5 year period of time. OEMA:
What do you think is the first step that needs to be taken NOW in order for ethnic minorities to receive equal mental health services?
I think that you can't take a pot-shot at this. There are many steps that have been taken but one of the first steps is to look at what has been successful in bringing ethnic minorities to health services. There are data out there to describe successful endeavors and we need to look at what those programs are like. You don't want to reinvent the wheel. Because it is such a holistic issue where you involve a lot of people you can't just be glib about this.
The APA Commission on Accreditation permits the diversity requirement to be met with one course. What specific plan of action can you think of to infuse the concept throughout the entire curriculum?
I think enforcement of that item has been very lax for years. W e have guidelines on multicultural education trainin g , res e a rch and practice etc., and I am always amazed when I speak at conferences how few people know these exist. So, what we need to do in the curriculum is put some money behind the diversity effort. APA could host an invitation only workshop where people come to W ashington and sit down and infuse the curriculum. Have a bunch of people -IX-
…what we need to do in the curriculum is put some money behind the diversity effort. APA could host an invitation only workshop where people come to Washington and sit down and infuse the curriculum. Have a bunch of people - department heads - and be intentional about infusing it into the required courses for doctoral programs. You could knock this out within a week …And then you would have a model curriculum.
department heads - and be intentional about infusing it into the required courses for doctoral programs. You could knock this out within a week â€“ have a structure to do this and go home and have some follow up. And then you would have a model curriculum. I know other professions like school counselors do this. That is when you have a chance to influence the teaching of the curriculum. OEMA:
Money is a great way to create an incentive which changes motivationâ€Śbut if the funds are not available what are other ways to motivate ethnic minorities in psychology?
I don't think people â€Śmoney is not the issue - it's not the come into the field reason ethnic m inorities come into for money reasons. P ersonally as a psychology. They do it for the passion. Mexican American woman, I saw that there are so few of us in the field. I also saw the disparities back then and was drawn to understanding people. If you are drawn to this, money is not the issue - it's not the reason ethnic minorities come into psychology. They do it for the passion. I think money is a straw dog.
Is there a common thread or a common challenge that links mental health services, education, and the APA in regards to increasing the number of ethnic minorities within psychology?
The common thread is The common thread [linking mental leadership, intentionality, health services, education and APA and accountability. The regarding increased m inority common challenge is to stick with it. There are participation in psychology] is always com peting le a d e r s h ip , in te n tio n a lity , a n d priorities but we don't accountability. The common challenge make progress if we is to stick with it. There are always distract ourselves. For competing priorities but we don't make example, the condition progress if we distract ourselves. of education K-12 in the U.S. is a mess and there hasn't been sufficient deliberateness and follow through at a national leadership level to make a difference. So our kids continue to fail and teachers continue to get battered for not being accountable. I think what we have to do -X-
is stick with these priorities. W e put a lot on the shoulders of the President but clearly there has to be will at other levels. The APA is a big stakeholder. These other people like APA have to help with the implementation of all these great ideas. OEMA:
In 25 years, what progress do you anticipate will be made in multicultural psychology?
In 25 years it's going to be the framework for all psychologyâ€Śright now we kind of marginalize multicultural psychology. It is going to be the way psychology training research and practice is enacted. You do something in the name of multicultural psychology and we have to remember it relates to people in general. That is one of my dreams, that multicultural psychology will be all psychology.
Connie Dekis is a senior at The George Washington University. There she is a psychology major and communications minor and a member of the psychology honor society, Psi Chi. Connie spent last semester studying abroad at The University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia. She has served as a counselor at a camp for kids with cancer and traveled to the Dominican Republic to help out in a building project for local families. Her work in public health education projects includes a campus radio show that she co-created to educate students about healthy sexual behavior, and programming to prevent depression, chemical dependency and academic underachievement in school-aged children. Connie Dekis
A Timeline Of Critical Events in Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention and Training in Psychology Bertha G. Holliday, PhD Senior Director, Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs Critical Events in Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention and Training in Psychology 1963
The APA Ad Hoc Committee on Equality of Opportunity in Psychology (CEOP) is established by the APA Board of Directors in response to a proposal from Division 9 (SPSSI) relative to the training and employment of Negroes [sic]. The Committee is charged "to explore the possible problems encountered in training and employment in psychology as a consequence of race."
Critical Events in Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention and Training in Psychology 1968
Association of Black Psychologists (ABPsi) Co-Chair Charles L. Thomas presents a Petition of Concerns to the APA Council of Representatives that addresses three major issues: (a) the extremely limited number of Black psychologists and Black graduate and undergraduate students in psychology, (b) APA's failure to address social problems such as poverty and racism, and (c) the inadequate representation of Blacks in the APA governance structure.
The Black Students Psychological Association (BSPA) President Gary Simpkins presents demands to APA related to the recruitment, retention and training of black students and faculty.
The APA establishes the Commission for Accelerating Black Participation in Psychology (CABPP), composed of representatives of BSPA, ABPsi, and charges CABPP to address BSPA’s concerns. The Association of Black Psychologists provides all graduate departments of psychology its "Ten-Point Program" for increasing the representation of Blacks in psychology; 35 departments agree to immediately implement the entire Program. The Black Students Psychological Association opens offices in the APA Building in W ashington, DC, with APA providing three years of funding; Ernestine Thomas is the office's Director and BSPA National Coordinator.
In response to demands of the Black Psychiatrists of America, the NIMH Center for Minority Group Mental Health Programs is established with a focus on (a) funding investigator-initiated studies on the mental health concerns of ethnic minorities, (b) establishing and administering six research and development centers — each of which focus on mental health needs of a particular racial/cultural group, and (c) initiating the Minority Fellowship Program, which provides funding to five professional associations to administer minority fellowships for research and clinical training in psychiatry, psychology, psychiatric nursing, psychiatric social work, and sociology.
Participants at the Vail Conference on "Levels and Patterns of Professional Training" form a Task Group on Professional Training and Minority Groups and recommend that APA create an office and board on ethnic minority affairs.
The APA Minority Fellowship Program (MFP) is established with funding provided by NIMH. Dalmas Taylor, PhD is appointed MFP Program Director. NIMH funding for MFP’s Mental Health Research Fellowships ended in 2008, while funding for MFP’s Neuroscience Fellowships ended in 2010. MFP provided fellowships to more than 1000 persons. -XII-
Critical Events in Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention and Training in Psychology 1978
W ith the leadership of Dalmas Taylor, PhD, the Dulles Conference is convened by the APA Board of Directors, the APA Board of Social and Ethical Responsibility, and NIMH on the topic of "Expanding the roles of culturally diverse peoples in the profession of psychology" and recommends the establishment of an APA Office and Board on Ethnic Minority Affairs.
The APA Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs is established, with Estaban Olmedo, PhD as its Director. APA approves revised Criteria for Accreditation of Doctoral Training Programs and Internships in Professional Psychology, one of which (Criterion II) relates to cultural and individual diversity, (e.g., "Social and personal diversity of faculty and students is an essential goal if the trainees are to function optimally within our pluralistic society. Programs must develop knowledge and skills in their students relevant to human diversity.")
The APA Board of Ethnic Minority Affairs (BEMA) establishes a Task Force on Minority Education and Training.
The APA Publication and Communication (P&C) Board establishes the Ad Hoc Committee on Increasing the Representation of Underrepresented Groups in the Publication Process (Comas-Diaz, 1990).
BEMA with the approval of the APA Council of Representatives establishes the BEMA Committee on Ethnic Minority Human Resources Development (CEMHRD) to address ethnic minority student and faculty recruitment and retention, and development of ethnic minority education and training resources, and appoints Martha Bernal, PhD as CEMHRD's Chair.
The Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (APA's Division 45) is established.
APA sponsors the Utah National Conference on Graduate Education in Psychology, which incorporates a focus on "Cultural diversity: How do we enhance graduate education in a multicultural world?" â€” including issues related to curricula and increased participation of people of color as students and teachers.
National Conference on Improving Training and Psychological Services for Ethnic Minorities is convened at University of California, Los Angeles with funding provided by NIMH. The conference proceedings including recommendations of its working groups, along with commissioned supplementary review chapters were published in 1991 as Ethnic Minority -XIII-
Critical Events in Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention and Training in Psychology Perspectives on Clinical Training and Services in Psychology edited by Hector F. Myers, Paul W ohlford, L. Philip Guzman, and Ruben J. Echemendia. The Multidisciplinary National Conference on Clinical Training and Services for Mentally Ill Ethnic Minorities is convened at Howard University, W ashington, DC with funding provided by NIMH. The Ethnic Minority Caucus of the APA Council of Representatives is established with Lillian Comas-Diaz, PhD, elected as its chair, and Alice F. Chang, PhD, elected as its secretary/treasurer. 1991
The National Conference on Enhancing the Quality of Undergraduate Education in Psychology is convened at St. Mary's College of Maryland with ethnic minority student issues as one of its seven topics of focus, including discussions on such issues as (a) broadening the curriculum to include more ethnic minority issues and researchers, (b) creating a sense of community and managing classes with diverse students and (c) ethnic minority recruitment strategies.
At the Centennial APA Convention in W ashington, DC, the Council of National Psychological Associations for the Advancement of Ethnic Minority Interests is established upon adoption of the CNPAAEMI Governing Rules. CNPAAEMI is comprised by the presidents of the nationâ€™s ethnic minority psychological associations and APA. The Task Force on Recruitment/Retention of Ethnic Minorities [sic] Students, chaired by Richard M. Suinn, PhD, is convened in W ashington, DC with funding provided by NIMH.
W ith the leadership of Jessica Henderson Daniel, PhD and Chair of the Massachusetts Board of Registration of Psychologists, Massachusetts becomes the first state to require program and experience related to racial/ethnic basis of behavior for licensure. APA Council of Representatives passes a resolution declaring ethnic minority recruitment and retention as a high priority.
The APA Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology is established by the APA Board of Directors with Richard M. Suinn, PhD, appointed as chair by APA President Ronald Fox, PhD. Psi Beta Honor Society for Community College Students in Psychology, SAMSHA, and APA's Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs establish the Diversity
Critical Events in Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention and Training in Psychology Project 2KB Summer Institute for community college ethnic minority honor students interested in pursuing careers in psychology. In 2009, APA's funding for the Institute was "paused" due to financial constraints. Funding was reinstated in 2010. 1995
APA Council of Representatives approves revised "guidelines and principles for accreditation of programs in professional psychology", including "Domain D: Cultural and individual differences and diversity", which calls for programs to: make "systematic, coherent and long-term efforts to attract and retain students and faculty [or interns and staff]..." from diverse backgrounds, "ensure a supportive and encouraging learning environment appropriate for the training of diverse individuals", and provide a "coherent plan to provide students [or interns] with relevant knowledge and experience about the role of cultural and individual diversity in psychological phenomena and professional practice…"
W ith funding provided by the Office of Special Populations of the Center for Mental Health Services (SAMHSA), APA\OEMA initiates "HBCU Training Capacity Grant" program through which small grants are competitively awarded to psychology departments at historically black colleges and universities for activities that will strengthen a department's capacity to effectively recruit, retain, and train students of color for careers in psychology. APA's Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs is awarded a $750,000 grant from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) for the purpose of demonstrating the effectiveness of a "systemic approach" for increasing the number of persons of color in the educational pipeline for biomedical research careers in psychology at 15 institutions including 10 minority serving schools. Over a 14-year period, more than 600 students engaged in intensive research mentorships, three national APA/NIGMS Conference were concluded, and the grant was repeatedly renewed, garnering at total of nearly $4 million.
The APA Council of Representatives adopts the final report of the APA Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology (CEMRRAT), Visions and Transformations — including its 5-year Plan of Action. APA’s Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs organizes within the annual APA convention a mini-convention on “Psychology and Racism,” focusing on the three themes of (a) the psychology of racism, (b) racism in psychology, and (c) the psychology of anti-racism and involving 121 events and 449 speakers.
Critical Events in Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention and Training in Psychology APA Council of Representatives authorizes the CEO to identify funds to support the implementation of the APA/CEMRRAT Plan. The CEMRRAT2 Task Force is formed to oversee the implementation of the APA/CEMRRAT Plan. 1999
APA’s Division 45 ( Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues) in collaboration with Divisions 17 (Counseling) and 35 (Psychology of W omen) organize the first National Multicultural Conference and Summit in Newport Beach, California chaired by Derald W . Sue, PhD. CEO identifies funding in the amount of $70,000 to $100,000 per year for a CEMRRAT Implementation Grant Fund to be administered by the Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs with oversight provided by CEMRRAT2 TF. Between 1999 and 2008, a total of 172 projects, aligned with the CEMRRAT Plan, were funded for a total of $620,329. However, in consideration of financial constraints, in 2009 and 2010, funding for the CEMRRAT Fund was "paused".
The APA Council of Representatives authorizes funding for a CEMRRAT Textbook Initiatives W ork Group that is charged to develop guidelines on the inclusion of information and research on diverse populations for publishers and authors of introductory psychology textbooks. The W ork Groups’s report, Toward an Inclusive Psychology: Infusing the Introductory Psychology Textbook with Diversity Content, was published in 2004. APA's Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs establishes its Psychology in Ethnic Minority Services Institutions (PEMSI) initiative aimed at strengthening relationships between APA and these institutions and promoting increased psychological education, training and research at these institutions. (APA/OEMA, 2000). APA's CEMRRAT2 Task Force and Committee for the Advancement of Professional Practice (CAPP) partner to establish the APA State Leadership Conference (SLC) Diversity Initiative — a leadership development program for ethnic minority members of State, Provincial and Territorial Psychological Associations.
The Promoting Psychological Research and Training on Health Disparities (ProDIGS) program is initiated by OEMA as part of its Psychology in Ethnic Minority Institutions (PEMSI) initiative, with funding provided by APA's Academic Enhancement Initiative. ProDIGS provides small grants to early career psychological researchers/trainers at minority-serving institutions.
Critical Events in Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention and Training in Psychology 2004
The Textbook Initiative Work Groups’s report, Toward an Inclusive Psychology: Infusing the Introductory Psychology Textbook with Diversity Content, is published.
The APA Council of Representatives receives the Final Report of the Presidential Task Force on Enhancing Diversity, chaired by Richard M. Suinn, PhD, and adopts its accompanying resolution, which notes that “APA’s Council of Representatives directs APA's Chief Executive Officer (CEO) to develop a Diversity Implementation Plan to ensure that diversity is an integral part of APA structures and activities…”
APA President Koocher establishes the APA Task Force on Diversity Education Resources with Mary Kite, PhD as its chair. Its listing of multimedia resources, which is continually updated by APA Division 2 (Teaching of Psychology), is available at http://teachpsych.org/diversity/ptde/index.php.
The APA Council of Representatives ''filed'' the CEMRRAT2 Task Force 8-year progress report, A portrait of success and challenge, on the APA/CEMRRAT Plan and adopted its accompanying resolution. The report found that during the 8-year period, greatest effort had been devoted to helping psychology trainees, educators and researchers to become literate in multicultural issues.
The APA Council of Representatives adopts "Resolution in Support of Ethnic Minority Training in Psychology", which formally links ethnic minority recruitment, retention and training issues and concerns (high school through postdoc and early career) to APA's federal advocacy and workforce research efforts.
Much of the information in this timeline was derived from two fully referenced publications: Holliday, B.G. (2009). The history and visions of African American Psychology: Multiple pathways to place, space, and authority. Journal of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 15 (4), 317-337 Holliday, B.G. & Holmes, A. .L. (2003). A tale of challenge and change: A history and chronology of ethnic minorities in U.S. psychology. In G. Bernal, J. E. Trimble, A. K. Burlew, & F. T. L. Leong (Eds), Handbook of ethnic and racial minority psychology (pp. 15 - 64), Thousand Oaks: CA: Sage Publications, Inc .
A Statistical Overview: Race/Ethnicity of Doctorate Recipients in Psychology in the Past Ten Years Compiled by APA Center for W orkforce Studies (CW S) January 2010 CW S staff compiled data summarizing the representation of ethnic minorities at the doctoral-level in psychology. Additional data are provided on representation in the pipeline, by degree level and type, and we also provide some data from other science and engineering fields for comparison purposes. Unlike some Federal agencies, CW S includes Asians in the counts of racial/ethnic minorities in psychology. Unless otherwise noted, please assume that this is the case. Psychology Doctorates Most recent data from December 2009, as reported in Doctorate Recipients from U.S. Universities: Summary Report 2007-2008, indicated that 24% of Psychology PhDs were awarded to ethnic minority graduates in 2008 who were US citizens and permanent residents. This varied by psychology subfield, from a low of just over 17% in experimental to a high of 28% in I/O. (Table 37, Page 75). NSF data indicate that in 2000, minority representation was 16.7% and in 1998 it was 15.5%. In 2008, Clinical Psychology In 2008 Clinical Psychology claimed 57% of the remained the single largest PhDs earned by American Indians, 29% earned by field with 35% of all PhDs students of Asian background, almost 27% of the granted to US citizens and PhDs granted to Black graduates and 43% of those permanent residents. Clinical granted to Hispanic students. Clinical degrees Psychology claimed 57% of comprised 35% of those granted to White students. the PhDs earned by American Indians, 29% earned by students of Asian background, almost 27% of the PhDs granted to Black graduates and 43% of those granted to Hispanic students. Clinical degrees comprised 35% of those granted to W hite students and 31% of those granted to students reporting multiple races. Counseling, social and industrial/organizational psychology also proved popular. The NSF document indicated that in 2008, the following statistics were applicable to the 2,837 U.S. citizen and permanent resident Psychology PhDs for whom race/ethnicity was known. Less than 1% was awarded to American Indian/Alaska Natives, 5.2% went to Asians (not including Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islanders), 5.8% were awarded to Black students and 9.7% to Hispanic students. W hites earned 76% and those who reported more than one race comprised 2.5%. (Table 9, Page 37).
It is important to note that NSF placed Hawaiian Natives and Pacific Islanders in an â€œother/unknownâ€? category that also included those who did not specify a race/ethnicity and those who were non- Hispanic but did not report a race. This category was removed by CW S from the total before calculating the percentages above. It was very small and comprised well under 2% of all of the 2, 886 PhDs awarded to US citizens and permanent residents. The NSF report did not provide data by specialty field for gender by race/ethnicity among PhD recipients. However, generally over 51% of the PhDs earned by W hites went to women in 2008. For Blacks it was 64%, for Hispanics 58%, American Indians were at 59% and Asians were at 55%. Fifty-five percent of PhDs to multi-racial doctorate recipients went to women.
... generally over 51% of the [psychology] PhDs by Whites went to women in 2008. For Blacks it was 64% , for Hispanics 58%, Am erican Indians were at 59% and
Comparison With Other S/E Fields NSF data provide the opportunity to see how psychology fared in 2008 in terms of minority representation relative to other fields. Table 9 from the most recent NSF report noted earlier contained data that show that 24% of new psychology doctorates who were US citizens and permanent residents reported minority status. In Engineering, minority representation was at 27%. Education fields reported 26% minority, Biology and biomedical fields claimed 24%, Mathematics was at 19% and Chemistry reported 23%. Over the past two decades, all the science and engineering fields have generally witnessed an increase in minority representation from less than 20% in 1988. As an example, the social sciences reported only 14% minority representation. By 2008, all fields were better than 20% minority and in most cases reported one-fourth or better minority representation.
Over the past two decades, all the science and engineering fields have generally witnessed an increase in m inority representation from less than 20% in 1988. As an example, the social sciences reported only 14% minority representation. By 2008, all fields were better than 20% minority and in most cases reported one-fourth or better minority.
NSF did not report specific minority status by specific field over time in the most recent report. However, if we consider the social sciences and changes over time we were able to determine various general shifts. Using Table 8, Page 35 and data from 1988, 1993, 2003 and 2008 we can determine certain patterns. Since 1988 American Indians increased in number among PhD recipients some 76%. In other words the number of American Indians earning a doctorate in a social science rose 76% between 1988 and 2008. This was marked by a 34% -XIX-
decrease in the last 5 years. Asian and Hispanic PhDs increased 136% and 169%, respectively between 1988 and 2008 in the social sciences. Both Asian and Hispanic graduates decreased between 1998 and 2003 but rebounded between 2003 and 2008. Black graduates in the social sciences exhibited a more modest increase in the past 20 years at 69% but the increase was steady with no downturns in that time. W hite graduates posted a 1% increase in social science degrees for the past two decades; however their numbers have declined since 1993. First-Year Graduate Students in Psychology These data were compiled from the APA/CWS 2010 Graduate Study in Psychology effort and were collected in 2009. The following are race/ethnicity for first-year students only. For full-time [first-year] students in 2008-2009, minority representation was 24%, 33%, and 22% respectively, in public At the doctoral level by setting of doctoral, private doctoral, and public department, minority students represented and private master's departments in the 26% of first-year full-time students in U.S. Of 16 Canadian departments tradition al academ ic program s in reporting, only 9% of first-year full-time 2008-2009 and 33% of first-year full-time students were reported as being students in professional school settings. racial/ethnic minorities. In 2008-2009, among part-time students, minority representation was 30% in public doctoral departments. and 36% in private doctoral departments for first-year students. At the master's level we found 35% minority in public settings and 28% in private settings. Numbers of part-time students were much smaller than full-time students and represented only 14% of all first-year students.
For full-time [first-year] students in 2008-2009, minority representation was 24%, 33%, and 22% respectively, in public doctoral, private doctoral, and public and private master's departments in the U.S....
At the doctoral level by setting of department, minority students represented 26% of first-year full-time students in traditional academic programs in 2008-2009 and 33% of first-year full-time students in professional school settings. For part-time students, minority students represented 31% of first-year part-time students in traditional academic programs in 2008-2009 and 37% of first-year part-time students in professional school settings. For more information on psychology's workforce go to: http://www.apa.org/workforce or firstname.lastname@example.org. The following table presents data by race/ethnicity and gender for all graduate students enrolled full-time in a U.S. department of psychology in 2008-09. -XX-
Race/Ethnicity and Gender of Students Enrolled Full Time in U.S. Doctoral and Master's Departments of Psychology, 2008-09 Doctoral
N of departments N
Total students enrolled full tim e
W hite full-time students
M inority full-time students
African American/Black students
Hispanic / Latino(a) students
Asian / Pacific Islander students
Native American students
M ulti-ethnic students
Race/ethnicity not specified Total students enrolled full tim e M ale students Fem ale students Gender not specified
Source: 2010 Graduate Study in Psychology. Compiled by APA Center for Workforce Studies. Note. Table includes only departments that responded to the survey and provided counts of their students. Thus, the numbers reported are undercounts.
Excerpts: Executive Summary of an 8-Year Progress Report on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention & Training In Psychology APA Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment Retention and Training (CEMRRAT2) Task Force In 1997, the APA Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology (CEMRRAT) prepared a strategic plan. That Plan was approved by the APA Council of Representatives. Subsequently, $75,000 to $100,000 a year were allocated in the APA budget for activities that are consistent with those recommended by the APA/CEMRRAT Plan. In 2005, the CEMRRAT2 Task Force initiated a comprehensive empirically-based assessment and evaluation of the extent to which the Plan's objectives and strategic goals had been addressed during the 1997 â€“ 2005 period. The following are excepts from the executive summary of the report of that summary, which is available at http://www.apa.org/pi/oema/resources/success-challenge.pdf. Findings The findings in this report reflect both the tremendous success that U.S. psychology has experienced in confronting and aggressively addressing barriers to improvements in ethnic minority recruitment, retention, training, and advancement in psychology, as well as the significant challenges that remain. The following is a summary of the report's major findings. !
Ethnic minority students are increasingly priming the APA student membership pipeline. Between 1998 and 2003, total student affiliate membership declined by 15.9%, whereas minority student affiliate membership increased by 28.7%.
From 1997 to 2004, 20.3% of the increase in APA's membership was attributable to ethnic minorities.
Between 1997 and 2004, there was a 41.2% increase in ethnic minority participation in APA governance.
Since 1997, ethnic minority representation has increased at all levels of psychology's education pipeline, but it continues to be constricted at higher levels of the pipeline.
Between 1996 and 2004, the representation of ethnic minority recipients of bachelor's degrees in psychology increased by 36%.
Between 1996 and 2004, the number of ethnic minority recipients of master's degrees in psychology increased by 90.8%; in 2004, 27.2% of such degrees were awarded to ethnic minorities.
Between 1996 and 2004, the number of ethnic minority doctoral recipients increased by only 16.6%; in 2004, ethnic minorities received 20.1% of EdD and PhD degrees in psychology; in 2003, ethnic minorities constituted 19.9% of the new enrollees in PsyD programs.
Summary data of the Association of Psychology Postdoctorate and Internship Centers (APPIC) suggest a trend toward a shrinking internship applicant pool and an increase in the proportion of unmatched internship applicants who are ethnic minorities.
Between 1997 and 2001, new ethnic minority doctoral recipients decreased their participation as postdoctoral fellows by 26.1%.
In 2005, ethnic minorities constituted only 12.4% of the nation's full-time psychology faculty.
Members of the original CEMRRAT subsequently served in at least 24 APA governance positions, thus ensuring that the CEMRRAT vision was seeded throughout APA.
Since its inception in 1999 and through 2006, the CEMRRAT Implementation Fund awarded 134 grants totaling $478,000, which in turn leveraged no less than $370,000 in additional funds.
Three waves of CEMRRAT-authorized surveys to state, provincial, and territorial psychological associations (SPTAs), divisions, and governance groups suggest that increased ethnic minority participation and infusion of diversity-related concerns involve a developmental process: < The 2000 survey results suggest that responding entities focused their ethnic minority efforts on establishing the presence of ethnic minorities and ethnic minority issues at the core and in the leadership of these groups by developing minority slates or nominating ethnic minorities and by establishing committees on ethnic minorities (or similar groups). < The 2002 survey responses suggest that priorities were shifting somewhat, with increased efforts to support (a) committees on ethnic minority issues, (b) the attendance of ethnic minorities at conferences and meetings, (c) the incorporation of ethnic minority content in publications, and (d) special events and programs on ethnic minority issues at conventions. < The 2005 survey suggests a continuing increase in the scope of ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training efforts, with 11 of 12 surveyed minority-focused -XXIII-
activities reflecting increases in the percentage of divisions, SPTAs, or board/committees engaged in such activities. !
A summary analysis of the intensity of efforts since 1997 by the APA Central Office, divisions, SPTAs, and governance groups in support of each of the APA/CEMRRAT Plan's five objectives and 20 goals revealed that the greatest effort by far was devoted to the following goal: < Help psychology trainers, educators, and researchers become literate in multicultural issues and facilitate the inclusion of multicultural topics in classrooms and field experience through the conduct and sponsorship of workshops and convention presentations.
The following are among the goals for which the least effort was devoted: < Develop procedures for responding to complaints and concerns related to diversity in academic and health institutions. < Introduce and/or increase the enforceability of accreditation and licensing standards focused on services to/research with multicultural populations. < Increase research and evaluation efforts related to ethnic minority recruitment, retention, education, graduation, and training. < Improve the recruitment and retention of ethnic minority faculty.
CEMRRAT2 Priority Recommendations for 2008â€“2012 Findings of the current report suggest that some of CEMRRAT's goals have either gained increased urgency or are distinguished by the lack of attention given to their accomplishment. Thus, priority recommendations represent those major areas of concern where, to date, little transformative effort has been made relative to the extant need. Recommendation 1: Increase ethnic minority student interest and talent in math, science, and scientific areas of psychology. Recommendation 2: Increase ethnic minority faculty recruitment, retention, and training. Recommendation 3: Increase ethnic minority student recruitment, retention, and graduation, with special emphasis given to effective preparation for graduate school, and for subsequent research and academic careers. Recommendation 4: Increase the provision of national leadership for diversity and multiculturalism in education, science, and human services (e.g., develop a national public education campaign on diversity , and a
coordinated strategy for federal and state advocacy for funding of ethnic minority training throughout the psychology pipeline). Recommendation 5: Increase data collection and compilation related to diversity and ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and leadership training. Recommendation 6: Continue CEMRRAT2 Task Force oversight; continue funding for the CEMRRAT Implementation Grants; consider incorporation of the above recommended strategic actions into the APA CEO's proposed Diversity Enhancement Plan.
LEVERS FOR CHANGE
The Federal Agencies' Perspectives on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention and Training Bertha G. Holliday, PhD OEMA Senior Director Shelby Siegel OEMA Intern â€“ The George W ashington University There is no way to deny that in almost every academic and professional area in America, ethnic minorities are underrepresented. For years, this fact was ignored, but is now garnering significant attention. Recruitment, retention and training strategies for minorities are being created, and are areas of high concern to many agencies and organizations. Federal agencies are highly interested in this topic, and several have published reports on the subject. And these reports are good indicators of national policy and activities related to minority training for critical health and science areas.
This article looks at the reports created by the National Academies of Sciences (NAS), National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS). These reports identify the disparities and challenges faced by ethnic minorities in the academic and professional worlds, as well as suggest varying ways in which these problems could be solved. Indeed, many of the reports include strategic plans for minority training enhancement. National Center for Education Statistics A recent NCES comprehensive study of ethnic minorities involved in postsecondary science training was published in 2000 and titled Entry and Persistence of Women and Minorities in College Science and Engineering Education. This report addresses two major issues: the link between high school experience and entry into science and engineering undergraduate programs, and issues of undergraduate persistence and degree attainment in science and engineering. The report primarily presents statistical data and provides no programmatic suggestions. However, the statistics presented provide insights into the best predictors of ethnic minority achievement. The study predictors were indicators of family environment and support, student behavior, selfconfidence, academic preparation, and the postsecondary environment.
Multivariate analyses revealed that …at time of program entry, the gender gap is racial/ethnic and gender gaps in larger than the racial/ethnic gap. However, entry to science and engineering once enrolled in science and engineering studies are related to family environment, family support, programs, compared to White students, ethnic student behavior, and school minority students are more likely both to not factors. In addition, at time of graduate within 5 years, and to change their program entry, the gender gap is area of study. But ethnic minority students did larger than the racial/ethnic gap. not exhibit higher college dropout rates. In However, once enrolled in science contrast, female entrants outperformed males a n d e n g in e e rin g p ro g ra m s, on indicators of degree completion and program compared to W hite students, switch. ethnic minority students are more likely both to not graduate within 5 years, and to change their area of study. But ethnic minority students did not exhibit higher college dropout rates. In contrast, female entrants outperformed males on indicators of degree completion and program switch. National Academies of Science Assessment of Minority Training In 2001, the NIH National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NCMHHD) contracted with the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies of Science (NAS) to assess and analyze NIH minority trainee education and career outcomes. Specifically, NRC was asked to determine if NIH minority training programs work, which are most and least successful and why, what additional factors contribute to minority trainee success, and the kind of system needed to better address assessment questions in the future (NAS, 2005, p. 2). The report (Assessment of NIH Minority Research and Training Programs: Phase 3) of that assessment was published in 2005. Major findings of that study are as follow: 1. All ethnic minority trainee respondents at all levels of the educational pipeline (undergraduate to postdoc/junior faculty) viewed their research experience as the most valuable aspect of their training programs. The second most important aspect was mentoring. Career development (e.g., networking, collaborating, grantsmanship) and funding (e.g., stipends, conference travel, fellowships) also were viewed by trainees as important and valuable aspects. However, trainees at all pipeline levels consistently noted that the amount of funding received was insufficient. 2. Study data suggest that the number of ethnic minority NIH trainees sharply declines at the postdoctoral and junior faculty level – especially among females. 3. The quality of mentoring is in need of improvement. Programs rarely provide mentor training. Many undergraduate trainees reported their “research” experience either -XXVII-
involved only mundane administrative tasks and/or they experienced a lack of encouragement. At the postdoctoral level, approximately 50% of minority T32 (institutional grant) trainees reported having no mentor at all. 4. Compared with non-minority trainees, minorities published fewer papers, reported less social integration in laboratories, and had greater difficulty securing employment after receipt of the doctoral degree, (NAS, pp. 6-9).
M a n y u n d er g radu ate train ees reported their “research” experience either involved only m undane administrative tasks and/or they experienced a lack of encouragement. At the postdoctoral level, approximately 50% of minority T32 (institutional grant) trainees reported having no mentor at all.
In response to these findings, NAS recommended that “NIH should commit to continued funding of minority-research training programs” (NAS, p. 9). NAS also recommended a variety of NIH program improvement administrative actions including additional program assessment efforts and development of a relational database of a minimum data set on progress and outcomes of all (minority and non-minority) NIH-funded trainees. In light of the NAS report, the remainder of this article examines federal ethnic minority recruitment, retention and training strategies as revealed by recent reports and policies of the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS). The National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation’s NSF initially developed a number of (NSF) focus on minority education initiatives targeted to the support of minority and training is derived from students and researchers (e.g., fellowships, language in its 1980 congressional grants, etc). However, as anti-affirmative re authorization that explicitly action sentiments and related legal decisions charged the agency with the r e s p o n s ib ility fo r in c re a s in g intensified, NSF increased its focus on participation of ethnic minorities and institutionally-based strategies (vs. grants to other groups historically individuals) for minority training. underrepresented in science and engineering (Natalicio & Menger, 1999). Consequently NSF initially developed a number of initiatives targeted to the support of minority students and researchers (e.g., fellowships, grants, etc). However, as anti-affirmative action sentiments and related legal decisions intensified, NSF increased its focus on institutionally-based strategies (vs. grants to individuals) for minority training.
Best known of these “broadening participation” initiatives is NSF’s Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation, (LSAMP) which was established in 1991 and funds alliances (or partnerships) among community colleges, 4-year and graduate institutions, and industry that focus on increasing the number of ethnic minority students who receive BA/BSs in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines and subsequently pursue graduate studies in these disciplines. A sister program, Alliances for Graduate Education and the Professorate (AGEP) was established in 1998 and supports innovative models for both recruiting, retaining and training minority graduate STEM students, and identifying and supporting ethnic minorities interested in pursuing academic careers. NSF also maintains programs (and seeks to increase funding) targeted to Historically Black institutions (HBCUs), Tribal Colleges (TCUs), women, persons with disabilities, and urban K-12 schools, as well as more traditional fellowship programs. Such institutional strategies are increasingly buttressed by a systems (change) approach. For example, the NSF Committee on Equal Opportunities in Science and Engineering (CEOSE) 2004 Decennial Report to Congress em phasized the need for “pathways” (not “pipelines”) for underrepresented groups – the creation of which would require addressing the varying processes and experiences related to an individual’s attraction, retention, persistence and attachment to a specific career path. Further, the report noted that the creation of such pathways would require “institutional transformation” related to curriculum, teaching approaches, mentoring, career opportunities, role models, decisionmaking processes, reward structure, resource allocation, and ways of collaborating.
…institutional strategies are increasingly buttressed by a systems (change) approach [that] …requires“institutional transformation” related to curriculum, teaching approaches, mentoring, career opportunities, role models, decisionmaking processes, reward structure, resource allocation, and ways of collaborating.
In 2007, as part of an effort to more actively pursue interagency coordination of federal agencies that administered STEM-related workforce diversity programs, NSF commissioned a survey of these offices. Some key findings were: (a) Funding for these programs had not kept pace with demand for the programs and (b) the agencies desired to engage in information sharing especially related to best practices, joint program funding and greater program coordination (re: common objectives and coordination). In 2008, consistent with its “new policy levers” thrust, CEOSE recommended that NSF establish policy that requires all NSF grant applications to address, under the “broader impacts” criterion, the subject of how their proposal relates to the broadening of participation (20072008 CEOSE Biennial Report to Congress).
The National Institute of Mental Health In 2001, NIMH’s National Advisory Mental Health Council W orkgroup on Racial/Ethnic Diversity in Research Training and Health Disparities Research issued a report entitled An Investment in America’s Future: Racial/Ethnic Diversity in Mental Health Research Careers, which has provided partial guidance to NIMH’s current ethnic minority training policies. Recommendations and strategic actions proposed by this report include: (a) creating a tracking system to monitor the career progression of NIMH trainees, (b) establishing a national mentoring program, (c) concentrating resources on post-doctoral stages of careers, (d) expanding networks and partnerships among other federal agencies, pharmaceutical industries, and minority-serving institutions, (e) making sure NIMH review boards are ethnically diverse, and (f) conducting annual reviews of programs that target ethnic minorities to ensure they work and continue to be relevant. The NIMH increased emphasis on The NIMH increased em phasis on supporting ethnic minority training at supporting ethnic minority training at the the postdoctoral level was recently postdoctoral level was recently reiterated by reiterated by its termination of two its termination of two longstanding lo n g s t a n d in g m in o r it y tr a in in g minority training initiatives: (a) The initiatives: (a) The Minority Fellowship Program, which provided grants to Minority Fellowship Program…and (b) the mental health scientific/professional Career Opportunities in Research (COR) associations (including APA) to identify Honors Undergraduate Research Training and provide financial support to Grants…Consequently, NIMH’s emerging m inority/disabled/dis a d va n ta g e d strategy for promoting training of ethnic students pursuing doctoral training in a minority researchers increasingly appears mental health discipline, and (b) the to be non-responsive to the question as to Career Opportunities in Research what will be the “ pipeline’ or “pathway” to (C O R ) H onors Undergraduate postdoctoral status. Research Training Grants, which provided funding to predominantly ethnic minority/diverse undergraduate institutions (including approximately 20 psychology departments/programs that each were funded for approximately $300,000 per year) for both support of minority/disabled/disadvantaged students interested in pursuing mental health research careers, and strengthening of an institution’s mental health-related science curriculum. Consequently, NIMH’s emerging strategy for promoting training of ethnic minority researchers increasingly appears to be non-responsive to the question as to what will be the “pipeline” or “pathway” to postdoctoral status.
The National Institute of General Medical Sciences In contrast to NIMH’s apparent retreat from a comprehensive ethnic minority pipeline training strategy, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) and its Minority Opportunities in Research (MORE) Division has one of the most aggressive minority training strategies of the NIH institutes, involving formal planning, review and evaluation processes. The current NIGMS minority training strategy is guided to a great extent by the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council MORE Division 2006 Final Report and the 2007 Response to that report by the NiGMS Biomedical W orkforce Diversity Committee. These reports emphasize strengthening of the ethnic minority/disability/disadvantaged pipeline at all levels of postsecondary education into early career research activities. In addition, this strategy involves: !
centralization within NIGMS of leadership biomedical/behavioral workforce;
sharpening the focus of MORE’s goal to increase the number of underrepresented PhD’s and faculty in colleges and universities through increased emphases on training of students and postdocs, and use of MORE programs at minority-serving institutions for support of teaching and developing student research competence (i.e., not for development of institutional research capacity);
promoting research training partnerships between minority-serving institutions and research institutions (e.g, through summer research programs), as a means for providing student research opportunities;
promoting post-baccalaureate programs for students who are either new recruits to research in a specific biomedical discipline or “at risk” for graduate school success;
establishing a Faculty Career Award to honor and support faculty efforts to promote diversity;
increasing the number of underrepresented participants in top-ranked graduate and postdoctoral programs (e.g., by linking funding decisions for training grants to minority recruitment and retention success); and
encouraging increased program evaluation — including the development of a NIHwide data base of NIH training statistics. (NIGMS Biomedical W orkforce Diversity Committee, 2007).
for development of a
Currently, NIGMS is requesting stakeholder comment related to its development of a Strategic Plan for Research Training.
Conclusion The reports of the five federal agencies discussed above, clearly indicate their interest and commitment to broader participation of ethnic minorities in mental health careers and research. National data are beginning to be collected and analyzed that serve to enhance our understanding of both the source of ethnic minority underrepresentation and the strategies that are most likely to increase such representation. Despite differences in perspective and strategies among the agencies, a theory and technology of ethnic minority recruitment, retention and training is emerging. Hopefully, the growing body of data and experience will facilitate increased inter-agency coordination and the development of a coordinated national strategy related to the broader participation of ethnic minorities and other underrepresented groups in science and related academic, service and research activities. Shelby Siegel is a junior at The George W ashington University. She is a psychology major. She is originally from New Orleans, Louisiana. She spent two past summers working as a camp counselor and teaching assistant for elementary school-aged children at the Isidore Newman School in New Orleans. She spent another summer working with pre-school children at the Crested Butte Creative Arts Camp in Crested Butte, Colorado. Shelby is also fluent in French.
Accreditation Bodies and Diversity Standards Shelby Siegel OEMA Intern â€“ The George W ashington University Mariam Abushanab OEMA Intern â€“ George Mason University Bertha G. Holliday, PhD Senior Director, OEMA Accreditation bodies, which are recognized by the U.S. Department of Education, are responsible for ensuring that institutions adhere to standards that guarantee the best educational experiences for students, faculty and administration. This typically occurs through self-review and peer-review of quality assurance standards. Diversity/multiculturalism is a standard that is increasingly used in the accreditation process. This article discusses varying views on standards for assessing the quality of ethnic minority representation and diversity in graduate training and education of several accreditation agencies associated with professional psychology and counseling training programs. -XXXII-
Specifically, the article focuses on the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP), the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP), and the American Psychological Association (APA). Please note that in psychology, only professional programs are accredited; scientific psychology programs are subject only to the institutional accreditation standards of regional accrediting bodies (e.g. North Central Association Commission on Accreditation). CACREP CACREP accredits graduate counseling programs in addiction; career; clinical mental health; marriage, couple & family; school; student affairs & college counseling; and counselor education and supervision. CACREP's current standards for accreditation include great attention to issues of diversity and multiculturalism. The glossary of the CACREP standards document defines diversity as "distinctiveness and uniqueness among and between human beings" (p. 59). Examples of CACREP standards related to diversity include: ! “The counselor education academic unit has made systematic efforts to attract, enroll, and retain a diverse group of students and to create and support an inclusive learning community." (Sect. I, Std. J) ! “The academic unit has made systematic efforts to recruit, employ, and retain a diverse faculty." (Sect. I, Std. U) ! Social and Cultural Diversity is identified as 1 of 8 common core curricular areas and defined as "studies that provide an understanding of the cultural context of relationships, issues, and trends in a multicultural society…" (Sect. II, Std. G2.) ! Statements of specific diversity knowledge/skill acquisition expectations for students such as: (a) "Demonstrates the ability to modify counseling systems, theories, techniques, and interventions to make them culturally appropriate for diverse populations of addiction clients. (Sect. III: Addiction Counseling subsection, Std.F3.) (b) "… understands the effects of racism, discrimination, sexism, power, privilege, and oppression on one's own life and career and those of the client." (Sect. III, Clinical Mental Health Counseling Subsection, Std. E.2.) (c) "Demonstrates an ability to help staff members, professionals, and community members understand the unique needs/characteristics of multicultural and diverse populations with regard to career exploration, employment expectations, and economic/social issues. (Sect. III: Career Counseling subsection, Std. F2) (d) "Demonstrates appropriate use of culturally responsive individual, couple, family, group, and systems modalities for initiating, maintaining, and terminating counseling (Section III: Mental Health Counseling subsection, Std. D5) (e) "Designs and implements prevention and intervention plans related to the effects of (a) atypical growth and development, (b) health and wellness, (c) language, (d) ability level, (e) multicultural issues, and (f) factors of resiliency on student learning and development. (Sect. III, School Counseling subsection, Std. D3) -XXXIII-
(f) At the doctoral level, "…learning experiences…are required in…pedagogy relevant to multicultural issues and competencies, including social change theory and advocacy action planning". (Doctoral Standards, Sect. II, Std, C4) NASP NASP is a member organization of the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which formerly accredited professional education programs, but since 1988, focuses exclusively on the accreditation of their parent academic units (i.e., usually schools/colleges of education), and authorizes the "review" of professional programs by its member professional associations. Thus NASP's program standards are part of NCATE's standards, and the conduct of a NASP review is part of the NCATE accreditation process. Indeed, findings of professional program reviews constitute the primary data for 1 (Candidate Knowledge, Skills, and Professional Dispositions) of NCATE's 6 standards. Consequently, NASP standards are now used as the basis for 'approving' graduate school psychology programs, regardless of whether they are in a NCATE accredited academic unit. Examples of NASP training standards related to diversity include: ! A commitment to understanding and responding to human diversity is articulated in the program's philosophy/mission, goals, and objectives and practiced throughout all aspects of the program, including admissions, faculty, coursework, practica, and internship experiences. Human diversity is recognized as a strength that is valued and respected. (Std. 1.2) ! "School psychologists, in collaboration with others, develop appropriate cognitive and academic goals for students with different abilities, disabilities, strengths, and needs; implement interventions to achieve those goals; and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions." (Std. 2.3) ! Student Diversity in Development and Learning is identified as 1 of 11 domains of learning and practice that "should be fully integrated into graduate level curricula, practica and internship,” and is described as: "School psychologists have knowledge of individual differences, abilities, and disabilities and of the potential influence of various biological, social, cultural… factors in development and learning. School psychologists demonstrate the sensitivity and skills needed to work with individuals of diverse characteristics and to implement strategies selected and/or adapted based on individual characteristics, strengths, and needs." (Std. 2.5) ! "School psychologists recognize in themselves and others the subtle racial, class, gender, cultural and other biases they may bring to their work and the way these biases influence decision-making, instruction, behavior and long-term outcomes for students" (Std. 2.5 Expanded description) ! "School psychologists have knowledge of human development and psychopathology and of associated biological, cultural, and social influences on human behavior. (Std 2.7) -XXXIV-
"The program applies specific published criteria for the assessment and admission of candidates to the program at each level and for candidate retention and progression in the program. The criteria address the academic and professional competencies, as well as the professional work characteristics needed … (including respect for human diversity, communication skills, effective interpersonal relations, ethical responsibility, adaptability, and initiative/dependability) ( Std. 4.2)
APA APA's accreditation standards and process are based on several 'principles' such as: (a) Graduate education and training should be broad and professional in its orientation rather than narrow and technical; (b) Science and practice should equally contribute to excellence in training; (c) a program should have broad latitude in defining its philosophy or model of training and its training principles, goals, objectives, and desired outcomes. In addition, the APA accreditation process places emphasis on products or outcomes of training efforts and expects programs to document their achievements relative to accreditation domains. APA accreditation involves 8 domains of which one (Domain D) focuses exclusively on Cultural and Individual Differences and Diversity: Standards related to this domain call for : ! "The program has made systematic, coherent, and long-term efforts to attract and retain students and faculty from differing ethnic, racial, and personal backgrounds into the program." (Domain D1) ! "The program has and implements a thoughtful and coherent plan to provide students with relevant knowledge and experiences about the role of cultural and individual diversity in psychological phenomena as they relate to the science and practice of professional psychology." (Domain D2) In addition, issues of diversity have been incorporated into three other domains as indicated below: ! "The program engages in actions that indicate respect for and understanding of cultural and individual diversity… [as} reflected in the program's policies for the recruitment, retention, and development of faculty and students, and in its curriculum and field placements. The program has nondiscriminatory policies and operating conditions…" (Domain A-5) ! "A curriculum plan… [that includes] Issues of cultural and individual diversity that are relevant to [history, science, methods of psychology, foundations of psychological practice, and diagnosis, and problem identification]" (Domain B 3(d)) ! "The program shows respect for cultural and individual diversity among their students by treating them in accord with the principles contained in Domain A, Section 5 of this document.(Domain E3) -XXXV-
Similarities and Differences Among Diversity Accreditation Standards All of the above organizations have stated their commitment to diversity and used their influence to infuse their constituent institutions/programs with this same commitment. Each set of standards has at its heart a desire to make the learning process and environment both welcoming and relevant to the reality of diversity in the world inside and outside of the classroom. All of the organizations also seem to agree on the need for systematic and systemic change in the academic institutions to accomplish this. However, there are some differences in the exact tactics. For instance, the CACREP and APA standards directly address faculty diversity, while NASP does not. All of the standards to some extent address issues of curriculum related to diversity, but in somewhat different ways. APA speaks of this issue in very broad, almost aspirational terms, consistent with its approach that programs should define desired student outcomes. In stark contrast, CACREP, while not specifying specific courses or content to be included in the diversity curriculum, very explicitly identifies diversity skills and competencies that program students should acquire and be able to demonstrate. NASP, to a less exacting extent, also identifies expected student diversity knowledge and capabilities. Thus CACREP and NASP standards are far more competency based than are APAâ€™s. The diversity standards also differ in their general stance and underlying values. Those of APA standards seem to be primarily rooted in a valuing of non-discrimination, equal access to resources and knowledge, and deference to program self-definition and autonomy. CACREP and NASP adopt more affirmative and assertive stances reflecting a valuing of both individual differences within socialcultural contexts, and social advocacy/ justice.
The diversity standards also differ in their general stance and underlying values. Those of APA standards seem to be primarily rooted in a valuing of non-discrimination, equal access to resources and knowledge, and deference to program self-definition and autonomy. CACREP and NASP adopt more affirmative and assertive stances reflecting a valuing of both individual differences within social-cultural contexts, an d social advocacy/justice.
At least two other issues that are beyond the scope of this article shape differences among accrediting bodiesâ€™ impact on diversity in psychology: The designated process for review of standards, and the prescribed use and consequences of findings of partial or absence of compliance with diversity standards.
Unquestionably, diversity accreditation standards are a major tool for enhancing ethnic minority recruitment, retention and training in graduate professional areas of psychology. The discussed standards can be found online at the links provided below. CACREP Standards NASP Standards APA Standards Mariam Abushanab is a senior at George Mason University, where she majors in psychology. At GMU, Mariam is active in the GMU chapters of the Psi Chi and Lambda Sigma national honor societies, the Turkish and Muslim student associations, the Women's Coalition, the College Democrats Organization, and Students for a Democratic Society. Her previous internship experience includes positions with Sisli Etfal Hospital in Istanbul, the British Parliament in London, and George Washington University's Parent-Child Health Project. M ariam is fluent in Turkish, proficient in Arabic, and enjoys horseback riding.
The Associations' Perspectives On Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention and Training: Elementary School Through Graduate Studies Shelby Siegel OEMA Intern â€“ The George W ashington University The research and reports on ethnic minority recruitment, retention and training come from many different sources. One of the areas that have produced a lot of work on this topic is professional associations. This article focuses on reports published by the American Speech-Language- Hearing Association (ASHA), the Education Commission of the States (ECS), the American Council on Education (ACE) and the National Education Association (NEA). These reports look at minority underrepresentation, and possible strategies for increasing minority presence in teaching, science, technology and higher education. They discuss the need for diversity, the challenges to this need and possible strategies that could be used to overcome these barriers. The report done by ECS is entitled Eight Questions on Teacher Recruitment and Training: What Does the Research Say?. This report is written in a question and answer format. Following each question, an answer is given, complied from several interviews and research. Each question is also followed by policy implication proposals aimed at answering the problems raised by each question. For example, one of the questions is, "W hat impact do various strategies related to teacher preparation have on teacher -XXXVII-
recruitment and retention?" This section compares traditional and alternative routes of teacher preparation. The findings suggest that alternative routes such as emergency certification programs had a large number of minority participants, and a low level of attrition. This suggests that non-traditional teacher training, may be a good way to attract and keep minorities in the field of teaching. The report generated by the NEA, was complied by a group called the National Collaborative on Diversity in the Teaching Force. The goals of this group, highlighted in the report, include, increasing research on the importance of culturally diverse teaching, eliminating obstacles seen by minority teachers, a commitment to equal resources for teachers in all schools and increasing the recruitment, preparation and support of ethnic minority teachers. Like the ECS, the Collaborative also suggests the use of alternative training programs to recruit minority teachers. They also suggest early and community college outreach programs and financial incentives such as scholarships and grants. Standardized tests are also mentioned as a point of contention. Prospective minority teachers tend to do poorly on these tests, in comparison to non-minorities, yet these scores do not always correctly predict the effectiveness of the teacher. They believe that the tests should be changed, or at least made a less important criterion for entrance into the collaborative field. Reflections on Twenty Years of Minorities in Higher Education, published by ACE, focuses on the idea that while there have been many great strides in getting more minorities into higher education, there is a lot more work to be done. In order to fix some of these problems, possible solutions are provided by the authors. Some of these solutions include tutoring, mentoring, identifying students' needs at the pre-college level and forming stronger communication between K-12 education and higher education. A second relevant ACE report is entitled Increasing the Success of Minority Students in Science. This report focuses on the ways in which universities can increase the number of ethnic minority students in their Science and Technology programs, and help ensure their persistence and success in these degree areas. ACE proposes that universities should do their best, through financial aid, to keep students from having to have full time jobs as well as a full class load. They also emphasize the need for more public awareness of this problem so that stakeholders such as state legislators, the federal government and the technology industry can get more involved. The report published by ASHA is a review of the literature on ethnic minority recruitment, retention and training. It provides good information on a wide variety of topics, as well as an extensive list of the related literature, making it a very thorough resource. Some of the areas discussed are the impact of diversity on the classroom, financial difficulty faced by minorities and the academic under-preparedness that often keeps higher education out of reach for minorities. Along with identifying many problems, the report also includes literature that gives suggestions for the future. The literature suggests that when creating -XXXVIII-
recruitment strategies, they should be comprehensive, long-term and institution-wide. Another interesting strategy mentioned is recruitment from non-traditional sources such as social organizations and religious institutions. A great deal of emphasis is also placed on the need for minorities to be present and visible on college campuses as a means of attracting more minority students. All of these associations raise very good points and follow them up with a wide variety of actions aimed at increasing diversity. These are very good resources and can be found online at the following links: ECS NEA ACE: ("Reflections on 20 Yearsâ€Ś") ACE: (Increasing Successâ€Ś")
The Mentoring Relationship Innocent F. Okozi, MA, EdS Chair, APAGS-CEMA, Seton Hall University Rosha Hebsur, MA RDC (South-East), APAGS-CEMA, Argosy University-W ashington, DC Andrea Zainab Nael, MEd RDC (South-Central), APAGS-CEMA, Oklahoma State University Le Ondra Clark, MS, LPC RDC (South-W est), APAGS-CEMA, University of W isconsin-Madison The Value of Mentoring One of the hallmarks of a psychology training program's commitment to recruitment and retention of ethnic minority students through graduation is the creation of a welcoming and supportive environment. In this article, we will discuss the role of the mentoring relationship in facilitating the retention and matriculation of ethnic minority students. It has been found that mentoring is an effective approach to address the insufficient knowledge about, or access to, resources that many ethnic minority students experience Innocent F. Okozi, MA, EdS (Allen-Sommerville, 1992; Hill, Castillo, Ngu, & Pepion, 1999). The effects of mentoring are multifaceted; it can be useful in improving communication abilities, removing financial obstacles, and eliminating institutional barriers that can contribute to a sense of alienation (Williamson, 1994). Chan (2008) examined the multifaceted nature of mentoring relationships between ethnic minority predoctoral students and their faculty mentors, and found that mentoring provides ethnic minority students an entrance into a world of unwritten rules and etiquettes they are otherwise not privy to. The mentoring relationship also provides interaction with a system that is often inaccessible to ethnic minorities. Kram (1985) identified the foremost role of mentors as serving career and psychosocial functions through providing information and advice, coaching, exposure
â€Ś m entoring provides ethnic minority students an entrance into a world of unwritten rules and etiquettes they are otherwise not privy toâ€Ś [and] can facilitate access into a world that can appear unclear, confusing, and anxiety-provoking.
and visibility, honest self-disclosure, validation, and feedback. Thus, mentors have an ability to empower students with the resources and access necessary for navigating the climate of the academic world. A salient factor in the mentoring relationship Chan (2008) found that open dialogue is the disclosure about race and status. about race, privilege, and racism Chan (2008) found that open dialogue about between mentor and mentee paved the race, privilege, and racism between mentor way for greater understanding and and mentee paved the way for greater appreciation of differing worldviews. understanding and appreciation of differing w o r l d v i e w s . A d d i t io n a lly , s e n s i t iv e negotiation of cross-racial relationships can give students the confidence and skills to adapt to a unique culture with its own set of unfamiliar norms and conventions. Mentoring, which provides ethnic minority students with openness, honesty, and feedback, can facilitate access into a world that can appear unclear, confusing, and anxiety-provoking. Informal and Formal Mentoring Relationships and Resources
Rosha Hebsur, M A
Informal mentoring relationships develop on their own between two partners who agree to develop the relationship. For example, one ethnic minority graduate student shared her experience as a mentee: As a biracial student from a poor background, I experienced considerable difficulty on my path towards graduate school. My mentor saw a potential in me that I did not believe existed. Through my relationship with him, I gained more confidence and knowledge of the multifaceted nature of applying to a graduate program. I received lots of support from him, which allowed me to integrate my culture with my academic aspirations. W e frequently discussed issues of microaggressions, acculturation, and surviving in an ivory tower world as a person-of-color. I am eternally grateful to him for this relationship and owe my educational attainments to his friendship.
The above example demonstrates how personal interest and involvement on the part of a faculty member (Thomason, 1999) or "personal concerned contact" (Taylor & Olswang, 1997, p.16) is essential for creating and maintaining a supportive environment (Rogers & Molina, 2006).
Formal mentoring relationships develop out of assigned relationships, usually between two partners who are associated with an organization. For example, the Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs of the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS-CEMA) developed a peer mentoring program for ethnic minority graduate students. This program is structured to allow advanced doctoral students the opportunity to mentor students who are in their first and Andrea Zainab Nael, MEd second years in graduate school. The overall aim of the program is the facilitation of meaningful relationships that will aid the retention of ethnic minority students as they navigate through graduate school. Another resource is The APAGS Resource Guide for Ethnic Minority Graduate Students (APAGS, in press). This guide has a section that highlights different strategies and helpful information that would facilitate the recruitment and retention of ethnic minority graduate students. In addition, the involvement of students of color in APAGS leadership enhances their training in leadership positions, which is inevitable if diversity is an integral part of psychology's raison d'ĂŞtre.
Le Ondra Clark, MS, LPC
Conclusion Fostering mentoring relationships is a Relationships can take a variety of forms key strategy for the retention of students including formal or informal, and/or within through graduation, particularly the or outside the student's graduate program or retention of ethnic minority students. departm en t. Em ergin g electron ic Relationships can take a variety of forms including formal or informal, communication media and social networking and/or within or outside the student's are vehicles that also facilitate both local and graduate program or department. long distance mentoring relationships. Emerging electronic communication media and social networking are vehicles that also facilitate both local a n d lo n g d i s t a n c e m e n t o r i n g relationships. Given the advocacy efforts in the field of psychology to increase the public access to psychological services, especially for ethnic minority populations, future research is needed to explore the impact of cross-cultural mentoring relationships in the recruitment and retention of students of color.
References Allen-Sommerville, L. (1992). Mentoring ethnic minority students: An education-community partnership. School Community Journal, 2(1), 29-34. American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS). (in press). APAGS resource guide for ethnic minority graduate students. W ashington, DC: APAGS. Chan, A. W . (2008). Mentoring ethnic minority, pre-doctoral students: An analysis of key mentor practices. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 16(3), 263-277. doi: 10.1080/13611260802231633 Hill, R. D., Castillo, L. G., Ngu, L. Q., & Pepion, K. (1999). Mentoring ethnic minority students for careers in academia: The W ICHE doctoral scholars program. Counseling Psychologist, 27(6), 827-845. doi:10.1177/0011000099276007. Kram, K. E. (1985) Mentoring at work: Developmental relationships in organizational life. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman & Company. Rogers, M. R., & Molina, L. E. (2006). Exemplary efforts in psychology to recruit and retain graduate students of color. American Psychologist, 61(2), 143-156. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.61.2.143 Taylor, E., & Olswang, S. G. (1997). Crossing the color line: African Americans and predominantly W hite universities. College Student Journal, 31, 11-18. Thomason, T. C. (1999). Improving the recruitment and retention of Native American students in psychology. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 5 (4), 308-316. Innocent F. Okozi, MA, EdS, is a fourth-year doctoral student in the Counseling Psychology program at Seton Hall University, NJ. He is also a predoctoral intern at the University of Maine Counseling Center, Orono, Maine. Okozi is the current Chair of APAGS Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs (CEMA) and the APAGS liaison to APA CEMA. Rosha Hebsur, MA, is a third year doctoral student in the clinical psychology program at the American School of Professional Psychology/Argosy University, DC. She is a psychology extern at the Psychiatric Institute of Washington where she provides testing for ethnic minority children and adolescents. She is also an Advocacy Associate for People for Equality and Relief in Lanka (PEARL), a human rights organization dedicated to educating leaders about the tragic situation in Sri Lanka. Andrea Zainab Nael, MEd, is a second-year doctoral student at Oklahoma State University. As a Regional Diversity Coordinator for CEMA, Andrea plans to work with the peer mentoring program to increase the sense of community within ethnic minority graduate students. Le Ondra Clark, MS, LPC, is a doctoral candidate at the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Counseling Psychology department and a current predoctoral intern at the University of Southern California's Children's Hospital Los Angeles. Clark is the former Jegnaship chair (mentorship chair) and the current Chairperson of the Association of Black Psychologists Student Circle.
Mentoring Programs: What Works and What Doesn't Work Mariam Abushanab OEMA Intern – George Mason University Bertha G. Holliday, PhD Senior Director, APA Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs There is a significant increase in the number of ethnic minority students in the United States. Accompanied by this increase, there is also a need for education systems to reconsider how they might best accommodate the needs of ethnic minority students. Among many other initiatives, mentoring programs have been shown to be effective in helping such students succeed in the education system, including collegiate and graduate education experiences. At the same time, there is also a need for evaluating the effectiveness of ethnic minority mentoring programs in order to differentiate between what works and what doesn't work and what factors contribute to student successes or failures. There is wide-spread and longstanding agreement on this point. For example: The American Council of Education and the Education Commission of the States (1988) urge colleges and universities to improve the prosperity for minority students and address the core problem of finding ways to motivate and provide more incentives for minority students to participate in post secondary education. The challenge is to find new and better ways to ‘motivate' and inspire young minority students to continue their education at the post secondary and graduate level. One such way to motivate and inspire minority students to continue their education is through mentorship. (p. 23) The Role of Race, Ethnicity, and Culture The success of the mentoring program depends highly on the understanding and effectiveness of the mentor. Before entering into such relationships, it is suggested that mentors become aware of the ramifications of their actions and words. The role of race, ethnicity and culture in the mentoring relationship is one of the most important factors to take into consideration regarding the mentoring of ethnic minority students. It is necessary for the mentors to recognize the impact - positive and negative -they have on their protégées as mentoring relationships, especially with ethnic minority students, tend to cross many sociodemographic divides. (Rhodes, Liang & Spencer, 2009). Thus, a key foundation of the mentoring relationship with ethnic minority students is the mentor's openness to issues in relation to race, culture, and ethnicity.
It stands to reason that the racial identity, ethnic identity, and acculturation level of a mentor may be significant factors in shaping the mentoring relationship. For instance, mentors who strongly identify with their own race or ethnicity may reflect that identity in numerous aspects of their professional life, such as their research projects and publications, the policy issues for which they advocate, their membership in professional associations, and so forth. As a result, a student working with such a faculty mentor will be exposed to a socialization process that may emphasize and value the role of race, culture, and ethnicity in one's professional identity. Conversely, mentors who minimize race and ethnicity as key aspects of their personal and professional identity may provide mentees with a qualitatively different mentoring experience. (Alvarez, Blume, Cervantes & Thomas, 2009, p. 185) Indeed, many have argued that the progressive decline in ethnic minority participation at higher levels of the educational pipeline is due in part to the unwillingness/inability of potential mentors at lower pipeline levels to actively engage discussions of race, ethnicity and culture relative to professional development issues. The Benefits of Mentor Training/Consultation Inevitably, a mentoring relationship, like other interpersonal relationship, are potentially problematic due to misunderstanding, conflict, and various types of communication breakdowns, (Rhodes, Liang, & Spencer, 2009). Besides the mentor's resistance to speak about issues related to race, there are many other factors that may lead to a weak mentoring relationship. Differences in cultural backgrounds and values may lead volunteers to hold or unwittingly act on cultural biases. Instead, volunteer mentors should receive prematch training and ongoing supervision/ consultation to avoid making assumptions about mentees that are based on, or insensitive to, the latter's social class, gender, or disabilities. (Rhodes, Liang, & Spencer, 2009, p. 455) This is a common problem in academia. For example, due to the cultural differences, mentors often are not able to understand the challenges that minority students are faced with, and may not know how to respond to help such students resulting in negative consequences for these students. This situation could be alleviated through training mentors to be understanding of cultural discrepancies. (Alvarez, et. al., 2009) The prevailing educational model in which students actively engage in questioning course material and in critical discourse in the presence of professors may be perceived as rude and disrespectful by students of -XLV-
color…These behaviors [e.g., lack of classroom participation] may be misinterpreted by majority faculty as disinterest, poor understanding of material, and lack of assertiveness skills. As a result, minority students often are ignored and therefore inadvertently punished by faculty for a perceived lack of active participation (Alvarez, et al., p. 182). Additionally, research indicates that when mentors provide minority students critical feedback ”unbuffered” (i.e., without mention of expectation of high standards and assurance of students’ capacities to achieve such standards), these students (compared to W hite students) become less motivated and perceive the mentor as more biased (Cohen, 1999). Other specific issues of cultural differences that might be the focus of mentor training include: !
reasons and pathways for career commitment;
importance and commitments to family;
behavioral styles – especially in academic and professional contexts;
experiences, values, beliefs;
knowledge of academic and professional cultures, and associated power differentials related to race/ethnicity/culture, gender and age; and,
ethical considerations (Alvarez et al. 2009; Rhodes, Spencer & Liang 2009).
Empirical Assessment of Mentoring Programs Most published assessments of ethnic minority mentoring involve: (a) description of theoretical models and processes of mentoring; (b) reflections of mentees and mentors on their experiences, and their perceptions of critical aspects of mentoring, and (c) empirical analyses of either mentoring program outcomes/impacts or differences in outcomes/impact between participants and non-participants of mentoring programs. But very few empirical analyses have focused on the impact/effect/outcomes of specific measured variables/factors of mentoring. One such study was conducted by Duester (1994). This study focused on the quantity of mentoring received by ethnic minority college students participating in a mentoring program and related outcomes, such as student satisfaction with their collegiate experiences, student perceived growth and development during the program, rates of college retention, as indicated by student perception of the extent to which mentoring influenced student decision to continue their college education, and academic performance. -XLVI-
The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was computed for each question. Only one of the variables assessing satisfaction with collegiate experience correlated significantly with quantity of mentoring: Satisfaction with the diversity of faculty/staff (r = .30, p <.05, 2-tailed). Quantity of mentoring exhibited a nonsignificant correlation with overall satisfaction with collegiate experiences(r = .11). None of the indicators of personal growth and development correlated significantly with quantity of mentoring The most important contribution of this study was perhaps the findings related to the student's college retention and academia performance. The study found that the quantity of mentoring had a positive and significant correlation with influencing both students' decisions to continue their college education (r=.51, p<.01), and students' perceptions of their academic performances (r=.56, p<.01). However, the correlation between quantity of mentoring and accumulative GPA was not significant. Duester (1994) notes these seemingly incongruent findings are understandable as the majority of the students were freshman and had mentors for only 1 or 2 semesters — too short a period to effectively examine changes in GPA. Conclusion Theoretical, qualitative and empirical research suggest that a mentoring relationship can significantly impact ethnic minorities’ educational experiences. Although this article has focused on behaviors and impact of mentors, it should be remembered that mentoring is a type of relationship, in which both parties have responsibilities and obligations. Those of students have been described in booklets such as the University of Michigan Rackham Graduate School’s A Guide for Graduate Students at A Diverse University. The increased reliance on mentoring as a tool for enhancing diversity, motivating ethnic minorities and increasing their incentives and participation in education and the professions, and ensuring ‘welcoming’ environments, require that we increase research on the process and outcomes of mentoring, and based on such evidence, develop mentoring programs as well as training programs for both mentors and mentees. References Alvarez, A., Blume, A., Cervantes, J., & Thomas, L. (2009). Tapping the wisdom tradition: Essential elements to mentoring students of color. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(2),181-188. doi:l0.1037/aOOI2256 American Council on Education and Education Commission of the States. (1988). One third of a nation: Report of the Commission on Minority Participation in Education and American Life. W ashington, DC: Author. Cohen, Geoffrey Lawrence, (April, 1999). The mentor’s dilemma: Providing feedback across the racial and gender divides. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 59 (10-B), p. 5617 Duester, R. (1994). A study of the effects of a mentoring program on minority students' perceptions and retention. Colorado State University Journal of Student Affairs, 3, 22-30
Rhodes, J., Liang, B., & Spencer, R. (2009). First do no harm: Ethical principles for youth mentoring relationships. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(5), 452-458. doi:l0.l037/aOO 15073.
A Program for Mentoring American Indian Graduate Students Gayle S. Morse, PhD Utah State University Carolyn Barcus, EdD Utah State University American Indians (AI) comprise nearly 2% of the United States population with over 500 tribes. Yet of the 3263 psychology doctoral degrees awarded in 2006, there were only 15 AI graduates (The Chronicle of Higher Education 2000). This disparity of educational success of AI students compared to the national population is also reflected in the high school graduation rate for AI students of 54% (versus 70% nationally.) These low performance rates indicate that there is not enough support for AI student degree completion.
Gayle S. Morse, PhD
The Impact of Mentoring Research suggests that mentoring has a positive and important relationship for success in higher education including higher graduation rates, higher GPA, and increased entrance into graduate school. Research further indicates that for those who were matched in ethnically similar Mentor-Mentee dyads, the performance and retention outcomes were further increased (Campbell & Campbell,1997; Campbell & Campbell, 2007; Godshalk & Sosik, 2003; Pagan & Edwards-W ilson, 2003). One study that examined AI students' success in graduate school affirmed the importance of a diverse faculty in the success of AI students and also suggested that a doctoral mentor is critical to student achievement and the feeling of belonging (W illiamson & Fenske,1992). Given these outcomes, it is apparent that a mentoring program is an ethical imperative for AI student success. The Utah State University Mentoring Program One successful mentoring program is the AI Support Project (AISP) in the Combined PhD program at Utah State University (USU) which offers a well-rounded program targeting AI students and other ethnic minority students. The directors of the USU program recognize the complexity of serving Indian students with nearly 500 different tribes, -XLVIII-
language groups and varying cultural customs which are distinctly different from the majority culture. Therefore an important goal of the USU program is not only the AI students' incorporation into the academic system but also to maintain their tribal identity. This requires a multi-level program of mentoring support including faculty, advanced students, program graduates, and AI community leaders. The first tier of the AISP is the availability of two AI Faculty members whose job is twofold. Their primary focus is to maintain a supportive environment and foster a sense of community by providing a friendly, supportive ear, offering help to negotiate the academic culture, and develop funding resources for AI students. The sense of community that allows graduate students to flourish in a research focused clinical setting is one where the AI staff become a family away from home and this may include helping students find a place to live, and listening to stories of being homesick while helping students stay motivated to complete their degrees. In addition, AI faculty may provide tutoring or facilitate working relationships with other faculty who can best help AI students in their areas of difficulty. Secondly the AISP faculty train and supervise an AI Graduate Assistant to interact with other AI students. The AISP Assistant helps by organizing group get-togethers, offering advice about what they have learned about working within the academic system as well as being a role model of AI student success. The second tier of the AISP is to expand the AI student's view of psychology into a more national view and the possibilities available for mentoring, training, and growth as a psychologist. This is done with an experiential approach with student participation in an annual retreat-convention. For 22 years the two-day convention has been held on campus at USU following a two-day retreat at the USU Bear Lake Training Center. The purpose of the retreat-convention is to help students effectively incorporate their cultural world view into their Carolyn Barcus, EdD role as an emerging psychologist. The Retreat provides an experience that offers a holistic blend of spiritual, social, and family activities with the scientific and academic aspects of an AI graduate student's life, while the convention maintains a focus on research and psychology as a science. The convention allows AI Students to present their research, explore ideas, and be introduced to a national network of renowned AI psychologists and graduate students. Finally, an important focus is maintaining minority students in graduate training at community necessary to keep AI students mentoring as the more advance students
a "Critical Mass" of a minimum six to eight any time. This helps create the sense of enrolled in school and adds another level of can provide information and support to the
incoming students. These three areas of support are critical to the success of our program and high graduation rate of our AI students, but most importantly help students develop their identity as psychologists within their AI identity. References Campbell, T. A., Campbell, D. E. (1997) Faculty/student mentor Program: Effects on academic performance and Retention. Research in Higher Education, Vol. 38, No. 6, 727-742. Campbell, T. A., & Campbell, D. E. (2007) Outcomes of mentoring at-risk college students: gender and ethnic matching effects. Mentoring and Tutoring, Vol. 15, 2, 135-148. Chronicle of Higher Education (2009). Doctorates earned in 2006 by minority group members who are U.S. Citizens. Diversity in Academe, October. http://chronicle.com/article/Doctorates-Earned-in-2006by/48781/. Green & Forster (2003). Report: Public High School Graduation and College Readiness Rates in the United States. Education W orking Paper, 3,1-23. Godshalk, V. M., & Sosik, J. J, (2003). Aiming for career success: The role of learning goal orientation in mentoring relationships. Journal of Vocational Behavior 63, 417-437. Pagan, R., & Edwards, -W ilson, R (2003) A mentoring program for remedial students. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice, Vol 4, 3, 207-226. W illiamson, M. J. & Fenske, R.H. (1992) Mentoring Factors in Doctoral Programs of Mexican American and American Indian Students. Paper presented at American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting. Gayle Skawennio (Nice Flowing Words) Morse, PhD is the Co-Director of the American Indian Support Program, a member of the Mohawk Tribe of Akwesasne, a licensed Psychologist and Assistant Professor at Utah State University. She has conducted research in the areas of environmental health, Native American Culture, and mental health. She has presented findings in peer reviewed articles, as well as at international and national conferences. Carolyn (Bear Wom an) Barcus, EdD, is co-director of the American Indian Support Project in Psychology at Utah State University, is recently retired and currently working part time teaching and mentoring minority students. She is a past president of the Society of Indian Psychologists, and is a member of the Blackfeet Tribe of northern Montana, whose goal is to raise Tennessee Walking horses.
Attracting and Retaining Ethnic Minority Students: Experiences, Perspectives, and Challenges from a Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology Richard Ruth, PhD Dorothy Evans Holmes, PhD, ABPP The George W ashington University Professional Psychology Program W hen some think of psychodynamic clinical psychology, images of a method reserved for majority-culture elites arise. Yet when visitors experience George W ashington University's Professional Psychology program, they see the diverse ethnicities of our students (21.3 percent of current students and 30.3 percent of entering students are ethnic minorities) and faculty (22 percent of core faculty and 33 percent of associated program faculty are ethnic minorities), operating a clinic whose patients reflect a majority African-American city where one out of every ten persons speaks Spanish as a first language. W hen people get to know us, they â€” sometimes to their surprise â€” find that we emphasize the methods of psychotherapy empirically most likely to be of significant help to people with complex, multilayered, persistent problems â€” a common reality in the disadvantaged and underserved communities we serve.
Dorothy Evans Holm es, PhD, ABPP
Some of the Ways We Help Ethnic Minority Students Feel Welcomed and Valued Informal mentoring and role modeling As in all graduate programs, our students have assigned academic advisors, and all are free to select professors who share their interests. But we also emphasize that the entire core faculty is available to all students, and reinforce this by dually credentialing all our faculty, as teachers in the program and as attending psychologists in our clinic. Intentionally, we have a core faculty that includes racial, ethnic, and sexual orientation diversity. Thus, all students have the experience of interacting closely with ethnic minority faculty members in positions of clinical authority, not just in the classroom. For aspiring majority and ethnic minority professionals, this experience is key.
Our institutional culture creates space for ethnic minority students to voice needs not always visible. One student sought out a faculty member (RR), a native speaker of her first language, because she realized she did not have skills for professional clinical work in her native language. Together, professor and student worked out a plan to help her develop the necessary competencies. Another student felt different from other members of her ethnic minority group because her identity is faith-centered. Again, she was able to work with faculty who shared her perspectives and could support her particular developmental needs.
Our institutional culture creates space for ethnic minority students to voice needs not always visible. One student sought out a faculty m em ber (RR), a native speaker of her first language, because she realized she did not have skills for professional clinical work in her native languageâ€Ś Another student felt different from other members of her ethnic minority group because her identity is faith-centered. Again, she was able to work with faculty who shared her perspectives.
Curriculum that integrates diversity concerns in all course offerings and field placements All courses offered in our program must All courses offered in our program must reflect the value we place on inclusion reflect the value we place on inclusion and diversity. Syllabi are reviewed each and diversity. Syllabi are reviewed each semester to ensure they comply; sem ester to ensure they com ply; instructors who need consultation to develop relevant readings, exercises, instructors who need consultation to and approaches are offered it. The topics develop relevant readings, exercises, and we cover, and the case examples we approaches are offered it. choose, reflect this commitment. Students know that relevant knowledge is tested in their comprehensive exams. Majority and ethnic minority students who aspire to work in ethnic minority communities leave our program with the knowledge and skills they need. In many cases, they win internships specializing in work with ethnic minorities that equip them further. W e do not succeed equally in all courses. W e have our fair share of difficult discussions. Balancing curricular needs is always a complex work in progress. However, our policies help shift the climate of our classes. In particular, they create important support for students of multiple minority identities (ethnic minority/LGB; students of dual ethnic and religious minorities). Apropos field placements, all students are required to be placed at a community site as a complement to their work in our in-house clinic. In both settings, emphasis is placed on provision of competent service to underserved populations, including but not limited to the urban poor, AIDS patients, patients with substance use issues, and single mothers recovering from abusive relationships. -LII-
Program support of diversity To reinforce the value we place on a facilitative environment for all our students, we recruit ethnic minority professionals as clinical supervisors, some of whom provide specialized consultation (such as supervision of clinical work in languages other than English or Spanish) in areas not represented among our core faculty. W e support our Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking students who have formed La Tertulia, a club that helps native and acquired speakers refine language skills and cultural knowledge to become effective bilingual/bicultural clinicians. W e offer an advanced course in cross-cultural clinical psychology for students - many of them ethnic minorities - who want to become leaders in this emerging edge of our profession. W e recently cut back on faculty meeting time, a tough decision, to allow student members who work a chance to attend meetings of our program's faculty/student/staff Diversity Committee. W e are proud of our achievements in recruiting and retaining ethnic minority students, but far from satisfied. As a program in a private, tuition-driven university during difficult economic times, we sometimes lose talented ethnic minority applicants to universities that offer more financial support. W e have to advocate for more student support, and find creative ways to extend the impact of the support we can offer. W e are better at attracting members of some ethnic groups than others. But we are in this for the long haul, and work to build further on our foundation of success. Our efforts for better funding have included direct appeals to the university administration - another work in progress. To date, this has resulted in additional financial support of our diversity recruitment. Specifically, we received full-tuition merit-based fellowships for the first year of graduate study (2008-09) for two minority students. These awards were in addition to our program routinely receiving partial tuition merit awards for approximately one third of new students, and, as of fall 2009, we received twenty need-based awards of $5,000 each. W e continue our efforts in this regard. Summary Our diversity recruitment/retention efforts aim at enlarging the numbers of variously diverse students who choose to study with us. At present, our student diversity includes African-American, Caucasian, Latino, Asian, Alaska Native/Native American, and multiethnic students. Through diversity infusion in our student body, faculty, and curriculum, we aim to enhance knowledge and skills of all in our community for work with diverse populations. Our approach reflects our commitment to APA Ethical Principle D: Justice, which requires that "psychologists recognize that fairness and justice entitle all persons to access to and benefit from the contributions of psychology and to equal quality in the processes, procedures, and services being conducted by psychologists."
Dr. Richard Ruth is originally from Argentina. His interests include cross-cultural assessment and therapy, disability, and trauma. He has taught at The George Washington University Professional Psychology program since 2006 and currently heads the program's child/adolescent track. Dr. Dorothy Evans Holm es is African-American. The focus of her published research has been the impact of race, class, and gender on ego functioning and on transference-countertransference manifestations. She is a Professor and the Director of the Professional Psychology Program at The George Washington University, where she has been on the faculty since 1998.
Evaluating Scientific Enrichment Programs When Control Groups Are Not Feasible Lawrence A. Alfred, PhD Sheila F. LaHousse, PhD Paula Beerman, MPH Zunera Tahir, BS Manpret Mumman, BS Georgia Robins Sadler, MBA, PhD Moores UCSD Cancer Center The National Cancer Institute (NCI) recognized that increasing the number of basic scientists and health care professionals from disadvantaged communities is one way of addressing cancer disparities among minority communities. The NCI's Cancer Center's Continuing Umbrella of Research Experiences (CURE) Program, an optional supplement to the NCI's Cancer Center Support Grants, evolved from this belief. The Moores University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Cancer Center's CURE Program offers undergraduate and community college transfer students who have a grade point Lawrence A. Alfred, PhD average of at least 3.0, laboratory and academic skills training to increase their likelihood of matriculating into graduate school. Students take part in a salaried, eight-week laboratory training program enriched by daily career and skills building seminars. After the summer training, students are given the option of 10 hours of funded laboratory placement with a CURE-dedicated laboratory faculty mentor and continued academic and personal mentoring by the CURE faculty. Subsequently, students are helped to secure continued funding through Diversity supplements, faculty grant support, or other UCSD enrichment program support.
Assessing Program Impact The CURE Program's directors sought outcomes that would reflect the program's impact. The randomized controlled trial (RCT) is the gold standard for assessing outcomes. However, for programs that seek to measure the impact of academic enrichment programs that promote students' success in science and health fields, the RCT design presents unusual challenges. With the RCT, half of the most promising students would be randomized into a control group with an intervention of equivalent time and resources, but one that did not help to advance students' success in health and science careers. As most universities offer multiple opportunities for the scientific enrichment of their top minority students, assigning students Georgia Robins Sadler, MBA, PhD to an equivalent RCT intervention would effectively consume the students' discretionary time available to participate in other scientific enrichment programs offered by the university. Further, to evaluate the experimental intervention accurately, students who are randomized into the control group would be asked to agree not to join comparable scientific enrichment programs offered by the university, raising further ethical concerns. The Moores UCSD Cancer Center's CURE program opted to enroll all of the top students who applied for admission to its CURE Program (n= 83), thereby introducing clear selection bias in the methodology. To assess the program's impact on its student participants, other outcome measures were selected that did not raise the ethical concerns associated with the RCT design. CURE students' persistence in science CURE students' persistence in science and and their matriculation into a graduate or their matriculation into a graduate or health professional school with an health professional school with an emphasis on cancer-related research is emphasis on cancer-related research is the the program's distal outcome goal. program's distal outcom e goal. However, However, intermediate measures were intermediate measures were important to important to evaluating the program's progressive impact. For example, for the evaluating the program's progressive 53 UCSD students who matriculated into impact. the CURE program as incoming freshmen or as community college transfer students, 92% persisted in the sciences beyond their first year at UCSD, compared to a range of from 90% to 95% for UCSD's overall equivalent student body, not a statistically significant difference. However, of the 83 CURE students, 92% graduated and 86% persisted in science through to their college graduation. Publications and awards were another interim outcome measure for -LV-
the CURE Program. CURE students were co-authors on 30 peer-reviewed publications and 15 students published abstracts. Five received extended funding through NIH Diversity supplements and two received Best Poster Awards in 2009, one for biology and one for biochemistry, at the Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science. The list of total accolades awarded to the CURE students leaves no doubt of the success of the dual mentoring strategy employed in this CURE program. As to the ultimate outcome measure, of the 56 students who graduated with a bachelor's degree, the majority has enrolled in or has completed graduate degrees: 50% in the basic sciences or pharmacy, 14% in medicine, and 6% in nursing. The remaining 30% are working in public health or biotechnology or are science teachers, and all are qualified to matriculate into advanced degree science and health programs. The Importance of Dual Mentorship The combination of enrichment experiences, Having the dual m entorship from research participation and mentoring appear to laboratory faculty and CURE be responsible for the students' success in entering graduate school for health and program faculty seemed to be research careers. Equally important to these important in helping the students to students' success is the number of times they surmount the diverse hurdles they turned to the CURE program faculty for faced to achieving their full assistance with academic-related problem undergraduate potential. s o lv in g a n d c o u n s e lin g , l e t te rs o f recommendation to graduate school, and preparation of advanced degree school applications and fellowship applications. The commitment extends into graduate school, as many of the students learned they could call upon the continued guidance of the CURE faculty. Having the dual mentorship from laboratory faculty and CURE program faculty seemed to be important in helping the students to surmount the diverse hurdles they faced to achieving their full undergraduate potential. Acknowledgments Parts of this article were delivered at a podium presentation during the October 2009 American Association for Cancer Education Annual Scientific Conference. This program has been funded by the following NIH grants: 5P30CA23100; U56CA92079/U56CA92081 and 1U54CA132379/1U54CA132384; 5P60MD000220; 5R25CA65745; and U01CA114640. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Lawrence Alfred is Emeritus Professor Biology and Co-Director of the NCI-funded Continuing Umbrella for research Experiences (CURE) program and the Creating Scientists to Address Cancer Disparities program at the Moores UCSD Cancer Center. He is also the UCSD Campus Coordinator of the Bridges to the Baccalaureate program, a partnership with San Diego Mesa Community College
Dr. Georgia Robins Sadler is a Clinical Professor of Surgery at the UCSD School of Medicine and an Associate Director of the Moores UCSD Cancer Center, where she directs the Community Outreach Program. In addition to managing a full array of her own research studies, she serves on the NCI's Study Section G and has held major leadership positions within the California Division of the American Cancer Society, including serving as its President from 2007-2008.
Recruitment and Retention of Ethnic Minority Graduate Students in Psychology Innocent F. Okozi, MA, EdS Chair, APAGS-CEMA, Seton Hall University Andrea Zainab Nael, MEd RDC (South-Central), APAGS-CEMA, Oklahoma State University Rosha Hebsur, MA RDC (South-East), APAGS-CEMA, Argosy University Regina M. Sherman, PsyD Postdoctoral Fellow, Emory University Medical Center (Former RDC, APAGS-CEMA) Communities of color have been identified as disproportionately affected by the lack of access to and receipt of both medical and mental healthcare (CDC, 2009). The lack of ethnic minority psychologists to meet the mental healthcare needs of these communities is also a major concern. Rogers and Molina (2006) noted that the increase of representation of psychologists of color It is our opinion that the within the profession com m itm ent to ethnic would benefit the society minority recruitment and by highlighting unmet Regina M . Sherman, PsyD retention in the field of needs, contributing to psychology should become new knowledge, and keeping up with the demands for com m on practice with psychologists as service providers, scientists and realistic, "targeted" educators. Hence, APA-accredited psychology recruiting and retention programs are expected to engage in the recruitment and retention of ethnic minority students (APA, 2009). strategies. Some evidence suggest that many doctoral training programs are still struggling to keep up with this expectation (Rogers & Molina, 2006; Thomason, 1999). Some doctoral training programs seem content with -LVII-
minimal efforts to attract students of color. It is our opinion that the commitment to ethnic minority recruitment and retention in the field of psychology should become common practice with realistic, "targeted" recruiting (Newman & Lyon, 2009, p. 299) and retention strategies. This article will provide an overview of recruitment and retention strategies employed by some graduate psychology programs that excelled in the recruitment and retention of graduate students of color through graduation. Targeted Recruiting Strategies The mandate to increase diversity in organizations (for practical, legal and ethical reasons) in the United States has led many recruitment efforts to focus on attracting large numbers of minority applicants (Newman & Lyon, 2009). This strategy increases the number of ethnic minority applicants, yet, it often generates applications from candidates who are either unqualified for the available position or disinterested (Newman & Lyon, 2009). Thus, using more targeted recruiting methods, like aptitude-based or trait-based recruiting, may help to identify candidates from various ethnic minority groups with specific competencies required for the position (Newman & Lyon, 2009). Recruiting informally through referral or word of mouth has been shown to be effective for attracting high performing applicants. This model, however, may not reach competitive ethnic minority job candidates for several reasons:(a) ethnic minorities respond more frequently to formal recruitment methods such as career fairs, employment agencies, newspaper and poster advertisements, and brochures (Kirnan, Farley, & Geisinger, 1989; Thomason, 1999); and (b) W hite business representatives may not have as many informal relationships with candidates of color, making it difficult to recruit via word of mouth. Recruitment Strategies Specific to Psychology Graduate Programs Rogers and Molina (2006) examined strategies for recruiting and retaining ethnic minority graduate students at eleven universities that have excelled at recruiting ethnic minority graduate students. These strategies include: (a) the consistent provision of attractive financial aid packages for the duration of academic study; (b) connections and networks made by faculty with prospective students; (c) a strong representation of faculty and students of color; and (d) the involvement of both faculty and students of color during the recruitment process (Rogers & Molina, 2006; Pitts, 2009), including mentoring of minority undergraduate students. It should be noted that the responsibility of recruiting students of color should not only be that of graduate students and faculty of color, but that of the entire department or program (Thomason, 1999). Some graduate schools successfully recruit more graduate students from historically ethnic minority institutions and communities (Fortune, 2004; Gunn, 2003; Rogers & Molina, 2006; Thomason, 1999). -LVIII-
Retention Strategies Specific to Psychology Graduate Programs Once ethnic minority students have been admitted into graduate psychology programs, efforts need to be made to retain these students so that they complete their degree and enter the profession. Mentorship is a key factor in retaining students of color. Rogers and Molina (2006) identified that strong faculty-student relations and a climate of collaboration, ongoing feedback, and flexibility were paramount in helping graduate students not only survive graduate school, but thrive. Social support also plays a large role in retaining ethnic minority graduate students. Several researchers have found that the achievement and emotional well-being of students of color are influenced by the degree to which students are integrated into their academic and social networks (Davidson & Foster-Johnson, 2001; Hurtado, Milem, Clayton-Pedersen, & Allen, 1999). In addition, support from other mentors outside the graduate program or department were found to be vital to an ethnic minority graduate student's success (Rogers & Molina, 2006). Not surprisingly, some of the successful strategies for recruiting ethnic minority graduate students have also been found to be effective retention strategies: (a) financial support throughout graduate school, through to graduation (such as fellowships and assistantships), (b) employment of at least a faculty member of color within the program faculty, and (c) high ethnic minority graduation rates (Rogers & Molina, 2006; Thomason, 1999).
…some of the successful strategies for recruiting ethnic minority graduate students have also been found to be effective retention strategies: (a) financial support throughout graduate school, through to graduation (such as fellowships and assistantships), (b) employment of at least a faculty member of color within the program faculty, and (c) high ethnic minority graduation rates (Rogers & Molina, 2006; Thomason, 1999).
Conclusion Recruitment and retention efforts are the responsibility of each faculty, regardless of race and ethnicity as well as that of the institution to which the graduate program belongs. Those graduate programs or institutions that believe in increasing the representation of ethnic minority psychologists engage and excel in the recruitment and retention of ethnic minority graduate students. There is need for more research and evaluation of barriers to recruitment and retention and effective means of removing the barriers.
References American Psychological Association (APA). (2009). Guidelines and principles for accreditation of programs in professional psychology. W ashington, DC: APA. Retrieved November 16, 2009, from http://www.apa.org/ed/accreditation/about/policies/guiding-principles.pdf. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2009). Office of Minority Health and Health Disparities (OMHD): An overview. PowerPoint presentation on OMHD. Retrieved November 16, 2009, from http://www.cdc.gov/omhd/About/about.htm#. Davidson, M. N., & Foster-Johnson, L. (2001). Mentoring in the preparation of graduate researchers of color. Review of Educational Research, 71(4), 549-574. Fortune, D. (2004, September 15). Johnson Controls executive addresses college presidents at the National Historically Black Colleges and Universities conference. Retrieved November 16, 2009, from http://www.johnsoncontrols.com/publish/us/en.html. Gunn, E. (2003). Minority M.B.A. recruiting becomes targeted, low-key. Retrieved November 16, 2009, from http://22.214.171.124/myc/diversity/20031021-gunn.html. Hurtado, S., Milem, J., Clayton-Pedersen, A., & Allen, W . (1999). Enacting diverse learning environments: Improving the racial-ethnic diversity in higher education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, 26 (8), 69-81. ED430514. Kirnan, J. P., Farley, J. A., & Geisinger, K. F. (1989). The relationship between recruiting source, applicant quality, and hire performance: An analysis by sex, ethnicity, and age. Personnel Psychology, 42, 293-308. Newman, D. A., & Lyon, J. S. (2009). Recruitment efforts to reduce adverse impact: Targeted recruiting for personality, cognitive ability, and diversity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(2), 298-317. doi: 10.1037/a0013472. Pitts, B. (2009). Minority recruitment at a private school. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 2(1), 16-18. doi: 10.1037/a0013682. Rogers, M. R., & Molina, L. E. (2006). Exemplary efforts in psychology to recruit and retain graduate students of color. American Psychologist, 61(2), 143-156. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.61.2.143. Thomason, T. C. (1999). Improving the recruitment and retention of Native American students in psychology. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 5(4), 308-316. Regina Sherm an, PsyD, is currently a post-doctoral fellow at the Emory University Medical Center/Grady Health System, where she is working with African American women recovering from domestic violence and with low-income individuals living with HIV/AIDS. She was a Regional Diversity Coordinator for APAGS CEMA from 2007-2009.
Inoculation in Paradise or Keeping Us Recruited, Retained, Trained, or Sane (Enough): A Sprinkling of Qualitative Data Gathered Since 1985 or What I Have Down So Far Jesus (Jesse) R. Aros, PhD Blossoming Rose Foundation of Aztlan Three (3) illustrative observations within our field are presented and discussed relative to the recruitment, retention, and training of psychologists, especially those of us from racial/ethnocultural *minority* backgrounds. The focus is on describing possible challenges and opportunities that tax our resilience and resolve to "stay in the game" for early career and more established colleagues of color. The purpose is to succinctly validate individual and collective struggles while pointing out some of what we know and don't, have down or are still resolving, and/or are cognitively inoculated against or are still affected by.
Jesus (Jesse) R. Aros, PhD
The tectonic-like stress we experience as racial/ethnic psychologists as the planes of our psychosocial identity collide in multiple roles, expectations, and environments with mixed privileges and oppressions are exacting, ponderous, and often taboo, making each of us painfully prone to manifestation in areas of our work, family, and sanity if left unexamined and unmanaged (Horowitz & Turan, 2008; Pope, Sonne, & Greene, 2006; Racker, 1957). Thus, effective and frequent cognitive behavioral inoculations against the perennial stress of our being figuratively both lamb and coyote among historical and current types of psychosocial prey and predators while trying to resolve the ensuing enmities, intrapersonally and interpersonally, are definitely in order (Meichenbaum, 1985; Morrow & Aros, 2003). This brief article seeks to boost our awareness, wellness, and resilience via the presentation of three (3) vignettes in hopes of better and deeper inoculations against a perennial source of our anxiety: Collective prototypes and personal templates of respect, love, hate, anger, and jealousy in our close relationships with self and others that impact the double whammies of individual and organizational racism that
The tectonic-like stress we e x p e r ien ce a s ra cia l/eth n ic p s y c h o lo g ists a re ex a ctin g , ponderousâ€ŚThus, effective and frequent cognitive behavioral inoculations against the perennial stress of our being figuratively both lam b and coyote among historical and current types of psychosocial prey and predators while trying to resolve the ensuing enm ities, intrapersonally and interpersonally, are definitely in order.
we face and may even unintentionally initiate even as experts in our field (Arredondo, 1996; Fitness & Fletcher, 1993; Frei & Shaver, 2002; Glaser & Chi, 1988). Recruitment Vignette 1: A Mexican candidate for a clinical directorship is met with tortillas, eggs, salsa, and potatoes at the start of the breakfast meeting on the first day at a Hispanic Serving Institution (HSI), when beans were inquired after, a senior member of the committee immediately asked in a loud voice where the chicharones (cracklings) were? At which point, all the committee went completely quiet. As psychologists of color we must be prepared that once in a great while we may say or do usually small things we or others find offensive; however, appropriately processing responses are generally preferable to letting it ride, engaging in passive-aggressive subterfuge, active splitting, etc. Any individual or organization unwilling or unable to do this may not be as fully competent yet as possible (Arredondo, 1996). Retention Vignette 2: In an organized, collective bargaining setting, a psychologist of color invokes contract due process and brings another racial/ethnic minority colleague to an executive meeting regarding his/her retention. Upon arrival, non-service animals (e.g., toy poodles) are in the White executive's lap and office while the executive refuses to seat the accompanying colleague until the psychologist cites and quotes the provision from the contract allowing a colleague to accompany him/her. In our post civil rights era, we often do not expect or experience such a clueless yet nasty frontal assault like the above. Incidents imbued with infrahuman messages need to be addressed at the get-go and often followed up by internal grievance procedures later. Again, we need to be prepared to calmly address and firmly handle the situation with its internal and external sequelae, neither understandably exploding on the spot from the anger we feel, or being shocked into silence through the incredulity. Avoid becoming isolated, and process as if a counter-transference â€” yet accepting fact as fact (Gelso & Hayes, 2007).
Training Vignette 3: In selecting candidates for a nationally coveted slot, the director and several others inquire about a candidate's "commitment" to other diversity issues besides race/ethnocultural ones. A member speaks up, then several others. The qualified candidate with multiple, relevant interests is slated, but was not finally selected. "Fit" and "commitment" continue to be questionably used as PC cop-outs or part of the not-so-new post "Fit" and "com m itm ent" civil rights covert racism we usually face or even continue to be questionably dish out (Arredondo, 1996; Morrow & Aros, 2003). used as PC cop-outs or part of So, when in doubt, talk about, listen for, and then the not-so-new post civil rights actively process group or individual expressions of covert racism we usually face or "confusion" or "discomfort" by real or assumed even dish out. leadership that seek to shift responsibility from the one expressing it to the one who "caused it". This seems to be an emerging shibboleth for problematic cognitive appraisal strategy that needs to be better understood, debunked, and more actively inoculated against. In short, anytime we have a situation where someone else is asked to explain what someone else is thinking or feeling, we likely have a postcolonial peril as/if we do not look to the possibilities that give rise to the misattribution, including latent aspects of jealousy, anger, hate, racism, homophobia, sexism, and all other "negative expressions" attached to our cognitive appraisals and within our psychosocial milieu (Arredondo, 1996; Fitness & Fletcher, 1993; Gelso & Hayes, 2007). As sane psychologists of color, we must keep addressing jealousy, anger, hate, racism, sexism, and the negative impact of "isms" while boosting respect and love in close relationship among us. Our challenge may be inoculating against oppression while looking at our privilege? References Arredondo, P. (1996). Successful diversity management initiatives: A blueprint for planning and implementation. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage. Fitness, J. & Fletcher G. (1993). Love, hate, anger, and jealousy in close relationships: A prototype and cognitive appraisal analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 942-958. Frei, J. & Shaver, P. (2002). Respect in close relationships: Prototype definition, self-report assessment, and initial correlations, Personal Relationships, 9, 121-139. Gelso, J. & Hayes, J. (2007). Countertransference and the therapist's inner experience: Perils and possibilities. Mahwah NJ: Erlbaum. Glaser, R. & Chi, M. (1988). Overview. In M. T. H. Chi, R. Glaser, & M. J. Farr (Eds.), The nature of expertise (pp. xv-xxviii). Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum.
Horowitz, L. & Turan, B. (2008). Prototypes and personal templates: Collective wisdom and individual differences. Psychological Review, 115, 1054-1068. Meichenbaum, D. (1985). Stress inoculation training. NY: Pergamon. Morrow, S. & Aros, J. (2004). On lambs, coyotes, and counseling psychologists: Dialogues on multiculturalism in the badlands of privilege and oppression. In G. Howard & E. Delgado-Romero (Eds.), W hen Things Go W rong. Lanham MD: Hamilton. Pope, D., Sonne, J. & Greene, B. (2006). W hat therapists don't talk about and why: Understanding taboos that hurt us and our clients. W ashington DC: APA. Racker, H. (1957). The meanings and uses of countertransference. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 26, 303-357. Dr. Jesus (or Jesse) R. Aros is the Director and Co-founder of the Blossoming Rose Foundation of Aztlan; past Director of Student Counseling and Disability Services for Students at Texas A&M International University; former Director of Graduate Counseling Programs at St Mary's College of CA; and, prior Tenured Associate Professor of Counseling at the University of Guam, Mangilao campus. He is a current member of the APA Committee on Disability Issues in Psychology and a lifetime founding member of the National Latino/a Psychological Association.
ASSOCIATION REPORTS New Staff in Government Relations Office Three persons have recently joined the APA Public Interest Directorate's Government Relations Office (PI-GRO). This office actively engages in shaping federal policy to promote psychology in the public interest. This is done through advocacy with federal officials and Congressional members, staff and committees; organizing Congressional briefings/hearings and identifying psychological experts to testify; drafting position statements; advocacy training of APA members, et cetera. Issue areas that are the focus of PI-GRO efforts include: aging; children, youth, and families; individuals with disabilities; ethnic minority affairs; HIV/AIDS; lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues; socioeconomic status; and women's issues. We are fortunate that to varying degrees each of the new staff will be involved in advocacy of APA ethnic minority federal legislative priorities, which are set by the APA Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs. Meet PI-GRO's three new staff! Ms. Stefanie Reeves is the new Senior Legislative and Federal Affairs Office on the PI-GRO team. She comes to APA after serving 10 years as Director of Political Advocacy at the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Prior to her position at ASHA, Ms. Reeves served as Political Action Committee Coordinator for three years at the National T elecomm unications Cooperative Association. She began her career in government relations at the American Association of Colleges of Nursing. Stefanie holds a Bachelorâ€™s Degree in Psychology from The George Washington Stefanie Reeves University and a Master of Arts in Government from Johns Hopkins University. Also, she recently earned the CAE, or Certified Association Executive, designation from ASAE and the Center for Association Leadership. The CAE, which demonstrates knowledge of key areas of association management, is held by approximately 5% of all association professionals worldwide. 3
OEMA COMMUNIQUĂ‰ In her new capacity at APA, Stefanie will be responsible for issues impacting individuals with disabilities and LGBT persons. She will also work on some issues involving our ethnic and racial minority portfolio in collaboration with Leo Rennie. Stefanie can be reached at email@example.com. Mr. Leo Rennie Leo Rennie joined APA in March 2010 as a Senior Legislative and Federal Affairs Officer in the Public Interest Government Relations Office. Leo comes to APA after working several years as an independent consultant on a number of issues, including HIV/AIDS program development, policy analysis, and public health research and practice. Leo also served as Bureau Chief for HIV Prevention for the District of Columbia Department of Health, w here he w as responsible fo r the administration of the Prevention and Intervention Services Division for residents in the District of Columbia. He was also Director of Prevention Programs with the National Leo Rennie Alliance of State and Territorial AIDS Directors, where he led the overall operations of NASTAD's domestic HIV prevention portfolio. In more than 15 years working in the HIV/AIDS arena, Leo Rennie has held leadership positions in national organizations, in local community-based organizations and has played leadership roles in numerous HIV/AIDS advocacy coalitions. He has written and presented on strategies to improve HIV/AIDS service programs for African Americans, gay men and underserved populations. Leo is a founding member and serves on the Executive Committee of the National Black Gay Men's Advocacy Coalition and Chairs the organization's Membership Committee. Leo holds a Bachelor's Degree in International Affairs from Georgetown University and a Master's Degree of Public Affairs from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public & International Affairs of Princeton University.
ASSOCIATION REPORTS In his new capacity at APA, Leo will be responsible for policy issues impacting HIV/AIDS, Ethnic Minority Affairs, including health disparities and minority training programs, and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender health issues. Leo can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mr. Benjamin Vonachen is the new Senior Legislative Assistant on the PI-GRO team. Mr. Vonachen comes to APA from the Office of Representative Ed Perlmutter where he served as Legislative Assistant managing a wide range of legislative issues, including education, judiciary, agriculture, natural resources, energy, environment, science, telecommunications, veterans, and women’s health. Prior to his work with the DC Office, he worked as Deputy Communications Director for Ed Perlmutter for U.S. Congress. He also held campaign positions a s C o m m u nica tio n s A s s o c ia tio n f o r Representative John Salazar and as campaign volunteer for House candidates Gary Trauner and Dave Thomas. He also worked for Senator Mark Udall.
Ben holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Communications and Digital Media Studies from the University of Denver, and is currently completing a Master’s Degree in Political Science from the University of Colorado at Denver. In his new capacity at APA, he will be handling many responsibilities, including serving as point person for issues impacting foster care and immigration policy. Ben can be reached at email@example.com.
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ APA’s Strategic Plan The American Psychological Association (APA) is on the verge of launching its first strategic plan, which was developed with the assistance of a marketing consulting firm. CEO Norman B. Anderson, PhD has stressed that the strategic plan will “drive” both APA’s budgetary and programmatic priorities. It is also expected that some staff reorganization may be required to ensure that staff resources are aligned with programmatic priorities. The APA Strategic Plan consists of: (a) Vision statement, (b) Mission Statement, (c) Goals and associated Objectives, (d) Initiatives, and (e) Measures of goal/objective accomplishment. The first 3 of these have been developed and approved by the APA Council, and are presented below. Initiatives, defined as projects/actions/activities that are designed to achieve objectives, are in the process of development. Indeed, at the March 2010 APA Consolidated meeting of APA Committees and Boards, each governance group was asked to propose no more than 4 initiatives for the consideration of APA’s Executive Management Group. (EMG). You will also find below the 4 strategic initiatives proposed by the Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs (CEMA). Initiatives proposed by the APA Boards and Committees will be reviewed and prioritized by EMG. A final pool of initiatives ( including those proposed by the APA Board of Directors [B/D] and others) will be reviewed and approved by B/D and the APA Council. It is anticipated that approved initiatives will begin to be implemented in 2011.
APA Mission Statement The mission of the APA is to advance the creation, communication and application of psychological knowledge to benefit society and improve people's lives.
APA Vision Statement The American Psychological Association aspires to excel as a valuable, effective and influential organization advancing psychology as a science, serving as: !
A uniting force for the discipline;
ASSOCIATION REPORTS !
The major catalyst for the stimulation, growth and dissemination of psychological science and practice;
The primary resource for all psychologists;
The premier innovator in the education, development, and training of psychological scientists, practitioners and educators;
The leading advocate for psychological knowledge and practice informing policy makers and the public to improve public policy and daily living;
A principal leader and global partner promoting psychological knowledge and methods to facilitate the resolution of personal, societal and global challenges in diverse, multicultural and international contexts; and
An effective champion of the application of psychology to promote human rights, health, well being and dignity.
APA Goals & Objectives Approved by Council August 2009 GOAL
M aximize organizational effectiveness
The APA’s structures and systems support the organization’s strategic direction, growth and success. a. Enhance APA program s, services and com m unications to increase m em ber engagem ent and value; b. Ensure the ongoing financial health of the organization; c. Optim ize APA’s governance structures and function.
Expand psychology's role in advancing health
Key stakeholders realize the unique benefits psychology provides to health and wellness and the discipline becomes more fully incorporated into health research and delivery systems. a. Advocate for the inclusion of access to psychological services in health care reform policies b. Create innovative tools to allow psychologists to enhance their knowledge of health prom otion, disease prevention, and m anagem ent of chronic disease; c. Educate other health professionals and the public about psychology's role in health d. Advocate for funding and policies that support psychology's role in health
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ GOAL
OBJECTIVES e. f. g.
Increase recognition of psychology as a science
Prom ote the application of psychological knowledge in diverse health care settings; Prom ote psychology's role in decreasing health disparities; Prom ote the application of psychological knowledge for im proving overall health and wellness at the individual, organizational, and com m unity levels.
The APA’s central role in positioning psychology as the science of behavior leads to increased public awareness of the benefits psychology brings to daily living. a. Enhance psychology’s prom inence as a core STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathem atics) discipline; b. Im prove public understanding of the scientific basis for psychology; c. Expand the translation of psychological science to evidence-based practice; d. Prom ote the applications of psychological science to daily living; e, Expand educational resources and opportunities in psychological science.
Possible Initiatives Suggested by APA Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs Strategic Objective 1a, 1c, 2c, 2e, 2f, 3e
Restore CE M R R AT fun ding to stim ulate and support innovations by in d iv id u a ls , d iv is io n s , S P T A s , academ ic institutions, APA Central Office, and other organized entities of psychology, that are congruent with the APA/C EM R R AT Plan. Moreover, CEMRRAT efforts are consistent with APA's Core Values
If CEMRRAT funding is restored, APA will be able to continue program s that help the organization accom plish several strategic goals. Som e of these program s are as follows:
CEMRRAT2 Task Force will continue to prom ote increased ethnic m inority student training in s c ie n c e /m a th a n d s c ie n c e research (1a&3e).
CEMRRAT will continue to fund innovative grant projects (e.g., the Model Training Program for Bilingual Psychologists) that prom ote psychology’s role in decreasing health disparities (2f),
ASSOCIATION REPORTS Strategic Objective
EXPECTED OUTCOME and facilitate ethnic m inority leadership developm ent within APA (1c), for exam ple the SLC Com m ittee on State Leaders' Diversity Delegates Program .
1a, 2a through 2g, 3b, 3c, 3d
Im p le m e n t m u ltic u ltu r a l m e d ia outreach and advocacy for ethnic m inority individuals and com m unities that include the involvem ent of ethnic m inority psychologists who have expertise in m ental health care issues relevant to specific ethnic m inority g r o u p s a n d c o m m u n it y le v e l interventions. This cam paign would target underserved com m unities who have little access to m ental health services and education, and would aim to both further assess the m ental health care needs of ethnic m inority com m unities, and provide culturally com petent m ental health outreach, education, and advocacy as a way to em power individuals, fam ilies, and com m unities. Media outreach and advocacy efforts would identify and address concerns about m ental health and/or m ental health care that are unique to various ethnic m inority com m unities.
The m ulticultural m edia outreach and advocacy cam paign will support APA's ongoing efforts in the area of public education (2c). The outreach and advocacy cam paign will enhance APA's com m unication with the public whose racial and ethnic com position is increasingly diverse (1a, 2c). This cam paign will also m eet APA's objectives to provide education about psychology's role in health (2c), decrease health care disparities (2f), and prom ote the application of psychological knowledge for im proving health and wellness at individual and com m unity levels (2g). W ith respect to outcom es related to psychological science, engagem ent in m edia outreach and advocacy to underserved ethnic m inority com m unities will involve the translation of scientific findings on race, ethnicity, and m ental health to educational outreach that is critically needed in various ethnic m inority com m unities (3b,3c,3d). Finally, m edia is an effective tool that allows for increased opportunity for m arginalized individuals and groups to voice their concerns and needs, which is especially im portant as psychologists advocate for funding and policies in health care (2d).
1.c, 2b, 2e, 2f, 3c
D e v e lo p a ta s k fo r c e in o r d e r t o respond in a timely fashion to a critical need in our field. The task force will be charged with the exploration of the im plications of future in c r e a s e d f a c u lt y t u r n o v e r in departm ents of psychology and to develop ways to respond in an organized and proactive manner that
Im m ediate/Short-term Outcom es: â€˘ Increased understanding of how we can better respond to, and retain, the needs of ethnocultural faculty m em bers 3(a) â€˘ A well-developed action plan by w hich the association can im plem ent, both in the short and long-term 1 (a)
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ Strategic Objective
BRIEF DESCRIPTION will serve to increase m ulticulturalism and ethnic/racial diversity in our field. This task force will produce a report including a recom m ended action plan for interventions related to research, practice, education, training, and policy to support m ulticulturalism and racial/ethnic diversity in psychology departm ents and their future faculty. This taskforce is conceptualized as a m ulti-direc torate effort, involving representation from BEA, BSA, and BAPPI-- with special consideration given to the representation of diversity (e.g., age, sexual orientation, disability status, im m igrant status etc.) within the nation's racial/ethnic groups.
1 a through c. 2; 3
EXPECTED OUTCOME •
Increased collaboration between APA's boards and com m ittees and directorates 1(c)
For m ore inform ation and specific recom m endations of this taskforce description, please check with OEMA.
Long-term outcom es: • In c re a sed k now le d g e and dissem ination of evidence-based practices with ethnocultural com m unities 3 (a, c) • Increased understanding of psychology's role in the reduction o f h e a lth d is p a rities w it h unde rse rved an d u nserved com m unities 2(e, f) • Increased faculty in psychology undergraduate and graduate program s, increasing access to ethnocultural com m unities in higher education and to an increased educational pipeline 3(e)
Execution of the APA's Interim Diversity Implementation Plan.
The creation of a m ulticultural professional organization that is…
Because one of APA's core values is based upon social justice, diversity and inclusion, it is im perative that the organization give top priority to the im m ediate execution of a unified and system ic d iv e rs ity a ctio n o r im p le m e n ta tion plan. Divers ity im plem entation is highly unlikely to be successful in a com plex organization when it is done in piecem eal fashion. Further, in order for such an initiative to be successful, strong accountable leadership on behalf of m ulticulturalism m ust be exercised through an id e n t if ie d e x e c u t iv e / m a n a g e r ia l position such as a Chief Diversity Officer. Diversity im plem entation is m ost effective when strong leadership is exerted on behalf of m ulticulturalism from som eone em powered to advocate and m ake system ic changes
Genuinely com m itted (action as well as words) to diverse representation throughout its organization and at all levels.
Sensitive to m aintaining an open, sup p o rtive, an d res po ns ive environm ent.
W orking toward and purposefully including elem ents of diverse cultures in its ongoing operations o f s c ie n c e , p ra c tic e , a n d education and training (organizational policies and practices are carefully m onitored to the goals of m ulticulturalism ). Authentic in responding to issues confronting it (com m itm ent to changing policies and practices that block cultural diversity).
ASSOCIATION REPORTS Strategic Objective
EXPECTED OUTCOME APA as a m ulticultural organization would: •
Increase the diversity of the APA m em bership.
Prom ote recognition of the value of diversity in APA policies, publications and program s.
Enhanc e access to, and participation by diverse and m arginalized groups in APA m eetings and other activities.
Increase support for diversity in the training of psychologists.
APA’s Interim Diversity Implementation Plan In 2005, APA President Ronald F. Levant, EdD, MBA, ABPP appointed a Task Force on Enhancing Diversity Within APA that was chaired by Richard M. Suinn, PhD and staffed by the APA Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs. The Task Force was constituted by persons who were representatives and possessed expert knowledge of at least one defined marginalized constituency (i.e., ethnic minorities, persons with disabilities, older persons, gay/lesbian/bisexual/ transgendered persons, Muslims or other marginalized religious group members, and women). The Task Force was charged to develop a report for APA action related to increasing the sense of being welcomed in APA for marginalized minorities, and models for reconciling differences among diverse groups. The Task Force Report and an accompanying Resolution were presented to the APA Council of Representatives (C/R) in August 2005 at which time the Report was “Received”, while the Resolution was “Adopted”. The Report included a set of strategic change recommendations that were organized by three levels of priority (immediate, medium-term, long-term). The Resolution noted that C/R: …directs APA’s Chief Executive Officer to develop a Diversity Implementation Plan to ensure that diversity is an integral part of APA’s structures and activities. In developing this Plan, the CEO should consider, among other things, the Immediate,
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ Medium-Term, and Long-Term recommendations outlined by the Task Force… (p. 41). Subsequently, the Task Force recommendations were circulated for comment to all APA Boards and Committees, that also were asked to develop their own Diversity Action plans. The Interim Diversity Implementation Plan was derived from the Task Force’s recommendations, comments of Boards and Committees, and the provisions of Diversity Action Plans of 26 governance groups as well as those of other professional associations. In addition, an APA staff work group, chaired by Deputy CEO, Michael Honaker, PhD, is assessing current APA activities that support the Interim Plan's goals and objectives. The Plan is considered “Interim” until such time as an APA Chief Diversity & Inclusion Officer is hired, who is expected to refine the Interim Plan. The development of the Interim Plan was recommended by the APA Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs. The following is a summary of the draft Interim Diversity Implementation Plan and presents only its major goals and objectives. For more information, contact Michael Honaker, PhD, Deputy CEO at firstname.lastname@example.org. APA DRAFT INTERIM DIVERSITY IMPLEMENTATION PLAN Outline of Major Goals and Objectives Only GOAL 1:
To enhance the “welcomeness” of APA to diverse and marginalized groups
A: To increase the diversity of the APA membership. B. To maintain access to leadership opportunities for members of diverse and marginalized groups, and to enhance training and other opportunities, where needed. C. To maintain diversity of the APA workforce and to increase diversity among underrepresented groups. GOAL 2
To promote recognition of the value of diversity in APA policies, publications, and programs.
A. To educate the staff and membership about diversity issues and engage them in initiatives to promote diversity.
ASSOCIATION REPORTS B. To promote diversity through APA publications C. To promote diversity in APA programs. GOAL 3.
To enhance access to, and participation by, diverse and marginalized groups in APA meetings and other activities.
A. To enhance the accessibility of diverse and marginalized groups to APA events. B. To improve the participation by diverse groups in APA activities. GOALS 4: To increase support for diversity in the training of psychologists A. To promote diversity in the K-12 pipeline B. To enhance diversity in psychology graduate and undergraduate training. C. Promote diversity in post-doctoral training. GOAL 5:
To promote diversity in psychological research and practice
A. To increase diversity in psychological research topics and methodologies B. Promote diversity in psychological practice
Update: The APA Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs Alberto Figueroa-Garcia, MBA OEMA Assistant Director The APA Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs (CEMA) convened its face-to-face meeting as part of the APA consolidated meetings cycle on March 19-21, 2010. This was an important gathering as CEMA had not met together since March 2009 because of the Association's major financial crisis. According to Dr. Norman Anderson, APA's chief executive officer, due to significant costs-savings measures, the Association did record a significant budget surplus at the end of 2009 despite projections to the contrary. The APA Board of Directors (B/Ds), together with the Executive Management Group (EMG), 13
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ allocated the surplus in various ways which included restoring the consolidated meetings for the Fall of 2010. Hence, CEMA will convene a second meeting this year, in September, 2010. Proceedings of CEMA's March, 2010 Meeting The Committee's meeting agenda was full. Among the Committee's issues of highest priority were: (a) contributing to the development of APA's Strategic Plan by proposing four strategic plan initiatives; (b) reviewing and commenting on the proposed APA Interim Diversity Implementation Plan; (c) responding to the APA Council of Representatives' (C/Rs) request to review and comment on the report of the APA Presidential Working Group examining the unsuccessful bylaws amendment vote to provide voting seats on the C/Rs to the four ethnic minority psychological associations; (d) advocating for the immediate/timely restoration of CEMRRAT funding; (e) collaborating with the APA Committee on Children, Youth, and Families (CYF) regarding the development of an initiative addressing immigration, as well as the consideration of other issues of mutual concern; and (f) hosting its traditional Open Meeting for People of Color in APA Governance, which was attended by approximately 50 members and staff. CEMA also discussed its 2010 convention programming, reconfirmed its current and future priorities, and reviewed a request from the APA Committee on Structure and Function of Council (CFSC) regarding the reaffirmation of policy to provide funding support to ethnic minority representatives of the C/Rs. In addition, CEMA elected its 2010 chairperson-elect, approved its 2009 annual report, and reviewed and considered action related to items and draft reports included in the Cross Cutting agenda book. It also received status reports on current initiatives such as the development of a "Tool Kit" to support its implementation plan of the APA Resolution on the Immediate Retirement of American Indian Mascots, Symbols, Images, and Personalities; collaboration efforts with the APA Committee on International Relations in Psychology (CIRP), the APA Committee on Legal Issues in Psychology (COLI), and the APA Committee for the Advancement of Professional Practice (CAPP); and the introduction of two new staff members in the Public Interest Directorate Government Relations Office (PID/GRO) — Mr. Leo Rennie and Mr. Ben Vonachen — both of whose legislative portfolios will include ethnic minority legislative affairs. Although CEMA was able to meet with members of the B/Ds and others on a number of the priorities previously mention, discussions during the Open Meeting provided an opportunity to expand conversations beyond CEMA regarding strategies for further examining the bylaws amendment issue for voting seats on the C/Rs for the four ethnic minority psychological associations and the restoration of CEMRRAT funding. An overwhelming majority of those attending the Open Meeting called for the development of an aggressive, 14
ASSOCIATION REPORTS detailed, and focused information/education campaign on the bylaws amendment initiative should it be presented to the membership a third time, and strongly supported the restoration of CEMRRAT funding. CEMA members include: Kevin Cokley, PhD (chairperson), Miguel Gallardo, PsyD (chairperson-elect), Josette G. Harris, PhD, Pratyusha "Usha" Tummala-Narra, PhD, Derald Wing Sue, PhD, and Rose L. Weahkee, PhD. Highlights from CEMA's 2009 annual report are provided. A copy of the full report can be obtained by contacting OEMA. Highlights from the CEMA 2009 Annual Report Overview The APA Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs (CEMA) convened one face-to-face (March 28-30) and one conference call meeting (October 8) during the 2009 calendar year. Due to severe budgetary shortfalls, the APA Council of Representatives cancelled the Fall 2009 round of consolidated meetings. In addition, CEMA learned that staff and the budget of the Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs (OEMA) were critically affected by the loss of two FTEs, the complete cancellation of funding for OEMA's CEMRRAT program, the loss of funding for the annual meeting of the CEMRRAT2 Task Force, the "pause" of funding to support activities of the Council of National Psychological Associations for the Advancement of Ethnic Minority Interests (CNPAAEMI) and the Diversity Project 2000 and Beyond (DP2kB). CEMA, during its meeting with Dr. Norman Anderson recommended consideration of rotating budget cuts, such that programs hardest hit by cuts in the 2009 budget would be protected from additional cuts in the 2010 budget. In addition, CEMA was informed that both of its primary legislative advocacy affairs officers, Day Al-Mohamad, JD, and Daniel Dawes, JD, resigned to accept employment respectively in the federal government and the private sector.
2010 CEM A M embers and Liaisons Front Row Left to Right: Rose L. W eahkee, PhD; Pratyusha "Usha" Tummala-Narra, PhD; Kevin Cokley, PhD (Chair); M aria T. Schultheis., PhD (Liaison) M arkeda Newell, PhD (Liaison) Back Row Left to Right: M iguel E. Gallardo, PsyD; Derald W ing Sue, PhD; Torrey W ilson, PhD (Liaison) Not Pictured: CEMA Member: Josette Harris, PhD
Personnel/Membership CEMA members in 2009 were: Karen Y. Chen, PhD, (chairperson), Arthur Blume, PhD, Kevin Cokley, PhD (chairperson-elect), Miguel Gallardo, PsyD, Josette G. Harris, PhD, and Rose L. Weahkee, PhD. Dr. Chen chaired her last CEMA meeting on October 8, 2009. Dr. Blume took part in his last CEMA meeting during the conference call on October 8, 2009. Their terms of service expired on December 31, 2009. CEMA expressed its great appreciation to both Dr. Chen and Dr. Blume for their dedication, commitment, and demonstrated leadership that contributed significantly to the accomplishment of CEMA's goals and objectives throughout their three year terms. Pratyusha "Usha" Tummala-Narra, PhD and Derald Wing Sue, PhD were appointed to CEMA by BAPPI with terms of service to begin January 1, 2010 and to end December 31, 2012. The APA
ASSOCIATION REPORTS Board of Directors ratified BAPPI's appointments during its December 2009 meeting in Washington, DC. The APA Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs (OEMA) continued to staff and support the work of the Committee. CEMA welcomed the attendance of liaisons at its meetings, Olivia Moorehead-Slaughter, PhD (BAPPI); Markeda Newell, PhD (Division 16); Usha Tummala-Narra, PhD (Division 39);Anita Sim, PhD (Division 40); Torrey Wilson, PhD (NCSPP liaison to CEMA). Activities and Accomplishments The remainder of this report is organized around CEMA's major goals and objectives as revised and approved on March 1, 2003. GOAL I: Increase the numbers of ethnic minority psychologists in the profession, as well as in the membership and leadership of the Association, state psychological associations, and APA divisions, and promote activities that increase recruitment and retention of ethnic minorities in psychology. CEMA was very pleased to have had an opportunity to meet on March 22, 2009 with APA President Bray and the co-chairpersons, Jean Carter, PhD and Armand Cerbone, PhD, of his Presidential Working Group (WG) tasked with examining the failed bylaws amendment vote that would have offered voting seats on the APA C/Rs to the four ethnic minority psychological associations. During the meeting, Drs. Carter and Cerbone explained the charge and purpose of the WG and extended an invitation to CEMA to appoint an official liaison to the WG to better enable consultation and information sharing. Dr. Chen and Dr. Cokley were appointed as CEMA's liaisons to President Bray's WG. CEMA submitted the following suggested modifications to the summary notes prepared by Drs. Carter and Cerbone for the WG's consideration: (a) CEMA would like the WG to not only reach out to the four ethnic minority psychological associations, but also seek their input as well as the input of other relevant entities such as the C/Rs' ethnic minority caucus, Division 45 and staff of the APA Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs (OEMA), who have been involved in the bylaws amendment development process, and who have historical knowledge of the relevant issues/concerns; (b) CEMA is hopeful that the WG will be clear, deliberate, and expedient in its charge; (c) CEMA believes that it is important for the four ethnic minority psychological associations to continue as observers on the C/Rs until such time that a strategy has been developed to ensure that the vote will pass.
OEMA COMMUNIQUĂ‰ CEMA's chairperson, Dr. Karen Chen participated on a conference call on July 22, 2009, initiated by the member Presidents of the Council of National Psychological Associations for the Advancement of Ethnic Minority Interests (CNPAAEMI) to review, discuss, and respond to APA's preliminary report examining the failed bylaws amendment vote that would have offered voting seats on the APA C/Rs to the four ethnic minority psychological associations. A major product of the call was the crafting of a letter to the APA Board of Directors (B/Ds). CEMA welcomed an opportunity to consult with Dr. Norman B. Anderson regarding the effects the budget cuts have had on ethnic minority related programs and activities. CEMA was disappointed to learn of the "pause" in hiring of the APA Chief Diversity Officer position. CEMA recommended rotating budget cuts, such that programs and activities hardest hit by the 2009 budget cuts would be protected from additional cuts in the 2010 budget. CEMA successfully partnered with the CEMRRAT2 Task Force and called for the allocation of $20,000 in 2009 discretionary funds from either the APA B/Ds and/or the APA Council of Representatives (C/Rs) to support the formation of a seven member APA Task Force on Diversity of the Next Generation of Psychology Faculty. Subsequently, all discretionary funds were eliminated due to the APA financial crisis. GOAL II: Increase efforts to empower ethnic minority psychologists within the Association as well as increase the recognition of the contributions of ethnic minority psychologists inside and outside of the Association. CEMA, in a memorandum to the APA Board of Directors, expressed its strong support for the timely restoration of CEMRRAT funding as well as the allocation of discretionary funds to support the creation of a Task Force on Multiculturalism and Diversity of the Next Generation of Psychology Faculty as soon as fiscally feasible. CEMA believes strongly that CEMRRAT and the proposed Task Force are integral and important components of APA's membership growth initiatives and therefore, continued financial support is critical to developing and expanding that aspect of APA's Strategic Plan. CEMA continued its development of an APA multicultural communications and media agenda. To that end, CEMA met with Rhea Farberman, APR, Executive Director, APA Public and Member Communications Directorate to address and discuss its continuing concerns as well as to contribute to the further development of an implementation plan.
ASSOCIATION REPORTS During the spring 2009 consolidated meetings, CEMA hosted one Open Meeting for Members of Color in APA Governance on Saturday, March 21st. Topics of discussion, as raised by attendees included the current APA budget crisis in general, and the cuts/losses associated with OEMA's CEMRRAT program in particular, as well as the defeated bylaws amendment vote on establishing voting seats on the APA C/Rs for the four ethnic minority psychological associations. Information and speculation were shared regarding the C/Rs' next steps. Other important issues that were raised included: (1) Many expressed a general sense of the potential for marginalziation of ethnic minority issues/concerns that often accompany budget reductions/cuts; many felt that diversity issues in general, and ethnic minority concerns in particular are often the first casualties of organizational efforts to contain costs and reduce expenditures; (2) A CWP representative expressed concern about BAPPI's rejection of three of CEMA's funding proposals and the tone of that written rejection in comparisons with BAPPI's rejection of other BAPPI committees' sponsored proposals/activities; (3) B/Ds member Dr. Rosie Bingham suggested that in addition to the President's Working Group, consideration might be given to the petition strategy relative to the bylaws amendment for C/Rs voting seats; meeting participants inquired on the whereabouts of the petition that was crafted during the 2009 National Multicultural Conference and Summit addressing the C/Rs voting seats for the four ethnic minority psychological associations; and (4) Support for APA president-elect candidates, including one who could be the first Latina APA president. CEMA hosted an invitational breakfast meeting, attended by over 50 persons, during the APA 117th annual convention in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Invited guests included presidents of state and territorial psychological associations (SPTAs) and the chairpersons of SPTAs and division committees on ethnic minority affairs, and ethnic minority persons involved in APA governance. For the 15th year, this breakfast has enjoyed co-sponsorship from the APA Practice Directorate and the APA Office of Division Services. The breakfast provides a forum for invitees to meet, discuss, and network on relevant issues of concern. This year's breakfast theme was: "Ethnic Minority Leadership in Psychology." The breakfast's panelists included Dr. Jennifer Kelly and Dr. Y. Evie Garcia. CEMA sponsored a social hour celebrating the presentation of the 2009 Jeffrey S. Tanaka Memorial Dissertation Award in Psychology plaque during the APA 117th annual convention in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. CEMA, in response to a call for speakers for the 2009 APA Science Leadership Conference by the APA Science Directorate, recommended the following scientists of color for consideration: Teresa M. LaFromboise, PhD, Stanford University; Janxin Leu, PhD, 19
OEMA COMMUNIQUĂ‰ University of Washington; Jennifer J. Manly, PhD, Columbia University; Ricardo F. MuĂąoz, PhD, University of California, San Francisco; Antony Stately, PhD (Oneida/Ojibwe), University of Washington; Gail E. Wyatt, PhD, University of California, Los Angeles; Christine Yeh, PhD, University of San Francisco. GOAL III: Increase the understanding of the need for scientific research on ethnicity and culture. CEMA continues to be concerned about the under-representation of ethnic minorities at all levels of the editorial pipeline (reviewer to editor) of APA journals. CEMA awarded the 2009 Jeffrey S. Tanaka, Memorial Dissertation Award in Psychology to Dr. Theresa A. Segura-Herrera, Northeastern Illinois University, for her dissertation titled, An examination of psychological well-being for Latina/o college students (University of Wisconsin, Madison, 2008). CEMA welcomed the opportunity to provide detailed and substantive comments/feedback to the APA Task Force on the Interface between Psychology and Global Climate Change on its preliminary report: Psychology and Global Climate Change: Addressing a Multi-faceted Phenomenon and Set of Challenges. CEMA is especially appreciative of the work on this review provided by Dr. Art W. Blume. In response to a request from Dr. J. Manuel Casas, immediate past-president of the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (APA Division 45), who is developing resources on immigration in the psychology field, Drs. Gallardo and Tummala-Nara, on CEMA's behalf, compiled a list of psychologists of color with expertise in immigration and divisions that may be interested in this area of research. Dr. Casas hopes that this information can be used to identify potential collaborations with researchers and clinicians for presentations, workshops at conferences, and publishing more systematic guidelines for working with immigrant populations, separate from the APA multicultural guidelines. CEMA submitted a request to BAPPI for the allocation of two hours of 2010 APA convention program time to support CEMA's proposed session, titled, Research, education, and prevention on health disparities: Exemplary roles and best practices. The request was denied.
ASSOCIATION REPORTS GOAL IV: Promote increased multicultural competence in psychology. CEMA hosted the presentation of the APA 2009 Richard M. Suinn Minority Achievement Award in Psychology during its convention social hour event. CEMRRAT2 Task Force member Jessica Henderson Daniel, PhD, presented the award statue to the winning program: University of Kansas, Clinical Child Psychology. CEMA appointed a subcommittee composed of Drs. Gallardo (chairperson), Blume, Tummala-Nara and Newell charged to review and provide recommendations on the report prepared by the APA Taskforce on the Implementation of the Multicultural Guidelines. CEMA reviewed and provided comment/feedback to the APA Presidential Task Force on Homelessness on its draft Report on Psychology's Contribution to End Homelessness. CEMA offered specific language and corresponding reference citations to Ms. Joan Freund, APA Practice Directorate, to modify/enhance the APA Draft Resolution on Endorsement of the Concept of Recovery for People with Serious Mental Illness. CEMA provided comments/recommendations to Ms. Mary J. Hardiman, APA Practice Directorate, to further clarify relevant points for consideration in treating individuals from diverse backgrounds to be included in the proposed Guidelines Regarding Psychologists' Involvement in Pharmacological Issues. CEMA reviewed and provided comment/feedback to Ms. Mary J. Hardiman, APA Practice Directorate, regarding the proposed Revisions of Guidelines for Psychological Evaluations in Child Protection Matters. CEMA reviewed and provided comment/feedback to Dr. Lynn F. Bufka, APA Practice Directorate, in response to a call for comment from the Task Force on Revision of the APA Model Act for State Licensure of Psychologists. CEMA was pleased to offer verbal and written comment/feedback to the Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation on its final report and proposed resolution. CEMA recommended that the C/Rs adopt the resolution and receive the Task Force's final report contingent upon inclusion of two recommended modifications.
OEMA COMMUNIQUĂ‰ CEMA recommended that the C/Rs adopt the Resolution on Data about Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity originated by the APA Committee on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Concerns (CLGBTC). GOAL V: Promote the use of psychological knowledge for the recognition, prevention, and education of racism. CEMA continued the further development of its collaboration efforts with the APA Committee on International Affairs in Psychology (CIRP) related to the implementation of the Final Report of the APA Delegation to the 2001 United Nation's WCAR, CEMA appointed Dr. Chen and Dr. Cokely as its representatives to a CEMA/CIRP subcommittee to collaborate in the development of an implementation plan for the APA delegation's report and the report of the APA Task Force on the WCAR Report. CEMA submitted a request to BAPPI for the allocation of two hours of 2010 convention program time to support CEMA's proposed symposium titled, The many faces of racial profiling: Psychology's contributions to the debate. The request was denied. CEMA developed a draft "Tool Kit" outline as part of its formal implementation plan for the APA Resolution Requesting the Immediate Retirement of American Indian Mascots, Symbols, Images, and Personalities by Schools, Colleges, Universities, Athletic Teams, and Organizations, (adopted by the APA Council of Representatives on August 21, 2005). GOAL VI: Promote and monitor an effective legislative advocacy agenda addressing ethnic minority concerns and their public policy implications -- particularly, in the following domains: Managed care, welfare reform, immigration, anti-affirmative action initiatives, English-only legislation, bilingual education, re-authorization of the Indian Child Welfare Act, and increased ethnic minority training funds. CEMA received legislative updates from the APA Public Interest Directorate Government Relations Office (PID/GRO) staff members, Day Al-Mohammad, JD, Daniel Dawes, JD, and Annie Toro, JD, MPH. CEMA continues to pursue efforts to secure funding for InPsych training programs, and to increase the involvement of American Indian/Alaska Native psychologists - especially those involved with InPsych training programs - in future ethnic minority training funding advocacy efforts.
ASSOCIATION REPORTS Update: The Council of National Psychological Associations for the Advancement of Ethnic Minority Interests (CNPAAEMI) Alberto Figueroa-García, MBA OEMA Assistant Director The financial crisis that the American Psychological Association has been experiencing since 2008 has significantly decreased the availability of resources to support many initiatives. Although one of CNPAAEMI’s two annual meetings was cancelled in 2009, the Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs (OEMA) was able to coordinate some important CNPAAEMI activities through use of emails and the convening of two conference calls. Major 2009 Activities Among CNPAAEMI’s issues of highest priority: (a) development of a formal position of support and continued interest in being involved in ongoing discussions with representatives of the APA Council of Representatives (C/Rs) and Board of Directors (B/Ds) regarding the APA bylaws amendment initiative that would extend voting seats on the C/Rs to the four national ethnic minority psychological associations; (b) finalizing the production and dissemination plan for its brochure, Psychology education and training from culture-specific and multiracial perspectives: Critical issues and recommendations, and formulating a production timeline for the next brochure in CNPAAEMI’s publications series addressing tests and assessments; and (c) receiving updates on the progress of the development of its proposed Leadership Development Institute (LDI). During a conference call on February 26, 2010, the Council: (a) approved the call and competition timeline for its Henry Tomes awards; (b) approved the LDI proposal and endorsed the request for private foundation funding; and (c) agreed that if APA funding is available, its first face-to-face meeting since January 14, 2009 would be June 20-21, 2010 in Ann Arbor, Michigan, following the conclusion of the inaugural research conference being sponsored by the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (APA Division 45). This meeting is expected to have a full agenda which will include a meeting with representatives of the APA B/Ds and finalizing plans regarding the conversation hour session that will take place on Sunday, August 15, 10:00-10:50 a.m., during the 118 th APA annual convention in San Diego, California. CNPAAEMI appreciates the Society for
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ Community Research and Action: Division of Community Psychology (APA Division 27) for sponsoring this event and for the coordination efforts of the APA Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs (CEMA). Membership CNPAAEMI is composed of the Presidents of the four ethnic minority psychological associations - the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA), the Association of Black Psychologists (ABPsi), the National Latina/o Psychological Association (NLPA), the Society of Indian Psychologists (SIP), the APA and APA’s Division 45. CNPAAEMI members in 2010 are: Gordon C. Nagayama Hall, PhD (chairperson), AAPA; Linda James Myers, PhD, ABPsi; J. Manuel Casas, PhD, APA Division 45; Carol Goodheart, EdD, APA; Edward A. Delgado-Romero, PhD, NLPA, and Pamela Deters, PhD, SIP. CNPAAEMI members in 2009 were: Beth Boyd, PhD (chairperson), Division 45; Karen Suyemoto, PhD, AAPA; Robert Atwell, PsyD, ABPsi; Edward A. Delgado-Romero, PhD, NLPA; James Bray, PhD, APA, and Pamela Deters, PhD, SIP.
CALL FOR NOMINATIONS CNPAAEMI Henry Tomes Aw ards For Distinguished Contributions To The Advancement Of Ethnic Minority Psychology The Henry Tom es Awards for the Advancem ent of Ethnic Minority Psychology, nam ed in honor of one of the leaders and pioneers of ethnic m inority psychology, are awarded every other year at the National Multicultural Conference and Sum m it. Funded by the m em ber Associations of the Council of National Psychological Associations for the Advancem ent of Ethnic Minority Interests (CNPAAEMI), the Tom es Awards honor psychologists from each ethnic m inority com m unity — African Am erican, Alaska Native/Am erican Indian, Asian Am erican/Pacific Islander, Latina/o Am erican — on a rotating basis. The 2011 Tom es Awards will recognize one Asian Am erican /Pacific Islander psychologist in each of the two categories: A.
Senior Asian Am erican/Pacific Islander Psychologist who has been in the field for 20 or m ore years and whose work dem onstrates distinguished contributions for the em powerm ent of ethnic m inority individuals and com m unities in all of the following arenas: (a) the developm ent and prom otion of ethnic m inority psychology in the areas of research, training, practice, and/or policy; (b) advocacy in the interests and psychological well-being of individuals across m ultiple ethnic m inority com m unities: African Am erican, Am erican Indian/Alaska Native, Asian Am erican/Pacific Islander and Latino/a Am ericans; and (c) leadership in institutions and organizations to advance ethnic m inority interests in the practice, science, and/or education of psychology.
Em erging Asian Am erican/Pacific Islander Psychologist who has earned a doctoral degree no earlier than 2000 (i.e., 10 years post-doctorate), and whose work has already influenced and dem onstrates prom ise for distinguished contributions towards the em powerm ent of ethnic m inority individuals and com m unities in the following arenas: (a) developm ent and prom otion of ethnic m inority psychology in two of the four following areas — research, training, practice, policy— with em erging efforts in the rem aining two; (b) advocacy in the interests and psychological well-being of individuals in one of the following ethnic m inority com m unities: African Am erican, Alaska Native/Am erican Indian, Asian Am erican/Pacific Islander and Latino/a Am ericans with em erging contributions to at least one other ethnic m inority com m unity; and (c) leadership in institutions and organizations to advance ethnic m inority interests in the practice, science, and/or education of psychology.
Nom ination packets m ust include the following: (1) a nom ination letter; (2) three letters of endorsem ent; and (3) the candidate's current curriculum vita. Materials should be addressed to CNPAAEMI and sent to the Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs, Am erican Psychological Association, 750 First Street, NE, W ashington, DC 20002-4242. The deadline for receipt of nom ination m aterials is September 1, 2010. The winners of the 2011 CNPAAEMI Henry Tom es Awards will each receive an award trophy and a cash honorarium of $500.00 that will be presented during the evening Opening Reception of the National Multicultural Conference and Sum m it in Seattle, W ashington January 26, 2011.
OEMA COMMUNIQUĂ‰ NOW AVAILABLE! Psychology Education and Training From Culture-Specific and Multiracial Perspectives by the Council of National Psychological Associations for the Advancement of Ethnic Minority Interests (CNPAAEMI) This booklet illustrates the importance of infusing ethnic/culture-specific perspectives into psychology education by describing the social-historical contexts of major contemporary psychological challenges and strengths of ethnic minority and biracial populations. Related implications for psychological research and practice and additional information sources are identified. Online at: http://www.apa.org/pi/oema/resources/education-training.pdf.
DUES CREDIT TO APA FULL MEMBERS WHO ARE ALSO MEMBERS OF A NATIONAL ETHNIC MINORITY PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION At its February 2010, meeting the APA Council of Representatives created a $25 dues credit for full members of APA who are also members of the Association for Psychological Science; the Society of Neuroscience; any organizations that are part of the Federation for the Advancement of Behavioral and Brain Sciences; and members of the state, provincial and territorial psychological associations and the four national ethnic-minority psychological associations. This dues credit will begin with the 2012 dues cycle.
New Members of Color on APA Standing Boards and Committees The 2009 standing Board and Committee election ballot was sent to members of the 2009 Council on October 30. The election closed November 30. The ballots have been counted and the results certified by the Election Committee. The following members of color were elected, with terms beginning January of 2010. Finance Committee Jessica Henderson Daniel, PhD Guillermo Bernal, PhD
Board of Educational Affairs Frank C. Worrell, PhD Olivia D. Moorehead-Slaughter, PhD
Ethics Committee Nadya A. Fouad, PhD
Board of Professional Affairs Lydia P. Buki, PhD Terry S. Gock, PhD
Membership Board Dorothy E. Holmes, PhD Francisco J. Sanchez, PhD
Board for the Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest Y. Barry Chung, PhD Karen F. Wyche, PhD
Policy and Planning Board Gwyneth M. Boodoo, PhD
Committee on Rural Health Tawa M. Witko, PsyD
OEMA COMMUNIQUĂ‰ APA Committee of State Leaders Diversity Initiative
2010 SLC Diversity Delegates with APA President-Elect Melba J. T. Vasquez, B/D Member Jennifer F. Kelly, and CEO Norm an B. Anderson
The Committee for the Advancement of Professional Practice (CAPP) has approved the recommendations of the Committee of State Leaders (CSL) for this year's Diversity Delegates. The CSL is chaired by Dr. Vanessa Jensen of Ohio and the CSL Diversity Subcommittee is chaired by Dr. Kamieka Gabriel of Georgia. This year the Diversity Initiative received nominations from 12 State, Provincial and Territorial Psychological Associations (SPTAs) and one from APAGS for a total of 14 individuals (Tennessee nominated 2 people). The Diversity Initiative is being funded by CAPP with minor support from the Office of Ethnic and Minority Affairs (OEMA). In addition, 13 SPTAs funded 14 additional diversity delegates. The efforts being made by these associations to further their diversity initiative are greatly appreciated. Diversity Delegates that are funded by their SPTAs will be listed as such in the SLC materials, will be invited to the Diversity Delegate dinner on Friday, March 5th & the Orientation on Saturday morning, March 6th and will be added to the Diversity Listserv.
ASSOCIATION REPORTS After thoroughly reviewing each candidate and each SPTA's need and diversity accomplishments, the committee chose the following candidates for funding to the 2010 SLC. Fully Funded Robin Gobin, MS – APAGS (partially funded by Division 31) Lisa McGill Linson, PhD – Arkansas Darryl Salvador, PsyD –Hawaii Carrie Crownover, PhD - Kansas Fabiana Willis, PhD - Oregon Alison Lau, PhD - Washington State Partially Funded Sarah Burgamy, PsyD - Colorado Mikaru Shichi Lasher, PhD - Connecticut Cheryl Moreland, PhD - Mississippi Jo Velasquez, PhD - Nevada Ricardo Gonzales, PhD - New Mexico Robin Oatis-Ballew, PhD - Tennessee Joan Popkin, PhD - Tennessee Margaret Joyal, MA - Vermont
SPTA Funded Phyllis Bolling, PhD – New Jersey Thomas Carillo, PhD - Minnesota Felicia Berry-Mitchell - Georgia Deepan Chatterjee, PhD - Maryland Edna Esnil, PsyD - California Ree Gunter, PhD - Connecticut Shefali Gandhi, PsyD - Arizona Mabel Lam, PhD - Massachusetts Daniel Meier, PsyD - Hawaii Shelly Madison Allen, PsyD - Ohio Wanda McEntyre, PhD - Ohio Anthony Smith, PhD - North Carolina Hue Sun-Ahn, PhD - Pennsylvania Janice Williams - New York
AI/AN Section within Division 35 A number of American Indian and Alaska Native women are working to establish a section of American Indian/Alaska Native/Indigenous women within Division 35. Iva Greywolf has been working very hard as the Chairwoman of the committee/section. Members of the committee include Diane Willis, Oklahoma, Dee Big Foot, Oklahoma, Pam Deters, Louisiana, Jacque Gray, North Dakota, Lisa Rey Thomas, Washington, Candace Fleming, Colorado, Tonie Marie Quaintance, Alaska, and Iva GreyWolf, Alaska. A list of people who support this initiative is now needed to forward to the Executive Council of Division 35. If you would be willing to add your name to list of supporters for this initiative for Alaska Native/American Indian/Indigenous women to have the opportunity to bring our voices to share at the table within Division 35, please contact Lisa Rey Thomas at email@example.com. (PS – please note that you do not have to be a psychologist or a full member of APA to be a member of Division 35). This is all part of a wonderful and critical strategy to increase the voice of AIAN psychologists and the communities we serve within APA. 29
THE INAUGURAL APA DIVISION 45 CONFERENCE The Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (APA Division 45) will be hosting its first-ever conference outside of the APA convention on June 17-19, 2010. The conference will be held on the campus of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. There will also be a pre-conference professional development opportunity for ethnic minority graduate students and early career professionals on Thursday, June 17, 2010. The goals of this meeting are to provide a forum for: 1. The presentation of state-of-the-art research related to the psychological condition of individuals from all ethnic minority groups within the United States; 2. The professional development of ethnic minority researchers (students and professionals); 3. Greater networking and collaboration among researchers conducting research on ethnic minority issues across various fields of psychology. There will be an opportunity to present posters, symposia, panel discussions and workshops. The Call for Proposals ends on February 15, 2010 at 11:59 EST. Early registration ends on May 30, 2010 at 11:59 EST. You must register in Ann Arbor after that date at onsite rates. For more information and to register for the conference go to the conference website (http://www.div45conference.com).
PUBLIC POLICY AND ADVOCACY COMMENTARY Confronting Immigration Challenges in a Nation of Immigrants: A Call for APA Action Dr. J. Manuel Casas, Professor Emeritus University of California, Santa Barbara To date, immigration, both documented and undocumented, has simplistically been treated as a political and/or economic issue. However, most recently, as the number and visibility of immigrants has increased and as the serious problems faced by immigrants have come to the forefront, the treatment of immigration has evolved to include both social and human issues. Working from this point of view, this article addresses the phenomenon of immigration and the issues associated with it from a variety of social and/or psychological perspectives. However, before addressing these perspectives, immigration is first put into historical and demographic context. The article concludes with selective recommendations on ways to address pertinent problems and issues.
J. Manuel Casas, PhD
A Historical and General Perspective The issues and the turmoil associated with immigration have perennially emerged on the American scene. According to Casas (2009), such issues were made most evident by the passage of federal anti-immigration acts and resolutions (e.g., the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act, the 1965 Immigration Act, the Immigration Reform Act of 1995, the "on" and "off" bracero acts, and California's Proposition 187 in 1994) (Atkinson, 2004). The implementation of "lawful" and unlawful tactics (e.g., immigration and deportation raids) and the commission of racially motivated acts of violence (e.g., lynchings, murders, deprivation of life saving services, etc.) brought the turmoil to the fore (Atkinson, 2004; Falicov, 1998; Gonzalez, 2000). One could say that all immigration waves produce backlashes of one kind or another, and the latest one is no exception. Illegal immigration, in particular, has become a highly-charged political issue in recent times. It is also a relatively new phenomenon: Past immigration 31
Past immigration waves did not generate large numbers of illegal immigrants because the U.S. imposed fewer restrictions on immigration flow in the past than it does now. â€Ś a belief has surged that immigration is a resonant issue today because it touches so many sensitive nerves: racial anxieties, gnawing questions of national identity, and a generalized sense of traditions under threat.
waves did not generate large numbers of illegal immigrants because the U.S. imposed fewer restrictions on immigration flow in the past than it does now.
Some historians have attributed such b a c k l a s h e s t o e v e r- c h a n g in g economic conditions: When we need cheap labor, "import it", when we don't, "deport it"(Atkinson, 2004). Such simplistic and readily available economic explanations may have been acceptable in the past. However, more recently, social scientists (e.g., Atkinson, 2004) are seeking more comprehensive, and interactive socio-psychological perspectives and hypotheses to better grasp the complexity of issues associated with immigration in the U.S. (e.g., health, education, crime, security, etc.) (Casas, 2009, pp. 13-16). Concomitant with such perspectives, a belief has surged that immigration is a resonant issue today because it touches so many sensitive nerves: racial anxieties, gnawing questions of national identity, and a generalized sense of traditions under threat (Rutten, 2009). The forcefulness of the issue is such that even in the midst of economic crisis, mass unemployment, war (s), and the healthcare reform debate, it continues to cause turmoil (Rutten, 2009). Selective Demographic Changes and Data A major driving force that continues to embroil the prevailing turmoil is the dramatic changes in the immigration demographics that the U.S. is presently confronting. For instance, in 2005, the foreign-born population was nearing 36 million--35% were naturalized citizens, 33% were documented immigrants, and 31% were undocumented. Just a decade earlier, 24 million people in the U.S. were foreign-born, with 30% comprised of naturalized citizens, 47% comprised of documented immigrants, and 20% comprised of undocumented immigrants (King, 2007).
PUBLIC POLICY AND ADVOCACY At present, while most undocumented immigrants are young adults, there is also a sizeable childhood population. It is estimated that children constitute a significant portion (16%) of the population. In addition, a growing share (73%) of the children of unauthorized immigrant parents were born in this country and are U.S. citizens. With respect to Latino youth, most are not immigrants. Two-thirds were born in the United States, many of them descendants of the big ongoing wave of Latin American immigrants who began coming to this country around 1965 (Passel, 2006; Pew, 2009). Measured in raw numbers, the modern Latin American-dominated immigration wave is by far the largest in U.S. history. Nearly 40 million immigrants have come to the United States since 1965. From an ethnic national perspective, most documented and undocumented immigrants are from Mexico: 30% of the documented population and 56% of the undocumented population. Immigrants from other countries in Latin America comprise an additional 35% of the documented population and another 22% of the undocumented population. With respect to immigrants from other parts of the world, King (2007) reports that 26% of the documented immigrant population is from Asia, 14% from Western Europe and another 8% from Africa and other regions. Another 5% of undocumented immigrants come from South Asia and Southeast Asia. The origin of the remaining 17% of undocumented immigrants is unidentified (King, 2007, p. 2). The prevalent trend of the last decade has been that inflow of undocumented immigrants exceeded arrivals of legal permanent residents. However, the inflow of undocumented immigrants has slowed significantly since 2005 and now trails the pace of legal immigration (Passel & Cohn, 2008). With respect to Hispanics, another emerging trend is that while the majority of undocumented immigrants continue to concentrate in places with existing large immigrant communities, increasingly such immigrants are settling throughout the rest of the country (Passel, 2005).
The prevalent trend of the last decade has been that inflow of undocumented immigrants exceeded arrivals of legal permanent residents. However, the inflow of undocumented immigrants has slowed significantly since 2005 and now trails the pace of legal immigration.
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ Unsurprisingly, as immigrants settle in non-traditional demographic pockets, the U.S. finds itself confronting new complex social, cultural, and political issues (e.g., greater economic and power disparities across groups, the need to provide vital information and services in languages other than English, increase in the number of persons who cannot afford health insurance, and increased reliance on emergency services). These issues will continue to emerge as the U.S. population grows by 120 million people by 2050, of whom about 80 million will be here as the direct or indirect effect of immigration (King, 2007). Socio-Psychological Problems and Issues of Mental Health Services Such problems and issues can occur With respect to Latino youth, most prior to, during, and after their arrival in their host country (Lustig, et al., are not immigrants. Two-thirds were 2004) and to persons of all ages. born in the United States… Incurring such problems can have immediate and long-term implications for the psychological and social well being of individuals and families (Espin, 1999). The implications can be especially traumatic for undocumented children and families (Cooper et al., 2007). With respect to children and youth, the immigrant experience may negatively affect their growth, development, acculturation, health, education and, more specifically, their self-concept and self-esteem; positive racial ethnic identity development; sense of security; ability to trust others; and capacity to dream of, plan, and work for a brighter future (Capps et al., 2007; Communiqué, 2007; Morgan & Gonzales, 2009; Passel, 2006). Frequently, undocumented immigrant children and youth are subject to traumatic experiences (Capps, et al., 2007) such as racial profiling, ongoing discrimination (Para-Cardona, et al, 2006), exposure to gangs (Pew, 2010), immigration raids in their community, being forcibly taken or separated from their family for an indeterminate period of time (Capps, et al., 2007), returning home to find their family has been taken away, violation of their home by authorities, placement in detention camps or in child welfare, and deportation to their country of origin. Needless to say, such traumatic and challenging experiences can produce a range of psychological problems (Capps et al., 2007) including post-traumatic stress disorder, acculturation stress, and intergenerational conflict (Kohatsu, Concepción, & Perez, 2010), feelings of persecution, high distrust of institutions and authority figures, fear of school, inability to concentrate, acting out behaviors, eating disorders, loss of motivation, depression, 34
PUBLIC POLICY AND ADVOCACY anxiety, difficulties in school performance and matriculation (SuĂĄrez-Orozco, 2007), and finally dropping out of school (Capps et al., 2007).
The risk for so many potential problems for these immigrant youth can significantly impact the socio-political future of the U.S. More specifically: "By force of numbers alone, the kinds of adults these young Latinos become will help shape the kind of society America becomes in the 21st century" (Pew Hispanic Center, 2009)
The risk for so many potential problems for these immigrant youth can significantly im pact the socio-political future of the U.S. More specifically: "By force of numbers alone, the kinds of adults these young Latinos become will help shape the kind of society America becomes in the 21st century" (Pew Hispanic Center, 2009). This fact should provide a strong impetus for governmental and social institutional action.
Social, Therapeutic, and Systemic Issues Psychological problems aside, there are numerous social, therapeutic, and systemic problems that continue to negatively impact the provision of mental health services to low-income immigrants. These include inaccessibility to appropriate mental health services; the inability to pay for services; a lack of health insurance; misdiagnosis of presenting problems; cultural and linguistic barriers; contextual factors (e.g., lack of child care, time conflicts, lack of transportation); providers ''treatment of mental disorders" rather than placing their clients within a broader ecological context (Sue, Bingham, PorchĂŠ- Burke, & Vasquez, 1999); clinician bias; and most importantly, the persistence of anti-immigrant prejudice (Casas, Vasquez, & Ruiz de Esparza, 2002; Ponterotto, Casas, Suzuki, & Alexander, 1995). Selective Recommendations to APA for Addressing Problems and Issues Associated with Immigration Given the information provided above, it is evident that immigration (documented and undocumented) has provoked ongoing political and social turmoil, while immigrants themselves have continuously been subject to a great deal of health and socio-psychological problems and systemic challenges and issues that continue to this day. While the need to address such problems and challenges has frequently been ignored, the demography of the U.S. and the pervasiveness of problems are such that continuing to ignore them is no longer 35
OEMA COMMUNIQUĂ‰ a viable option. To this end, short of bringing about comprehensive immigration reform, which for "political" reasons may not be feasible at this time, there are innumerable intermediary and foundation-building actions that can be taken (see CYF News, Fall, 2009 http://www.apa.org/pi/families/resources/newsletter/2009/11/fall.pdf). Because of limited space, I solely address two such actions. From an institutional perspective, APA needs to revisit its Resolution on Immigrant Children, Youth and Families (American Psychological Association, 1998). This Resolution reflected increased sensitivity towards the unjust and contradictory treatment of the growing number of documented and undocumented immigrants in the United States. The Resolution emphasized the socio-psychological experiences associated with immigration for children and families. While somewhat dated, the Resolution is still pertinent and necessary. In particular, the necessity exists for action to be taken that focuses on implementing the Resolution with a force consisting of comprehensive and well-planned strategies that enable the psychological profession to move persistently and methodically towards decisive actions that seek to provide social justice, safety and security for all persons and, in this case, immigrant children, youth, and families. While waiting for comprehensive reform, two humanely focused Congressional bills that merit the immediate attention and support of APA are: H.R. 3531 (U.S. representative Lynn Woolsey-D-CA) and H.R. 1215 (U.S. representative Lucille Roybal-Allard-D-CA). H.R. 3531 aims to prevent separation of children from their parents during immigration enforcement by facilitating access to family court proceedings, travel documents, and communication between parents and children. H.R. 1215 seeks to institute standards for treatment of detainees ranging from basic necessities (adequate food, blankets, clothing, medical care) to access to legal counsel. This legislation also addresses the needs of unaccompanied children by mandating better training of border personnel. These bills have been sent to committee and could benefit from the support of our respective representatives. In conclusion and based on the information contained herein, I leave you with the thought that there is no longer anytime to waste if we are to fulfill America's destiny as a nation of immigrants. More extensive coverage of the material contained herein can be found on line: http://www.apa.org/pi/families/resources/newsletter/2009/11/fall.pdf.
PUBLIC POLICY AND ADVOCACY References American Psychological Association (1998). Resolution on immigrant children, youth, and families. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/about/governance/council/policy/immigrants.aspx Atkinson, D. R. (2004). Counseling American minorities (6th edition). New York: McGraw-Hill. Capps, R., Castañeda, R. M., Chaudry, A., & Santos, R. (2007). Paying the price: The impact of immigration ra ids on Am erica's children. W ashington, D C : U rban Institute. R etrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411566_immigration_raids.pdf Casas, J. M. (2009). The 1998 APA Resolution on Children, Youth, and Families: A time to revisit and revitalize. In CYF News. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/pi/families/resources/newsletter/2009/11/fall.pdf Casas, J. M., Vasquez, M. J. T., & Ruiz de Esparza, C. A. (2002). Counseling the Latina(o): A guiding framework for a diverse population. In P.B. Pedersen, J. G. Draguns, W. J. Lonner, & J. E. Trimble (Eds.), Counseling across cultures (5th ed., pp. 133-160). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. Communiqué (2007, March). [Special section] Psychological perspectives on immigration. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/oema/resources/communique/2007/03/mar-special.pdf Cooper, J., Masi, R., Dababnah, S., Aratani, Y., & Knitzer, J. (2007). Strengthening policies to support children, youth, and families who experience trauma. New York, NY: National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved from http://www.nccp.org/publications/pdf/text_737.pdf. Espin, O. (1999). W omen crossing boundaries: The psychology of immigration and the transformations of sexuality. Florence, K. Y: Taylor & Frances/Routledge. Falicov, C. J. (1998). Latino families in therapy: A guide to multicultural practice. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Gonzalez, J. (2000). Harvest of empire: A history of Latinos in America. New York, NY: Penguin Press. King, M .L. (2007) Immigrants in the U. S. health system: Five myths that misinform the American public. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress. Retrieved from http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2007/06/immigrant_health_report.html. Kohatsu, E. L., Concepción, W . R., & Perez, P. (2010). Incorporating levels of acculturation in counseling practice. In J. G., Ponterotto, J. M. Casas, L. A. Suzuki, & C. M. Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of Multicultural Counseling (3rd ed.), pps. 343-356. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Lustig, S., Kia-Keating, M., Knight, W.G., Geltman, P., Ellis, H., Kinzie, J.D., Keana, T., & Saxe, G. N. (2004). Review of child and adolescent refugee mental health. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 24-36. Morgan, M., & Gonzales, R. (2009). Strength in the face of adversity: Latino/a resilience. In CYF News. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://www.apa.org/pi/families/resources/newsletter/2009/11/fall.pdf Passel, J. S. (2005). Unauthorized migrants: Numbers and characteristics. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center. Retrieved from http://pewhispanic.org/reports/report.php?ReportID=46 Passel, J.S. (2006). The size and characteristics of the unauthorized migrant population in the United States: Estimates based on the March 2005 current population survey. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center. http://pewhispanic.org/reports/report.php?ReportID=61
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ Passel, J. S. & Cohn, D. (2008). Trends in unauthorized immigration: Undocumented inflow now trails legal inflow. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center. Retrieved from http://pewhispanic.org/reports/report.php?ReportID=94 Pew Hispanic Center (2009). Between two worlds: How young Latinos come of age in America. Washington DC: Pew Hispanic Center. Ponterotto, J. G., Casas, J. M., Suzuki, L. A., & Alexander, C.M. (1995). Handbook of multicultural counseling (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Suárez-Orozco, C. (2007, March). Commentary: The challenges of immigrant families. [Special section] Communiqué, 6-14. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/oema/resources/communique/2007/03/mar-special.pdf Rutten, T. (2009, September 29). The voices behind Joe Wilson. Los Angeles Times, p. A29. Sue, D. W., Bingham, R. P., Porché-Burke, L., & Vasquez, M. (1999). The diversification of psychology: A multicultural revolution. American Psychologist, 54, 1061-1069. Dr. J. Manuel Casas is Professor Emeritus at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and a member of the APA Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. He has published over 140 articles and his research interests include resiliency in Latino families and the identification and implementation of culturally appropriate mental health services to such families.
Public Policy Update Annie Toro, JD Associate Executive Director APA Public Interest Government Relations Office Federal priorities over the last year, especially around health care, military, and veterans issues, presented tremendous opportunities for advocacy on behalf of ethnic and racial minorities. What follows is a summary of some of the APA Public Interest Directorate's Government Relations Office (PI–GRO) recent successes within this critically important policy area. APA Testimony before U.S. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs On September 10, APA member Dolores Subia BigFoot, PhD, Director of the Indian Country Child Trauma Center and Project Making Medicine at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, testified on behalf of APA before the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs on the 7th Generation Promise: Indian Youth Suicide Prevention Act of 2009. Dr. BigFoot's statement highlighted critical needs, including: 38
PUBLIC POLICY AND ADVOCACY ! ! ! !
committing federal resources to address the devastating problem of suicide among American Indian and Alaska Native youth; increasing trauma services in rural and urban areas; building the pipeline of culturally and linguistically competent psychologists in Indian Country; and developing and supporting innovative resources to improve access to health care, including telehealth.
To read Dr. BigFoot's full statement, please visit: http://www.apa.org/about/gr/pi/advocacy/2009/bigfoot-written-statement.aspx. U.S. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs Oversight Hearing on Youth Suicide On Thursday, March 25, 2010, the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs held an oversight hearing on "The Preventable Epidemic: Youth Suicides and the Urgent Need for Mental Health Care Resources in Indian Countryâ€?. The written testimonies are available at the following website link: http://indian.senate.gov/public/. Health Care Reform (HCR) and Health Disparities Building from the momentum of PI-GRO's work in establishing and leading the efforts of the National Working Group on Health Disparities and Health Reform, the Working Group sent letters to Congress and the Administration on the need to preserve critical health disparities provisions in the final health care reform legislative package. The letter, which urged that the provisions around data collection, health care quality improvements, health workforce investment, language services, and prevention and wellness be given special consideration, garnered the support of more than 250 organizations and coalitions. A copy of this letter appears in this issue of the CommuniquĂŠ.
Annie Toro, JD
PI-GRO also spearheaded a standing room only congressional briefing on September 22, entitled "Cost Savings of Reducing Health Disparities in Health Reform," on behalf of the Working Group. In his remarks, lead presenter and APA CEO, Norman Anderson, PhD, highlighted the importance of defining the nature of health and health care disparities to 39
OEMA COMMUNIQUĂ‰ include all vulnerable populations. Also represented on the panel were the White House, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, The Carter Center, the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, the New America Foundation, and Adventist HealthCare, as well as the Joint Center for Economic and Political Studies and the Urban Institute, both of which unveiled new landmark reports on health disparities at the briefing. Topics discussed included how disparities originate, their direct and indirect costs to society, health care reform proposals and how they would or would not address disparities, and means of ending disparities. APA Members Participate in Congressional Black Caucus Veterans Braintrust On September 25, APA participated in several events hosted by the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation, Inc. and the Congressional Black Caucus Veterans Braintrust. Specifically, PI-GRO secured the participation of APA member, Kristin Lester, PhD, from the National Center for PTSD, Women's Health Sciences Division, VA Boston Health Care System to speak about the needs of women veterans and veterans of color. Get Involved in Advocacy! We invite you to take part in our Public Policy Advocacy Network (PPAN) by visiting us at http://www.apa.org/about/gr/advocacy/network.aspx. Through PPAN, you can sign up for our timely action alerts and you can stay informed about, and involved in, federal policy. In addition, if you are interested in taking a more active role in advancing PI-GRO'S legislative and regulatory priorities, please contact our office at (202) 336-6166.
PUBLIC POLICY AND ADVOCACY Advocating for a Mental Health Workforce that Meets the Needs of our Aging and Ethnic Minority Populations: $900,000 IOM Report Authorized Diane L. Elmore, PhD, MPH Senior Legislative and Federal Affairs Officer Director, APA Congressional Fellowship Program Kathleen M. Van Dyk Public Interest Policy Graduate Student Intern Public Interest Government Relations Office In April 2008, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released a report entitled, Retooling for an Aging America: Building the Health Care Workforce. In this report, the IOM outlines the projected health care needs of the growing and increasingly diverse aging population, and articulated some significant professional workforce shortages. In addition, the publication briefly recognized the existence of ethnic minority health disparities. Recommendations within the report included bolstering overall competence in geriatric care and increasing the number of specialists prepared to work with older adults. However, the study contained a striking omission: The featured professions Diane L. Elm ore, PhD, MPH failed to substantively recognize psychology and provided only a cursory discussion of the significant geriatric mental health workforce crisis. This exclusion occurred despite earlier outreach by the American Psychological Association (APA) to IOM, urging the inclusion of a geropsychologist on the study committee and encouraging specific attention to geriatric mental health workforce issues. The APA Public Interest Government Relations Office (PI-GRO) worked in collaboration with the APA Office on Aging to bring this oversight to the attention of the IOM. Following a year-long advocacy campaign, the decisive efforts of APA yielded significant positive results. APA, along with partner organizations, successfully worked with Representatives Rosa DeLauro (D-CT) and Patrick Kennedy (D-RI) to designate $900,000 in the report language that accompanied the Fiscal Year 2010 Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act (H.R. 3293) to fund an IOM study 41
OEMA COMMUNIQUĂ‰ focused on the mental health workforce. Specifically, this study will "provide (1) a systematic and trend analysis of the current and projected mental and behavioral health care needs of the American people, particularly for aging and g ro w in g ethnic populations; a nd (2) polic y recommendations for achieving a competent and well-trained mental health workforce to address those needs". IOM studies are often a powerful public policy resource. The results of the upcoming study can serve as an Kathleen M. Van Dyk important tool to ensure that our nation has a psychology and mental health workforce that is competently prepared to meet the needs of our rapidly changing population. In the coming weeks, PI-GRO, along with representatives of other key mental health organizations, will be meeting with leaders from the Department of Health and Human Services to discuss the implementation of the upcoming study and learn more about how APA and our members can serve as resources. Diane L. Elmore, PhD, MPH, is a Senior Legislative and Federal Affairs Officer in the APA Public Interest Government Relations Office and Director of the APA Congressional Fellowship Program. In this role, she is responsible for health policy initiatives related to health reform; trauma, violence and abuse; aging; service members, veterans and their families; and refugee populations. Kathleen M. Van Dyk is a Psychology doctoral student in the Neuropsychology subprogram at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. She is also a 2009-2010 Public Interest Policy Graduate Student Intern in the APA Public Interest Government Relations Office, where she is working on issues including health reform, aging, disabilities, and caregiving.
PUBLIC POLICY AND ADVOCACY APA and The Coalition on Health Disparities: Position Statement The following letter, which outlines a legislative framework for addressing health disparities as part of comprehensive health care reform legislation, was sent to leaders of the U.S. House of Representatives (i.e., Nancy Pelosi, Speaker; James Clyburn, Majority Whip; and Steny Hoyer, Majority Leader) and the U.S. Senate (i.e., Harry Reid, Majority Leader; Tom Harkin, Chair of the Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee; Max Baucus, Chair of the Senate Finance Committee; and Christopher Dodd, Chair of the Senate Banking, House and Urban Affairs Committee). The letter was signed by a coalition of 250 organizations. The coalition was chaired by the then APA Public Interest Government Relations Office staffer Daniel E. Dawes, JD. October 15, 2009 As you and your colleagues continue to work on health reform legislation, the over 250 undersigned coalitions and organizations urge you to ensure that the final legislation includes provisions to address health inequities and to reduce and eliminate health and health care disparities. A recent report from the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies found that from 2003 to 2006 the combined cost of health disparities totaled $1.24 trillion in our country. This report also found that in the same time period, eliminating certain health disparities would have reduced direct health care expenditures by $229.4 billion. These potential savings would be realized not only by improving the health of populations and communities that suffer from health disparities and barriers to health care and public health services, but by reducing the costs resulting from the disproportionate burden of disease faced by these populations. As a result, the final health reform legislation must, at a minimum, include: !
Data Collection, Analyses, and Quality to ensure collection and reporting of data on race, ethnicity, gender, disability status, geographic location, socioeconomic status, primary language, sexual orientation, gender identity, and, especially for subpopulation groups, as well as the development of standards for measuring these factors to improve health status and quality in health care. Health Care Quality Improvements, including the National Strategy for Quality Improvements in Health Care, Quality Measure Development, Community Health Needs Assessment, and Cultural and Linguistic Competence in health care and public health services by providing grants and demonstration projects to support research and 43
community-based programs designed to reduce health disparities and barriers to health services through education and outreach, health promotion and disease prevention activities, and health literacy and services. Health Workforce and Infrastructure Investment to strengthen the recruitment, retention, training, and continuing education of health professionals, and increase their diversity, distribution, cultural competence, and knowledge of treating the unique needs of populations impacted by health disparities. Access to Language Services for Limited English Proficient Patients, including funding for these services under federal programs and new coverage programs, training of interpreters, and evaluation of and accountability for provision of these services. Prevention and Wellness provisions, including the National Prevention and Health Promotion Strategy and Prevention and Public Health Fund.
We want to underscore that our support for these crucial health equity provisions in no way signals an endorsement for reducing affordability protections in order to reach a specific spending threshold. Nor should providing affordable coverage prevent us from making progress on reducing health disparities. These provisions are critical to efforts to help us succeed in closing the gaps in health status and health care. Thank you for your ongoing leadership and support of issues impacting populations and communities that continue to suffer grave health and health care disparities. We would also like to thank you for your thoughtful consideration of this request and offer our assistance in addressing this critical issue. Please contact Daniel E. Dawes, JD at firstname.lastname@example.org, if you would like any additional information.
PUBLIC POLICY AND ADVOCACY Update on Health Disparities Provisions in Health Reform Legislation Daniel E. Dawes, JD Manager, Federal Affairs and Grassroots Network Premier Healthcare Alliance On Sunday, March 21, 2010, the U.S. House of Representatives passed landmark legislation - the Senate’s Health Reform bill (HR 3590), which was signed into law by President Obama on Tuesday, March 23, 2010. This bill also incorporated provisions of the Indian Health Care Improvement Reauthorization and Extension Act of 2009 (description of this act follows this article). The House also approved a reconciliation bill (HR 4872) to amend a few provisions in the Senate Health Reform legislation, which is now under consideration by the Senate. The following chart provides a side-by-side comparison of health disparities provisions in the two bills. Specifically, the reconciliation bill would add language related to Daniel E. Dawes, JD “Workforce” (investment in HBCUs and MSIs), “M edicare/M edicaid Funding” (payments to Disproportionate Share Hospitals i.e., advancing the date of Medicare payment cuts and reducing the amount of Medicaid cuts; increasing federal funding to and caps on Medicaid funding for the U.S. Territories; allowing Territories to establish a Medical Benefit Exchange), and “Community Health Centers” (new anti-fraud requirements on community mental health centers providing partial hospitalization; increasing mandatory funding to community health centers).
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“Health disparity population” is defined in the bill as defined in Section 485E (Sec. 931) Current Law: “a population is a health disparity population if, as determined by the Director of the Center after consultation with the Director of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, there is a significant disparity in the overall rate of disease incidence, prevalence, morbidity, mortality, or survival rates in the population as compared to the health status of the general population, in addition to the meaning so given, the Director may determine that such term includes populations for which there is a significant disparity in the quality, outcomes, cost, or use of healthcare services or access to or satisfaction with such services as compared to the general population.” (PHSA Sec. 485E) “Cultural Competency” shall be defined by the Secretary in a manner consistent with section 1707(d)(3). (Sec. 5001) Current Law: “The Secretary shall ensure that information and services provided pursuant to subsection (b) are provided in the language, educational, and cultural context that is most appropriate for the individuals for whom the information and services are intended.”(PHSA Sec. 1707(d)(3))
Health Insurance Exchanges
Consumer Choice and Insurance Competition through Health Benefit Exchanges (Affordable Choices of Health Benefit Plans) An entity that serves as a navigator under a grant for the establishment of an exchange shall: conduct public education activities to raise awareness of the availability of qualified health plans; distribute fair and impartial information concerning enrollment in qualified health plans, and the availability of premium tax
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credits; facilitate enrollment in qualified health plans; provide referrals to any applicable office of health insurance consumer assistance or ombudsman; and, provide information in a manner that is culturally and linguistically appropriate to the needs of the population being served by the Exchange or Exchanges. (Sec. 1311) Special Rules The manager’s amendment amends Section 1311(g)(1), “Rewarding Quality Through M arket Based Incentives” in the Exchanges, by adding incentives payments for the implementation of activities to reduce health and healthcare disparities, including through the use of language services, community outreach, and cultural competency trainings. (Sec. 1303 of manager’s amendment) Nondiscrimination Prohibits an individual from being excluded from participation in, be denied benefits of, or be subject to discrimination under, any health program or activity, any part of which is receiving Federal financial assistance, or any program or activity that is administered by an Executive Agency. The enforcement mechanisms provided for under title VI, title IX, section 504 or the Age Discrimination Act are applicable for use under violation of this section. (Sec. 1557) Individual and Group M arket
Development and Utilization of Uniform Explanation of Coverage Documents and Standardized Definition The Secretary shall develop standards for use by the group health plan and a health insurance offering group or individual health insurance coverage, in compiling and providing a summary of benefits and coverage. This explanation shall accurately describe the benefits and coverage under the applicable plan or coverage. In developing the standards the
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Secretary shall consult with the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, a working group composed of representatives of health insurance-related consumer advocacy organizations, health insurance issuers, healthcare professionals, patient advocates including those representing individuals with limited English proficiency, and other qualified individuals. In developing such standards the Secretary shall provide for the following: the standards shall ensure that the summary is presented in a uniform manner; the summary is presented in a culturally and linguistically appropriate manner and utilizes terminology understandable by the average plan enrollee; the summary includes uniform definitions to enable the consumer to compare health insurance coverage; and a contact number for the consumer to call with any further questions. (Sec. 2715) Appeals Process Requires a group health plan and a health insurance issuer offering group or individual health insurance coverage to implement an effective appeals process for appeals of coverage determinations and claims. The process at a minimum shall: have an internal claims appeal process; provide notice to enrollees in a culturally and linguistically appropriate manner, of available internal and external appeals processes, and the existence of an ombudsman to assist with the appeals process; and, allow an enrollee to review their file, present evidence or testimony and receive continued coverage pending the outcome of the appeal. (Sec.2719) Language Access
Special Rules The manager's amendment amends Section 1331(e) to provide for transparency in coverage. The amendment requires plans in the state exchanges to submit information in plain language.
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Plain language is further defined as "language that the intended audience, including individuals with limited English proficiency, can readily understand and use because that language is concise, well-organized, and follows other best practices of plain language writing. (Sec. 1303 of manager's amendment) Quality Improvements
National Strategy for Quality Improvement in Healthcare Establishes a national strategy, through a transparent collaborative process, to improve delivery of healthcare services, patient health outcomes, and population health. The Secretary shall ensure that priorities will: have the greatest potential for improving the health outcomes, efficiency, and patient-centeredness of healthcare for all populations; identify areas in the delivery of healthcare services that have potential for rapid improvement in the quality and efficiency of patient care; address gaps in quality, efficiency, comparative effectiveness information, and health outcome measures and data aggregation techniques; improve Federal payment policy to emphasize quality and efficiency; enhance the use of healthcare data; address the healthcare provided to patients with high-cost chronic diseases; improve research and dissemination of strategies and best practices to improve patient safety and reduce medical errors, preventable admissions and readmissions, and healthcare associated infections; and, reduce health disparities across health disparity populations and geographic areas. (Sec.3011) Quality Improvement Technical Assistance and Implementation The Director, through the Center for Quality Improvement and Patient Safety of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality shall award technical assistance grants or contracts to eligible entities, including providers of services and suppliers for which there are
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disparities in care among subgroups of patients, to provide technical support to institutions that deliver healthcare so that such institutions understand, adapt and implement the models and practices identified by the Center, including the Quality Improvement Networks Research Program. (Sec. 3501) M aternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Programs The purpose is to strengthen and improve maternal, infant and early childhood home visiting programs, improve coordination of services, and provide comprehensive services to improve outcomes for families who reside in at risk communities. As a condition for receiving funding, each state shall conduct an assessment that identifies: communities with concentrations of premature birth, lowbirth weight infants, and infant mortality, poverty, crime, domestic violence, high rates of high-school dropouts, substance abuse, unemployment, or child maltreatment; the quality of existing childhood home visitation programs in the state, and the extent that these programs meet the needs of eligible families; and the states capacity to provide substance abuse treatment and counseling to individuals or families in need. The secretary shall award grants to entities to enable the entities to deliver services under early childhood visitation programs. Recipients of these grants must be able to demonstrate improvement in the following areas: improved maternal and newborn health, prevention of child injuries, abuse and neglect, improvement in school readiness and achievement, reduction in crime or domestic violence, improvements in family economic selfsufficiency, and improvements in coordination and referrals for other community resources and support. The bill grants authority to the Secretary to
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conduct an evaluation of the programs which shall include: an assessment of early childhood home visitation programs on child and parent outcomes, and the effectiveness of such programs on different populations, and to analyze the potential for the programs to improve healthcare practices, eliminate health disparities, and improve healthcare system qualities, efficiencies, and reduce costs. (Sec. 2951) Establishing Community Health Teams to Support the Patient-Centered M edical Home Establishes Health Teams pursuant to a grant or contract. These Health Teams shall: establish contractual agreements with primary care providers to provide support services; support patient-centered medical homes; collaborate with local primary care providers to coordinate disease prevention, chronic disease management and case management; collaborate with local health providers to develop and implement interdisciplinary care plans that integrate clinical and community preventative health promotion services; incorporate healthcare all stakeholders in program design and oversight; and, provide support for local primary care givers to provide qualitydriven, cost-effective, culturally appropriate, and patient- and familycentered healthcare. (Sec. 3502) Programs to Facilitate Shared Decision-M aking. Establishes a program to facilitate collaboration processes between patients and caregivers that engage the patient in decision-making by providing the patient with information about trade-offs among treatment options, and facilitates the incorporation of patient preferences and values into the medical plan. The Secretary shall establish a program to award grants or contracts to develop, update and produce patient decision aids
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for preference sensitive care to assist the provider in educating the patient concerning the relative safety, effectiveness, and cost of treatment or, where appropriate, palliative care options. The patient decision aids shall be required: to be designed to engage the patients; present up-to-date clinical evidence about risks and benefits of treatment options in a form and manner that is age-appropriate and can be adapted for patients, caregivers, and authorized representatives from a variety of cultural and educational backgrounds to reflect the varying needs of consumers and diverse levels of health literacy; and, to address healthcare decisions across age span, including those affecting vulnerable populations including children. (Sec. 3506) Quality M easure Development The Secretary, in consultation with the Director of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Administrators of CMS, shall identify gaps where no quality measures exist and existing measures that need improvement, updating or expansion. The Secretary shall award grants, contracts, or intergovernmental agreements to develop, improve, update, or expand quality measures. Priority for the grants shall be given to the development of quality measures that allow the assessment of: health outcomes and functional status of patients; the management and coordination of care across episode of care; the use of shared decision-making tools; the meaningful use of health information technology; the safety, effectiveness, patient-centeredness, appropriateness, and timeliness of care; the efficiency of care; the equity of health services and health disparities across health disparity populations and geographic areas; patient experience and
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satisfaction; and, the use of innovative strategies and methodologies identified under section 933. (Sec. 3013) Provisions Relating to M edicare Part C (M edicare Advantage Payment) Provides for bonus payments of 0.5 percent of national per capita cost for expenditures for individuals enrolled under the original Medicare fee-for-services program based on care coordination and management performance beginning in 2014. The programs available for the bonus payments are: care management programs, patient education and self-management of health conditions programs, transitional care interventions, patient safety programs, programs that promote systematic coordination of care by primary care physicians, programs that address, identify, and ameliorate healthcare disparities among principal at-risk subpopulations, medication therapy management programs, and health information technology programs. (Sec. 3201) Comparative Effectiveness
Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute Establishes the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute as a nonprofit corporation. The Institute is funded through the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Trust Fund (PCORTF), and is available without further appropriations. The Institute is intended to assist patients, clinicians, purchasers, and policy-makers in making informed health decisions by advancing quality and relevance of evidence concerning matters of disease, disorders and other health conditions, and if they can be appropriately and effectively prevented, diagnosed, treated, monitored, and managed through research and evidence synthesis. The Institute is required to identify research priorities by taking into account factors of disease incidence, prevalence, and burden in the
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United States, gaps in evidence in terms of clinical outcomes, practice variations and health disparities in terms of delivery and outcomes of care, and the potential for new evidence to improve patient health and well-being. Not less frequently than every five years, the Institute shall audit the overall effectiveness of the Institutes work. This audit shall include an analysis of the extent to which research findings are used by healthcare decisionmaker, the effect of the dissemination of such findings on reducing practice variation and disparities in healthcare, and the effect of research conducted and disseminated on innovation and the healthcare economy. (Sec. 6301) W orkforce
Advancing Research and Treatment for Pain Care M anagement The Secretary may award grants for the development and implementation of programs to provide education and training to healthcare professionals in pain care. The programs must include information and education on: recognized means for assessing, diagnosing, treating, and managing pain; applicable laws, regulations, rules, and policies on controlled substances; interdisciplinary approaches to the delivery of pain care; cultural, linguistic, literacy, geographic, and other barriers to care in underserved populations; and, recent findings and developments. (Sec. 4305)
National Health Care W orkforce Commission Establishes a national commission tasked with reviewing health care workforce and
Investment in Historically Black Colleges and Universities and M inority Serving Institutions. This section amends section 371(b) of the Higher Education Act by extending funding for programs under this section created under the College Cost Reduction and Access Act of 2007 for programs at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and minority-serving institutions through 2019, including programs that help low-income students attain degrees in the fields of science, technology, engineering or mathematics by the following annual amounts: $100 million to Hispanic Serving Institutions, $85 million to Historically Black Colleges and Universities, $15 million to Predominantly Black Institutions, $30 million to Tribal Colleges and Universities, $15 million to Alaska, Hawaiian Native Institutions, $5 million to Asian American and Pacific Islander Institutions, and $5 million to Native American non-tribal serving institutions. (Sec. 2104)
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projected workforce needs. The overall goal of the Commission is to provide comprehensive, unbiased information to Congress and the Administration about how to align Federal health care workforce resources with national needs. Congress will use this information when providing appropriations to discretionary programs or in restructuring other Federal funding sources. The commission shall be composed of 15 members appointed by GAO, including at least on representative of the following: health care workforce and health professional, employers, thirdparty payers, individuals skilled in healthcare-related research, consumers, labor unions, small businesses, state/local workforce investment boards, and educational institutions. (Sec. 5101) State Healthcare W orkforce Development Grants Creates a competitive grant program for the purpose of enabling state partnerships to complete comprehensive planning and to carry out activities leading to coherent and comprehensive healthcare workforce development strategies at the State and local levels. Grants will support innovative approaches to increase the number of skilled healthcare workers such as healthcare career pathways for young people and adults. Planning grants would be awarded for 1 year and up to $150,000 for â€œeligible partnershipsâ€? including state workforce investment boards meeting certain membership requirements. (Sec. 5102) Healthcare W orkforce Loan Repayment Programs Priority of entering into contracts shall be granted to applicants who: are or will be working in a school; have familiarity with evidence-based methods and cultural and linguistic competence healthcare services; and demonstrate financial need. (Sec. 5203)
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Funding for National Health Services Corps Increases and extends the authorization of appropriations for the National Health Service Corps scholarship and loan repayment program for 2010-2015. Authorizes a total of $2.7 billion for the period. Authorizes the amount appropriated in the prior year adjusted by a certain percentage based on the costs of education and the number of individuals residing in health professions shortage areas. (Sec. 5207) Primary Care Training and Enhancement The Secretary shall make grants available to accredited entities to train primary care providers. Priority shall be granted to applicants that: propose a collaborative approach between academic administrative units of primary care; proposes innovative approaches to clinical teaching using models of primary care; have a record of training the greatest percentage of providers; provide training in the care of vulnerable populations, such as children, older adults, homeless individuals, victims of abuse or trauma, individuals with mental health or substance related disorder, individuals with HIV/AIDS, and individuals with disabilities; or provide training in cultural competency and health literacy. (Sec. 5301 Training for Direct Care W orkers Provides grants for entities to provide new training opportunities for direct care workers employed in long-term care settings. Eligible entities are institutions of higher education that have established a public-private educational partnership with a long-term care facility or agency or entity providing home and community based services to individuals with disabilities or other long-term care providers. Eligible individuals are those
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enrolled in the institution who agree to work in the field of geriatrics, disability services, long term care services and support or chronic care management for at least two years. (Sec. 5302) Training in General, Pediatric, and Public Health Dentistry The Secretary shall make grants available to eligible entities. Priority in awarding grants shall be made for the following: applicants that propose collaborative projects between departments of primary care medicine and department of general, pediatric and public health dentistry; have a record of training the greatest percentage of providers; provide training in the care of vulnerable populations, such as children, older adults, homeless individuals, victims of abuse or trauma, individuals with mental health or substance related disorder, individuals with HIV/AIDS, and individuals with disabilities; have a record of training individuals who are from a rural or disadvantaged background, or from unrepresented minorities; provide training in cultural competency and health literacy; or applicants that have a high rate for placing graduates in practice settings that serve underserved areas or health disparity populations, or who achieve a significant increase in the rate of placing graduates in such settings. (Sec. 5303) Cultural Competency, Prevention, and Public Health and Individuals with Disability Training Alters Title VII â€“ Section 741 of the Public Health Service Act by inserting the goals of dissemination of research, demonstration projects, and model curricula for cultural competency, prevention, public health proficiency, reducing health disparities, and aptitude for working with individuals with disabilities training. The bill creates grants for programs that aim to meet the
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goals mentioned above. (Sec. 5307) Grants to Promote the Community Health W orkforce Defines Community Health Worker as an individual who promotes health or nutrition within the community in which the individual resides: by serving as a liaison between communities and healthcare agencies; by providing guidance and social assistance to community residents; by enhancing community residents’ ability to communicate with providers; by providing culturally and linguistically appropriate health or nutrition education; by advocating for individual and community health; and by providing referral and follow-up services or otherwise coordinating care. (Sec. 5313) Centers of Excellence The Centers of Excellence program, which develops a minority application pool to enhance recruitment, training, academic performance and other supports for minorities interested in careers in health, is reauthorized at 150 percent of 2005 appropriations, $50 million, and such sums as are necessary for subsequent fiscal years. (Sec. 5401) Health Professions Training for Diversity Provides scholarship for disadvantaged students who commit to work in medically underserved areas as primary care providers, and expands load repayment for individuals who will serve as faculty in eligible institutions. Includes faculty at schools for physician’s assistants as eligible for faculty load repayment. (Sec. 5402) Interdisciplinary, community-based linkages Authorizes a total of $130 million for each fiscal years 2010-2014 to establish community-based training and education
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grants for Area Health Education Centers (AHECs) and programs. Two programs are supported â€“ Infrastructure Development Awards and Points of Service Enhancement and M aintenance Awards â€“ targeting individuals seeking careers in the health profession from urban and rural medically underserved communities (Sec. 5403) W orkforce Diversity Grants Expands the allowable uses of nursing diversity grants to include completion of associate degrees, bridge or degree completion program, or advanced degree in nursing, as well as pre-entry preparation, advanced educational preparation, and retention activities. (Sec. 5404) Primary Care Extension Program Establishes Primary Care Extension Agencies to support and assist primary care providers (PCP). These agencies may: provide technical assistance, training and organizational support for community health teams; collect data and provision of PCP feedback from standardized measurements of processes and outcomes; collaborate with local health departments in community-based efforts to address the social and primary determinants of health, strengthen the local primary care workforce, and eliminate health disparities; and develop measures to monitor the impact of the proposed program on the health of enrollees. Defines a Health Extension Agent as any local, community-based health worker who facilitates and provides assistance to primary care practices by implementing quality improvement or system redesign, incorporates the principles of the patientcentered medical home to provide highquality, effective, efficient, and safe primary care and to provide guidance to
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patients in culturally and linguistically appropriate ways, and linking practices to diverse health system resources. (Sec. 5405) Demonstration Projects to Address Health Professions W orkforce Needs The Secretary shall award grants to States to conduct demonstration projects for purposes of developing core training competencies and certification programs for personal or home care aides. The core competencies of such demonstrations shall include: the role of personal or homes care aide; consumer rights, ethics, and confidentiality; communication, cultural and linguistic competence and sensitivity, problem solving, behavior management, and relationship skills; personal care skills; healthcare support; nutritional support; infection control; safety and emergency training; and selfcare. (Sec. 5507) Negotiated Rulemaking for Development of M ethodology and Criteria for Designating M edically Underserved Populations and Health Professions Shortage Directs the Secretary, in consultation with stakeholders, to establish a comprehensive methodology and criteria for designating medically underserved populations and Health Professional Shortage Areas. (Sec. 5602) State Grants to Health Care Providers W ho Provide Services to a High Percentage of M edically Underserved Population or Other Special Population Establishes state grant programs for health care providers who treat a high percentage of medically underserved population or other special population in the state (Sec. 5606) Rural Physician Training Grants Directs the Secretary, acting through HRSA, to establish a grant program for
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purposes of assisting eligible entities in recruiting students mostly likely to practice in underserved rural communities, providing rural-focused training and experience, and increasing the number of recent allopathic and osteopathic medical school graduates who practice in rural communities. Appropriates $4,000,000 for each of the FYs 2010 through 2013. (Sec. 10501(l)) Prevention
Personal Responsibility Education Personal Responsibility Education programs shall be designed in order to educate adolescents on abstinence and contraception for the prevention of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. The programs shall be required to: replicate evidence-based effective programs; be medically-accurate and complete; include activities to educate youths who are sexually active regarding responsibility; place substantial emphasis on both abstinence and the use of contraception; provide age-appropriate information and activities; and, ensure the information and activities carried out under the program are provided in the cultural context that is most appropriate for individuals in the population group they are directed. The Secretary shall award grants to entities implementing innovative strategies and target services to high-risk, vulnerable, and culturally under-represented youth populations. (Sec. 2953) School-Based Health Centers Establishes a grant program for eligible entities to support the operation of “school-based health centers,” as defined in the Children’s Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009. Preference will be given to school-based health centers that serve a large population of medically underserved children. Appropriates $50,000,000 for FYs 2010 through 2014. (Sec. 4101)
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SENATE BILL (H.R. 3590)
RECONCILIATION BILL (H.R. 4872)
Prevention of Chronic Disease and Improving Public Health (Community Preventive Services Task Force) Establishes an independent Community Preventive Services Task Force. The Task Force shall review scientific evidence related to effectiveness, appropriateness, and cost-effectiveness of community prevention interventions in order to develop recommendations to be published in the Guide to Community Preventive Services. The Task Force shall develop additional topic areas for new recommendations and interventions related to those topic areas. These topic areas shall include those related to specific age groups, as well as the social, economic, and physical environment that can have broad effects on the health and disease of population and health disparities among sub-populations and age groups. (Sec. 4003) Education and Outreach Campaign Regarding Preventive Benefits Directs the Secretary to provide for the planning and implementation of a national public-private partnership for a prevention and health promotion outreach and education campaign to raise public awareness of health improvement across the life span. Requires the Secretary to consult with the IOM to provide ongoing advice on evidence-based scientific information for policy, program development and evaluation. The campaign shall be subject to an independent evaluation every 2 years and shall report every 2 years to Congress on the effectiveness of the campaign in meeting science-based metrics. Not later than January 1, 2011, and every 3 years thereafter through January 1, 2017, the Secretary shall report to Congress on its efforts with states and M edicaid enrollees with respect to preventative and obesity-
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SENATE BILL (H.R. 3590)
RECONCILIATION BILL (H.R. 4872)
related services with the goal of reducing incidences of obesity. Appropriates the sums necessary to carry out the provisions. (Sec. 4004) Oral Healthcare Prevention Activities (Oral Healthcare Prevention Education Campaign) Establishes an Oral Healthcare Prevention Education Campaign. In establishing the campaign the Secretary shall ensure that activities are targeted towards specific populations such as children, pregnant women, parents, the elderly, individuals with disabilities, and ethnic and racial minorities, including Indians, Alaska Natives and Native Hawaiians in a culturally and linguistically appropriate manner. (Sec. 4102) Creating Healthier Communities (Community Transformation Grants) The Secretary shall award grants to State and local governmental agencies and community-based organizations for the implementation, evaluation, and dissemination of evidence-based community preventive health activities in order to reduce chronic disease rates, prevent the development of secondary conditions, address health disparities, and develop a stronger evidence-base of effective prevention programming. The grants shall be used to develop a Community Transformation Plan that includes the policy, environmental, programmatic, and infrastructure changes needed to promote healthy living and reduce disparities. Activities within the plan may focus on (but not limited to): creating healthier school environments, creating infrastructure to support active living, develop programs to target a variety of age levels, worksite wellness programs and incentives, highlighting healthy options at food venues, prioritizing strategies to reduce racial and
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ ISSUE
SENATE BILL (H.R. 3590)
RECONCILIATION BILL (H.R. 4872)
ethnic disparities, including social, economic, and geographic determinants of health, and addressing special populations needs. (Sec. 4201) Removing Barriers and Improving Access to W ellness for Individuals with Disabilities Not later than 24 months after the Act’s enactment, the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board shall, in consultation with the Commissioner of the FDA, promulgate regulatory standards setting forth the minimum technical criteria for medical diagnostic equipment used in (or in conjunction with) physicians’ offices, clinics, emergency rooms, hospitals, and other medical settings. Such standards shall ensure that equipment is accessible to, and usable by, individuals with accessibility needs. (Sec. 4203) Funding for Childhood Obesity Demonstration Project Appropriates $25,000,000 for FYs 2010 through 2014 for the demonstration projects to develop a comprehensive and systematic model for reducing childhood obesity to be developed under the Children’s Program Reauthorization act of 2009. (Sec. 4306) Diagnosed with Breast Cancer Directs the Secretary, acting through the CDC to conduct a national evidencedbased education campaign to increase awareness of young women’s knowledge regarding breast health and awareness. The CDC, not later than 60 days after the Act’s enactment, shall establish an advisory committee to assist in creating and conducting the educational campaign. The CDC shall also conduct a similar educational campaign among physicians and other health care professionals and conduct prevention research on breast cancer in younger women. Directs the Secretary to award grants to organizations
PUBLIC POLICY AND ADVOCACY ISSUE
SENATE BILL (H.R. 3590)
RECONCILIATION BILL (H.R. 4872)
to provide health information and substantive assistance to young women diagnosed with breast cancer and preneoplastic breast disease. (Sec. 10413) National Diabetes Prevention Program Directs the Secretary, acting through the CDC, to establish a national diabetes prevention program targeted at adults at high risk for diabetes in order to eliminate the preventable burden of diabetes through community-based prevention services. (Sec. 10501(g)) Preventative M edicine and Public Health Training Grant Program Requires the Secretary, acting through HRSA and in consultation with CDC, to award grants to, or enter into contracts with, eligible entities to provide training to graduate medical residents in preventive medicine specialties. Appropriates $43,000,000 for FY 2011 and such sums necessary for each of FYs 2012 through 2015. (Sec. 10501(m)) Data Collection and Reporting
Understanding Health Disparities: Data Collection and Analysis Amends the Public Health Service Act by adding “Title XXXI – Data Collection, Analysis, and Quality.” Title XXXI states the Secretary shall ensure any federally conducted or supported healthcare program, activity, or survey collects and reports: data on race, ethnicity, sex, primary language, and disability status; data on the smallest geographic level if it can be aggregated; and, sufficient data to generate estimates by the metrics listed above. The Secretary shall make the analyses available to the Office of Minority Health, the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, AHRQ, CMS, CDC, the Indian Health Services, Office of Rural Health, and other agencies with HHS. The Title also addresses healthcare disparities in Medicaid and CHIP by standardizing collection requirements. The Secretary shall evaluate approaches for the data
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SENATE BILL (H.R. 3590)
RECONCILIATION BILL (H.R. 4872)
collection to ensure it allows for the ongoing, accurate, and timely collection and evaluation of data on disparities in healthcare services and performance. (Sec. 4302) Community Health Needs Assessment
Additional Requirements for NonProfit Tax-Exempt Hospitals Requires hospitals who wish to qualify as non-profit tax-exempt to create a community health needs assessment once every three years. The bill prevents hospitals from using extraordinary collection practices to pursue bad debt. Also requires hospitals to offer an assistance policy and to limit charges on people who qualify for financial assistance. (Sec. 4959)
Office of M inority Health
M inority Health The manager’s amendment transfers the Office of Minority Health to the Office of the Secretary of Health and Human Services, to be headed by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Minority Health. The Deputy Assistant Secretary shall retain and strengthen prior authorities for the purpose of improving minority health and the quality of healthcare minorities receive, and eliminating racial and ethnic disparities. In carrying out this section, the Deputy Assistant Secretary shall award grants, contracts, enter into memoranda of understanding, cooperative, interagency, intra-agency and other agreements with public and nonprofit private entities and organizations that are indigenous human resource providers in communities of color to assure improved health status of racial and ethnic minorities, and shall develop measures to evaluate the effectiveness of activities aimed at reducing health disparities and supporting the local community. The manager’s amendment also redesignates the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, as the National Institute on
PUBLIC POLICY AND ADVOCACY ISSUE
SENATE BILL (H.R. 3590)
RECONCILIATION BILL (H.R. 4872)
Minority Health and Health Disparities. The Institute will have expanded research endowments, by including centers of excellence under section 464z-4. (Sec. 10334 of managerâ€™s amendment) M edicare/M edicaid Funding
Disproportionate share hospital payments. Reduce Medicare Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) payments initially by 75% and subsequently increase payments based on the percent of the population uninsured and the amount of uncompensated care provided. Effective fiscal year 2015. (Sec. 2551)
Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) Payments. Advances Medicare disproportionate share hospital cuts to begin in fiscal year 2014 but lowers the ten-year reduction by $3 billion. (Sec. 1104) Disproportionate share hospital payments. Lowers the reduction in federal Medicaid DSH payments from $18.1 billion to $14.1 billion and advances the reductions to begin in fiscal year 2014. Directs the Secretary to develop a methodology for reducing federal DSH allotments to all states in order to achieve the mandated reductions. Extends through FY 2013 the federal DSH allotment for a state that has a $0 allotment after FY 2011. (Sec. 1203) Funding for the territories. Increases federal funding in the Senate bill for Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Northern Marianas Islands by $2 billion. Raises the caps on federal Medicaid funding for each of the territories. Allows each territory to elect to operate a Health Benefits Exchange. (Sec. 1204)
Community Health Centers
Community M ental Health Centers. Establishes new requirements for community mental health centers that provide Medicare partial hospitalization services in order to prevent fraud and abuse. (Sec. 1301) Community Health Centers. Increases mandatory funding for community health centers to $11 billion over five years (FY 2011 â€“ FY 2015). (Sec. 2303)
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SENATE BILL (H.R. 3590)
RECONCILIATION BILL (H.R. 4872)
M iscellaneous Provisions
Improving W omen’s Health Establishes an Office of Women’s Health in the Office of the Secretary, the CDC, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Health Resources and Services Administration and the FDA. (Sec. 3509) Nondiscrimination Protects individuals against discrimination under the Civil Rights Act, the Education Amendments Act, the Age Discrimination Act, and the Rehabilitation Act, through the exclusion from participation in or denial of benefits under any health program or activity. (Sec. 1557) Indian Healthcare Improvement W ith amendment, incorporates S. 1790 entitled “A bill to amend the Indian Health Care Improvement Act to revise and extend that Act, and for other purposes.” (Sec. 10221)
M edicare Provisions for LowIncome Beneficiaries
Funding Outreach and Assistance for Low-Income Programs Provides $45 million for outreach and education activities to State Health Insurance Programs, Administration on Aging, Aging Disabilities Resource Centers and the National Benefits Outreach and Enrollment. (Sec. 3306) Addressing Subpopulations Specifies that patient subpopulations will be considered during the research. (Sec. 6301)
Community-Based Care Transitions Teams Beginning January 1, 2011 for a 5-year period, requires the Secretary to establish a program under which the Secretary would provide funding to hospitals and community-based entities that furnish evidence-based care transition services to Medicare beneficiaries at high risk for readmission. The legislation defines
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SENATE BILL (H.R. 3590)
RECONCILIATION BILL (H.R. 4872)
â€œhigh-risk Medicare beneficiariesâ€? as a beneficiary who has attained a minimum hierarchical conditions category score, as determined by the Secretary, based on a diagnosis of multiple chronic conditions or other risk factors associated with a hospital readmission or substandard transition into post-hospitalization care, which may include 1 or more of the following: cognitive impairment, depression, a history of multiple readmissions, any other chronic disease or risk factor as determined by the Secretary. (Sec. 3026)
For more information, please contact Daniel E. Dawes, JD, in the Premier Healthcare Alliance Advocacy Office at (202) 879-8008 or Daniel_Dawes@Premierinc.com.
Briefing Sheet: Provisions of The Indian Health Care Improvement Reauthorization and Extension Act of 2009 Health care has been a controversial topic discussed by policy makers, and impacting the lives of millions of Americans. Both the advantages and the disadvantages of the Health Care Reform Bill have been debated. Although the issue is still up for debate, America reached a partial closure on March 21, 2010 as President Obama's Health Care Reform Bill was passed by the Congress. In order to work towards solving an issue as crucial and complicated as health care, smaller, incremental steps are required in order to piece together an effective solution. One step that was taken is the Indian Health Care Improvement Reauthorization and Extension Act of 2009 introduced by U.S. Senator Byron Dorgan, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs. The main goal of this act is to increase and improve health care access, and to reform health care services provided by the Indian Health Service, tribally-operated Native heath care programs, and urban Indian health care centers to nearly 2 million American Indian and Alaska Natives across the nation. Details of the act, which were incorporated into the Health Care Reform bill (H.R. 3590) are discussed below:
OEMA COMMUNIQUĂ‰ Background ! It has been a decade since this Act was reauthorized by Congress. ! Must update the Act in order to meet the current needs of American Indian and Alaska Native families. Bill's significance (relative to existing Indian health care legislation): ! The purpose of this legislation is to ensure improved access to health care programs for American Indian and Alaska Natives. ! The intent of the reauthorization of this Act is to put forth updated provisions in order to provide American Indian and Alaska Natives with modernized health care programs. ! The bill would permanently reauthorize all current Indian health care programs. Most significant provisions of the bill ! Provides training to non-physician practitioners and practical experience to medical students. ! Offers support to various health care providers including community health representatives and aides. ! Provides financial support by extending the exemption from payment of certain fees to tribal health program and urban Indian organization employees. Also gives tribally operated facilities the ability to recover costs from third parties. ! Includes injury prevention as a topic for curriculum development regarding school health education programs and removes the requirement that an annual report must be submitted to the Secretary by the grant recipient. ! Revises the current law on topics regarding prevention, control and elimination of certain diseases. ! Establishes an effort to develop effective methods to increase recruitment and retention of clinicians. ! Makes available health care services to non-IHS eligible beneficiaries as long as they are made liable for payment. ! Requires that medical inflation rates and population growth are included in the IHS budget. ! Establishes an Office of Indian Men's Health along with the already existing Office of Indian Women's Health. ! Permits the transfer of funds or other necessities from any source to HHS for the use of Indian health care facilities.
PUBLIC POLICY AND ADVOCACY ! !
Establishes an approach to save money and increase access to health care services with the use of methods such as the modular component demonstration and mobile health demonstration. Revises the procedures necessary to allow a tribally-operated program to collect reimbursements from Medicare, Medicaid and CHIP by Indian health facilities and makes it possible to collect reimbursements directly. Makes it possible for tribes and tribal organizations to purchase health benefits coverage for IHS beneficiaries. Establishes the IHS as an agency of the public health service, enhancing the responsibilities of the IHS director.
Provisions most relevant to psychology/mental health ! Authorizes IHS to establish programs concerning behavioral health or mental health training, drug abuse prevention, and communicable disease prevention. ! Provides training and community education programs to all behavioral health services, not just mental health services. ! Demonstrates a wider focus which includes behavioral health, as opposed to mainly focusing on substance abuse. ! Helps the IHS to enter into a memorandum of agreement (MOA) with the Secretary of Interior, particularly to address Indian alcohol and substance abuse issues, and mental health issues. ! Helps the IHS establish a mental health technician program to train Indians as mental health technicians. ! Authorizes Indian Health programs to develop Indian women treatment programs and an Indian Youth Program. ! Authorizes the establishment of various programs including child sexual abuse prevention and treatment, domestic and sexual violence prevention and treatment, and a fetal alcohol spectrum disorders program. ! Recognizes the high prevalence of suicide among Indian Youth and authorizes the IHS to develop methods for prevention through demonstrations, project and suggestions.
FOR YOUR INFORMATION… Announcements Obituaries Harriette Pipes McAdoo, PhD Dr. Harriette Pipes McAdoo was born March 15, 1940. The daughter of Dr. W illiam and Anna Pipes, she died unexpectedly December 21, 2009. A renowned scholar, she was a Distinguished Professor at Michigan State University (MSU). Dr. McAdoo attended high school at Central in Detroit, Michigan, and Paul Laurence Dunbar in Little Rock, Arkansas. She received her BA and M .A. from MSU, and the Doctorate of Philosophy in Educational Psychology from the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor; crossing the stage with her late husband John Lewis McAdoo, PhD. She conducted postdoctoral research at Harvard University. She spent summers as a Visiting Lecturer at Smith College and was a Visiting Professor at the University of Washington and the University of Minnesota. She was a Professor and Acting Dean Harriette Pipes McAdoo, PhD at Howard University, School of Social Work, in W ashington, DC for 21 years before going to MSU. Dr. McAdoo sat on many national committees, and acted as National Advisor to President Carter for the White House Conference on Families. She was the author of benchmark scholarly works, and conducted groundbreaking research projects that pioneered the positive study of Black Families in America. A prolific scholar, she has an abundance of publications both national and international. She was a mentor, educator, pioneer, leader; and was much beloved by the many whose lives she touched so deeply, they too, were her family. Contributions may be made to the Pipes McAdoo Endowment Fund at MSU. Please use the code AE0051, memo "gift in her memory," and mail to Michigan State University, 300 Spartan Way, East Lansing, MI 48824. This endowment honors her father and her husband, in her own words, "This is my way to encourage and enable the best, and to honor people I love."
Gerald Mohatt, PhD, Founding President of Sinte Gleska College Longtime University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF) dean, Gerald “Jerry” Mohatt, PhD, 69, described by many as a wonderful teacher, model administrator, innovator and visionary who was passionate about his family and his work, passed away peacefully Wednesday, February 10, 2010, surrounded by his family at Fairbanks Memorial Hospital. At the time of his death, he was the director of the Center for Alaska Native Health Research (CANHR). Mohatt’s friends and colleagues always included in their litany of his many talents and attributes the highest praise. A professor of psychology, Dr. Mohatt earned his doctorate degree in community clinical psychology and learning environments from Harvard University in 1978, and a master’s degree inn psychology from St. Louis University. He was tri-lingual, speaking English, Lakota and French. Before coming to UAF in 1983,
FOR YOUR INFORMATION… Dr. Mohatt was the founding president of one of the first Native colleges, Sinte Gleska Tribal College, now Sinte Gleska University on the Rosebud Lakota Reservation. At UAF, from 1983-1992, Dr. Mohatt was dean of the College of Human and Rural Development and College of Rural Alaska. His entire career has been devoted to teaching, research and community service in a myriad projects and venues. Over the years, he set new standards for collaborative, engaged research with Native communities. His research project, “People Awakening: Alaska Native Pathways to Sobriety,” has been described as a landmark study. He was a mentor to new psychologists who strove to continue his work with American Indian and Alaska Native communities. Dr. Mohatt received Gerald "Jerry" Mohatt, PhD numerous awards including the Society for Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues Lifetime Achievement Award in Research from Division 45 of the American Psychological Association, and will be honored posthumously with the National Multicultural Conference and Summit Distinguished Elder Award in January 2011. The family has also set up a blog in remembrance at http://mohattfamily.wordpress.com/. Feel free to leave your thoughts and memories there.
Gary A. Simpkins, PhD, Founder of Black Students Psychological Association Gary A. Simpkins III was born on March 3 rd, 1943 and passed in his Las Vegas home on August 26 th,2009. After earning his masters degree from Harvard in 1971 and EdD from the University of Massachusetts in 1976, Dr. Simpkins established himself as a true leader and role model in the field of psychology. In addition to serving as a mental health/clinical psychologist for several years, Dr. Simpkins founded the Black Student Psychology Association to assist students of color in being accepted to and graduating from prestigious universities. Furthermore, he was a great influence for many young African American graduate students who continued to have successful careers in psychology. In addition to his clinical and programmatic accomplishments, Dr. Simpkins authored many articles and wrote two books. Much of his work focused on the status and educational needs of inner city youth and social-cultural issues in society. His books, The Throwaway Kids (2002) and Between the Rhetoric and Reality (co-authored by brother Frank Simpkins, 2009) are considered major contributions to the ethnic minority field of psychology. Gary Simpkins was also very passionate about music and poetry and created G-Group Music, Inc. to foster this enthusiasm. Gary A. Sim pkins, PhD
Gary Simpkins will be missed by his six children: Gary Jr., Ronald, Sabrina, Cory, Jamila and Kenan; seven grandchildren: Mathew, Gary jr, Keith, Samaj, Bryce, Ania and De’Davion; two brothers: Frank and Renee Simpkins; his friends, and neighbors.
OEMA COMMUNIQUĂ‰ Division 55 To Honor Memory of Dr. Eduardo Caraveo (Major, US Army) Major L. Eduardo Caraveo, 52, of Woodbridge, VA, was a licensed clinical psychologist, who was in the 467th Combat Stress Control Detachment out of Madison, Wisconsin. Major Caraveo was one of the 13 people shot and killed during the November 15, 2009 rampage at Soldier Readiness Processing in Ford Hood Texas where he was awaiting deployment to Afghanistan. Major Caraveo's son, Eduardo, told the Arizona Daily Star, that his father had moved from Mexico to the United States in the 1970s, and was the first in his family to go to college. Major Caraveo earned his PhD in psychology at the University of Arizona, had taught bi-lingual special needs students, and also had worked with Child Protective Services in Arizona. Recently in Virginia, Major Caraveo served as a marriage counselor and his Web site said he "specializes in the areas of Marital Counseling, Positive Thinking, Military Families Pre-post Deployment Issues, and Diversity Training."
Major L.Eduardo Caraveo, PhD
The American Society for the Advancement of Pharmacotherapy (APA Division 55), will offer an annual award in Dr. Caraveo's honor. The Major Caraveo National Service Award will be granted to a medical/prescribing psychologist who has made significant contributions in public service and/or with the underserved. The award carries a $500 stipend. In addition, it is hoped that those who wish to donate in Dr. Caraveo's memory will consider a donation to the American Psychological Foundation (APF) at 750 First Street, NE, Washington, DC 20009, as advancing education, particularly for those from underprivileged backgrounds, was a very important goal to Dr. Caraveo. (Contributors should indicate that the donation is in Major Caravero's memory on the check or in a note with the check). Contributions also can be completed on-line at https://cyberstore1.apa.org/cyb/cli/casinterface1/apf/. These monies will be used for scholarships for aspiring psychologists. With sufficient donations, Division 55 will be able to establish a scholarship in perpetuity in Major Caraveo's name.
Kudos! New Director for the Indian Health Service Division of Behavioral Health Rose L. Weahkee, PhD was promoted in November 2009 to Director of the Division of Behavioral Health at the Indian Health Service (IHS). She had been serving as Acting Deputy Director since her arrival to IHS in 2008. Dr. Weahkee, a Navajo, is a clinical psychologist and current member of the APA Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs (CEMA).
FOR YOUR INFORMATION… New NIMH Associate Director for Special Populations Pamela Collins, MD, joined NIMH in July 2009 as NIMH Associate Director for Special Populations and Director of the Offices for Special Populations, Rural Mental Health Research, and Global Mental Health. As an assistant professor in the departments of epidemiology and psychiatry at Columbia University, Dr. Collins conducted research on the mental health aspects of the AIDS epidemic and worked to ensure access to HIV prevention and care for people with severe mental illness as well as access to mental health care services for people with HIV domestically and internationally. Under Dr. Collins, NIMH will increase its focus on disparities in mental health both inside and outside of the United States.
Pam ela Collins, MD
Dr. Collins received her MD from Cornell University Medical College and an MPH from Columbia University School of Public Health. She retains her faculty appointments at Columbia, where she is an assistant professor of clinical epidemiology at the Mailman School of Public Health (MSPH), and assistant professor of clinical psychiatry at the College of Physicians and Surgeons. Dr. Collins directed the Interdepartmental Global Health Track and was co-director of the Initiative for Maximizing Student Diversity at the MSPH. The NIMH Office for Special Populations develops and coordinates research policies and programs to assure increased emphasis on the mental health needs of women and minority populations. The Office of Rural Mental Health Research directs and coordinates research activities and information dissemination on conditions unique to those living in rural areas, including research on the delivery of mental health services in such areas. The Office of Global Mental Health coordinates, participates in, and reports on international activities with respect to mental health research.
Claude M. Steele, PhD, Named Provost of Columbia University Renowned social psychologist, Claude Steele, PhD, has been named as Columbia University’s 21 st and first African American provost. Columbia is proud to welcome their new provost and professor of psychology as a new asset to their community Steele was formerly Lucie Stern professor in social sciences at Stanford University and director of Stanford’s Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. He received his bachelors degree from Hiram College prior to earning his PhD in Social psychology from Ohio State University in 1971.
Claude M. Steele, PhD
Steele is admired for his accomplishments as a teacher, researcher, scholar, and department chair. He is strongly committed to applying social science to major societal problems and his research focuses largely on issues of identity, addictive behaviors, and group stereotypes. In fact, while at
OEMA COMMUNIQUĂ‰ Stanford University, Steele further developed the theory of stereotype threat, which has been used to understand group differences in performance ranging from the intellectual to the athletic. Steele has published articles and influenced policy makers on the topics of substance abuse, unemployment, education, and juvenile delinquency in various journals and books. He has been the recipient of numerous honors and fellowships, including the American Psychological Association (APA) Senior Award for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest, the APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award (1998), and the William James Fellow Award for Distinguished Scientific Career Contribution (2000). Steele is also a member of the Board of the Social Science Research Council and of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Board of Directors.
Newly Appointed Senior Vice Provost at University of New Hampshire Julie E. Williams, PhD was recently appointed Senior Vice Provost for Engagement and Academic Outreach at the University of New Hampshire.
Nashville Police Department Receives International Victim Services Award
Julie E. Williams, PhD
The International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) and Login, Inc presented the 2009 International Victim Service Award to the Nashville Police Department. The award recognizes agencies that have developed and implemented innovative strategies for providing comprehensive services to victims of crime. It was presented to Lorraine Greene, PhD, the Nashville Police Department's licensed clinical psychologist and head of its Behavioral Health Division, and members of her staff at the IACP's 116th Annual Conference in Denver on October 5, 2009. Dr. Greene is member of the APA Council of Representatives (C/R) representing Division 18 (Psychologists in Public Service).
National Alliance for Hispanic Health Named Organization of the Year Univision Communications has named the National Alliance for Hispanic Health the Organization of the Year. The press release is available at: http://www.univision.net/corp/en/pr/New_York_14122009-1.html.
Recipients of the 2011 National Multicultural Conference and Summit (NMCS) Distinguished Elder Awards The field of psychology has slowly come to recognize the importance of addressing multicultural issues. This success came from years of hard work and service in challenging existing paradigms within psychology by courageous pioneers. It is these trailblazers that we honor at each National Multicultural Conference & Summit (NMCS) with the Distinguished Elder Award. These eight pioneers will be honored at the NMCS in Seattle, (January 27 â€“ 28, 2011).
FOR YOUR INFORMATION… Patricia Arredondo, EdD (University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee) Carolyn Barcus, EdD (Utah State University) Doug Kimmel, PhD (Private Practice, Hancock, ME) Gerald Mohatt, EdD (University of Alaska–Fairbanks) Paul Pedersen, PhD (Syracuse University) Stanley Sue, PhD (University of California–Davis) Richard Suinn, PhD (Colorado State University) Mary Tatum Howard, PhD (St. Cloud VA Medical Center)
Special Opportunities Improve Your Practice and Help Your Community: Become a Volunteer HIV Trainer! The American Psychological Association’s HIV Office for Psychology Education (HOPE) Program seeks doctoral-level psychologists to become volunteer regional HIV/AIDS mental health trainers. Candidates should have HIV-related research, clinical, and training experience. This program is funded under a 5-year contract (280-09-0290) with the Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) of the Substance Abuse and Mental Heath Services Administration (SAMHSA). • • • •
Selected applicants will receive continuing education (CE) credits for participating in the online orientation program, offered in Fall 2010. Volunteer trainers will use the HOPE Program’s state-of-the-science training materials to train mental health providers in their region. Volunteer trainers selected for the program must commit to training at least 30 mental health professionals in 3 years. HOPE Program staff will assist volunteer trainers in fulfilling their commitment by offering training design, marketing, and promotion.
Complete the online application, which includes submission of your vita and a letter that outlines your HIV-related clinical, research, and training experiences. The online application can be found here: http://forms.apa.org/pi/hope/. Applications must be received by June 1, 2010. Qualified applicants will be chosen to reflect the diversity of the AIDS epidemic in terms of gender, ethnicity, geographic location, and populations served. Notification of selection will be made by July 15, 2010. For more information, visit: http://www.apa.org/pi/aids/programs/hope/index.aspx.For questions, or to request a paper application, contact David DeVito, HOPE Program Training Director at email@example.com, or at (202)-216-7603.
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ Research & Training Issues Scholarships, Fellowships, Grants, and Institutes APA Advanced Training Institutes The APA Science Directorate is pleased to sponsor four Advanced Training Institutes (ATIs) in the summer of 2010. These intensive training programs are held each summer at major research institutions across the country. ATIs expose advanced graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, new and established faculty, and other researchers to state-of-the-art research methods and emerging technologies. This year’s programs are listed below. Complete information about these programs can be viewed on the Advanced Training Institutes Website. •
Structural Equation Modeling in Longitudinal Research May 25-29, University of Virginia
Exploratory Data Mining in Behavioral Research June 14-18, University of Southern California
Non-Linear Methods for Psychological Science June 21-25, University of Cincinnati
Research Methods with Diverse Racial & Ethnic Groups June 21-25, Michigan State University
Note that application deadlines begin March 3, 2010. Applications are available at the ATI website and must be submitted electronically through each program's webpage. Tuition for ATIs is substantially lower than for other similar summer academic programs. For more information, contact Nicolle Singer via email (firstname.lastname@example.org) or telephone at (202) 336-6000.
APA Division 44, Richard A. Rodriguez Student Travel Award The Dr. Richard A. Rodriguez Division 44 Student Travel Award is sponsored by the Committee on Racial and Ethnic Diversity (CoRED) of the Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Issues (APA Division 44). The purpose of the travel award is to encourage greater participation in Division 44 annual convention activities by LGBT students of color. Two awards in the amount $500 each will be awarded The application deadline is May 28, 2010. For more information and to apply see: http://www.apa.org/about/awards/rodriguez-student-travel.aspx
FOR YOUR INFORMATIONâ€Ś Comprehensive SDSU/UCSD Cancer Center Partnership Post-Docs The Comprehensive San Diego State University/University of California San Diego (SDSU/UCSD) Cancer Center Partnership offers a full-time two or three year post-doctoral training program in cancer disparities. The purpose of this post-doctoral fellowship is to provide intensive, mentored, interdisciplinary research experience and training in the area of cancer disparities. Successful applicants will spend at least two years working with SDSU and/or UCSD Cancer Center faculty who have peer-reviewed, cancer research funding. Trainees who spend three years in the program may also simultaneously obtain an Advanced Certificate Training in Cancer Disparities, as well as an M PH through SDSU Graduate School of Public Health. Two trainees will be chosen to begin in September 2010. Possible topics and mentors for these fellowships are varied [please click on this link]. Applications will begin to be reviewed on March 1, 2010. Review will continue until the two positions are filled. Please forward all application materials in a single envelope to: Hazel R. Atuel, PhD; Research Program Director; Comprehensive SDSU/UCSD Cancer Center Partnership; 6363 Alvarado Court, Suite; 250 Room U; San Diego, CA 92120.
Pew Hispanic Center 2010 Summer Internship Opportunity The Pew Hispanic Center is accepting applications to fill a summer internship position. Details about the internship and the application process can be found at: http://pewhispanic.org/about/careers/.
Postdoctoral Fellowship in Behavioral Health Services Research The Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute (FMHI) at the University of South Florida (USF) is now accepting applications for a two-year postdoctoral fellowship in behavioral health services research. The fellowship is funded through a contract with the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration, the stateâ€™s Medicaid authority. The successful candidate will receive training in policy and services research methods associated with the financing and delivery of services to individuals diagnosed with mental health and addictive disorders. Although the successful candidate will develop an individualized training plan tailored to their specific needs and interests, training will likely include intensive mentorship from a multi-disciplinary team of faculty, didactic courses and lecture series, and guided research activities. The two-year fellowship will provide both research and academic training. The salary ranges from $38,000 to $42,000 per year and a benefit package is provided. Use this link to access the call: http://mhlp.fmhi.usf.edu/web/dean/Email/Postdoctoral_Fellowship.pdf.
Post-Doctoral Fellowship in Latino Mental Health The Chicago School of Professional Psychology partners with local, community service agencies to sponsor a one-year, full-time post-doctoral training program in academic and community leadership. The Center for Latino Mental Health aims to develop leaders in the field who are both clinically skilled as well as prepared for leadership and administrative roles in an academic or community setting. This is a one-year, full-time position that meets licensure requirements. Fellows complete two, half-time, full-year rotations, one in an
OEMA COMMUNIQUĂ‰ administrative/research placement at The Chicago School and one in a community partner clinical placement. Given the population served by the clinical placement, the position requires candidates to be able to provide therapy in Spanish. To apply or for more information about the position, log on to: http://www.thechicagoschool.edu/content.cfm/staff_positions_view?jobID=275. For information on the Center for Latino Mental Health, see: http://ego.thechicagoschool.edu/s/843/index.aspx?sid=843&gid=12&pgid=61&cid=121. To find out more about The Chicago School of Professional Psychology school visit: http://thechicagoschool.edu/.
Research Postdoctoral Position in Latino Mental Health A Research Postdoctoral position within the Department of Psychology at the University of Southern California will be available beginning July 1, 2010. The focus of the research is on sociocultural processes in serious mental illness, specifically with Latinos and their family caregivers, and culturally informed treatment. Speaking Spanish would be helpful but is not required. Interest in carrying out research in Mexico, in bringing a neuroscience perspective to sociocultural processes, and/or in treatment development would be assets. Please submit via email a CV and 3 letters of recommendation to Steven R. Lopez, email@example.com.
Scholarships for Institutional Capacity Building Training for Tribal Members The ICB Scholarship Program was created to assist small and underfunded institutions of higher education that are developing and operating fully functioning IRBs or HRPPs. Many of these institutions serve primarily minority populations with educational disparities, such as Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Hispanic-Serving Institutions, and Tribal Colleges and Universities. Others are health institutions serving minority populations with significant health disparities, such as community clinics, regional or area Indian Health Boards, and tribal governments. Almost all such institutions have significantly fewer resources than their larger peer institutions. Additionally, many of these institutions are being asked to take on greater roles in research by participating in studies or initiating their own research activities. As it is our experience that two or more people are more likely to be successful than just one in initiating or developing an HRPP, scholarships will be awarded to institutions that agree to release two people to participate in the conference. This year, half of the available ICB scholarships have been designated for individuals at Indian Health Boards and tribal governments. ICB scholarships include fully waived conference registration fees for a pre-conference program of the recipientâ€™s choice as well as the three-day main conference program; a stipend to cover travel, lodging, and costs for meals beyond those provided at the conference will also be provided. Download an application and a letter of recommendation template at the following webpage today: http://www.primr.org/Conferences.aspx?id=8335#ICB section The deadline for all applications is Friday, June 11.
FOR YOUR INFORMATIONâ€Ś If you have any questions about the Institutional Capacity Building Scholarship Program or the 2010 AER Conference, contact: Maeve Luthin, Project Coordinator; Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research (PRIM&R); 126 Brookline Avenue, Suite 202; Boston, MA 02215; (617) 423.4112 Ext. 23; (617) 423.1185 Fax; firstname.lastname@example.org or visit www.primr.org.
Division 12 Rising Star Program Internship Opportunity â€“ Summer 2010 The APA Society of Clinical Psychology (Division 12) has created an annual summer program to recognize and mentor an early career scientist-practitioner in clinical psychology. Each summer, Division 12 will finance a post-doctoral summer research experience with a prominent clinical psychologist on a particular subject or theme. We are pleased to announce that in 2010 an opportunity exists to engage in cutting edge research in suicidality at the University of Utah. A total of 5K will be provided for use as the rising star deems appropriate. The research will build on the existing research program of Dr. David Rudd, Dean of the College of Social and Behavioral Science and Professor of Psychology. His current research includes an active and funded clinical trial on CBT for suicidality with active duty military at Fort Carson Colorado, in addition to several other projects exploring markers of imminent risk, along with psychological assessment for suicide risk. Opportunities exist for collaborations with other investigators nationally and internationally, with the chance to build lasting research partnerships. It's anticipated that the duration would be one month, either during July or August of 2010. Nominations should be from a Division12 member or psychologist who is willing to become a member. Nomination must include a CV, one letter of endorsement, and cover letter outlining interest in and qualifications for the program. Nominees must have earned a doctorate in clinical psychology within the past 10 years. Self-nominations are encouraged. Please submit nomination materials electronically to Rising Star Program, at email@example.com. The deadline is May 15th. Inquiries should be directed to the Division 12 Central Office at 303-652-3126 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
University of California, San Francisco Postdoctoral Traineeship in Drug Abuse Treatment/Services Research Training Program One- to two-year NIH/NIDA-funded positions as postdoctoral scholars in drug abuse treatment and services research are available in a multidisciplinary research environment in the Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco. Scholars work with a preceptor to design and implement studies on the treatment of drug dependence, and select a specific area of focus for independent research. Send CV, research statement, samples of work, and two (2) letters of recommendation to Barbara Paschke, 3180 18th St., Suite 205, San Francisco, CA 94110; 415-502-7882; Barbara.email@example.com. Additional information including faculty research interests is available at: http://ucsftrc.autoupdate.com/post_doctoral_program.vp.html.
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ Call for Papers and Proposals Call for Abstracts 22nd Annual Native Health Research Conference: “Translating Research into Policy &Practice in Native Health” The 22nd Annual Native Health Research Conference will bring together many different stakeholders involved in the conception, production, translation, and use of health research in American Indian/Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian (AI/AN/NH) communities from across the continent. Conference participants will include researchers, health care providers, administrators, educators, Internal Review Board/Tribal Review Board members, indigenous students in training, policy-makers, and tribal leaders. There is opportunity in the conference program for pre-coordinated panel presentations, oral presentations, and poster presentations. W e are especially interested in proposals that will address this year’s conference theme on the Translating Research into Policy &Practice in Native Health, as well as presenters who might address Community-Based Participatory Research from the community’s perspective and Native Hawaiian Health Issues. Beyond this, proposals regarding any area of AI/AN/NH health research will receive full consideration. Abstracts must be received by 5:00 pm (Pacific Standard Time) on April 30, 2010, in order to be reviewed by the Scientific Program Committee of the Native Research Network, Inc. We anticipate notifying all potential presenters of the selection outcome via email by May 15, 2010. For more information log on to: www.ihs.gov/MedicalPrograms/Research/conferences.cfm#national.
Asian Journal of Counselling Call For Papers The Asian Journal of Counselling is a refereed journal that is published in Hong Kong. The journal welcome submissions on various theoretical, empirical, and applied issues in counseling, especially those with an emphasis on cultural and cross-cultural implications. For information on submitting see: http://hkier.fed.cuhk.edu.hk/journal/?page_id=295. Past issues of the journals are now available for free-download in the following web-link: http://hkier.fed.cuhk.edu.hk/journal/?page_id=293
Open Call for Manuscripts on Client Life Events that Impact the Life of the Psychotherapist – Professional Psychology: Research and Practice The editorial team for Professional Psychology: Research and Practice is assembling a package of articles on Client Life Events that Impact the Life of the Psychotherapist. This package will consist of pieces from practicing psychologists about the effect of significant life events in the clients' lives that directly affect the practitioner. These may be either significantly positive or negative events and may include such events as life-threatening disease (e.g., cancer or stroke) or death (including suicide), illness or death of family members, involvement in traumatic events, weddings, graduations, and birth of children or grandchildren. The focus will be for professional psychologists to articulate how personal challenges affected their therapeutic roles, including countertransference, ethical dilemmas they may have faced, and what can be learned from these experiences and events. Authors should draw on the evidence base related to the issues and the psychological literature on theory and research.
FOR YOUR INFORMATIONâ€Ś Manuscripts are sought of approximately 20 pages, not including references. Submissions must be original and not previously published. Each manuscript should be prepared in accordance with PPRP writing guidelines. Because PPRP is an APA journal, all submissions will be peer reviewed, and, therefore, acceptance is not guaranteed. Revisions are usually required. We are aiming for the submission of all manuscripts by September 1, 2010. Please contact the incoming editor for PPRP, Michael C. Roberts, at firstname.lastname@example.org <mailto:email@example.com> if you have any questions. Authors should use the PPRP Submission Portal on the APA website.
Call for Papers â€“ Fourth CICA-STR Annual Conference: Aggression, Political Violence and Terrorism - An Interdisciplinary Approach for a Peaceful Society - Cartajena, Colombia Please visit the following Website for further details on submissions, location and hotels, and other information about the conference: http://www.4thconferenceinternational.com/home.
Call for Proposals National Multicultural Conference and Summit: Unification through Diversity: Bridging Psychological Science and Practice in the Public Interest The 2011 National Multicultural Conference and Summit (NMCS) will convene students, scientists, practitioners, and educators in psychology and related fields to inform and inspire multicultural theory, research, and practice. We envision multiculturalism as inclusive of experiences related to ethnicity/race, sexual orientation, gender, disability, social class, age, and other social identities. The conference theme promotes unification among scientists, practitioners, educators and policy makers in promoting human welfare; and it explores links and tensions between science and practice regarding multicultural psychology. Proposals are being accepted for symposia, workshops, and posters. Acceptable proposals may address theory, research, practice, and training/education issues. All proposals will undergo masked peer-review with attention given to a balance of topics, diversity dimensions, emphasis areas, and applied aspects (e.g., psychological assessment and therapeutic interventions). Proposals for individual papers will not be accepted. Successful proposals will address aspects of the 2011 NMCS theme, Unification through Diversity: Bridging Psychological Science and Practice in the Public Interest, or its primary objectives: (1) to showcase the unique strengths that scientists, practitioners, educators, and policy makers have to offer multicultural psychology; (2) to engage in difficult dialogues regarding the tensions among psychologists that have challenged the advancement of multicultural psychology; (3) to create an inclusive atmosphere of support and interpersonal connection by offering networking opportunities; (4) to illuminate the work of pioneers in multicultural psychology and to honor their historical legacies; and, (5) to facilitate collaboration between scientists and practitioners in order to combine theories, methodologies, techniques, and expertise that will impact education and public policy aimed at promoting human welfare. All conference proposals are being accepted online through the NMCS website. No hard copy proposals will be accepted. All proposals must follow the format stipulated on the website. See NMCS 2011 Submission Guidelines for more details. All conference proposals must adhere to APA format and ethical guidelines. The due date for All Conference Proposals is May 14, 2010 by 11:59pm (EDT).
OEMA COMMUNIQUĂ‰ Call for Papers New Journal: Statistics, Politics and Policy (SPP) Statistics, Politics, and Policy aims to publish applied research articles that explore the implications of statistical thinking and methods as applied to public policy issues. The journal also publishes engaging commentary pieces and innovative policy ideas on the public issues of the day where statistics plays, or ought to play, a role. While it is often difficult to publish defense-related research in other statistics journals, SPP is specifically interested in papers related to defense and national security policy. For papers on applied statistical research, the focus should be on the relevant statistical issues, with a succinct description of the policy issue being addressed. The range of topics is wide and includes areas such as defense and national security, history and review of statistical ideas applied to public policy controversies, politics, statistical methodology including study design and causal inference, and survey methods. In all these areas (and more not mentioned), the primary objective of the journal is to highlight the use of innovative statistical methodology in order to elucidate and resolve important public policy issues. Please consider submitting your work to this exciting new journal. To learn more, or to submit a paper, please see the SPP website at http://www.bepress.com/spp.
Call for Papers: Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational Culture The Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational Culture (JPOC) is a new journal published by Wiley & Sons beginning in 2010. The purpose of the journal is to explore contemporary issues in todayâ€™s society which affect the dynamics of the diverse workplaces. This is a peer-reviewed professional journal, which encourages critical thinking and mindful inquiry, while promoting research that is inclusive of the diverse nature of humanity. For more information about the journal or to submit a paper, please visit the JPOC submission website at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/jpoc.
Trauma, Dissociation, and Intimate Relationships: A Special Issue of the Journal of Trauma and Dissociation Submissions are invited on the associations among trauma, dissociation, and intimate relationships for a special issue of the Journal of Trauma and Dissociation. Primarily sought are reports of original research and comprehensive reviews/meta-analyses of existing research, but case studies, clinical conceptualization, and theoretical papers will be considered. All submissions will undergo peer review. Submissions will be evaluated for topic relevance, methodological rigor, scientific and/or clinical value, and implications for application. Complete submissions will be accepted until December 1, 2010. Please refer to the journal website for specific submission requirements (including a required author assurance/ submission checklist) and more information about the Journal of Trauma and Dissociation. Inquiries and submissions should be sent to the special issue editors at firstname.lastname@example.org.
FOR YOUR INFORMATIONâ€Ś Call for Manuscripts for Special Issue on Social Action Research in the Journal for Social Action The Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology (JSACP) is planning a special issue on change-oriented research, or action research and invites authors including scholars, researchers, community members and students to submit manuscripts in English or Spanish. Manuscripts are due by August 1, 2010 and will be reviewed by peers. Guidelines for submission can be found at www.psysr.org/jsacp. The special issue seeks articles that describe the complexities of social change work and the lessons learned from hard experience.
Call for Proposals: The 10th Annual Diversity Challenge: Race and Culture in Teaching, Training, and Supervision The Institute for the Study and Promotion of Race and Culture at Boston College invites proposals for the Institute's tenth annual national conference in the suburbs of Boston, a city known for its struggles and efforts to address issues of racial and ethnic cultural diversity in U.S. society. The Institute was founded in 2000 at Boston College, under the direction of Dr. Janet E. Helms, to promote the assets and address the societal conflicts associated with race and culture in theory and research, mental health practice, education, business, and society at large. The Institute solicits, designs, and distributes effective interventions with a proactive, practical focus. Each year the Institute addresses a racial or cultural issue that could benefit from a pragmatic, scholarly, or grassroots focus through its Diversity Challenge conference. The complete call can be found here: http://www.bc.edu/schools/lsoe/isprc/meta-elements/pdf/ISPRC_Call_for_Proposals_2010.pdf. For proposals submission instructions see: http://www.bc.edu/schools/lsoe/isprc/meta-elements/doc/ISPRC_Proposal_Instr.doc.
Call for Nominations and Awards Call for Nominations: APA Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs The American Psychological Association's Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs (CEMA) is seeking nominations for two new members to begin three-year terms of service on January 1, 2011. The committee functions as a catalyst for action on ethnic minority issues and concerns by interacting with and making recommendations to the various components of the APA's governing structure, APA membership, and other groups. Committee members plan, develop, and coordinate various activities related to advocacy and promoting an understanding of the cultures and psychological well-being of ethnic minority populations, monitoring and assessing institutional barriers to equal access to psychological services, and ensuring equitable ethnic/racial representation in the profession of psychology. To fulfill its mandate for ethnic representation and its commitment to gender equity, the two vacant slates are for the following: Self-identified African Am erican/Black fem ale and Am erican Indian/Alaska Native fem ale psychologists. CEMA welcomes the nomination of candidates who possess knowledge and expertise of other diverse populations (e.g., disability, early career, national origin, sexual orientation, etc.).
OEMA COMMUNIQUĂ‰ Selected candidates will be required to participate in no less than two committee meetings a year. No more than two meetings will be convened at APA headquarters in Washington, DC. Members also work on CEMA priorities when necessary between meetings. If possible, CEMA members attend the APA annual convention at their own expense to participate in convention programming sponsored by CEMA. Nomination materials should include the nominee's qualifications (including a statement of relevant experience), a current curriculum vita and a letter of interest to serve a three term on the CEMA if appointed. Self-nominations are encouraged. Nominations and supporting materials should be received on or before September 1, 2010, by the APA Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs at the APA address.
Call for Nominations 2010 National Latina/o Psychological Association Awards Nominations are invited for the following awards to be presented at the NLPA 2010 Conference: Cynthia de las Fuentes Dissertation Award The purpose of this award is to support students in finishing their dissertation project. This award includes $500 through a generous donation by Dra. Cynthia de las Fuentes who is a private practitioner in Austin Texas. Criteria for the award include: (a) Focusing on issues related to Latino/a Psychology theory, research, or practice; and (b) Contributing in a substantive way to the advancement of knowledge related to Latino/a Psychology. Distinguished Student Service Award This award is conferred upon a graduate student who has made outstanding service contributions to the US Latina/o community. This award includes $500 through the generous donation of NLPA executive board members. Service contributions can include activities such as the development of creative educational programs or other novel activities in the advancement of service, working to increase funding for agencies, working on legislation regarding mental health, involvement in policy-related issues, and initiating outreach programs. Nominees for student awards must be matriculated graduate students (including pre-doctoral interns) and must be student members of NLPA at the time their nomination materials are submitted. For the dissertation award a letter from the chair of the dissertation is required. For the service award a letter from the academic advisor or training director verifying good standing is required. Star Vega Distinguished Service Award This award is conferred upon a psychologist who has distinguished him or herself through service to the Latino/a community). The award is named in honor and memory of Dr. Star Vega. Dr Star Vega, Practitioner, Professor of Psychology, and advocate for all psychologists, died Saturday April 24, 2004 at the young age of 55 due to leukemia. Dr. Vega was core faculty in the doctoral program in Clinical Psychology at Phillips Graduate Institute. She was also the 2002 President of the California Psychological Association, the first Latina to occupy this position. Distinguished Professional Early Career Award This award is conferred upon a psychologist whose contributions have advanced an agenda congruent with NLPA's mission. Early career is defined as 10 years or less since earning a doctoral degree.
FOR YOUR INFORMATIONâ€Ś NLPA - Distinguished Professional Career Award This award is conferred upon a psychologist whose contributions have advanced an agenda congruent with NLPA's mission. Note: While persons who are not members of NLPA may be nominated to the awards, all awardees would need to be members of NLPA before the bestowing of an award. In other words, nominees selected to receive an award would need to join the organization before the conferment of the award. Nominations should include a copy of nominee's curriculum vitae and two letters of support documenting how the nominee fulfills the criteria for the award. Nominations and supporting documents must be received no later than August 1, 2010. Nominations and supporting materials will only be accepted ELECTRONICALLY at: email@example.com. Awards will be announced and granted during NLPA's National Conferencia to be held November 12-13, 2010 at the Westin Riverwalk in San Antonio, TX.
Puerto Rican Studies Association Dissertation Award The Puerto Rican Studies Association will launch its Dissertation Award competition at its coming conference at Hartford, CT and at every PRSA meeting thereafter. Open to dissertations completed and filed between October, 2008 and April, 2010, the prize will recognize the best competing doctoral dissertation in the field of Puerto Rican Studies, without regard to particular topic, approach, or discipline. The award committee will judge submissions on overall quality, intellectual caliber, scholarly originality, and its contribution to comparative Puerto Rican Studies. Applicants must submit 1) paper copy of their dissertation, 2) one-page dissertation abstract, 3) advisor statement of completion, and 4) current CV directly to each member of the Dissertation Award Committee. Material must arrive no later than June 1, 2010. For more information see: http://www.puertorican-studies.org/awards.html.
Call For Nominations â€“ Division 48 Annual awards The Society for the Study of Peace, Conflict, and Violence: Peace Psychology (Division 48) of the APA seeks nominations for its two prestigious awards. The Ralph K. White Lifetime Achievement Award is open to members and non-members of Division 48 and to citizens of any country. Embodied within the definition of this award is distinguished accomplishment of an individual whose theoretical and applied research in peace studies, including topics such as cooperation, social justice, war and aggression and/or conflict resolution, has inspired yet another generation of psychologists around the world. In 2009, the recipient of the award was Thomas F. Pettigrew. The prize is $1000 and the winner is invited to lecture at the APA Convention following the one when her/his award is announced. The award will be announced at APA 2010. Nominations should include a curriculum vitae and a letter less than 300 words long. Please send nominations to the Society's 2010 Awards Committee, c/o Dr. Julie Meranze Levitt, at 33 E. Princeton Road, Bala Cynwyd, PA 19004 or to her email address: firstname.lastname@example.org. Nominations must be received by June 15, 2010.
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ The Morton Deutsch Conflict Resolution Award is open to members and non members of Division 48 and to citizens of any country. The award is funded with royalties from the book Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice, edited by Morton Deutsch, Ph.D., and Peter Coleman, PhD. Nominations should include a curriculum vitae and a letter less than 300 words long, recognizing an individual who has made notable contributions to the integration of theory and practice in the field of conflict resolution. The award will be presented to a practitioner whose practice contributes to the development of theory or to a theorist or researcher who contributes to the development of practice. The prize is $1000 and the winner is invited to lecture at the APA Convention following the one when his/her award is announced. The award will be announced at APA 2010. Last year's winner was David Adams. Send nominations via email to the APA Division 48 Awards Committee, c/o Dr. Julie Meranze Levitt, at 33 E. Princeton Road, Bala Cynwyd, PA 19004 or email@example.com. Nominations must be received by June 15, 2010.
Call for Nominations: Editor Social Issues and Policy Review 2012-2015 (Inclusive) Nominations are now being accepted for the next editor of Social Issues and Policy Review (SIPR), a journal of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI). SIPR is published once a year in December. Three volumes have been published, volume 3 in December 2009. SIPR volumes are nonthematic; that is, the papers within each volume focus on a variety of topics. Manuscripts may be invited by the Editor or submitted openly to SIPR, but all are peer-reviewed by an editorial board member or other appropriate expert. The Editor-elect will be expected to work with the current Editors as soon as he/she is appointed to solicit manuscripts. He/she will start as Editor-elect no later than January 2011, and will become masthead editor for three years starting in January 2012. Questions about this position may be addressed to the Committee Chair: Barbara Gutek, Department of Management and Organizations; Eller School of Management; firstname.lastname@example.org, or any other Search Committee member. The Search Committee consists of Irene Frieze, Barbara Gutek, James Jackson, and Terri Vescio. For information about SIPR, see its publication page on the SPSSI web page. Note that currently SIPR has co-editors, although that is not a requirement. Please submit nominations and application materials for the Editor-elect position electronically in MS Word format to Barbara Gutek, email@example.com, and copy SPSSI Central Office, firstname.lastname@example.org, and include the words “SIPR Editorial Search” in the subject line. Self-nominations are welcome. First review of the nominations will begin March 22, 2010. Those candidates agreeing to stand for consideration will be asked to submit a copy of their Curriculum Vita/Resumes, an indication of their previous editorial experience, a statement of their vision and views on the direction and operation of the journal
FOR YOUR INFORMATION… Upcoming Conferences and Conventions May International Network of Indigenous Health Knowledge Development – Knowing Your Roots: Indigenous Medicines, Health Knowledges, and Best Practices Kiana Lodge, Suquamish, Washington May 24 – 28, 2010 The INIHKD is an international assembly of indigenous health researchers, scholars, policymakers, and health practitioners dedicated to improving the health of indigenous peoples in Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States through community led health research, culturally-based health services delivery, Indigenous health workforce development, and Indigenous health policy advancement. For further information contact: Polly Olsen (Yakama Nation) at email@example.com or (206) 616-8731, at the IWRI University of Washington - Indigenous Wellness Research Institute (www.IWRI.org) or visit: http://www.iwri.org/inihkd/index.php.
June Mental, Spiritual and Emotional Health of Aboriginal Peoples and other Diverse Populations: Theory, Research and Practice 2010 Institute of the Section on Women and Psychology (SWAP) of the National Aboriginal Health Organization Delta Winnipeg Hotel, Winnipeg, Manitoba June 2, 2010 Co-sponsored by: the Aboriginal Psychology Section and the Rural and Northern Psychology Section, this institute will examine theoretical, research, and practice related issues relevant to the psychological well-being of Aboriginal Peoples (recognizing the diversity of First Nations, Inuit and Métis groups) and other marginalized populations. For information send email to firstname.lastname@example.org contact or log on to: http://www.naho.ca/english/
34th Annual Conference, Rehabilitation of the Adult and Child with Brain Injury Williamsburg, Virginia June 3 – 4, 2010 The 34th annual conference, Rehabilitation of the Adult and Child with Brain Injury will be held in W illiamsburg, Virginia June 3-4, 2010 and a special one day pre-conference on June 2, 2010. Every year since 1977, rehabilitation professionals from around the world have come together to learn about brain injury with the goal of discovering effective, new ways to resolve common challenges and achieve optimal outcomes. Keynote presentations will focus on neuroimaging, a survivor's perspective on recovery, and mild brain injury. Other presentations will focus on cognitive technology and cognitive rehabilitation, fatigue, and serving veterans. Presentations will also address behavior, spirituality, sexuality, pediatric neuropsychology, relationships, and family intervention.
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ Visit the conference web site www.tbiconferences.org to find the latest information on conference schedules, faculty, and downloadable forms for registration and exhibit/sponsorship. You will also find information about the 2009 conference, including feedback from participants and presenters' handouts
Institute on Social Exclusion at the Adler School of Professional Psychology Annual Conference "The Social Determinants of Mental Health: From Awareness to Action" Drake Hotel, Chicago, Illinois June 3rd – 4th, 2010 For more detailed information visit: http://www.adler.edu/about/2010annualconference.asp.
Race in America: Restructuring Inequality Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania June 3 – 6, 2010 The University of Pittsburgh’s School of Social Work and the Center on Race and Social Problems will host “Race in America”—designed to be the most solution-focused national conference on race ever to be held—on the University’s Pittsburgh campus June 3-6, 2010. Seven key areas will be explored during “Race in America”: economics, education, criminal justice, race relations, health, mental health, and families, youth, and the elderly. There will be two keynote speeches and a panel discussion, all open to the public, as well as 20 sessions for conference participants. 40 of the nation’s most prominent experts on race will give presentations in the conference sessions. Conference participants—a multiracial group of researchers, policy makers, students, and community leaders— will be asked to identify the most pervasive instances of racial inequities, explore the factors that contribute to them, and work on actionable steps that can be taken at the federal, state, and local levels to help build greater equity in our society. For conference information visit: http://www.race.pitt.edu/.
Second National Psychotherapy with Men Conference University of Texas at Austin June 5, 2010 A conference devoted to promoting best practices and increasing treatment accessibility for boys and men. For more information log on to: http://ows.edb.utexas.edu/?q=site/2nd-national-psychotherapy-men-conference
FOR YOUR INFORMATION… Kansas University Summer Institute 2010 Stats Camp Lawrence, Kansas June 7 – 25, 2010 The University of Kansas announces an expanded set of five-day workshops on quantitative methodology. Brief descriptions and detailed information regarding course descriptions, registration and fees, location and lodging, travel information, and the like can be accessed by this link: www.Quant.KU.edu/StatsCamps/overview.html.
Family Research Consortium V - Summer Institute Gender differences in Issues of Comorbidity: Pathways and Implications Marriott Marquis, Times Square, New York, New York June 17 – 19, 2010 As • • • •
the fifth generation of a collaborative initiative begun 20 years ago, FRC-V: focuses on the effects of co-occurring psychiatric disorders, conceptualized within a transdisciplinary framework, with deliberate attention to ethnic, racial, cultural, and economic diversity, and an emphasis on interventions, particularly those for mothers.
For conference information see: http://frc5.org/.
Eighth Biennial SPSSI Convention: From Individuals to Nation States: What M otivates, Sustains and Discourages Caregiving and Care Receiving InterContinental Hotel, New Orleans, Louisiana June 24 – 27, 2010 Information about the conference is available on the SPSSI Website at: www.spssi.org/neworleans2010.
23rd Annual Retreat and Convention of American Indian Psychologists and Psychology Graduate Students Utah State University, Logan, Utah June 28 - 29, 2010 The Society of Indian Psychologists (SIP) in partnership with the Utah State University are pleased to announce the 23rd Annual Retreat and Convention of American Indian Psychologists and Psychology Graduate Students. For more information, please contact: Carolyn Barcus, Ed, Professor; Co-Director of the American Indian Support Program; or Gayle Skawennio Morse, PhD, Assistant Professor, Co-Director of the American Indian Support Program at: Department of Psychology; 2810 Old Main Hill; Utah State University; Logan, U tah 84322 2810; (435) 797-554 7. For additional inform ation log on to: http://aiansip.org/conference.htm.
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ July The 2010 Georgetown University Training Institutes Gaylord National Hotel & Convention Center On the Potomac in Maryland July 14 – 18, 2010 The 2010 Georgetown University Training Institutes will focus on “New Horizons for Systems of Care: Effective Practice and Performance for Children with Mental Health Challenges and their Families.” For information go to: http://gucchd.georgetown.edu/training/78513.html#TypesSessions
“Toward a More Socially Responsible Psychology” PsySR Conference Boston Graduate School of Psychoanalysis, Boston, Massachusetts July 15 – 17, 2010 Conference information is posted on the PsySR Website at www.psysr.org/conference2010.
Third Biennial International Conference: Brain Development & Learning: Making Sense of the Science Hyatt Hotel, Vancouver, BC, Canada July 16 – 20, 2010 For detailed information log onto: http://www.interprofessional.ubc.ca/bdl.html.
The National Research Conference on Child and Family Programs and Policy Bridgewater State College, Bridgewater, Massachusetts July 21–23, 2010 The National Research Conference on Child and Family Programs and Policy is among the first conference to focus exclusively on programmatic and policy solutions as a way to enhance the well-being of children and their families. This research conference will appeal to researchers from academia, government, and private research firms. This conference also recognizes the importance of multidisciplinary work in order to address the complex needs of children and their families. For conference information, visit: http://www.nrccfpp.org/2010_Conference.html.
The Association of Black Psychologists 42 nd Annual International Conference Chicago, Illinois July 27 –August 1, 2010 For conference information visit: http://convention.abpsi.org/.
FOR YOUR INFORMATION… 22 nd Annual Native Research Conference Rushmore Holiday Inn, Rapid City, South Dakota July 27 – 30, 2010 The Native Research Network (NRN) is announces its 22nd Annual Conference "Translating Research into Policy and Practice in Native Health." The conference will be held at the Rushmore Holiday Inn in Rapid City, SD, July 27-30, 2010. This conference will be an excellent learning experience for students. For more information, please refer to the NRN website: http://www.nativeresearchnetwork.org.
August Women, Management and Leadership: Organizational Practices and Individual Strategies for Women Union Graduate College, Schenectady, New York August 2, 2010 Conference information as it becomes available will be posted on the Union Graduate College Website, www.uniongraduatecollege.edu.
Asian American Psychological Association Annual Convention – “Expanding Our Horizons: The Next Decade in AAPI Psychology” San Diego, California August 11, 2010 For conference information visit: http://www.aapaonline.org/conventions/conventions.shtml.
American Psychological Association Annual Convention San Diego, California August 13 – 15, 2010 For more information log on to: http://www.apa.org/convention/index.aspx
September 2010 SACNAS National Conference: Science, Technology & Diversity for a Sustainable Future Anaheim Convention Center - Anaheim, California September 30 – October 03, 2010 For more information log on to: http://www.sacnas.org/confNew/confClient/.
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ November American Studies Association of Turkey 34th International American Studies Conference: The Art of Language: Cultural Expressions in American Studies Alanya, Turkey November 3 – 5, 2010 Information will be posted on the conference Website at: http://simplifyurl.com/4b0. National Latina/o Psychological Association( NLPA) Biennial Conference 2010: Latinas: Celebrating the Psychological Strengths and Resilience of Latina Women and Girls The Westin Riverwalk, San Antonio, Texas November 11 –13, 2010 The National Latina/o Psychological Association (NLPA) announces its fourth national conference to be held in San Antonio, Texas. The event will include one pre-conference (Thursday, November 11th) and two main conference days (Friday & Saturday, November 12th- 13th) of paper sessions, symposia, roundtables, posters, and keynote discussions. The program will contain both research and practice-oriented foci with presentations by clinicians, researchers, practitioners, and students. The theme of the conference will highlight the strength, resilience, and unique aspects of the Latina experience, from girlhood through elderhood, across many domains of psycho-socio-cultural functioning. Working from a scientist-practitioner model, the conference seeks to foster the communication of scientific findings and scholarship among service providers and agencies, policy makers, academicians and researchers, as well as undergraduate and graduate students, in order to bring about a better understanding of the perspectives and needs of Latinas. For more information on the National Latina/o Psychological Association Conference, see: www.nlpa.ws.
The first annual Critical Mixed Race Studies Conference: "Emerging Paradigms in Critical Mixed Race Studies" Du Paul University, Chicago, Illinois November 25 – 10, 2010 For additional information log on to: http://las.depaul.edu/aas/About/CMRSConference/index.asp
January 2011 The National Multicultural Conference & Summit (NMCS) The NMCS will be held January 27–28, 2011 at the Westin–Seattle Hotel (www.Westin.com/Seattle). A half-day pre-conference and kick-off reception for Wednesday, January 26, and community service projects for Saturday, January 29 are also planned. The 2011 theme is “Unification through Diversity: Bridging Psychological Science and Practice in the Public Interest.” The Call for Programs can be found at http://www.multiculturalsummit.org/.
FOR YOUR INFORMATIONâ€Ś February 2011 American Association for the Advancement of Science Annual Meeting: "Science Without Borders" Washington, DC February 17 â€“ 21, 2011 The Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is the most important general science venue for a growing segment of scientists and engineers who are interested in the latest advances as well as multidisciplinary topics and the influence of science and technology on how we live today. For conference information see: http://www.aaas.org/meetings/.
For an extended listing of psychological conferences around the world, visit the APA Office of International Affairs' website.
Important Resources Books Examining Tuskegee: The Infamous Syphilis Study and Its Legacy Susan M. Reverby The forty-year "Tuskegee" Syphilis Study has become the American metaphor for medical racism, government malfeasance, and physician arrogance. The subject of histories, films, rumors, and political slogans, it received an official federal apology from President Bill Clinton in a White House ceremony. Susan M. Reverby offers a comprehensive analysis of the notorious study of untreated syphilis, which took place in and around Tuskegee, Alabama, from the 1930s through the 1970s. Dr. Reverby examines the study and its aftermath from multiple perspectives to explain what happened and why the study has such power in our collective memory. She follows the study's repercussions in facts and fictions. Reverby highlights the many uncertainties that dogged the study during its four decades and explores the newly available medical records. She uncovers the different ways it was understood by the men, their families, and health care professionals, ultimately revising conventional wisdom on the study. The John Hope Franklin Series in African American History and Culture ISBN 978-0-8078-3310-0; Published: November 2009; The University of North Carolina Press. To order visit: http://www.uncpress.unc.edu/browse/book_detail?title_id=1672.
Environment and the People in American Cities, 1600s-1900s: Disorder, Inequality, and Social Change Dorceta E. Taylor In The Environment and the People in American Cities, Dorceta E. Taylor provides an in-depth examination of the development of urban environments, and urban environmentalism, in the United States. Taylor focuses on the evolution of the city, the emergence of elite reformers, the framing of environmental problems, and the perceptions of and responses to breakdowns in social order, from the seventeenth century through the
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ twentieth. She demonstrates how social inequalities repeatedly informed the adjudication of questions related to health, safety, and land access and use. Duke University Press (November 2009); 640 pages ISBN-10: 0822344513; ISBN-13: 978-0822344513. For ordering information log onto: http://www.dukeupress.edu/cgibin/forwardsql/search.cgi?template0=nomatch.htm&template2=books/boo k_detail_page.htm&user_id=111615213978&Bmain.item_option=1&Bmain.item=14331.
Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Race, Gender, and Sexual Orientation Derald Wing Sue A transformative look at covert bias, prejudice, and discrimination with hopeful solutions for their eventual dissolution. Written by bestselling author Derald Wing Sue, Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Race, Gender, and Sexual Orientation is a first-of-its-kind guide on the subject of microaggressions. This book insightfully looks at the various kinds of microaggressions and their psychological effects on both perpetrators and their targets. Thought provoking and timely, Dr. Sue suggests realistic and optimistic guidance for combating—and ending—microaggressions in our society. W iley; ISBN: 978-0-470-49140-9; Hardcover; 352 pages; March 2010. Available at: http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-047049140X.html
Multiracial Americans and Social Class, The Influence of Social Class on Racial Identity Kathleen Odell Korgen, Editor As the racial hierarchy shifts and inequality between Americans widens, it is important to understand the impact of social class on the rapidly growing multiracial population. Multiracial Americans and Social Class is the first book on multiracial Americans to do so and fills a noticeable void in a growing market. In this book, noted scholars examine the impact of social class on the racial identity of multiracial Americans, in highly readable essays, from a range of sociological perspectives. In doing so, they answer the following questions: W ho is multiracial? How does class influence racial identity? How does social class status vary among multiracial populations? Do you need to be middle class in order to be an "honorary white"? W hat is the relationship between social class, culture, and race? How does the influence of social class compare across multiracial backgrounds? What are multiracial Americans' explanations for racial inequality in the United States? Price: Routledge; 230 pages $35.95•$32.36; ISBN: 978-0-415-48399-5; April 27th 2010. For more information see: http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415483995/
Racial Domination, Racial Progress: The Sociology of Race in America Matthew Desmond and Mustafa Emirbayer Racial Domination, Racial Progress: The Sociology of Race in America looks at race in a clear and accessible way, allowing students to understand how racial domination and progress work in all aspects of society. Examining how race is not a matter of separate entities but of systems of social relations, this text unpacks
FOR YOUR INFORMATION… how race works in the political, economic, residential, legal, educational, aesthetic, associational, and intimate fields of social life. The authors seek to connect with their readers in a way that combines disciplined reasoning with a sense of engagement and passion, conveying sophisticated ideas in a clear and compelling fashion. McGraw Hill (October 8, 2009); Paperback, 784 pages; ISBN 0072970510. For more information see: http://www.mhprofessional.com/product.php?search_crawl=true&isbn=0072970510
On The Web Abriendo Las Cajas (Opening Boxes) Abriendo Las Cajas (Opening Boxes) is a New Routes immigrant health and media project that seeks to reduce incidences of domestic violence amongst the Latin American immigrant population in the Fruitvale neighborhood of Oakland, California. It's also the name of its digital compilation of personal stories created by adult Mexican and Latin American immigrants and Latino Youth who live in the Fruitvale District of Oakland, California. A DVD and curriculum guide in English and Spanish is available at no cost to schools and nonprofit organizations: For more information and a link to the DVD offer visit: http://www.bavc.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=853&Itemid=1058
American Indian/Alaska Native Web Pages at the Suicide Prevention Resource Center The Suicide Prevention Resource Center (SPRC) is pleased to announce the launch of the new American Indian/ Alaska Native (AI/AN) Web Pages. The web pages are intended to be a resource for people working to prevent suicide and promote wellness in Native communities. Access the AI/AN Pages by going to: http://www2.sprc.org/aian/index.
Brochure on NIGMS Diversity Programs Available The publication 21st Century Scientists: Preparing a Diverse Research Workforce is now available in print and on the NIGMS Web site. This brochure provides an overview of the Institute's research and research training programs aimed at increasing the diversity of the scientific workforce and includes a chart of these programs by career stage. http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/order/index.htm#more.
Éxito Escolar: A Toolkit for Academic Success in the Latino Community Éxito Escolar is an exciting multimedia college access curriculum focused around a series of four bilingual films. The goal of this program is to prepare Latino students and their families for post-secondary education. The curriculum builds off the collection of films which follow the experiences of students and their families as they explore life beyond high school. These highly engaging films are created in the style of popular Spanish-language telenovelas. http://www.edpartnerships.org/Template.cfm?Section=Exito_Escolar
OEMA COMMUNIQUĂ‰ IOM Report translated into Spanish and Chinese The Institute of Medicine has translated its report on standardized collection and use of race, ethnicity and language data for health care quality improvement into Spanish and Chinese. http://www.iom.edu/en/Reports/2009/RaceEthnicityData.aspx
Haiti Earthquake: Mental Health Resources Access information and resources using this link: http://education.miami.edu/crecer/resources_Haiti.html
Interventions to Support Readiness, Recruitment, Access, Transition, and Retention for Postsecondary Education Success: An Equity of Opportunity Policy and Practice Analysis This new University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) report analyzes postsecondary education date. Given concerns about diversity and the degree to which some subgroups are underrepresented in postsecondary education, the report stresses that it is essential to use the lenses of equity of opportunity and social justice in rethinking postsecondary education policies and practices. Use this link to access the report: http://smhp.psych.ucla.edu/pdfdocs/postsecondary.pdf
Job Negotiation Tips This is a collection of negotiation ideas compiled over years through random conversations with scholars on the job market. http://www.thasanjohnson.org/job_negotiation_tips.htm
New Journal: Environmental Justice Environmental Justice, a quarterly peer-reviewed journal, is the central forum for the research, debate, and discussion of the equitable treatment and involvement of all people, especially ethnic minority and low-income populations, with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies. The Journal explores the adverse and disparate environmental burden impacting marginalized populations and communities all over the world. Environmental Justice draws upon the expertise and perspectives of all parties involved in environmental justice struggles: communities, industry, academia, government, and nonprofit organizations. Use this link for information: http://www.liebertpub.com/products/product.aspx?pid=259
FOR YOUR INFORMATION… NLPA and Section VI of APA Division 12 Collaboration Effort In a collaborative effort, the Section on the Clinical Psychology of Ethnic Minorities (Section VI) of the Society of Clinical Psychology (APA Division 12) and the National Latina/o Psychological Association have launched a new online tool for students and professionals hoping to develop a psychology career with multicultural interests. The resource, found at http://multiculturalmentoring.blogspot.com/, is a searchable collection of short discussions on student and professional development topics of particular relevance to multicultural psychologists. Each discussion is authored by a multicultural psychologist with expertise in the subject area. The site has launched with discussions on perfecting professional writing, research involvement, advise on dealing with “impostor syndrome”, and strategies for identifying mentors and developing mentorship networks. New entries are added monthly. Upcoming entries include discussions of strategies for the completion of successful theses and dissertations on multicultural topics, and of interview and negotiation strategies for early career professionals with multicultural expertise. Suggestions for future topics and inquiries about guest entries are welcome by the blog’s editors, Shannon Chavez-Korell (email@example.com) – Student and Professional Development Coordinator for the NLPA- and I. David Acevedo (firstname.lastname@example.org) – Mentorship Chair for Section VI.
Research that Benefits Native People: A Guide for Tribal Leaders The National Congress of American Indians Policy Research Center has just released its five-module curriculum, "Research that Benefits Native People: A Guide for Tribal Leaders." The curriculum consists of five separate modules which address the most critical research issues in Native communities. Use this link for access: http://www.ncaiprc.org/research-curriculum-guide.
SAMHSA and Ad Council to Launch Mental Health Campaign for the African American Community The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), working in collaboration with the Ad Council and the Stay Strong Foundation, announced today the launch of a national public service advertising (PSA) campaign designed to raise awareness of mental health problems among young adults in the African American community. The new PSAs were unveiled at a Black History Month event at Howard University this morning to coincide with the first annual HBCU National Mental Health Awareness Day. The launch was telecast to colleges and universities nationwide. The television, radio, print and Web ads feature real personal stories of African Americans dealing with mental health problems, and they aim to engage those in the community to support young adults who need help. The PSAs direct audiences to visit a new website, www.storiesthatheal.samhsa.gov, where they can learn more about mental health problems and how to get involved. A resource guide entitled, “Developing a Stigma Reduction Initiative,” is also a part of the campaign. The guide provides information on how to mount a statewide anti-stigma campaign, examples of outreach
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ materials, reports on the best practices for stigma reduction, and lists important resources for technical assistance. Copies of the guide can be downloaded at: http://www.mentalhealth.samhsa.gov/publications/allpubs/sma06-4176/ or by calling SAMHSA’s Health Information Network at 1-877-SAMHSA7.
Sharing Wisdom: Ethnic Minority Supervisor Perspectives A recent special issue of Training and Education in Professional Psychology focuses on “Sharing Wisdom: Ethnic minority supervisor perspectives”. Edited by Susanna Lowe and Claytie Davis III, the special issue features a diversity of ethnic minority professionals, may of whom are pioneers and seasoned professionals. According to the editors, “We believe this is an important tool for psychologists and supervisors of color in clinical and counseling psychology” The table of contents for the special issue is available on the web at: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/tep/4/1/.
Taiwan Psychology Network (TPN) Translates APA Help Center Articles The Taiwan Psychology Network (TPN) has completed the translation of 11 articles provided by the APA Help Center. APA makes these translated materials available using this link: http://www.phpbber.com/phpbb/viewforum.php?f=16&sid=8bd9d9a081814fac9e8d00770287c792&mfor um=taiwanpsycholog.