Taiwan Since Martial Law
Taiwan Since Martial Law epitomizes the reinvigoration of cultural pluralism, which characterizes the dynamic processes of democratized Taiwan. With the lifting of martial law in 1987, people have awakened to their respective cultural identities and contributed to a sociopolitical renaissance strengthening the island’s sense of national destiny and commitment to self-determination. Nineteen chapters highlight Taiwan’s social and cultural diversity and the complexities of its politics and economy. The preface by Bo Tedards depicts the avenues of Taiwan’s democratization with his ‘trajectories’ of political alternatives. The opening chapter by the editor David Blundell traces his personal experiences during the martial law transition and his reflections on an emerging Taiwan “sense of place.” Pro-democracy activists organized to demand free elections, human rights, respect for local heritages, and environmental sustainability.
TAIWAN SINCE MARTIAL LAW Society Culture Politics Economy David Blundell Editor Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines University of California, Berkeley & National Taiwan University Press taiwan book 5.14 目次.indd 3 2012/6/12 下午 01:29:54 University of California at Berkeley, and the School of Information Founded in 1868, University of California, Berkeley is the original campus of the Univer sity of California system. The University’s fundamental missions are teaching, research and public service. It has a distinguished faculty, with 21 Nobel laureates to date, a stellar research library, and more than 350 academic programs. The School of Information is a graduate research and education community committed to expanding access to informa tion and to improving its usability, reliability, and credibility while preserving security and privacy. This requires the insights of scholars from diverse fields—library and infor mation science, design, social sciences, management, computer science, law, and policy. Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative (ECAI) A unit of the School of Information at UC Berkeley, the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative (ECAI) is an international collaboration advancing education and research in the human ities and social sciences. The mission of ECAI is to enhance understanding of societies and cultures through greater attention to time and place. N. W. Lin Foundation for Culture and Education Named after Safe C. F. Lin’s father, the N. W. Lin Foundation for Culture and Education was established in 1985. It is the parent of the Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines, the first private museum in Taiwan registered under the Ministry of Education. It facili tates research, conferences, and publications at Academia Sinica, the University of Tokyo, Oxford University, Leiden University, the University of California at Berkeley, and other academic institutions. Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines This institution was founded in 1994 for promoting mutual understanding between dif ferent ethnic groups through careful research, conservation, and explanation of cultures. The original collection of Taiwan indigenous artifacts stems from the generosity of its founder and chairman Safe C. F. Lin. The main galleries introduce the natural environ ment of Taiwan, tools of daily life, clothing and personal decor, ritual objects and religious life of indigenous peoples. The Taipei based museum welcomes projects and exhibitions on specific themes to broaden our knowledge and awareness of different aspects of society and culture internationally. National Taiwan University Press Founded in October 1996, the mission of the National Taiwan University (NTU) Press is to encourage research, enhance the quality of teaching, and publish academic books and journals. The focus of the NTU Press is on publishing scholarly materials that are rigorously peer-reviewed and of the highest quality. In addition to over ten scholarly book series, the press also publishes literary, educational and general books, as well as an exten sive catalog of DVDs on Chinese literature and performing arts. taiwan book 5.14 目次.indd 2 2012/6/12 下午 01:29:54 Contents List of Maps Map of Taiwan Contributors (in chapter order) Editor’s Note Foreword Learning from the Past to Strengthen our Future Safe C. F. Lin Producing this Book Eric H. Y. Yu Centered on Time and Place Michael Buckland Taking Ownership of the Timeline of History Hsiang Jieh Introduction Taiwan Since Martial Law David Blundell Opening Essay Trajectories of Democratization Bo Tedards ix xi xiii xxi xxv xxv xxvi xxviii xxx xxxiii xlix Society & Culture 1 Taiwan Coming of Age David Blundell 2 Grassroots Taiwan History Ann Heylen 3 A Public Arts Venue in Taipei: Beitou Hot Springs Museum Constance Woods 4 Rights to Recognition: Minorities and Indigenous Politics in Emerging Taiwan Nationalism Ku Kun-hui 5 Review of the Hakka Ethnic Movement in Taiwan Al Chung-chieh Wu taiwan book 5.14 目次.indd 7 3 27 63 91 131 vii 2012/6/12 下午 01:29:55 viii Contents 6 First Case of the New Recognition System: The Survival Strategies of the Thao Mitsuda Yayoi 7 Retrieving Ancestral Power From the Landscape: Cultural Struggle and Yami Ecological Memory on Orchid Island Jackson Hu 8 Perceptions and Cultural Identity of Taiwan Exchange Students in Germany From the 1980s to the Present Monika Leipelt-Tsai 9 The First Generation Middle Class in Taiwan: Culture and Politics Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao 10 Tea of Taiwan: Contemporary Adaptation Niki Alsford 153 183 211 243 263 Politics & Economy 11 The Formation of Taiwan’s New National Identity Since the End of the 1980s Frank Muyard 12 Election Campaigning Since the Taiwan Martial Law Era Jonathan Sullivan 13 The Media in Democratic Taiwan Gary D. Rawnsley and Ming-Yeh T. Rawnsley 14 Fledgling Democracy in Taiwan: Need for a Civil Rights Protection System Janet Tan 15 Nation vs. Tradition: Indigenous Rights and Smangus David Reid 16 Righting the Wrongs of the Past? The Human Rights Policies of Chen Shui-bian and Ma Ying-jeou Daniel Bowman 17 Economic Integration Across the Taiwan Strait: A Case of Cultural Identity Transformation and Contested National Sovereignty in the Context of Globalization José Guerra Vio 18 Globalization and Economic Security: The Case of the Taiwanese Semiconductor Industry Ming-chin Monique Chu 19 Economy of Taiwan after the Lifting of Martial Law: A Waning Developmental State? Peter C. Y. Chow Index taiwan book 5.14 目次.indd 8 297 367 395 419 453 485 527 549 597 631 2012/6/12 下午 01:29:55 List of Maps • Map of Taiwan and Coastal Fujian indicating major place names of this book. Designed by Yu-Ting Lee, Center for GIS (Geographic Information Science), Research Center for Humanities and Social Sciences (RCHSS), Academia Sinica, Taipei Taiwan. xi • from left—Terrain, Population Density, and True Colors Weave. (a) Terrain. Understanding Taiwan Series. Chapter 2: Terrain. “Although the total area of Taiwan is only 36,000 square kilometers, its terrain is quite varied … Geologically, Taiwan is located at the edge of Asia, facing the Pacific Ocean.”Figure 2–2. Website, http://dic.nict.gov. tw/~taiwan/geography/geography-ch2.htm (b) Population Density. Understanding Taiwan Series. Chapter 8: Population Distribution and Structure. Population distribution of Taiwan (1993): every dot represents five thousand people. Figure 8–1. Website, http://dic.nict.gov.tw/~taiwan/geography/geography-ch8.htm (c) True Colors Weave. Artist: Liu Yu-chen. “Colored ribbons of indige nous totems are used to wrap the island of Taiwan, symbolizing cultural integration of indigenous groups. Dynamic lines that dance across are drawn by pens accompanied by the distinguishing colors of each group in Taiwan.” Website, http://ecai.org/austronesiaweb/ECAIaustronesia/ Taiwan/IndigenousStudentPosters(Flash)/index.html xxix • Bird’s eye view rendering of Hokuto [Beitou] hot springs district with Grass Mountain (草山) also known as Datun Range (大屯山彙), 1935, today the National Park of Yangmingshan (陽明山). (Source: SMC Publishing Inc.) 69 • Distribution of Indigenous Peoples in Taiwan and Orchid Island population, total 513,103. Unregistered 22,913, those of individual status, not ascribed with a registered group. Council of Indegenous Peoples, January 2011. (Illustration courtesy of Roma Mehta) 93 • Republic of China 1951 showing the official administrative divisions of claimed territories including Mongolia and the addition of the South China Sea. Anti-Communist slogans are printed in the margins. Taiwan 111 taiwan book 5.14 目次.indd 9 ix 2012/6/12 下午 01:29:55 x Map List is featured as an insert on the map representing the area of national government rule since 1949. (Source: SMC Publishing Inc.) • Map of the distribution of Han Chinese ethnic groups in Taiwan. As illustrated here, the Japanese colonial government recorded detailed surveys of the island’s population identifying them by their origins from China. Areas with darker shading refer to immigrants from Guangdong, mostly Hakka. A map insert of Southeast China features immigrant places of origin, 1926. (Courtesy of SMC Publishing Inc.) 137 • Sun Moon Lake. (Illustration courtesy of Roma Mehta) 155 • Government land management programs on Orchid Island. (Source: Jackson Hu) 186 • Tourist Sites for Tea Lovers. (Adapted from the Taiwan Tourism Bureau, 2007: 53) 274 taiwan book 5.14 目次.indd 10 2012/6/12 下午 01:29:55 Map of Taiwan and Coastal Fujian indicating major place names of this book. taiwan book 5.14 目次.indd 11 2012/6/12 下午 01:29:56 Contributors (in chapter order) Opening Essay Bo Tedards received his Master’s of Arts in Law and Diplomacy from the Fletcher School of Tufts University, and his bachelor in Political Science from Yale University. He is an American citizen residing in Taiwan for over 15 years. During that time, he has worked for the Taiwan Association for Human Rights, the Institute for National Policy Research, the Taipei Times, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2000–2005, Research and Planning Board). Since 2004, he has worked at the Taiwan Foundation for Democracy, first as coordinator of the World Forum of Democratization in Asia (WFDA), a new regional network of democracy advocates, and then also as director of the International Cooperation Department. Society & Culture David Blundell earned his doctorate in anthropology from the University of California, and has lived in Taiwan since the 1980s. Work on life histories and visual documentation from the insider’s point of view best describes his research methods. Dr Blundell is the anthropology editor for the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative (ECAI) working on Pacific languages mapping. He edited Austronesian Taiwan: Linguistics, History, Ethnology, Prehistory (2000, revised 2009). Prof Blundell teaches at National Chengchi University in Taipei where he offers courses on language and culture, multiculturalism and the modern citizen, visual anthropology and filmmaking, aesthetics, sociolin guistics, anthropology of belief systems, Asia-Pacific cultural history, and the cultural and ethnic structure of Taiwan. Ann Heylen, Ph.D. in Chinese Studies, K. U. Leuven, Belgium, is associate professor in the Department of Taiwan Culture, Languages and Literature and Director of the International Taiwan Studies Center at National Taiwan taiwan book 5.14 目次.indd 13 xiii 2012/6/12 下午 01:29:56 xiv Contributors Normal University. Her areas of research expertise are the history of 17thcentury Dutch Formosa, the Japanese colonial era, and Taiwan postcolonial historiography. She is one of the founding board members of the European Association of Taiwan Studies (EATS) and is associate editor of the e-journal International Journal of Asia-Pacific Studies (IJAPS). Her most recent pub lications include Becoming Taiwan: From Colonialism to Democracy (Scott Sommers co-editor, Harrassowitz 2010) and Japanese Models, Chinese Culture and the Dilemma of Taiwanese Language Reform (Harrassowitz 2012). Constance Woods graduated with a double major in Fine Arts and Spanish Language and Literature from Beloit College, Wisconsin, in 1987. Ms Woods studied Chinese at the Mandarin Training Center, National Taiwan Normal University and has continued living in Taiwan since the mid1980s. In 2009 she received her advanced degree from the International Master’s Program in Taiwan Studies, National Chengchi University. She pursues her research on the role of the arts in daily life in the context of art centers and local museums in the greater Taipei region. Ku Kun-hui, Ph.D. in social anthropology at the University of Cambridge, is associate professor at the Institute of Anthropology, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan. She was a visiting scholar at the Harvard-Yenching Institute (2005–2006) and visiting associate professor at University of British Columbia (Spring 2010). Her focus is on Austronesian studies, especially the Paiwan of southern Taiwan since late 1980s. She also does research among the Stolo Nation in British Columbia and among the Canadian missionar ies, including archival work. In recent years, she ventures further into island Southeast Asia. Prof Ku publishes both in English and in Chinese in the areas of indigenous rights and nationalism, material cultures, voting and democracy, naming and hierarchy, ritual studies, and Christian conversion. Her research interests include religion and modernity, material and symbolic cultures, historical anthropology, and legal anthropology. Al Chung-chieh Wu received his Ph.D. from National Tsing Hua University’s Institute of Linguistics. He is currently associate professor and director of taiwan book 5.14 目次.indd 14 2012/6/12 下午 01:29:56 Contributors xv the Institute of Hakka Culture, Kaohsiung Normal University, specializing in Chinese dialectology, field research in languages, Hakka sub-dialects, and Sinicized Formosan languages. His publications include History of Hakka Residents in Taipei (1998); Map of Taiwan Hakka (with Hill Hiu, 2001); Rhythms of Taiwan Hakka (with David Blundell, 2004), and Study in the Relationship of Hakka Language and Immigrants’ History in Taiwan (2009). Mitsuda Yayoi is a postdoctoral fellow, Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica. After receiving an MA in area studies at National Tsukuba University in Japan, she entered National Tsing Hua University in Taiwan to achieve a doctorate in anthropology. Her dissertation explores the survival strategies of an indigenous people as a subaltern group and explains how they are utilizing the ‘smallness’ of their population and disadvantaged position to make politi cal gains in Taiwanese society. She currently works on political issues, sha manism studies, and subaltern studies of the indigenous peoples of Taiwan. Dr Mitsuda’s latest article was published in Shamanism, 2011. Jackson Hu, with a Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota in conservation biology, is presently teaching at the Chinese Culture University, Department of Forestry and Nature Conservation, in Taipei. He has previously taught at Providence University, Department of Ecological Humanities; Tzu Chi University, Department of Human Development (Anthropology Program); as well as National Taitung University, Graduate Institute of Austronesian Culture. Dr Hu has been focusing on the Yami of Orchid Island about the appropriation of indigenous cultural models vis-a-vis state agendas and neoliberalism.His research interests are environmental history, sociocultural analysis of eco-systems, ecological anthropology, and ethnography in geo graphic information systems (GIS). Monika Leipelt-Tsai earned her doctorate at the School of Humanities from the University of Hamburg in the departments of German Language, German Literature, Media I and II. She has taught German language and culture for 15 years in Taiwan. Her current position is assistant professor at the European Studies Program of National Chengchi University. Using post taiwan book 5.14 目次.indd 15 2012/6/12 下午 01:29:56 xvi Contributors modern theories, her Ph.D. thesis is concerned with reception theory, writing strategies in texts of the literary Expressionist era, and the question of genre and gender. Her research belongs to the field of German literature and cultural studies as well as German didactics. Currently, her interdisciplinary research analyzes hybrid imageries in contemporary German pop music, concerning identity, gender, and ethnicity. Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao currently serves as the Director of the Institute of Sociology with a joint appointment research fellow of the Center for AsiaPacific Area Studies (CAPAS) at Academia Sinica, and professor of Sociology at National Taiwan University. His areas of specialization include civil society and new democracies, rise of the middle classes in Asia-Pacific, sustainable development, and non-governmental organization (NGO) studies. His most recent publications include: Interpreting the Social Ethos of Taiwan and Hong Kong, (in Chinese, co-editor, 2011); Social Movements March Again in Taiwan (in Chinese, co-editor, 2010); Cross-Border Marriage with Asian Characteristics (co-editor, 2010); Japan-Taiwan Relations in East Asia’s New Era (in Japanese, co-editor, 2010); Non-Profit Sector: Organization and Practice (in Chinese, coeditor, 2009); and Rise of China: Beijing’s Strategies and Implications for the Asia-Pacific (co-editor, 2009). Niki Alsford recently graduated from the International Master’s Program in Taiwan Studies at National Chengchi University in Taipei. Presently he is archiving Taiwan research materials for the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) at the University of London, where he is also studying for his doctorate in history. His interests focus primarily on the maritime economic and social developments of Taiwan in the century. Mr Alsford’s most recent publication is The Witnessed Account of British Resident John Dodd at Tamsui (2010). Politics & Economy Frank Muyard received his Ph.D. in sociology at the University of Montreal. He was the director of the French Center for Research on Contemporary China (CEFC), Taipei Office from 2004 to 2009 and is currently a visiting taiwan book 5.14 目次.indd 16 2012/6/12 下午 01:29:56 Contributors xvii scholar at the Center for Asian Studies at the University of Colorado, Boulder, and research associate at CEFC Taipei. His most recent publications include editing the special issue “Taiwan: The Consolidation of a Democratic and Distinct Society” for the journal China Perspectives (September 2010, coedited with Paul Jobin), and Objects, Heritage and Cultural Identity (Taiwan Historica 2009, co-edited with Liang-Kai Chou and Serge Dreyer). Jonathan Sullivan has a Ph.D. in political science from the University of Nottingham, and previously trained in modern Chinese studies at the University of Leeds. He is currently assistant professor in the School of Politics and International Relations at the University of Nottingham. His work has been published in the China Quarterly, Pacific Review, Journal of Contemporary China, and Journal of East Asian Studies among others. Current research focuses on the political uses and effects of social media in China. Gary D. Rawnsley is professor of International Communications, Institute of Communications Studies, University of Leeds. He was educated at the University of Leeds where he received a BA (Honors.) in political studies and a Ph.D. in International Communications. Prof Rawnsley then spent twelve years in the School of Politics at the University of Nottingham. Since 2007 he teaches courses on Asian media, propaganda and communications in war at the University of Leeds. His latest publications include: Global Chinese Cinema: The Culture and Politics of the Hero (ed. with Ming-Yeh T. Rawnsley 2010). He is particularly interested in propaganda and ‘de-Westernizing’ public diplomacy and soft power. Ming-Yeh T. Rawnsley is a research fellow, Institute of Communications Studies, University of Leeds. She was educated at National Taiwan University where she obtained a BA in Library Science. She then received both Master’s and Ph.D. in Communications Studies from the University of Leeds. Dr Rawnsley has published widely in English and in Chinese in the areas of Chinese-language cinema, media and democratization, and cultural repre sentations of identities. Her most recent publication is Global Chinese Cinema: The Culture and Politics of Hero (ed. with Gary D. Rawnsley 2010). Her latest taiwan book 5.14 目次.indd 17 2012/6/12 下午 01:29:56 xviii Contributors book is Culture and Democratization in Taiwan: Cinema, Theatre and Social Change, to be published by Routledge. Janet Tan is currently in the International Doctoral Program in AsiaPacific Studies focusing on international political economy at National Chengchi University. She immigrated from Taiwan to the United States with her family in the 1970s. She received most of her higher education in the United States, acquiring her Master’s degree in Science in Engineering Management from Santa Clara University in California. She began her own company in the late 1980s developing speech recognition products for the medical industry. Later, in the late 1990s, Ms Tan helped entrepre neurs to start their high-tech companies, serving as a start-up business consultant. She served the United States Office for Civil Rights, auditing California colleges and high schools for civil rights compliance, and as a consultant for the Northern California Export Council for the United States Commerce Department. David Reid earned his advanced degree in the International Master’s Program in Taiwan Studies, National Chengchi University. His research area focused on indigenous rights and he wrote his thesis about the Atayal community of Smangus. Following completion of his degree, he spent a year working as a researcher at the Research Centre for Austronesian Peoples of Providence University, Taichung. His writings have been published in the Bangkok Post; Xiamen Daily; Seeds of Peace; Highway 11; and Taiwan Government Entry Point, http://www.culture.tw. Reid hosts a Web blog David on Formosa that covers a wide range of contemporary topics related to Taiwan. Website, http:// blog.taiwan-guide.org Daniel Bowman received his MA from the International Master’s Program for Taiwan Studies, National Chengchi University. His research interests currently focus on human rights in contemporary Asia. His thesis examined Taiwan’s efforts to become a human rights state. Prior to moving to Taiwan, Bowman spent 18 months living in China and holds a bachelor degree and LLB with honors from the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. taiwan book 5.14 目次.indd 18 2012/6/12 下午 01:29:56 Contributors xix José Guerra Vio was born in Spain and raised in Chile. He is currently in the International Doctoral Program in Asia-Pacific Studies at National Chengchi University, Taipei. His research interests are regionalism and international political economy in East Asia, as well as national governance issues and institutions. Ming-chin Monique Chu is a senior teaching fellow at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London. In 2009, she received her Ph.D. degree in International Studies from the University of Cambridge. Her dissertation examined the impact of globalization on security with special reference to the strategically important semiconductor industry. Her first book in English, entitled The East Asian Computer Chip War is based on her doctorial research and is scheduled to be published by Routledge in 2012. Her research interests include the impact of globalization on security, pro duction globalization, information security, media in international relations, Cross-Taiwan Strait relations, China’s foreign relations, and Taiwan’s political economy. Peter C. Y. Chow is a professor of economics at The City College and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. He received his Ph.D. from Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and became a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research and a contractual consultant at the World Bank. His main areas of interests are international economics and development. Most recently he has worked on trade growth, industrialization, the global production network and the emerging economic integration of the Asia-Pacific region. taiwan book 5.14 目次.indd 19 2012/6/12 下午 01:29:56 Editor’s Note Since Taiwan martial law ended in 1987, a cultural and political renaissance has strengthened the island’s integrity. Every culture has participated, small and large. Groups and individuals alike contributed to society according to their educational motivation, attitudes, energy, and other factors. Our project for this book originated three years ago with an invitation from the N. W. Lin Foundation for Culture and Education to produce an academic volume on post-martial law Taiwan. What are the recent societal, political, and economic events that have produced the contemporary status or views of the island and its people? Democratic Taiwan has experienced peaceful transfers of power and become a mature political entity; or is this an experiment in public consciousness and civil stability? In this volume, such questions are viewed through the work of domestic and international authors who present an unexpected range of research spanning this theme. This publication covers a range of academic disciplines, therefore the application of specific names and terms could have different meanings. For example ‘Taiwanese’ (Taiwanren) could indicate an ethnic group Hoklo (Minnan) or it could refer to the national citizenry. Taiwan is referred to as (1) an island associated with Northeast Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Ocean; (2) an economic tariff region recognized by the World Trade Organization (WTO) that includes Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu islands; (3) a ‘province of China’; (4) a sovereign nation determined by its population; and (5) recognized by other names such as Formosa. In 1949, the Republic of China (ROC) government relocated from China to Taiwan; therefore the terms ROC and Taiwan are overlapping, and not to be confused with the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Because of the PRC’s insistence that the name ROC not be used for member status in international organizations, ‘Chinese Taipei’ is tacitly accepted by the international community for the ROC in many such situations, e.g., Olympic Games. taiwan book 5.14 目次.indd 21 xxi 2012/6/12 下午 01:29:56 xxii Editor’s Notes Each author’s language preference is retained for either British English style (chapters 4, 10, 13, 15, 16) or United States English (for Roman numeral pages including the Opening Essay and chapters 1–3, 5–9, 11, 12, 14, 17–19). Moreover, stylistic preferences of each author have been retained whenever possible. Quotation marks are double denoting what someone said, an article or chapter, and single for a special term. For transliterating Chinese terms, mostly hanyu pinyin is used, with exceptions for place, organizational, and personal names, where orthogra phy remains consistent with the usage of the locality and time period. For example Taipei is not written as Taibei, Kaohsiung is not Gaoxiong. For names in Chinese or Japanese of people, surname comes first, followed by the given name usually with hyphenation. Naming systems among Taiwan indigenous groups are diverse. Some groups, like the Thao people, have surnames, and put their own names before the surname. However, some groups do not have surnames; for example, the Amis generally put his or her own name before his father’s or her mother’s name. For example, Icyang·Parod, an Amis politician, is known as Icyang (with his father’s name Parod). In this book he is cited as Icyang · Parod. Yami (or Tao) on Orchid Island have a different naming system. Since they practice a teknonymy, they change their own name when their first child is born and become “a father or mother of the child.” For example, Syaman · Rapongan is a well-known author whose name consists of the name Syaman (that means “father”), and the name of his first child, Rapongan. At the same time, his wife became Sinan (mother) Rapongan. Appreciation A book project is not done alone. Conceived at the University of California, Berkeley, Michael Buckland, Hui Nie, and Jeanette Zerneke facilitated this project with assistance from International and Area Studies, the School of Information, and the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative (ECAI). At National Taiwan University Press we give our heartfelt thanks to Hsiang Jieh, Tai Miao-ju, Yen Chia-yun, Pan Nai-hui, and Yu Tzu-ling for bringing the book to its final publication stage. taiwan book 5.14 目次.indd 22 2012/6/12 下午 01:29:56 Editor’s Note xxiii In the making of this book, sincere gratitude is given to Ann Heylen at National Taiwan Normal University in Taipei. Her academic network has enabled this project to include a richly diverse group of authors. Niki Alsford, a new graduate from the International Master’s Program in Asia-Pacific Studies at National Chengchi University, entered the project at its crucial stage to take the reins of management. His participation kept the project on an even keel, coordinating the many authors, academic reviewers, copyeditors, design specialists, commentators, and publishing assistants. Lee Ching, our book packager, with her diligence and professionalism, skillfully helped produce this volume. Copyediting was supported by Vikram Mehta, Boris Voyer, Frank Tedesco, Dean Karalekas, Chris Anderson, Frank Muyard, and Wang Huiji. Daniel Bowmen helped with the bibliogra phies and gave his editorial observations. Academic referees critically reviewed authors’ work for their acceptence to the project and in editing stages. My appreciation is given to the anonymous reviewers. Fortunately a number of excellent Taiwan scholars masterfully helped with editing improvements. Completion of this book editing relied on lengthy discussions with Frank Muyard. He gave suggestions openly on refining chapters, both for grammar and content, with his acute sense for maintaining academic integrity. Mauricio Molina supervised the indexing with support from Robert Waltner, Jonthan Brody, Tammy Turner, Philip Dillar, and especially Liao (Kitsch) Yen-fan who tirelessly worked on refinement. Eric Yu, Director of the Shung Ye Museum for Formosan Aborigines, and Rebecca Tsai—a curator of the museum, have enthusiastically supported the project from inception to completion. Roma Mehta, graphic designer par excellence, gave the book its aesthetic appearance from its covers to page design. Book finishing was completed by the NTU Press staff. At SMC Publishing Inc., Wei Te-wen offered his skills to ensure the project met the required format standards, helped by his assistant Shen Wan-ling. The Taiwan map, indicating the place names from the book chapters, was designed by Lee Yu-ting with support from Pai Pi-ling at the Center for Geographic Information Science (GIS), RCHSS, Academia Sinica. taiwan book 5.14 目次.indd 23 2012/6/12 下午 01:29:57 xxiv Editor’s Notes Stefani Pfeiffer graciously provided her copyediting professionalism to give a readable volume, cover to cover. My gratitude goes to her, and Dean Karalekas, Myra Lu, Christopher Rowe, Chou Wan-yao, John Schmeidel, and Liao (Kitsch) Yen-fan for their assistance to complete the multitude of editing tasks for the publisher before going to press. taiwan book 5.14 目次.indd 24 2012/6/12 下午 01:29:57 SOCIETY taiwan book 5.14 內文CH1-10.indd 1 CULTURE 2012/6/5 上午 11:47:24 A tearful Chinese civil war veteran holds a portrait of Chiang Ching-kuo upon hearing the news of the president’s death, 13th January 1988. (Photography by Hsia San) taiwan book 5.14 內文CH1-10.indd 2 2012/6/5 上午 11:47:24 16 Taiwan Coming of Age Tibetan community library in Lhasa, without consulting authorities in Beijing (Singing-Larsen 1996 per. comm.).12 As heritage is a legacy from the past that we incorporate in our present life and offer to the future as a referent for local identity, it is also a marker for global appreciation. For the 172 signatory member countries of the World Heritage Convention, protection is a duty of the international community and sites should be regarded as belonging to all the peoples of the world, irrespective of the territory on which they are located … without prejudice to national sovereignty or ownership (World Heritage Convention). Without supportive international recognition, some sites with important cultural or natural value and diversity would deteriorate, or perhaps even disappear, often because of insufficient resources and skills to maintain them. The international community shares in the responsibilities of site designation by agreeing to contribute monetary and intellectual support necessary to preserve and recognize sites of unique and outstanding universal value. Sites selected for World Heritage listings are approved on the basis of their merits as the best examples of cultural and natural heritage. Gathering data in ways that advance contemporary archaeological and historical research goals are helped by constructing digital archival databases with geographic information systems (GIS) technology. This includes (1) constructing databases for informed cultural site management and site interpretation, (2) preparing plans for sustainable site management, (3) designing tourism programs that generate revenue required for effective site management, and (4) archiving 12 Also in Oslo, the Nordic World Heritage Foundation (NWHF), a pilot project started in 1996, works as a Category Centre under the auspices of UNESCO. NWHF is a private foundation with broad membership of the Nordic States, an observer representative from the Norwegian Ministry of Environment, and a representative of the Director General of UNESCO. Activities complement the overall work of the World Heritage Convention of UNESCO by facilitating technical expertise, disseminating information, and contributing to innovative projects, all in support of the Convention and the World Heritage Committee on Global Strategy (ref. Sandra Bruku at NWHF). Website, http:// www.nwhf.no taiwan book 5.14 內文CH1-10.indd 16 2012/6/5 上午 11:47:27 17 Renderings of Neolithic ‘Peinan Culture’ at Nanwang Village. Above: Panorama of village with the sacred Dulan Mountain in view. Right: Detail of house with storage pit. (Courtesy of Peinan Cultural Park, Taitung. Website, http:// nmp.gov.tw) taiwan book 5.14 內文CH1-10.indd 17 2012/6/5 上午 11:47:29 18 Excavation revealing Neolithic ‘Peinan Culture’ at Nanwang Village. Left: house floor and walls. Right: Beneath floor, slate coffins. (Photography courtesy of David Blundell) inventories of archaeological and historical sites.13 Landscape and architectural design information from archaeological research is integrated with this technical orientation as required for the site registration and maintenance (see Comer 1994). The Peinan Neolithic archaeological site at Nanwang Village, in Taitung, has a cultural park and site museum illustrating its excavated prehistory to the public.14 The remains of Neolithic cultures extend from Taitung to Hualien, revealing a wealth of multi-dimensional research data supplying evidence for understanding the vicissitudes of the society from 5000 to 2000 years ago. The importance of the site resulted in the construction of the National Museum of Prehistory, also in Taitung, and other institutions for Austronesian studies.15 These institutions are examples of producing displays communicat 13 Hsiang (1998); Blundell and Hsiang (1999). See also Heritage (2007). 14 Peinan Cultural Site at Nanwang Village, Taitung, dates to 5,000–2,000 B. P. (Lien 1991, 1993, 2002; Sung 1995). 15 This refers to studies linked to the Austronesian family of languages that is dispersed across the Pacific and Indian oceans. Its major sub-divisions are the MalayoPolynesian languages and Formosan languages. The Formosan branch is considered to be the earliest of the languages from Neolithic origins in Taiwan (Bellwood 1997, 1999, 2009; Blust 1985, 1996; Diamond 1999: 334–353, 2000; Tsai 1999; Rolett et al. 2000). taiwan book 5.14 內文CH1-10.indd 18 2012/6/5 上午 11:47:31 Bird’s eye view rendering of Hokuto [Beitou] hot springs district with Grass Mountain (草山) also known as Datun Range (大屯山彙), 1935, today the National Park of Yangmingshan (陽明山). (Source: SMC Publishing Inc.) taiwan book 5.14 內文CH1-10.indd 69 69 2012/6/7 下午 07:38:48 70 Community Supported Beitou Hot Springs Museum [wabi-sabi] is historically an association or appreciation of beauty, focused on the humble, worn, untouched in nature coming forward in company with ideas of human virtue. This sensibility combined with the modernist ideas of the colonial rulers are found in the architecture of the bathhouses in Beitou. The rustic simplicity of the Longnitang Bathhouse, built in 1907, offers the wabi-sabi, a simple building with stone-lined bathing pools. The eclectic architectural style of the Beitou Public Baths House included the men’s bathing area constructed in the style of a swimming pool with Roman arched walkways. The buildings manifest the different elements of Japanese sensibility that informed life and culture in Taiwan in the past. The relationship between man and nature overlaps in the same way the concepts of culture and environment overlap. Tuan Yi-fu (1974: 59) states: To understand why the environment was created and admired, the biological heritage, upbringing, education of the people ‘there’ must be reviewed. At the level of group attitudes, the cultural history and experience of the group within the physical setting shaped both man and land. Before Chinese inhabitants settled in Taiwan, the indigenous plainsdwelling Kipatauw and Kirananna groups of the Ketagalan people had lived in the Beitou area for thousands of years. Between 1626 and 1662, they made contact with the Dutch, Spanish, and Chinese through the trade of sulfur mined from the nearby Datun Mountains (Traveling Through Beitou’s 400 Year History). The Beitou Creek, which flows through the area, is as hot as 98 degrees Celsius and sulfurous mist often covers the area. This phenomenon was thought to be harmful by the Ketagalan people, who therefore did not use the waters for bathing or irrigation. In coming to modern history, the Japanese colonial rulers of Taiwan sought not only to rule but to create a culture of subjects of the Japanese Empire through language, education and example. Japanese bath culture was introduced to Taiwan under these auspices. In 1896, Hirata Gengo opened the first hot springs hotel in Beitou. It catered to Japanese residents in Taiwan and the Japanese military. Slowly, the local population took to the bathing habits taiwan book 5.14 內文CH1-10.indd 70 2012/6/7 下午 07:38:48 71 Postcard: Hot Springs Bath House showing men’s pool, Hokuto [Beitou], 1930. (Source: SMC Publishing Inc.) of the Japanese rulers and since they could not afford to be patrons of the many hot springs establishments, informal bathing sites were created on the banks of the Beitou Creek. In 1905, Hasegawa Kinsuke, an advisor of the Taiwan Women’s Charity Association, put forward a proposal for a public bath in Beitou so that there would be no more informal bathing in Beitou Creek. By 1909, under the leadership of Imuru Daishiki, the magistrate of Taipei Prefecture from 1909–1914, the construction of the Beitou Public Baths and Beitou Park was initiated and completed in 1913 (Traveling Through Beitou’s 400 Year History). The architect, Matsunosuke Moriyama (1869–1949) was the designer of the bathhouse; he also designed the Taichung City Government Office completed in 1913, and the Taiwan Governor-General’s Office in Taipei opened in 1919 (ibid.). A modernist and influential architect in Taiwan, his design of the Beitou Public Baths shows a combination of Western influences with Southern German, English, and Spanish architectural elements in the cantilever construction of the clapboard and brick structure (Li 2009). The Japanese colonial administration’s primary aim was to make Taiwan efficiently and productively serviceable to Japanese interests (Roy 2003: 53). taiwan book 5.14 內文CH1-10.indd 71 2012/6/7 下午 07:38:49 Ku Kun-hui 93 Atayal 81,633 Truku 26,877 Sakizaya 561 Kavalan 1,251 Amis 187,938 Yami (Tao) 3,935 Puyuma 12,252 Bunun 52,622 Saisiyat 6,007 Sediq 7,144 Thao 703 Tsou 6,815 Rukai Paiwan 12,138 90,303 Distribution of Indigenous Peoples in Taiwan and Orchid Island population, total 513,103. Unregistered 22,913, those of individual status, not ascribed with a registered group. Council of Indegenous Peoples, January 2011. (Illustration courtesy of Roma Mehta) Who are the Indigenous Peoples in Taiwan? Currently there are 14th officially recognised Austronesion-speaking indigenous groups of Taiwan: Amis, Atayal, Paiwan, Bunun, Sediq, Tsou, Puyuma, Yami (Tao) of Orchid Island, Saisyiat, Rukai, Kavalan, Sakizayat, Thao, and Truku. The population of indigenous peoples was estimated at 513,1034 and a significant number migrated to live in urban areas, thus contributing to the so-called economic miracle of Taiwan since the 1960s. An estimated 80% of the indigenous population became Christian after the Second World War, and its institutions continued to play an important role in their daily life. They primarily dwelt in the Central Range and the East Coast regions (see map above), though currently urban aborigines constitute 50% of the indigenous population. Tourism has increasingly become an important source of revenue 4 Ministry of the Interior, January 2011. For a distribution of indigenous populations, see above map. taiwan book 5.14 內文CH1-10.indd 93 2012/6/5 下午 05:38:04 110 Minorities and Indigenous Rights in Taiwan Nationalism received support from the public, academics, and the metropolitan media, the government did not respond to this appeal. This was due to the political ramifications of the term ‘aborigine/indigenous’, and the political rights that came with it, as acknowledged in international human rights covenants. The government authorities also attempted to construct new terminologies (e.g., ‘early settlers’ 先住民) to replace ‘indigenous’, though without success. Yet at this juncture, indigenous leaders chose to engage in the constitutional definition of ethnic status as they saw it. The differential treatment of ethnic minorities in the governmental structure motivated native leaders to demand the abolition of the MTAC and the establishment instead of a Council of Aboriginal Affairs. In 1992, another street demonstration was organised to demand that the Constitution’s additional articles have a special act for indigenous peoples that would include land rights, self-government, indigenous organisations under the central government, and the title ‘indigenous’ to be respected in official documents. The government acceded to some of these demands after some political manoeuvres. The discourses of the indigenous rights movement are partly shaped by reference to the political conditions within which the movement emerged. The special position of the KMT within the island and its blueprint for nationhood and governmental structure constitute the basic framework within which the indigenous rights movement operated. The appeal for indigenous group rights (both in a collective and a corporate sense)29 emerged after 1987 and received national attention in the debates about the constitutional reform. It was reflected in the demonstration against the MTAC and later in the Aboriginal Constitution Movement. These actions not only challenged the definition of ethnic groups, as defined in the 1946 Constitution, but also opposed the kind of nationhood building that it embodied. Any national territory alterations required a decision by the National Assembly, and yet the majority of its representatives continued to retain their seats due to the “special wartime national 29 The demand for land rights, self-government, and constitutionally recognised special status all belong to group rights in a corporate sense; that is, they are rights that are not necessarily shared with other citizens. The right to education is regarded as group rights in a collective (i.e., non-corporate) sense. taiwan book 5.14 內文CH1-10.indd 110 2012/6/5 下午 05:38:05 taiwan book 5.14 內文CH1-10.indd 111 the addition of the South China Sea. Anti-Communist slogans are printed in the margins. (Source: SMC Publishing Inc.) Republic of China 1951 showing the official administrative divisions of claimed territories including Mongolia and 111 2012/6/5 下午 05:38:07 143 Celebrating the establishment of an all-Hakka television channel, Taipei, 1st July 2003. (Source: Council for Hakka Affairs, Executive Yuan) their movement was driven by self interest. Their purpose, they claimed, was to explore better ways for the government to resolve the problem of water resource allocation in southern Taiwan. This Hakka town gained a reputation for overthrowing the bureaucratic policy of economic development by observing the importance of cherished, limited water resources. The result was an environmental movement in southern Taiwan that integrated into a more comprehensive network. In 1995, other single-issue protests like the opposition to the Meinong dam project were happening in southern Taiwan. These included opposition to a coastal industrial park, a community rally against the proposed Majia dam, and another group formed to counter a cross-valley water diversion scheme. The movements essentially worked to prevent the abuse of the island’s water resources at the hands of industry (Ho 2000). A ‘green alliance’ for environmental concerns in southern Taiwan successfully lobbied to save a wetland habitat for the preservation of the black-faced spoonbill, rather than construct another industrial taiwan book 5.14 內文CH1-10.indd 143 2012/6/5 上午 11:49:49 POLITICS taiwan book 5.14 內文CH11-19.indd 295 ECONOMY 2012/6/5 上午 11:53:33 384 Election Campaigning (not party positions or preferences) as the criterion. We can see, for example, greater (and similar levels of) emphasis on the economy and social issues by both parties. The degree of similarity in the overall emphasis of issue domains by both parties and across media types is quite striking, although again there are differences across campaigns. Table 3: Distribution of issue claims, by campaign and party Year Newspapers DPP KMT TV DPP KMT 1996 2000 2004 2008 ALL 1996 2000 2004 2008 ALL 1996 2000 2004 2008 ALL 1996 2000 2004 2008 ALL Economy (%) 0.0 0.8 28.1 32.2 21.3 10.0 10.5 17.3 30.9 21.0 0.0 7.3 17.9 42.1 28.5 14.3 10.1 25.8 29.0 23.3 Governance (%) 17.2 60.8 16.7 21.5 24.9 6.1 34.1 22.1 19.8 21.0 0.0 69.0 35.8 6.3 24.7 0.0 39.2 24.2 33.6 27.6 Social (%) 1.8 36.7 25.0 13.5 16.9 24.1 15.0 26.3 27.8 25.1 0.0 16.4 32.8 25.8 24.7 7.1 16.4 36.7 29.5 26.1 CSR* (%) 42.9 1.7 19.8 18.4 20.9 23.4 38.2 16.8 13.4 19.0 70.0 0.0 0.0 8.2 6.9 12.9 31.7 6.7 4.1 10.2 Ethnic (%) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.4 1.3 13.0 2.3 6.3 0.0 0.0 9.0 4.4 4.5 2.9 0.0 1.6 2.5 2.0 Democracy (%) 38.0 0.0 10.4 14.4 15.9 31.0 0.9 4.4 5.8 7.5 30.0 7.3 4.5 13.2 10.7 62.9 2.5 5.0 1.2 10.8 Total (n) 163 120 192 423 898 261 314 837 935 2347 10 55 67 159 291 70 79 120 241 510 *CSR denotes ‘cross-Strait relations’. Presidential campaign advertising contains a substantial ideological component; on average around one-third of claims, rising to more than half in some campaigns. This observation will not surprise students of Taiwanese politics. It is largely accepted in the Taiwan studies literature that national identity is “the dominant cleavage underpinning Taiwan’s party situation” (Hsieh 2004: 479). It would not be a surprise therefore if national identity was found to be the most salient type of ideological claim in presidential campaign ads. That is indeed the case. Although some scholars have claimed taiwan book 5.14 內文CH11-19.indd 384 2012/6/5 上午 11:54:14 Jonathan Sullivan 385 that ‘Taiwan independence’ dominated the DPP’s agenda during the Chen era, I argue elsewhere that this argument is based on an undifferentiated notion of ‘independence’, which fails to take into account the distinction between Taiwan independence (a policy position) and ideological expressions of Taiwan identity (Sullivan and Lowe 2010). It also ignores the diversity of national identity discourses in Taiwan. A more nuanced understanding of the nature of the various identity themes requires a distinction between the external (e.g. relations with China, sovereignty and national status) and internal (e.g. ethno-cultural identity combined with notions of social justice and democracy) dimensions of identity (Rigger 1999; Sullivan and Lowe 2010). Table 4: Distribution of ideological themes TV Newspapers Year 1996 2000 2004 2008 All 1996 2000 2004 2008 All Taiwan Relations identity with China (%) (%) 28.9 21.8 4.7 1.4 43.6 1.8 41.0 9.3 32.2 10.0 28.9 15.3 4.7 0.7 43.6 1.1 41.0 0.6 32.2 3.9 Peace (%) Prosperity (%) 5.7 32.6 3.8 2.7 8.6 3.3 31.0 10.0 0.0 10.7 4.3 30.9 7.9 16.8 12.7 10.7 15.2 11.9 23.7 14.9 Ethnic Democracy Prestige Harmony (%) (%) (%) 4.2 27.9 7.4 7.5 20.6 2.2 17.0 21.4 4.4 5.6 16.9 7.6 8.5 22.1 5.9 12.0 20.0 18.0 9.7 23.4 7.6 12.3 13.4 8.4 9.0 21.2 8.3 11.0 18.5 10.3 Total claims 718 359 606 602 2285 150 145 261 156 712 Table 4 shows the salience of each ideological theme as a percentage of all ideological claims. Two themes stand out. Overall, ‘Taiwan identity’ (the major component of the internal dimension of national identity) accounts for around a third of all ideological claims in both TV and newspaper ads. This is in spite of being a relatively neglected theme in 2000, an election in which Chen Shui-bian emphasized democratic values (Rawnsley 2003b: 776). Although generally characterized as the purview of the DPP, a comparatively high proportion of claims in the last two campaigns elevated Taiwan identity to one of the KMT’s most prominent ideological themes. This is consistent with accounts of the KMT responding to Chen’s dominant agenda in 2004 (Clark 2004) and, more fundamentally, reflects the establishment of Taiwan identity as a mainstream political theme. In Fell’s formulation, “there is now taiwan book 5.14 內文CH11-19.indd 385 2012/6/5 上午 11:54:14 386 Election Campaigning a consensus among all major parties on stressing Taiwanese identity and love for Taiwan” (2005: 142). Democracy is the second theme that stands out, accounting for around one-fifth of all ideological claims in both media. This reflects the continuing salience of pro-democracy themes, even though the issue of democratic reform has declined in salience. Taiwan specialists have argued that democratic values are often used as a rhetorical or instrumental device, rather than indicating a commitment to the same values (Kao 2004; Mattlin 2004a). The internal dimension of national identity (including expressions of Taiwanese identity and ethnic harmony) is generally more prominent than the external Democratic Progressive Party gathering in front of their campaign headquarters to express their support for Chen Shui-bian in Taipei, 2004. (Source: Government Information Office) taiwan book 5.14 內文CH11-19.indd 386 2012/6/5 上午 11:54:14 466 Nation vs. Tradition: Indigenous Rights and Smangus I asked Lai Tsung-ming, a director of a division of the Forestry, about the Smangus case as well as more general issues related to the Forestry Bureau’s relations with indigenous peoples. He emphasised that the Forestry Bureau operates under the principles of democracy and national sovereignty. It uses a system of ‘administration under law’ in accordance with the constitution. If any staff act against the law, then they must accept civil, criminal and administrative responsibilities. As such they need to carry out their duties according to the Forestry Act (Lai Tsung-ming, interview). Article 15 of the Forestry Act says indigenous peoples can use forest resources on their traditional territory according to their customs and living needs. However, the Council of Indigenous Peoples (CIP) needed to confirm the traditional territory and this had not been done yet (ibid.). In October 2007 the CIP announced the recognition of Yufeng (玉峰) and Xiuluan (秀巒) in Jianshi (尖石) District of Hsinchu County (which includes the area around Smangus Village) as the traditional territory of the Atayal. Indigenous peoples living in these areas would be able to apply to collect forest products for ritual and cultural purposes. However, the decision did not fully realise indigenous rights because people still needed to apply for permission to use forest resources. They were still not given the autonomy to use resources according to their traditional beliefs and customs (Loa 2007b; Wu 2007). According to Lai, the Forestry Bureau respects indigenous peoples and gives them special consideration in some matters, such as being able to enter forest areas without a mountain permit3 (Lai Tsung-ming, interview). Following the passing of the IPBL, the Forestry Bureau put out a policy document on 5th February 2005 about dealing with matters related to indigenous peoples (Forestry Bureau 2005). However, the Forestry Bureau still had to operate under the law and indigenous peoples needed to apply for a permit if they wanted to use forest resources. Exactly what indigenous peoples could take without a permit had not been defined, because there has been no sublegislation of the IPBL which defines traditional territory, customs and living needs (Lai Tsung-ming, interview). 3 Under the National Security Law and Enforcement Rules, certain parts of Taiwan’s mountainous areas are restricted and requires ex ante permission from the competent authority in the form of a mountain permit. taiwan book 5.14 內文CH11-19.indd 466 2012/6/5 下午 03:18:11 467 Ancient cypress tree at Smangus, 19th August 2009. (Photography courtesy of David Reid) taiwan book 5.14 內文CH11-19.indd 467 2012/6/5 下午 03:18:12 576 Globalization and Taiwan Economic Security Figure 3: Taiwanese Semiconductor Industry Employment: 2003–2007 Employees 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 IC Design IC Manufacturing Packaging and Testing Overall Industry 2003 15000 46090 36520 97610 2004 20998 54775 44490 117263 2005 25350 53025 45063 123438 2006 25400 58370 52794 136564 2007 27300 59694 57371 144365 Source: Institute for Information Industry 2008. job losses caused directly by the migration. Even if the relocation of some Taiwanese IC production activities to China resulted in job losses at home in the short run, the employment data above seem to indicate that such a loss has not severely diminished Taiwan’s economic security. So far, Taiwan’s IC industry has retained its sales growth, thus lifting overall industry employment levels. The industry has continued to be a high-wage job generator in the Taiwanese economy. Thus the migration has not resulted in a substantial decline in domestic semiconductor jobs, other things being equal.. Taiwanese chipmakers have continued to invest heavily in state-of-theart 12-inch wafer foundries and memory fabs at home in order to build new competencies. As of June, 2007, 13 12-inch wafer plants were mass-producing chips in Taiwan, seven were under construction, and 19 more were at the design stage in Taiwan. The island had the highest density of 12-inch wafer plants in the world (Electronic Engineering Times Asia 2007). By the end of 2008, 19 12-inch wafer fabs were in operation, six were under construction, and 16 more were at the planning stage (Industrial Development Bureau 2009: 21). In 2010, Taiwan remained the world’s largest spender on semiconductor equipment accounting for nearly 30% of the global market for equipment sales at US$11.19 billion, followed by South Korea (US$8.33 billion), taiwan book 5.14 內文CH11-19.indd 576 2012/6/5 上午 11:58:41 Ming-chin Monique Chu 577 North America (US$5.76 billion), and Japan (US$4.44 billion) (SEMI/SEAJ March 2011).74 Compared to their major China-based competitor, SMIC, and their distant follower, Singapore’s Chartered, both TSMC and UMC have left their foes behind by continuing to increase their revenues, to command large shares of the worldwide market, and to invest heavily in R&D (Figures 4 and 5).75 Figure 4: Sales Revenue of the World’s Top Four Foundries: 2004–2007 11000 10000 Unit: $ Million 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 2004 TSMC (TW) 2005 UMC (TW) 2006 SMIC (China) 2007 Chartered (Singapore) Source: IC Insights 2006, 2008, company reports. To summarize, my analysis does not support the argument that the sectoral globalization has severely hollowed out the Taiwanese industry, nor has 74 Moreover, Taiwanese foundry giants have also continued to invest heavily in R&D resulting in their leadership position in achieving commercial production of 45/40 nanome- ter process in 2009. In 2009, TSMC achieved volume production in the 45/40 nanometer process and became the world’s first foundry to develop the leading-edge 28 nanometer process. UMC was also among the first in the foundry industry to go into commercial production of the 45/40 nanometer process. See (Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. Ltd. 2010); (United Microelectronics Corporation 2010). 75 In the latter half of 2009, AMD spin-off Global Foundries acquired Chartered. Because Chartered will be incorporated into Global Foundries’ sales in 2010 and beyond, the four big players in the global pure-play foundry sector will include TSMC, UMC, SMIC and Global Foundries. See (IC Insights 2006, 2008, 2010). taiwan book 5.14 內文CH11-19.indd 577 2012/6/5 上午 11:58:42 578 Globalization and Taiwan Economic Security Figure 5: R&D Spending by the World’s Top Four Foundries: 2004–2007 600 Unit: $ Million 500 400 300 200 100 0 2004 TSMC (TW) 2006 2005 UMC (TW) Chartered (Singapore) 2007 SMIC (China) Source: Company reports, IC Insights 2008. it caused a serious decline in domestic semiconductor jobs. So far, Taiwan’s economic security has not become seriously eroded by the migration. However, the migration has, to some degree, challenged Taiwan’s economic security in three major ways. Firstly, migration has helped cultivate competitors in China through the transfers of technology, talent and investment, as detailed in the second section, particularly in the foundry business and lower-end consumer IC design. In the foundry segment, where the migration has exerted the strongest influence over the Chinese sector as discussed earlier, there has been a steady decline in market share by Taiwanese firms in recent years. Whereas Taiwanese foundries held 77% of worldwide business in 2000, they accounted for 67.2% of the global total in 2008 (Figure 6) (Taiwan Semiconductor Industry Association 2004, 2007, 2008).76 The entry of Chinabased up-and-coming challengers has in part, caused such a decline. These include SMIC, Hejian and Huahong NEC, all of which have benefited from the migration. In the IC design segment, ambitious Chinese latecomers, some 76 See also (Taiwan Semiconductor Industry Association 2007); (Taiwan Semiconductor Industry Association 2008); (IC Insights 2006); (Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. Ltd. 2007); (Industrial Development Bureau 2009). taiwan book 5.14 內文CH11-19.indd 578 2012/6/5 上午 11:58:43 Ming-chin Monique Chu 579 Figure 6: Worldwide Market Percentage Share of Taiwan Foundry Business, 1999–2008 78% 77% 76% 73% 74% 73% 72% 71% 72% Percentage Share 74% 70% 68% 67.80% 67.20% 68% 66% 65% 64% 62% 60% 58% 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: Data from the years 1999–2003, see IEK/ITRI, ITIS Project April 2004 in Taiwan Semiconductor Industry Association 2004. Data from 2004 and 2005, see IC Insights 2006. Data of 2006, see Taiwan Semiconductor Industry Association 2007. Data of 2007, see Taiwan Semiconductor Industry Association 2008a. Data of 2008, see Industrial Development Bureau 2009. of which are the offsprings of the migration, are catching up from behind, taking over the market share of lower-end consumer ICs from their Taiwanese counterparts. A prime example was Actions Semiconductor, thanks to the Taiwanese input in terms of technology, talent and investment through Realtek, one of Taiwan’s top ten design houses, had become China’s No. 1 fabless design firm in 2004 and 2005 (Chu 2009: 188–192). Taiwan-related Hangzhou Silan has also defeated its Taiwanese counterparts in the lower-end consumer IC design market. Secondly, fieldwork data indicate that at least one of Taiwan’s top ten IC design firms began to hire more engineers in China than from Taiwan in 2008. Currently, the company hires more than 2,000 engineers in its operation hubs in Beijing, Shanghai, Hangzhou, and Shenzhen.77 77 Interviews with senior executives of the IC design house, 4th August 2009, Taipei, Taiwan. taiwan book 5.14 內文CH11-19.indd 579 2012/6/5 上午 11:58:44 Index AGB Nielsen (societial rating, Peoplemeter), 410 Age Discrimination Act of 1975 (United States), 440tbl, 443q Alladina, Sadfer, 80n Alishan (阿里山), ximap, 274tbl, 274map, 471. See also Tsou forest, 14, 474 tea, 274, 288 Alliance of Taiwan Aborigines (ATA, 臺灣 原住民權利促進會), 92, 98–100, 100n, 101–102, 102n, 103, 112–115, 156–159, 161–162, 168, 460 Amis, xxii, 8, 20, 93, 93map, 94, 118, 471 appropriation of Return to Innocence, 8, 121 An-li (岸裡社 or Lahodoboo), pingpu community, 36 anarchy, 534–536, 545 Anderson, Benedict, 535 ancestral land, xl anito, malevolent spirits of Orchid Island, 199 anthropological studies: See also archaeology, ethnology, linguistics history, 33–34, 184, 200, 202–203 methodology, 189 social change, xvii, xxxvii, 148, 154, 194, 200, 263q apo, or abou (阿婆), friendly grandmother, 283 Apple Daily (Pingguo ribao 蘋果日報), lxvn, 402, 406, 406n, 407n, 413n, 445–446, 513 Notes page numbers in italics: illustrations page numbers followed by map: maps page numbers followed by n: footnotes page numbers followed by q: quotations page numbers followed by tbl: tables 1500 Year, 51–53 1974 Trade Act, 610 1992 Consensus (Jiuer gongshi 九二共識), 616 2.28 Incident, 1947 (二二八事件), xxxvi, xliv, l, ln, 30, 30n, 45, 45n 54, 138, 298, 331, 402n A-bian. See Chen Shui-bian (陳水扁) A Taste of Freedom: Memoirs of a Formosan Independence Leader, 48 Aimhigh Electronic Co. Ltd., 562 Aboriginal people (yuanzhumin 原住民), literally means ‘original inhabitants’, 37, 99, 101, 101n, 102, 114n, 158–159, 167n, 169, 170, 170n, 171, 298, 303, 309, 335, 461 aborigines. See Formosan aborigines absconder, 214–215, 232, 238 Academia Sinica, ii, xv–xvi, xxiii, 30, 34, 147, 245, 501 Actions Semiconductor, 560, 573, 579, 584tbl Advanced Semiconductor Engineering, Inc. (ASE), 552, 561–562, 562n, 564, 580n, 584tbl advertisers, influence of, 405, 410 Index.indd 631 631 2012/6/7 下午 07:38:25 TAIWAN SINCE MARTIAL LAW Society‧Culture‧Politics‧Economy 主編者 David Blundell 出版者 順益台灣原住民博物館 台灣·台北市(11143)至善路二段 282 號 Tel (886-2) 2841-2611 Fax (886-2) 2841-2615 ECAI, School of Information University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA 國立台灣大學出版中心 台灣·台北市(10617) 羅斯福路四段1號 Tel (886-2) 3366-3993 Fax (886-2) 2363-6905 http://www.press.ntu.edu.tw E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 發行者 南天書局有限公司 台灣·台北市(10673) 羅斯福路三段 283 巷14 弄14 號 Tel (886-2) 2362-0190 Fax (886-2) 2362-3834 http://www.smcbook.com.tw E-mail: email@example.com 國際書號 ISBN 9789868805507 版 次 2012年5月初版1刷發行 印刷者 紘基印刷有限公司 著作權所有‧翻印必究 ISBN 978-986-88055-0-7 9 789868 805507 Index.indd 652 2012/6/7 下午 07:38:28 Taiwan Since Martial Law is an ambitious project to examine the social, culture, and political changes happening since the lifting of martial law in 1987. The authors, leading figures and new graduates, in both the social sciences and humanities, demonstrate clearly through a variety of research projects that this was a watershed in modern Taiwanese history. In its political dimensions, the end of martial law created new electoral cultures and new policies of human rights. In social dimensions, the end of enforced “Chineseness” led to a blossoming of identities, including Hakka consciousness and the assertion of new indigenous identities. In cultural dimensions, there was an assertion of Taiwanese identity in new historiographies, new cultural institutions, and reinterpretations of old customs. Coming from different disciplinary backgrounds, the authors analyze a rapidlychanging Taiwan in all of its diversity. Scott Simon Département de Sociologie et d´Anthropologie Université d´Ottawa On the whole this fascinating volume makes very good use of both local talent and international scholarship of eight other nationalities giving depth and range to enhance what we know about modern Taiwan. Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines University of California, Berkeley & National Taiwan University Press ISBN 978-986-88055-0-7 ATIONAL T A ·N Murray A. Rubinstein Weatherhead East Asian Institute Columbia University AN UNIVER IW 臺 PRESS TY · SI cover 5.16.indd 1 Thomas B. Gold Department of Sociology University of California, Berkeley TAIWAN SINCE MARTIAL LAW About the Editor David Blundell, doctorate in anthropology, University of California, has written articles and contributed to books on cultural resource management, visual anthropology, language and communication processes, and aesthetics. Since the 1980s, Dr Blundell has been teaching at National Taiwan University and National Chengchi University in Taipei. His previous edited volume Austronesian Taiwan: Linguistics, History, Ethnology, Prehistory (Berkeley 2000), revised as a 2nd edition in 2009. Prof Blundell’s forthcoming book is on the ethnography of communication: acquisition of language and knowledge. This comprehensive volume draws together a multi-disciplinary, multinational team of Taiwan experts to offer the latest, cutting edge research on Taiwan’s society, culture, politics and economy. It will prove indispensable for courses on Taiwan as well as comparative East Asian societies. Blundell SOCIETY CULTURE POLITICS ECONOMY Frank Muyard, employing sociological findings, demonstrate Taiwan’s evolution of a national identity—its origins, development, and impact on politics and society. This identity shift is the outcome of a variety of factors, including a new ‘community of life’ shared through the democratization of national institutions. Jonathan Sullivan asks how political agendas are communicated to voters. There is agreement that mediated political agendas are an essential function in government transitions. Gary D. Rawnsley and Ming-Yeh T. Rawnsley explain the roles media play mediating between the electorate and those seeking and holding public office. Janet Tan examines the importance of civil rights protection in a democracy, and lack of recourse especially when ‘old institutions’ struggle with new rules. In October 2005 a legal case arose that highlighted the contest between the national government and a remote community of indigenous peoples over the right to utilize forest resources. David Reid recounts the incident which marked a crucial legal watershed in recognizing and improving inherent legal supervision of heritage lands. Do you blame the past, or learn from it? Daniel Bowman is concerned with human rights development and the death penalty under the administrations of Chen Shui-bian and Ma Ying-jeou. He discusses three policy areas: implementation of international human rights treaties, establishment of a national human rights commission, and abolition of capital punishment. José Guerra Vio reviews the cross-Strait idea of economic integration through the lens of cultural identity transformation and contested national sovereignty. Ming-chin Monique Chu analytically reviews the issues of globalization and economic security vis-à-vis the Taiwan semiconductor industry. She examines reasons why the industry is migrating to China, and implications regarding the island’s economic ‘push-andpull factors’ and its security. Peter C. Y. Chow argues that Taiwan after democratization may be characterized as being in a questionable developmental state—now mature with slower growth. Although in the post martial law era, the presence of state guidance in economic development has diminished, it continues to play a significant role, notably in industrial restructuring and nurturing hightech sectors relevant to the contemporary situation of today. 心 大 出 版 中 TAIWAN SINCE MARTIAL LAW SOCIETY CULTURE POLITICS ECONOMY David Blundell Editor T aiwan Since Martial Law epitomizes the reinvigoration of cultural pluralism, which characterizes the dynamic processes of democratized Taiwan. With the lifting of martial law in 1987, people have awakened to their respective cultural identities and contributed to a sociopolitical renaissance strengthening the island’s sense of national destiny and commitment to self-determination. Nineteen chapters highlight Taiwan’s social and cultural diversity and the complexities of its politics and economy. The preface by Bo Tedards depicts the avenues of Taiwan’s democratization with his ‘trajectories’ of political alternatives. The opening chapter by the editor David Blundell traces his personal experiences during the martial law transition and his reflections on an emerging Taiwan “sense of place.” Pro-democracy activists organized to demand free elections, human rights, respect for local heritages, and environmental sustainability. Ann Heylen recounts the rise of islandwide opposition in the 1980s to the official national agenda which had existed since 1945. The lifting of martial law was closely linked with public intellectual resistance to authoritarian cultural policies. This fostered a paradigm change in historiography supporting the legitimacy of today’s consciousness based on localized roots. Constance Woods details her participatory study of the revitalization of public arts venues in Taipei. She focuses on the Beitou Hot Springs Museum with a view of resurgence of community identity through historical pride, volunteerism, and aesthetic appreciation. Ku Kun-hui examines public discourses, organizational reforms, and the changing status of the Taiwanese indigenous peoples and other minorities within the state while they were used to legitimize a new national identity. Al Chung-Chieh Wu reviews the importance of the Hakka as they launched a resilient social movement among the working class by organizing labor unions and protest rallies to establish a pattern of citizen-state interaction. Mitsuda Yayoi shares her ethnographic research on the indigenous Thao of Sun Moon Lake in central Taiwan describing trend-setting accomplishments of an ‘endangered group’ for self recognition. Jackson Hu explains how the retrieval of Yami ecological memory of Orchid Island enhanced their authority through intrinsic knowledge of the landscape. Monika Leiplet-Tsai writes about Taiwan exchange students in Germany who reconnect with their own heritage while living abroad. Hsin-huang Michael Hsaio contributes to a sociological understanding of a distinctly new phenomenon in Taiwan: self respect for being members of an internationalized civil society and the ascent of the “first generation” middle class. Niki Alsford examines the historic tea industry of Taiwan and its contemporary adaptation to a society with an invigorating mix of cultures. 9 789868 805507 2012/6/5 上午 10:00:32