Taiwan Since Martial Law
Taiwan Since Martial Law epitomizes the reinvigoration of cultural pluralism, which characterizes the dynamic processes of democratized Taiwan. With the lifting of martial law in 1987, people have awakened to their respective cultural identities and contributed to a sociopolitical renaissance strengthening the island’s sense of national destiny and commitment to self-determination. Nineteen chapters highlight Taiwan’s social and cultural diversity and the complexities of its politics and economy. The preface by Bo Tedards depicts the avenues of Taiwan’s democratization with his ‘trajectories’ of political alternatives. The opening chapter by the editor David Blundell traces his personal experiences during the martial law transition and his reflections on an emerging Taiwan “sense of place.” Pro-democracy activists organized to demand free elections, human rights, respect for local heritages, and environmental sustainability.
TAIWAN SINCE MARTIAL LAW Society Culture Politics Economy David Blundell Editor Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines University of California, Berkeley & National Taiwan University Press University of California at Berkeley, and the School of Information Founded in 1868, University of California, Berkeley is the original campus of the Univer sity of California system. The University's fundamental missions are teaching, research and public service. It has a distinguished faculty, with 21 Nobel laureates to date, a stellar research library, and more than 350 academic programs. The School of Information is a graduate research and education community committed to expanding access to informa tion and to improving its usability, reliability, and credibility while preserving security and privacy. This requires the insights of scholars from diverse fields--library and infor mation science, design, social sciences, management, computer science, law, and policy. Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative (ECAI) A unit of the School of Information at UC Berkeley, the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative (ECAI) is an international collaboration advancing education and research in the human ities and social sciences. The mission of ECAI is to enhance understanding of societies and cultures through greater attention to time and place. N. W. Lin Foundation for Culture and Education Named after Safe C. F. Lin's father, the N. W. Lin Foundation for Culture and Education was established in 1985. It is the parent of the Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines, the first private museum in Taiwan registered under the Ministry of Education. It facili tates research, conferences, and publications at Academia Sinica, the University of Tokyo, Oxford University, Leiden University, the University of California at Berkeley, and other academic institutions. Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines This institution was founded in 1994 for promoting mutual understanding between dif ferent ethnic groups through careful research, conservation, and explanation of cultures. The original collection of Taiwan indigenous artifacts stems from the generosity of its founder and chairman Safe C. F. Lin. The main galleries introduce the natural environ ment of Taiwan, tools of daily life, clothing and personal decor, ritual objects and religious life of indigenous peoples. The Taipei based museum welcomes projects and exhibitions on specific themes to broaden our knowledge and awareness of different aspects of society and culture internationally. National Taiwan University Press Founded in October 1996, the mission of the National Taiwan University (NTU) Press is to encourage research, enhance the quality of teaching, and publish academic books and journals. The focus of the NTU Press is on publishing scholarly materials that are rigorously peerreviewed and of the highest quality. In addition to over ten scholarly book series, the press also publishes literary, educational and general books, as well as an exten sive catalog of DVDs on Chinese literature and performing arts. Contents ListofMaps Map of Taiwan Contributors(in chapter order) Editor'sNote Foreword Learning from the Past to Strengthen our Future Safe C. F. Lin Producing this Book Eric H. Y. Yu Centered on Time and Place Michael Buckland Taking Ownership of the Timeline of History Hsiang Jieh Introduction Taiwan Since Martial Law David Blundell Opening Essay Trajectories of Democratization Bo Tedards Society & Culture 1 Taiwan Coming of Age David Blundell 2 Grassroots Taiwan History Ann Heylen 3 A Public Arts Venue in Taipei: Beitou Hot Springs Museum Constance Woods 4 Rights to Recognition: Minorities and Indigenous Politics in Emerging Taiwan Nationalism Ku Kunhui 5 Review of the Hakka Ethnic Movement in Taiwan Al Chungchieh Wu vii ix xi xiii xxi xxv xxv xxvi xxviii xxx xxxiii xlix 3 27 63 91 131 viii Contents 6 First Case of the New Recognition System: The Survival Strategies of the Thao Mitsuda Yayoi 7 Retrieving Ancestral Power From the Landscape: Cultural Struggle and Yami Ecological Memory on Orchid Island Jackson Hu 8 Perceptions and Cultural Identity of Taiwan Exchange Students in Germany From the 1980s to the Present Monika LeipeltTsai 9 The First Generation Middle Class in Taiwan: Culture and Politics HsinHuang Michael Hsiao 10 Tea of Taiwan: Contemporary Adaptation Niki Alsford Politics & Economy 11 The Formation of Taiwan's New National Identity Since the End of the 1980s Frank Muyard 12 Election Campaigning Since the Taiwan Martial Law Era Jonathan Sullivan 13 The Media in Democratic Taiwan Gary D. Rawnsley and MingYeh T. Rawnsley 14 Fledgling Democracy in Taiwan: Need for a Civil Rights Protection System Janet Tan 15 Nation vs. Tradition: Indigenous Rights and Smangus David Reid 16 Righting the Wrongs of the Past? The Human Rights Policies of Chen Shuibian and Ma Yingjeou Daniel Bowman 17 Economic Integration Across the Taiwan Strait: A Case of Cultural Identity Transformation and Contested National Sovereignty in the Context of Globalization Jos� Guerra Vio 18 Globalization and Economic Security: The Case of the Taiwanese Semiconductor Industry Mingchin Monique Chu 19 Economy of Taiwan after the Lifting of Martial Law: A Waning Developmental State? Peter C. Y. Chow Index 153 183 211 243 263 297 367 395 419 453 485 527 549 597 631 List of Maps � Map of Taiwan and Coastal Fujian indicating major place names of this book. Designed by YuTing Lee, Center for GIS (Geographic Information Science), Research Center for Humanities and Social Sciences (RCHSS), Academia Sinica, Taipei Taiwan. � from left--Terrain, Population Density, and True Colors Weave. (a) Terrain. Understanding Taiwan Series. Chapter 2: Terrain. "Although the total area of Taiwan is only 36,000 square kilometers, its terrain is quite varied ... Geologically, Taiwan is located at the edge of Asia, facing the Pacific Ocean."Figure 2�2. Website, http://dic.nict.gov. tw/~taiwan/geography/geographych2.htm (b) Population Density. Understanding Taiwan Series. Chapter 8: Popula tion Distribution and Structure. Population distribution of Taiwan (1993): every dot represents five thousand people. Figure 8�1. Website, http://dic.nict.gov.tw/~taiwan/geography/geographych8.htm (c) True Colors Weave. Artist: Liu Yuchen. "Colored ribbons of indige nous totems are used to wrap the island of Taiwan, symbolizing cultural integration of indigenous groups. Dynamic lines that dance across are drawn by pens accompanied by the distinguishing colors of each group in Taiwan." Website, http://ecai.org/austronesiaweb/ECAIaustronesia/ Taiwan/IndigenousStudentPosters(Flash)/index.html � Bird's eye view rendering of Hokuto [Beitou] hot springs district with Grass Mountain () also known as Datun Range (), 1935, today the National Park of Yangmingshan (). (Source: SMC Publishing Inc.) � Distribution of Indigenous Peoples in Taiwan and Orchid Island population, total 513,103. Unregistered 22,913, those of individual status, not ascribed with a registered group. Council of Indegenous Peoples, January 2011. (Illustration courtesy of Roma Mehta) � Republic of China 1951 showing the official administrative divisions of claimed territories including Mongolia and the addition of the South China Sea. AntiCommunist slogans are printed in the margins. Taiwan ix xi xxix 69 93 111 x Map List is featured as an insert on the map representing the area of national government rule since 1949. (Source: SMC Publishing Inc.) � Map of the distribution of Han Chinese ethnic groups in Taiwan. As illus trated here, the Japanese colonial government recorded detailed surveys of the island's population identifying them by their origins from China. Areas with darker shading refer to immigrants from Guangdong, mostly Hakka. A map insert of Southeast China features immigrant places of origin, 1926. (Courtesy of SMC Publishing Inc.) � Sun Moon Lake. (Illustration courtesy of Roma Mehta) � Government land management programs on Orchid Island. (Source: Jackson Hu) � Tourist Sites for Tea Lovers. (Adapted from the Taiwan Tourism Bureau, 2007: 53) 137 155 186 274 Map of Taiwan and Coastal Fujian indicating major place names of this book. Contributors (in chapter order) Opening Essay Bo Tedards received his Master's of Arts in Law and Diplomacy from the Fletcher School of Tufts University, and his bachelor in Political Science from Yale University. He is an American citizen residing in Taiwan for over 15 years. During that time, he has worked for the Taiwan Association for Human Rights, the Institute for National Policy Research, the Taipei Times, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2000�2005, Research and Planning Board). Since 2004, he has worked at the Taiwan Foundation for Democracy, first as coordinator of the World Forum of Democratization in Asia (WFDA), a new regional network of democracy advocates, and then also as director of the International Cooperation Department. Society & Culture David Blundell earned his doctorate in anthropology from the University of California, and has lived in Taiwan since the 1980s. Work on life histories and visual documentation from the insider's point of view best describes his research methods. Dr Blundell is the anthropology editor for the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative (ECAI) working on Pacific languages mapping. He edited Austronesian Taiwan: Linguistics, History, Ethnology, Prehistory (2000, revised 2009). Prof Blundell teaches at National Chengchi University in Taipei where he offers courses on language and culture, multiculturalism and the modern citizen, visual anthropology and filmmaking, aesthetics, sociolin guistics, anthropology of belief systems, AsiaPacific cultural history, and the cultural and ethnic structure of Taiwan. Ann Heylen, Ph.D. in Chinese Studies, K. U. Leuven, Belgium, is associate professor in the Department of Taiwan Culture, Languages and Literature and Director of the International Taiwan Studies Center at National Taiwan xiii xiv Contributors Normal University. Her areas of research expertise are the history of 17th century Dutch Formosa, the Japanese colonial era, and Taiwan postcolonial historiography. She is one of the founding board members of the European Association of Taiwan Studies (EATS) and is associate editor of the ejournal International Journal of Asia-Pacific Studies (IJAPS). Her most recent pub lications include Becoming Taiwan: From Colonialism to Democracy (Scott Sommers coeditor, Harrassowitz 2010) and Japanese Models, Chinese Culture and the Dilemma of Taiwanese Language Reform (Harrassowitz 2012). Constance Woods graduated with a double major in Fine Arts and Span ish Language and Literature from Beloit College, Wisconsin, in 1987. Ms Woods studied Chinese at the Mandarin Training Center, National Taiwan Normal University and has continued living in Taiwan since the mid 1980s. In 2009 she received her advanced degree from the International Master's Program in Taiwan Studies, National Chengchi University. She pursues her research on the role of the arts in daily life in the context of art centers and local museums in the greater Taipei region. Ku Kunhui, Ph.D. in social anthropology at the University of Cambridge, is associate professor at the Institute of Anthropology, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan. She was a visiting scholar at the HarvardYenching Institute (2005�2006) and visiting associate professor at University of British Columbia (Spring 2010). Her focus is on Austronesian studies, especially the Paiwan of southern Taiwan since late 1980s. She also does research among the Stolo Nation in British Columbia and among the Canadian missionar ies, including archival work. In recent years, she ventures further into island Southeast Asia. Prof Ku publishes both in English and in Chinese in the areas of indigenous rights and nationalism, material cultures, voting and democracy, naming and hierarchy, ritual studies, and Christian conversion. Her research interests include religion and modernity, material and symbolic cultures, historical anthropology, and legal anthropology. Al Chungchieh Wu received his Ph.D. from National Tsing Hua University's Institute of Linguistics. He is currently associate professor and director of Contributors xv the Institute of Hakka Culture, Kaohsiung Normal University, specializing in Chinese dialectology, field research in languages, Hakka subdialects, and Sinicized Formosan languages. His publications include History of Hakka Residents in Taipei (1998); Map of Taiwan Hakka (with Hill Hiu, 2001); Rhythms of Taiwan Hakka (with David Blundell, 2004), and Study in the Relationship of Hakka Language and Immigrants' History in Taiwan (2009). Mitsuda Yayoi is a postdoctoral fellow, Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica. After receiving an MA in area studies at National Tsukuba University in Japan, she entered National Tsing Hua University in Taiwan to achieve a doctorate in anthropology. Her dissertation explores the survival strategies of an indigenous people as a subaltern group and explains how they are utilizing the `smallness' of their population and disadvantaged position to make politi cal gains in Taiwanese society. She currently works on political issues, sha manism studies, and subaltern studies of the indigenous peoples of Taiwan. Dr Mitsuda's latest article was published in Shamanism, 2011. Jackson Hu, with a Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota in conservation biology, is presently teaching at the Chinese Culture University, Department of Forestry and Nature Conservation, in Taipei. He has previously taught at Providence University, Department of Ecological Humanities; Tzu Chi University, Department of Human Development (Anthropology Program); as well as National Taitung University, Graduate Institute of Austronesian Culture. Dr Hu has been focusing on the Yami of Orchid Island about the appropriation of indigenous cultural models vis-a-vis state agendas and neoliberalism.His research interests are environmental history, sociocultural analysis of ecosystems, ecological anthropology, and ethnography in geo graphic information systems (GIS). Monika LeipeltTsai earned her doctorate at the School of Humanities from the University of Hamburg in the departments of German Language, German Literature, Media I and II. She has taught German language and culture for 15 years in Taiwan. Her current position is assistant professor at the European Studies Program of National Chengchi University. Using post xvi Contributors modern theories, her Ph.D. thesis is concerned with reception theory, writing strategies in texts of the literary Expressionist era, and the question of genre and gender. Her research belongs to the field of German literature and cultural studies as well as German didactics. Currently, her interdisciplinary research analyzes hybrid imageries in contemporary German pop music, concerning identity, gender, and ethnicity. HsinHuang Michael Hsiao currently serves as the Director of the Institute of Sociology with a joint appointment research fellow of the Center for Asia Pacific Area Studies (CAPAS) at Academia Sinica, and professor of Sociology at National Taiwan University. His areas of specialization include civil society and new democracies, rise of the middle classes in AsiaPacific, sustainable development, and nongovernmental organization (NGO) studies. His most recent publications include: Interpreting the Social Ethos of Taiwan and Hong Kong, (in Chinese, coeditor, 2011); Social Movements March Again in Taiwan (in Chinese, coeditor, 2010); Cross-Border Marriage with Asian Characteristics (coeditor, 2010); Japan-Taiwan Relations in East Asia's New Era (in Japanese, coeditor, 2010); Non-Profit Sector: Organization and Practice (in Chinese, co editor, 2009); and Rise of China: Beijing's Strategies and Implications for the Asia-Pacific (coeditor, 2009). Niki Alsford recently graduated from the International Master's Program in Taiwan Studies at National Chengchi University in Taipei. Presently he is archiving Taiwan research materials for the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) at the University of London, where he is also studying for his doctorate in history. His interests focus primarily on the maritime economic and social developments of Taiwan in the century. Mr Alsford's most recent publication is The Witnessed Account of British Resident John Dodd at Tamsui (2010). Politics & Economy Frank Muyard received his Ph.D. in sociology at the University of Montreal. He was the director of the French Center for Research on Contemporary China (CEFC), Taipei Office from 2004 to 2009 and is currently a visiting Contributors xvii scholar at the Center for Asian Studies at the University of Colorado, Boulder, and research associate at CEFC Taipei. His most recent publications include editing the special issue "Taiwan: The Consolidation of a Democratic and Distinct Society" for the journal China Perspectives (September 2010, co edited with Paul Jobin), and Objects, Heritage and Cultural Identity (Taiwan Historica 2009, coedited with LiangKai Chou and Serge Dreyer). Jonathan Sullivan has a Ph.D. in political science from the University of Nottingham, and previously trained in modern Chinese studies at the University of Leeds. He is currently assistant professor in the School of Politics and International Relations at the University of Nottingham. His work has been published in the China Quarterly, Pacific Review, Journal of Contemporary China, and Journal of East Asian Studies among others. Current research focuses on the political uses and effects of social media in China. Gary D. Rawnsley is professor of International Communications, Institute of Communications Studies, University of Leeds. He was educated at the University of Leeds where he received a BA (Honors.) in political studies and a Ph.D. in International Communications. Prof Rawnsley then spent twelve years in the School of Politics at the University of Nottingham. Since 2007 he teaches courses on Asian media, propaganda and communications in war at the University of Leeds. His latest publications include: Global Chinese Cinema: The Culture and Politics of the Hero (ed. with MingYeh T. Rawnsley 2010). He is particularly interested in propaganda and `deWesternizing' public diplomacy and soft power. MingYeh T. Rawnsley is a research fellow, Institute of Communications Studies, University of Leeds. She was educated at National Taiwan University where she obtained a BA in Library Science. She then received both Master's and Ph.D. in Communications Studies from the University of Leeds. Dr Rawnsley has published widely in English and in Chinese in the areas of Chineselanguage cinema, media and democratization, and cultural repre sentations of identities. Her most recent publication is Global Chinese Cinema: The Culture and Politics of Hero (ed. with Gary D. Rawnsley 2010). Her latest xviii Contributors book is Culture and Democratization in Taiwan: Cinema, Theatre and Social Change, to be published by Routledge. Janet Tan is currently in the International Doctoral Program in Asia Pacific Studies focusing on international political economy at National Chengchi University. She immigrated from Taiwan to the United States with her family in the 1970s. She received most of her higher education in the United States, acquiring her Master's degree in Science in Engineering Management from Santa Clara University in California. She began her own company in the late 1980s developing speech recognition products for the medical industry. Later, in the late 1990s, Ms Tan helped entrepre neurs to start their hightech companies, serving as a startup business consultant. She served the United States Office for Civil Rights, auditing California colleges and high schools for civil rights compliance, and as a consultant for the Northern California Export Council for the United States Commerce Department. David Reid earned his advanced degree in the International Master's Program in Taiwan Studies, National Chengchi University. His research area focused on indigenous rights and he wrote his thesis about the Atayal community of Smangus. Following completion of his degree, he spent a year working as a researcher at the Research Centre for Austronesian Peoples of Providence University, Taichung. His writings have been published in the Bangkok Post; Xiamen Daily; Seeds of Peace; Highway 11; and Taiwan Government Entry Point, http://www.culture.tw. Reid hosts a Web blog David on Formosa that covers a wide range of contemporary topics related to Taiwan. Website, http:// blog.taiwanguide.org Daniel Bowman received his MA from the International Master's Program for Taiwan Studies, National Chengchi University. His research interests currently focus on human rights in contemporary Asia. His thesis examined Taiwan's efforts to become a human rights state. Prior to moving to Taiwan, Bowman spent 18 months living in China and holds a bachelor degree and LLB with honors from the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Contributors xix Jos� Guerra Vio was born in Spain and raised in Chile. He is currently in the International Doctoral Program in AsiaPacific Studies at National Chengchi University, Taipei. His research interests are regionalism and international political economy in East Asia, as well as national governance issues and institutions. Mingchin Monique Chu is a senior teaching fellow at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London. In 2009, she received her Ph.D. degree in International Studies from the University of Cambridge. Her dissertation examined the impact of globalization on security with special reference to the strategically important semiconductor industry. Her first book in English, entitled The East Asian Computer Chip War is based on her doctorial research and is scheduled to be published by Routledge in 2012. Her research interests include the impact of globalization on security, pro duction globalization, information security, media in international relations, CrossTaiwan Strait relations, China's foreign relations, and Taiwan's political economy. Peter C. Y. Chow is a professor of economics at The City College and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. He received his Ph.D. from Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and became a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research and a contractual consultant at the World Bank. His main areas of interests are international economics and development. Most recently he has worked on trade growth, industrialization, the global production network and the emerging economic integration of the AsiaPacific region. Editor's Note Since Taiwan martial law ended in 1987, a cultural and political renaissance has strengthened the island's integrity. Every culture has participated, small and large. Groups and individuals alike contributed to society according to their educational motivation, attitudes, energy, and other factors. Our project for this book originated three years ago with an invitation from the N. W. Lin Foundation for Culture and Education to produce an academic volume on postmartial law Taiwan. What are the recent societal, political, and economic events that have produced the contemporary status or views of the island and its people? Democratic Taiwan has experienced peaceful transfers of power and become a mature political entity; or is this an experiment in public consciousness and civil stability? In this volume, such questions are viewed through the work of domestic and international authors who present an unexpected range of research spanning this theme. This publication covers a range of academic disciplines, therefore the application of specific names and terms could have different meanings. For example `Taiwanese' (Taiwanren) could indicate an ethnic group Hoklo (Minnan) or it could refer to the national citizenry. Taiwan is referred to as (1) an island associated with Northeast Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Ocean; (2) an economic tariff region recognized by the World Trade Organization (WTO) that includes Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu islands; (3) a `province of China'; (4) a sovereign nation determined by its population; and (5) recognized by other names such as Formosa. In 1949, the Republic of China (ROC) government relocated from China to Taiwan; therefore the terms ROC and Taiwan are overlapping, and not to be confused with the People's Republic of China (PRC). Because of the PRC's insistence that the name ROC not be used for member status in international organizations, `Chinese Taipei' is tacitly accepted by the international community for the ROC in many such situations, e.g., Olympic Games. xxi xxii Editor's Notes Each author's language preference is retained for either British English style (chapters 4, 10, 13, 15, 16) or United States English (for Roman numeral pages including the Opening Essay and chapters 1�3, 5�9, 11, 12, 14, 17�19). Moreover, stylistic preferences of each author have been retained whenever possible. Quotation marks are double denoting what someone said, an article or chapter, and single for a special term. For transliterating Chinese terms, mostly hanyu pinyin is used, with exceptions for place, organizational, and personal names, where orthogra phy remains consistent with the usage of the locality and time period. For example Taipei is not written as Taibei, Kaohsiung is not Gaoxiong. For names in Chinese or Japanese of people, surname comes first, followed by the given name usually with hyphenation. Naming systems among Taiwan indigenous groups are diverse. Some groups, like the Thao people, have surnames, and put their own names before the surname. However, some groups do not have surnames; for example, the Amis generally put his or her own name before his father's or her mother's name. For example, Icyang�Parod, an Amis politician, is known as Icyang (with his father's name Parod). In this book he is cited as Icyang � Parod. Yami (or Tao) on Orchid Island have a different naming system. Since they practice a teknonymy, they change their own name when their first child is born and become "a father or mother of the child." For example, Syaman Rapongan is a wellknown author whose name consists of the name Syaman (that means "father"), and the name of his first child, Rapongan. At the same time, his wife became Sinan (mother) Rapongan. Appreciation A book project is not done alone. Conceived at the University of California, Berkeley, Michael Buckland, Hui Nie, and Jeanette Zerneke facilitated this project with assistance from International and Area Studies, the School of Information, and the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative (ECAI). At National Taiwan University Press we give our heartfelt thanks to Hsiang Jieh, Tai Miaoju, Yen Chiayun, Pan Naihui, and Yu Tzuling for bringing the book to its final publication stage. Editor's Note xxiii In the making of this book, sincere gratitude is given to Ann Heylen at National Taiwan Normal University in Taipei. Her academic network has enabled this project to include a richly diverse group of authors. Niki Alsford, a new graduate from the International Master's Program in AsiaPacific Studies at National Chengchi University, entered the project at its crucial stage to take the reins of management. His participation kept the project on an even keel, coordinating the many authors, academic reviewers, copyeditors, design specialists, commentators, and publishing assistants. Lee Ching, our book packager, with her diligence and professionalism, skillfully helped produce this volume. Copyediting was supported by Vikram Mehta, Boris Voyer, Frank Tedesco, Dean Karalekas, Chris Anderson, Frank Muyard, and Wang Huiji. Daniel Bowmen helped with the bibliogra phies and gave his editorial observations. Academic referees critically reviewed authors' work for their acceptence to the project and in editing stages. My appreciation is given to the anonymous reviewers. Fortunately a number of excellent Taiwan scholars masterfully helped with editing improvements. Completion of this book editing relied on lengthy discussions with Frank Muyard. He gave suggestions openly on refining chapters, both for grammar and content, with his acute sense for maintaining academic integrity. Mauricio Molina supervised the indexing with support from Robert Waltner, Jonthan Brody, Tammy Turner, Philip Dillar, and especially Liao (Kitsch) Yenfan who tirelessly worked on refinement. Eric Yu, Director of the Shung Ye Museum for Formosan Aborigines, and Rebecca Tsai--a curator of the museum, have enthusiastically supported the project from inception to completion. Roma Mehta, graphic designer par excellence, gave the book its aesthetic appearance from its covers to page design. Book finishing was completed by the NTU Press staff. At SMC Publishing Inc., Wei Tewen offered his skills to ensure the project met the required format standards, helped by his assistant Shen Wanling. The Taiwan map, indicating the place names from the book chapters, was designed by Lee Yuting with support from Pai Piling at the Center for Geographic Information Science (GIS), RCHSS, Academia Sinica. xxiv Editor's Notes Stefani Pfeiffer graciously provided her copyediting professionalism to give a readable volume, cover to cover. My gratitude goes to her, and Dean Karalekas, Myra Lu, Christopher Rowe, Chou Wanyao, John Schmeidel, and Liao (Kitsch) Yenfan for their assistance to complete the multitude of editing tasks for the publisher before going to press. SOCIETY CULTURE A tearful Chinese civil war veteran holds a portrait of Chiang Ching-kuo upon hearing the news of the president's death, 13th January 1988. (Photography by Hsia San) 16 Taiwan Coming of Age Tibetan community library in Lhasa, without consulting authorities in Beijing (Singing-Larsen 1996 per. comm.).12 As heritage is a legacy from the past that we incorporate in our present life and offer to the future as a referent for local identity, it is also a marker for global appreciation. For the 172 signatory member countries of the World Heritage Convention, protection is a duty of the international community and sites should be regarded as belonging to all the peoples of the world, irrespective of the territory on which they are located ... without prejudice to national sovereignty or ownership (World Heritage Convention). Without supportive international recognition, some sites with important cultural or natural value and diversity would deteriorate, or perhaps even disappear, often because of insufficient resources and skills to maintain them. The international community shares in the responsibilities of site designation by agreeing to contribute monetary and intellectual support necessary to preserve and recognize sites of unique and outstanding universal value. Sites selected for World Heritage listings are approved on the basis of their merits as the best examples of cultural and natural heritage. Gathering data in ways that advance contemporary archaeological and historical research goals are helped by constructing digital archival databases with geographic information systems (GIS) technology. This includes (1) constructing databases for informed cultural site management and site interpretation, (2) preparing plans for sustainable site management, (3) designing tourism programs that generate revenue required for effective site management, and (4) archiving 12 Also in Oslo, the Nordic World Heritage Foundation (NWHF), a pilot project started in 1996, works as a Category Centre under the auspices of UNESCO. NWHF is a private foundation with broad membership of the Nordic States, an observer representative from the Norwegian Ministry of Environment, and a representative of the Director General of UNESCO. Activities complement the overall work of the World Heritage Convention of UNESCO by facilitating technical expertise, disseminating information, and contributing to innovative projects, all in support of the Convention and the World Heritage Committee on Global Strategy (ref. Sandra Bruku at NWHF). Website, http:// www.nwhf.no 17 Renderings of Neolithic `Peinan Culture' at Nanwang Village. Above: Panorama of village with the sacred Dulan Mountain in view. Right: Detail of house with storage pit. (Courtesy of Peinan Cultural Park, Taitung. Website, http:// nmp.gov.tw) 18 Excavation revealing Neolithic `Peinan Culture' at Nanwang Village. Left: house floor and walls. Right: Beneath floor, slate coffins. (Photography courtesy of David Blundell) inventories of archaeological and historical sites.13 Landscape and architectural design information from archaeological research is integrated with this technical orientation as required for the site registration and maintenance (see Comer 1994). The Peinan Neolithic archaeological site at Nanwang Village, in Taitung, has a cultural park and site museum illustrating its excavated prehistory to the public.14 The remains of Neolithic cultures extend from Taitung to Hualien, revealing a wealth of multi-dimensional research data supplying evidence for understanding the vicissitudes of the society from 5000 to 2000 years ago. The importance of the site resulted in the construction of the National Museum of Prehistory, also in Taitung, and other institutions for Austronesian studies.15 These institutions are examples of producing displays communicat13 14 15 Hsiang (1998); Blundell and Hsiang (1999). See also Heritage (2007). Peinan Cultural Site at Nanwang Village, Taitung, dates to 5,000�2,000 B. P. (Lien 1991, 1993, 2002; Sung 1995). This refers to studies linked to the Austronesian family of languages that is dispersed across the Pacific and Indian oceans. Its major sub-divisions are the MalayoPolynesian languages and Formosan languages. The Formosan branch is considered to be the earliest of the languages from Neolithic origins in Taiwan (Bellwood 1997, 1999, 2009; Blust 1985, 1996; Diamond 1999: 334�353, 2000; Tsai 1999; Rolett et al. 2000). 69 Bird's eye view rendering of Hokuto[Beitou]hot springs district with Grass Mountain()alsoknownasDatunRange(), 1935,todaytheNationalParkofYangmingshan().(Source:SMCPublishingInc.) 70 CommunitySupportedBeitouHotSpringsMuseum [wabi-sabi]ishistoricallyanassociationorappreciationofbeauty, focusedonthehumble,worn,untouchedinnaturecomingforward incompanywithideasofhumanvirtue. Thissensibilitycombinedwiththemodernistideasofthecolonialrulers arefoundinthearchitectureofthebathhousesinBeitou.TherusticsimplicityoftheLongnitangBathhouse,builtin1907,offersthewabi-sabi,asimple building with stone-lined bathing pools. The eclectic architectural style of theBeitouPublicBathsHouseincludedthemen'sbathingareaconstructed in the style of a swimming pool with Roman arched walkways. The buildingsmanifestthedifferentelementsofJapanesesensibilitythatinformedlife andcultureinTaiwaninthepast.Therelationshipbetweenmanandnature overlapsinthesamewaytheconceptsofcultureandenvironmentoverlap. TuanYi-fu(1974:59)states: Tounderstandwhytheenvironmentwascreatedandadmired,the biologicalheritage,upbringing,educationofthepeople`there'must bereviewed.Atthelevelofgroupattitudes,theculturalhistoryand experience of the group within the physical setting shaped both manandland. Before Chinese inhabitants settled in Taiwan, the indigenous plainsdwellingKipatauwandKiranannagroupsoftheKetagalanpeoplehadlived intheBeitouareaforthousandsofyears.Between1626and1662,theymade contact with the Dutch, Spanish, and Chinese through the trade of sulfur mined from the nearby Datun Mountains (Traveling Through Beitou's 400 Year History).TheBeitouCreek,whichflowsthroughthearea,isashotas98 degreesCelsiusandsulfurousmistoftencoversthearea.Thisphenomenon wasthoughttobeharmfulbytheKetagalanpeople,whothereforedidnotuse thewatersforbathingorirrigation. In coming to modern history, the Japanese colonial rulers of Taiwan sought not only to rule but to create a culture of subjects of the Japanese Empirethroughlanguage,educationandexample.Japanesebathculturewas introducedtoTaiwanundertheseauspices.In1896,HirataGengoopenedthe firsthotspringshotelinBeitou.ItcateredtoJapaneseresidentsinTaiwanand theJapanesemilitary.Slowly,thelocalpopulationtooktothebathinghabits 71 Postcard:HotSpringsBathHouseshowingmen'spool,Hokuto[Beitou],1930. (Source:SMCPublishingInc.) of the Japanese rulers and since they could not afford to be patrons of the manyhotspringsestablishments,informalbathingsiteswerecreatedonthe banksoftheBeitouCreek. In1905,HasegawaKinsuke,anadvisoroftheTaiwanWomen'sCharity Association,putforwardaproposalforapublicbathinBeitousothatthere wouldbenomoreinformalbathinginBeitouCreek.By1909,undertheleadershipofImuruDaishiki,themagistrateofTaipeiPrefecturefrom1909�1914, the construction of the Beitou Public Baths and Beitou Park was initiated and completed in 1913 (Traveling Through Beitou's 400 Year History). The architect,MatsunosukeMoriyama(1869�1949)wasthedesignerofthebathhouse;healsodesignedtheTaichungCityGovernmentOfficecompletedin 1913, and the Taiwan Governor-General's Office in Taipei opened in 1919 (ibid.). A modernist and influential architect in Taiwan, his design of the BeitouPublicBathsshowsacombinationofWesterninfluenceswithSouthern German,English,andSpanisharchitecturalelementsinthecantileverconstructionoftheclapboardandbrickstructure(Li2009). TheJapanesecolonialadministration'sprimaryaimwastomakeTaiwan efficientlyandproductivelyserviceabletoJapaneseinterests(Roy2003:53). KuKun-hui Atayal 81,633 Truku 26,877 Sakizaya 561 Kavalan 1,251 Amis 187,938 Yami (Tao) 3,935 Puyuma 12,252 93 Bunun 52,622 Saisiyat 6,007 Sediq 7,144 Thao 703 Tsou 6,815 Rukai Paiwan 12,138 90,303 Distribution of Indigenous Peoples in Taiwan and Orchid Island popul tion, a total513,103.Unregistered22,913,thoseofindividualstatus,notascribedwith aregisteredgroup.CouncilofIndegenousPeoples,January2011.(Illustration courtesyofRomaMehta) Who are the Indigenous Peoples in Taiwan? Currentlythereare14thofficiallyrecognisedAustronesion-speakingindigenousgroupsofTaiwan:Amis,Atayal,Paiwan,Bunun,Sediq,Tsou,Puyuma, Yami(Tao)ofOrchidIsland,Saisyiat,Rukai,Kavalan,Sakizayat,Thao,and Truku.Thepopulationofindigenouspeopleswasestimatedat513,1034anda significantnumbermigratedtoliveinurbanareas,thuscontributingtothe so-calledeconomicmiracleofTaiwansincethe1960s.Anestimated80%of theindigenouspopulationbecameChristianaftertheSecondWorldWar,and itsinstitutionscontinuedtoplayanimportantroleintheirdailylife.They primarily dwelt in the Central Range and the East Coast regions (see map above),thoughcurrentlyurbanaboriginesconstitute50%oftheindigenous population.Tourismhasincreasinglybecomeanimportantsourceofrevenue 4 MinistryoftheInterior,January2011.Foradistributionofindigenous populations, seeabovemap. 110 MinoritiesandIndigenousRightsinTaiwanNationalism receivedsupportfromthepublic,academics,andthemetropolitanmedia,the governmentdidnotrespondtothisappeal.Thiswasduetothepoliticalramificationsoftheterm`aborigine/indigenous',andthepoliticalrightsthatcame withit,asacknowledgedininternationalhumanrightscovenants.Thegovernmentauthoritiesalsoattemptedtoconstructnewterminologies(e.g.,`early settlers' ) to replace `indigenous', though without success. Yet at this juncture,indigenousleaderschosetoengageintheconstitutionaldefinition ofethnicstatusastheysawit.Thedifferentialtreatmentofethnicminorities inthegovernmentalstructuremotivatednativeleaderstodemandtheabolitionoftheMTACandtheestablishmentinsteadofaCouncilofAboriginal Affairs.In1992,anotherstreetdemonstrationwasorganisedtodemandthat theConstitution'sadditionalarticleshaveaspecialactforindigenouspeoples that would include land rights, self-government, indigenous organisations under the central government, and the title `indigenous' to be respected in officialdocuments.Thegovernmentaccededtosomeofthesedemandsafter somepoliticalmanoeuvres. Thediscoursesoftheindigenousrightsmovementarepartlyshapedby referencetothepoliticalconditionswithinwhichthemovementemerged.The specialpositionoftheKMTwithintheislandanditsblueprintfornationhood andgovernmentalstructureconstitutethebasicframeworkwithinwhichthe indigenousrightsmovementoperated.Theappealforindigenousgrouprights (bothinacollectiveandacorporatesense)29emergedafter1987andreceived national attention in the debates about the constitutional reform. It was reflectedinthedemonstrationagainsttheMTACandlaterintheAboriginal ConstitutionMovement.Theseactionsnotonlychallengedthedefinitionof ethnicgroups,asdefinedinthe1946Constitution,butalsoopposedthekind ofnationhoodbuildingthatitembodied.Anynationalterritoryalterations requiredadecisionbytheNationalAssembly,andyetthemajorityofitsrepresentativescontinuedtoretaintheirseatsduetothe"specialwartimenational 29 The demand for land rights, self-government, and constitutionally recognised special statusallbelongtogrouprightsinacorporatesense;thatis,theyarerightsthatarenot necessarilysharedwithothercitizens.Therighttoeducationisregardedasgrouprights inacollective(i.e.,non-corporate)sense. 111 Republic of China 1951 showing the official administrative divisions of claimed territories including Mongolia and theadditionoftheSouthChinaSea.Anti-Communistslogansareprintedinthemargins.(Source:SMCPublishingInc.) 143 Celebratingtheestablishmentofanall-Hakkatelevisionchannel,Taipei,1stJuly2003. (Source:CouncilforHakkaAffairs,ExecutiveYuan) theirmovementwasdrivenbyselfinterest.Theirpurpose,theyclaimed,was to explore better ways for the government to resolve the problem of water resourceallocationinsouthernTaiwan. ThisHakkatowngainedareputationforoverthrowingthebureaucratic policyofeconomicdevelopmentbyobservingtheimportanceofcherished, limitedwaterresources.TheresultwasanenvironmentalmovementinsouthernTaiwanthatintegratedintoamorecomprehensivenetwork.In1995,other single-issueprotestsliketheoppositiontotheMeinongdamprojectwerehappeninginsouthernTaiwan.Theseincludedoppositiontoacoastalindustrial park,acommunityrallyagainsttheproposedMajiadam,andanothergroup formed to counter a cross-valley water diversion scheme. The movements essentiallyworkedtopreventtheabuseoftheisland'swaterresourcesatthe handsofindustry(Ho2000).A`greenalliance'forenvironmentalconcernsin southernTaiwansuccessfullylobbiedtosaveawetlandhabitatforthepreservationoftheblack-facedspoonbill,ratherthanconstructanotherindustrial POLITICS ECONOMY 384 ElectionCampaigning (notpartypositionsorpreferences)asthecriterion.Wecansee,forexample, greater(andsimilarlevelsof)emphasisontheeconomyandsocialissuesby bothparties.Thedegreeofsimilarityintheoverallemphasisofissuedomains bybothpartiesandacrossmediatypesisquitestriking,althoughagainthere aredifferencesacrosscampaigns. Table 3: Distribution of issue claims, by campaign and party Year 1996 2000 2004 2008 ALL 1996 2000 2004 2008 ALL 1996 2000 2004 2008 ALL 1996 2000 2004 2008 ALL Economy (%) 0.0 0.8 28.1 32.2 21.3 10.0 10.5 17.3 30.9 21.0 0.0 7.3 17.9 42.1 28.5 14.3 10.1 25.8 29.0 23.3 Governance (%) 17.2 60.8 16.7 21.5 24.9 6.1 34.1 22.1 19.8 21.0 0.0 69.0 35.8 6.3 24.7 0.0 39.2 24.2 33.6 27.6 Social (%) 1.8 36.7 25.0 13.5 16.9 24.1 15.0 26.3 27.8 25.1 0.0 16.4 32.8 25.8 24.7 7.1 16.4 36.7 29.5 26.1 CSR* (%) 42.9 1.7 19.8 18.4 20.9 23.4 38.2 16.8 13.4 19.0 70.0 0.0 0.0 8.2 6.9 12.9 31.7 6.7 4.1 10.2 Ethnic (%) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.4 1.3 13.0 2.3 6.3 0.0 0.0 9.0 4.4 4.5 2.9 0.0 1.6 2.5 2.0 Democracy (%) 38.0 0.0 10.4 14.4 15.9 31.0 0.9 4.4 5.8 7.5 30.0 7.3 4.5 13.2 10.7 62.9 2.5 5.0 1.2 10.8 Total (n) 163 120 192 423 898 261 314 837 935 2347 10 55 67 159 291 70 79 120 241 510 DPP Newspapers KMT DPP TV KMT *CSRdenotes`cross-Straitrelations' . Presidential campaign advertising contains a substantial ideological component;onaveragearoundone-thirdofclaims,risingtomorethanhalf insomecampaigns.ThisobservationwillnotsurprisestudentsofTaiwanese politics. It is largely accepted in the Taiwan studies literature that national identity is "the dominant cleavage underpinning Taiwan's party situation" (Hsieh 2004: 479). It would not be a surprise therefore if national identity was found to be the most salient type of ideological claim in presidential campaignads.Thatisindeedthecase.Althoughsomescholarshaveclaimed JonathanSullivan 385 that `Taiwan independence' dominated the DPP's agenda during the Chen era, I argue elsewhere that this argument is based on an undifferentiated notion of `independence', which fails to take into account the distinction betweenTaiwanindependence(apolicyposition)andideologicalexpressions ofTaiwanidentity(SullivanandLowe2010).Italsoignoresthediversityof national identity discourses in Taiwan. A more nuanced understanding of thenatureofthevariousidentitythemesrequiresadistinctionbetweenthe external(e.g.relationswithChina,sovereigntyandnationalstatus)andinternal(e.g.ethno-culturalidentitycombinedwithnotionsofsocialjusticeand democracy)dimensionsofidentity(Rigger1999;SullivanandLowe2010). Table 4: Distribution of ideological themes Year 1996 2000 2004 2008 All 1996 2000 2004 2008 All Newspapers Taiwan Relations identity with China (%) (%) 28.9 21.8 4.7 1.4 43.6 1.8 41.0 9.3 32.2 10.0 28.9 15.3 4.7 0.7 43.6 1.1 41.0 0.6 32.2 3.9 Peace (%) 5.7 32.6 3.8 2.7 8.6 3.3 31.0 10.0 0.0 10.7 Prosperity (%) 4.3 30.9 7.9 16.8 12.7 10.7 15.2 11.9 23.7 14.9 Ethnic Democracy Prestige Harmony (%) (%) (%) 4.2 27.9 7.4 7.5 20.6 2.2 17.0 21.4 4.4 5.6 16.9 7.6 8.5 22.1 5.9 12.0 20.0 18.0 9.7 23.4 7.6 12.3 13.4 8.4 9.0 21.2 8.3 11.0 18.5 10.3 Total claims 718 359 606 602 2285 150 145 261 156 712 Table4showsthesalienceofeachideologicalthemeasapercentageof allideologicalclaims.Twothemesstandout.Overall,`Taiwanidentity'(the major component of the internal dimension of national identity) accounts foraroundathirdofallideologicalclaimsinbothTVandnewspaperads. Thisisinspiteofbeingarelativelyneglectedthemein2000,anelectionin whichChenShui-bianemphasizeddemocraticvalues(Rawnsley2003b:776). AlthoughgenerallycharacterizedasthepurviewoftheDPP,acomparatively highproportionofclaimsinthelasttwocampaignselevatedTaiwanidentity tooneoftheKMT'smostprominentideologicalthemes.Thisisconsistent with accounts of the KMT responding to Chen's dominant agenda in 2004 (Clark2004)and,morefundamentally,reflectstheestablishmentofTaiwan identityasamainstreampoliticaltheme.InFell'sformulation,"thereisnow TV 386 ElectionCampaigning aconsensusamongallmajorpartiesonstressingTaiwaneseidentityandlove forTaiwan"(2005:142). Democracyisthesecondthemethatstandsout,accountingforaround one-fifthofallideological claimsinbothmedia.Thisreflectsthecontinuingsalienceofpro-democracythemes,eventhoughtheissueofdemocratic reformhasdeclinedinsalience.Taiwanspecialistshavearguedthatdemocraticvaluesareoftenusedasarhetoricalorinstrumentaldevice,ratherthan indicatingacommitmenttothesamevalues(Kao2004;Mattlin2004a).The internaldimensionofnationalidentity(includingexpressionsofTaiwanese identityandethnicharmony)isgenerallymoreprominentthantheexternal Democratic Progressive Party gathering in front of their campaign headquarters to express their support for Chen Shui-bian in Taipei, 2004.(Source:GovernmentInformationOffice) 466 Nationvs.Tradition:IndigenousRightsandSmangus IaskedLaiTsung-ming,adirectorofadivisionoftheForestry,aboutthe SmanguscaseaswellasmoregeneralissuesrelatedtotheForestryBureau's relations with indigenouspeoples. Heemphasised thatthe ForestryBureau operatesundertheprinciplesofdemocracyandnationalsovereignty.Ituses asystemof`administrationunderlaw'inaccordancewiththeconstitution.If anystaffactagainstthelaw,thentheymustacceptcivil,criminalandadministrativeresponsibilities.Assuchtheyneedtocarryouttheirdutiesaccording totheForestryAct(LaiTsung-ming,interview). Article 15 of the Forestry Act says indigenous peoples can use forest resourcesontheirtraditionalterritoryaccordingtotheircustomsandliving needs.However,theCouncilofIndigenousPeoples(CIP)neededtoconfirm the traditional territory and this had not been done yet (ibid.). In October 2007 the CIP announced the recognition of Yufeng () and Xiuluan ()inJianshi()DistrictofHsinchuCounty(whichincludesthearea aroundSmangusVillage)asthetraditionalterritoryoftheAtayal.Indigenous peopleslivingintheseareaswouldbeabletoapplytocollectforestproducts forritualandculturalpurposes.However,thedecisiondidnotfullyrealise indigenousrightsbecausepeoplestillneededtoapplyforpermissiontouse forest resources. They were still not given the autonomy to use resources accordingtotheirtraditionalbeliefsandcustoms(Loa2007b;Wu2007). AccordingtoLai,theForestryBureaurespectsindigenouspeoplesand gives them special consideration in some matters, such as being able to enterforestareaswithoutamountainpermit3(LaiTsung-ming,interview). FollowingthepassingoftheIPBL,theForestryBureauputoutapolicydocumenton5thFebruary2005aboutdealingwithmattersrelatedtoindigenous peoples (Forestry Bureau 2005). However, the Forestry Bureau still had to operateunderthelawandindigenouspeoplesneededtoapplyforapermit iftheywantedtouseforestresources.Exactlywhatindigenouspeoplescould takewithoutapermithadnotbeendefined,becausetherehasbeennosublegislationoftheIPBLwhichdefinestraditionalterritory,customsandliving needs(LaiTsung-ming,interview). 3 Under the National Security Law and Enforcement Rules, certain parts of Taiwan's mountainousareasarerestrictedandrequiresex antepermissionfromthecompetent authorityintheformofamountainpermit. 467 AncientcypresstreeatSmangus,19thAugust2009.(PhotographycourtesyofDavidReid) 576 GlobalizationandTaiwanEconomicSecurity Figure 3: Taiwanese Semiconductor Industry Employment: 2003�2007 150,000 Employees 100,000 50,000 0 IC Design IC Manufacturing Packaging and Testing Overall Industry 2003 15000 46090 36520 97610 2004 20998 54775 44490 117263 2005 25350 53025 45063 123438 2006 25400 58370 52794 136564 2007 27300 59694 57371 144365 Source:InstituteforInformationIndustry2008. job losses caused directly by the migration. Even if the relocation of some TaiwaneseICproductionactivitiestoChinaresultedinjoblossesathomein theshortrun,theemploymentdataaboveseemtoindicatethatsuchaloss hasnotseverelydiminishedTaiwan'seconomicsecurity.Sofar,Taiwan'sIC industryhasretaineditssalesgrowth,thusliftingoverallindustryemploymentlevels.Theindustryhascontinuedtobeahigh-wagejobgeneratorin theTaiwaneseeconomy.Thusthemigrationhasnotresultedinasubstantial declineindomesticsemiconductorjobs,otherthingsbeingequal.. Taiwanesechipmakershavecontinuedtoinvestheavilyinstate-of-theart12-inchwaferfoundriesandmemoryfabsathomeinordertobuildnew competencies.AsofJune,2007,1312-inchwaferplantsweremass-producing chips in Taiwan, seven were under construction, and 19 more were at the designstageinTaiwan.Theislandhadthehighestdensityof12-inchwafer plantsintheworld(Electronic Engineering Times Asia 2007).Bytheendof 2008,1912-inchwaferfabswereinoperation,sixwereunderconstruction, and16morewereattheplanningstage(IndustrialDevelopmentBureau2009: 21). In 2010, Taiwan remained the world's largest spender on semiconductor equipment accounting for nearly 30% of the global market for equipment sales at US$11.19 billion, followed by South Korea (US$8.33 billion), Ming-chinMoniqueChu 577 North America (US$5.76 billion), and Japan (US$4.44 billion) (SEMI/SEAJ March2011).74 Compared to their major China-based competitor, SMIC, and their distantfollower,Singapore'sChartered,bothTSMCandUMChavelefttheir foesbehindbycontinuingtoincreasetheirrevenues,tocommandlargeshares oftheworldwidemarket,andtoinvestheavilyinR&D(Figures4and5).75 Figure 4: Sales Revenue of the World's Top Four Foundries: 2004�2007 11000 10000 9000 Unit: $ Million 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 2004 TSMC (TW) 2005 UMC (TW) 2006 SMIC (China) 2007 Chartered (Singapore) Source:ICInsights2006,2008,companyreports. Tosummarize,myanalysisdoesnotsupporttheargumentthatthesectoralglobalizationhasseverelyhollowedouttheTaiwaneseindustry,norhas 74 Moreover,TaiwanesefoundrygiantshavealsocontinuedtoinvestheavilyinR&Dresultingintheirleadershippositioninachievingcommercialproductionof45/40nanome- terprocessin2009.In2009,TSMCachievedvolumeproductioninthe45/40nanometer process and became the world's first foundry to develop the leading-edge 28 nanometerprocess.UMCwasalsoamongthefirstinthefoundryindustrytogointo commercialproductionofthe45/40nanometerprocess.See(TaiwanSemiconductor ManufacturingCo.Ltd.2010);(UnitedMicroelectronicsCorporation2010). 75 Inthelatterhalfof2009,AMDspin-offGlobalFoundriesacquiredChartered.Because CharteredwillbeincorporatedintoGlobalFoundries'salesin2010andbeyond,thefour bigplayersintheglobalpure-playfoundrysectorwillincludeTSMC,UMC,SMICand GlobalFoundries.See(ICInsights2006,2008,2010). 578 GlobalizationandTaiwanEconomicSecurity Figure 5: R&D Spending by the World's Top Four Foundries: 2004�2007 600 500 Unit: $ Million 400 300 200 100 0 2004 TSMC (TW) 2005 UMC (TW) 2006 Chartered (Singapore) 2007 SMIC (China) Source:Companyreports,ICInsights2008. itcausedaseriousdeclineindomesticsemiconductorjobs.Sofar,Taiwan's economicsecurityhasnotbecomeseriouslyerodedbythemigration. However, the migration has, to some degree, challenged Taiwan's economic security in three major ways. Firstly, migration has helped cultivate competitorsinChinathroughthetransfersoftechnology,talentandinvestment,asdetailedinthesecondsection,particularlyinthefoundrybusiness andlower-endconsumerICdesign.Inthefoundrysegment,wherethemigrationhasexertedthestrongestinfluenceovertheChinesesectorasdiscussed earlier,therehasbeenasteadydeclineinmarketsharebyTaiwanesefirmsin recentyears.WhereasTaiwanesefoundriesheld77%ofworldwidebusinessin 2000,theyaccountedfor67.2%oftheglobaltotalin2008(Figure6)(Taiwan SemiconductorIndustryAssociation2004,2007,2008).76TheentryofChinabasedup-and-comingchallengershasinpart,causedsuchadecline.These includeSMIC,HejianandHuahongNEC,allofwhichhavebenefitedfrom themigration.IntheICdesignsegment,ambitiousChineselatecomers,some 76 Seealso(TaiwanSemiconductorIndustryAssociation2007);(TaiwanSemiconductor IndustryAssociation2008);(ICInsights2006);(TaiwanSemiconductorManufacturing Co.Ltd.2007);(IndustrialDevelopmentBureau2009). Ming-chinMoniqueChu Figure 6: Worldwide Market Percentage Share of Taiwan Foundry Business, 1999�2008 78% 76% 74% 72% 77% 73% 73% 71% 74% 72% 579 Percentage Share 70% 68% 66% 64% 62% 60% 58% 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 65% 68% 67.80% 67.20% 2006 2007 2008 Source: Data from the years 1999�2003, see IEK/ITRI, ITIS Project April 2004inTaiwanSemiconductorIndustryAssociation2004.Datafrom2004 and 2005, see IC Insights 2006. Data of 2006, see Taiwan Semiconductor IndustryAssociation2007.Dataof2007,seeTaiwanSemiconductorIndustry Association2008a.Dataof2008,seeIndustrialDevelopmentBureau2009. of which are the offsprings of the migration, are catching up from behind, takingoverthemarketshareoflower-endconsumerICsfromtheirTaiwanese counterparts. A prime example was Actions Semiconductor, thanks to the Taiwanese input in terms of technology, talent and investment through Realtek, one of Taiwan's top ten design houses, had become China's No. 1 fabless design firm in 2004 and 2005 (Chu 2009: 188�192). Taiwan-related HangzhouSilanhasalsodefeateditsTaiwanesecounterpartsinthelower-end consumerICdesignmarket. Secondly,fieldworkdataindicatethatatleastoneofTaiwan'stoptenIC design firms began to hire more engineers in China than from Taiwan in 2008.Currently,thecompanyhiresmorethan2,000engineersinitsoperationhubsinBeijing,Shanghai,Hangzhou,andShenzhen.77 77 Interviews with senior executives of the IC design house, 4th August 2009, Taipei, Taiwan. Index Notes pagenumbersinitalics:illustrations pagenumbersfollowedbymap:maps pagenumbersfollowedbyn:footnotes pagenumbersfollowedbyq:quotations pagenumbersfollowedbytbl:tables 1500Year,51�53 1974 TradeAct,610 1992Consensus(Jiuer gongshi), 616 2.28Incident,1947(),xxxvi,xliv, l,ln,30,30n,45,45n54,138,298,331, 402n A-bian. See ChenShui-bian() A Taste of Freedom: Memoirs of a Formosan Independence Leader,48 AimhighElectronicCo.Ltd.,562 Aboriginalpeople(yuanzhumin ), literallymeans`originalinhabitants', 37, 99,101,101n,102,114n,158�159, 167n, 169, 170, 170n, 171,298,303, 309,335,461 aborigines.SeeFormosanaborigines absconder,214�215,232,238 AcademiaSinica,ii,xv�xvi,xxiii, 30,34,147,245,501 ActionsSemiconductor,560,573,579, 584tbl AdvancedSemiconductorEngineering, Inc.(ASE),552,561�562,562n,564, 580n,584tbl advertisers,influenceof,405,410 AGBNielsen(societialrating,Peoplemeter), 410 AgeDiscriminationActof1975(United States),440tbl,443q Alladina,Sadfer,80n Alishan(),ximap,274tbl,274map, 471.See also Tsou forest,14,474 tea,274,288 AllianceofTaiwanAborigines(ATA, ),92,98�100,100n, 101�102,102n,103,112�115,156�159, 161�162,168,460 Amis,xxii,8,20,93,93map, 94,118,471 appropriationofReturn toInnocence,8, 121 An-li(orLahodoboo),pingpu community,36 anarchy,534�536,545 Anderson,Benedict,535 ancestralland,xl anito,malevolentspiritsofOrchidIsland, 199 anthropologicalstudies:See also archaeology,ethnology,linguistics history,33�34,184,200,202�203 methodology,189 socialchange,xvii,xxxvii,148,154,194, 200,263q apo,orabou(),friendlygrandmother, 283 Apple Daily(Pingguo ribao ),lxvn, 402,406,406n, 407n,413n,445�446, 513 631 TAIWAN SINCE MARTIAL LAW SocietyCulture Politics Economy DavidBlundell � (11143) 282 Tel(886-2)2841-2611 Fax(886-2)2841-2615 ECAI,SchoolofInformation UniversityofCalifornia,Berkeley,CA94720,USA � (10617) 1 Tel(886-2)3366-3993 Fax(886-2)2363-6905 http://www.press.ntu.edu.tw E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org � (10673) 283 14 14 Tel(886-2)2362-0190 Fax(886-2)2362-3834 http://www.smcbook.com.tw E-mail:email@example.com ISBN9789868805507 201251 ISBN 978-986-88055-0-7 9 789868 805507 This comprehensive volume draws together a multi-disciplinary, multinational team of Taiwan experts to offer the latest, cutting edge research on Taiwan's society, culture, politics and economy. It will prove indispensable for courses on Taiwan as well as comparative East Asian societies. Thomas B. Gold Department of Sociology University of California, Berkeley Taiwan Since Martial Law is an ambitious project to examine the social, culture, and political changes happening since the lifting of martial law in 1987. The authors, leading figures and new graduates, in both the social sciences and humanities, demonstrate clearly through a variety of research projects that this was a watershed in modern Taiwanese history. In its political dimensions, the end of martial law created new electoral cultures and new policies of human rights. In social dimensions, the end of enforced "Chineseness" led to a blossoming of identities, including Hakka consciousness and the assertion of new indigenous identities. In cultural dimensions, there was an assertion of Taiwanese identity in new historiographies, new cultural institutions, and reinterpretations of old customs. Coming from different disciplinary backgrounds, the authors analyze a rapidlychanging Taiwan in all of its diversity. Scott Simon D�partement de Sociologie et d�Anthropologie Universit� d�Ottawa On the whole this fascinating volume makes very good use of both local talent and international scholarship of eight other nationalities giving depth and range to enhance what we know about modern Taiwan. Murray A. Rubinstein Weatherhead East Asian Institute Columbia University Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines University of California, Berkeley & National Taiwan University Press ISBN 978-986-88055-0-7 9 789868 805507