From Lumber Yard to Living Center
An Architectural Thesis project completed in May of 2012, transitioning an old lumber yard to a community living center in the town of Aberdeen, Washington.
By Monika Kuhnau An Architectural Thesis Project Oral Presentation on April 26th 2012 & Submitted May 8th 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Project Proposal Project Goals Project Relevance for Aberdeen Site Selection About the Designer Editorial 6 6 7 8 10 11 BACKGROUND & INITIAL RESEARCH Aberdeen, Washington Location History Grays Harbor Historical Seaport Demographics Climate Precipitation Chehalis River Overview Flood Map 2 14 18 20 22 26 28 30 31 The Site Context Photos Original Town Platting Zoning Zoning Map Case Studies Village Homes West Village PROGRESSION OF Proposed Program Initial Site Schematics Early drawings DESIGN 34 40 41 42 46 52 53 54 DESIGN AT MIDTERM Drawings presented for critique Notes from critique FINAL DESIGN Program The Full Site High Density Residential Site Commercial Site Street Typologies Community Spaces Sustainable Highlights The Boardwalk Reason to Develop Hotel Condos 66 69 74 78 REFLECTIONS ON FINAL CRITIQUE 146 Elements presented for critique 151 Notes from critique WORKS CITED Works Cited 154 90 96 103 114 118 126 128 138 3 INTRODUCTION PROJECT PROPOSAL 6 PROPOSAL PROJECT GOALS The city of Aberdeen, Washington is looking for a way to re-purpose the brownfield site that previously housed the Weyerhaeuser Sawmill. This project will propose a mixed-use sustainable community that all city residents and visitors may use and learn from. The proposal will include multiple housing options, retail spaces, and community spaces, as well as a large park with food production capabilities and boat access to the neighboring Chehalis River. Sustainable elements such as onsite energy production, rain water catchments and storage systems, and a water treatment station are just a few of the elements that the community will utilize and display for all to learn from. Overall this project will be a living, working, eating, playing, and learning community for its residents, the county of Grays Harbor, and all of its visitors for years to come. Create a sustainable mixed-use community for the city of Aberdeen. Resurrect the site of the old Weyerhaeuser Sawmill so that all of Aberdeen and its visitors may enjoy it. Design an attractive first view of town that would spark interest for those entering via Highway 12 from Olympia/Seattle or the coastal Highway 101. Encourage Aberdeenâ€™s visitors to stop and stay for a bit. Activate a new community center with residential and commercial elements for the city of Aberdeen, Washington. RELEVANCE FOR ABERDEEN WHY ABERDEEN Aberdeen has been developing plans for its progression into the next two decades. The city has also been included in plans for the overall improvement of the County of Grays Harbor in the Grays Harbor 2020 plan. Plans for Aberdeenâ€™s progression include ideas to bring life back to the city. The city is on the primary road to both the Westport beach and the Ocean Shores beach. However, Aberdeen does not present many activities that cause passers-through to stop and stay for a while. By creating a new, highly visible community center in the city with activities such as shopping, a museum, a park, and even a hotel, the site will give people a reason to stop and stay for a while. This project will help Aberdeen to realize its plan for bringing life back to the city as it transitions into the next 20 years. The Chip Shooter on the Weyerhaeuser site used to load barges with woodchips Photo by Monika Kuhnau SITE SELECTION WHY THIS SITE There are many sites within the city of Aberdeen that are capable of holding the program of a mixed-use sustainable community. However, this particular site provides a few unique opportunities. The first is its access to the river. The Chehalis River is the entry point of the local watershed to the ocean through one of the largest harbor inlets on the Washington Coast. Aberdeen is the farthest town up the river that the large lumber shipping boats and barges can travel. The river 8 is also a popular fishing spot for salmon and steelhead. In addition the Sawmill site also has a large shipping dock that the local shipbuilding company wants to maintain for the docking of their two beautiful tall ships, the Lady Washington, and the Hawaiian Chieftain. As people enter the city from the east, along the primary route from Seattle and Olympia, the first sight that greets them, other than the greeting sign â€œCome as You Areâ€? (a Kurt Cobain and Nirvana reference), is the view of the empty log yard and sawmill site. This location provides WEYERHAEUSER SAWMILL Panoramic of the Weyerhaeuser Sawmill and the Chehalis River Bridge Photo by Monika Kuhnau the opportunity to give Aberdeen an attractive and memorable first view of the city. Another reason to use this site is the sustainability factor that re-use of a site provides. It is better for the local environment to use an existing empty site rather than to clear a new site for a project. These factors, combined with the rich lumber history of the area make it ideal for the site of the proposed program. The â€œWelcome to Aberdeenâ€? sign along Highway 12 Photo by Nicole Marie http://maplessadventures.wordpress.com/ ABOUT THE DESIGNER Monika Kuhnau lived in the city of Aberdeen, Washington for the first 20 years of her life. Even though she is no longer a resident of the city, she still considers it home and often goes back to visit family. She grew up 5 miles outside of town in the unincorporated community of Central Park. She not only attended 7th through 12th grades in town, at Miller Jr. High and J.M. Weatherwax High School, she also attended Grays Harbor Community College. She has seen the city experience many losses and hard times during her years, from the fire that consumed a historical High School building during her Junior year, and the collapse of the bluff that closed down the primary road into town for a few weeks, to the dying business environment that plagues the South Shore Mall, and the closure of 3 major wood product mills in town. Yet there have been positive things happening in town too. A local theater has been refurbished and re-opened as a popular concert venue. The townâ€™s port docks have received a large contract to build the new pontoons for the 520 bridge in Seattle. The city even has a bio-diesel plant that has recently reopened due to the improvement in that market. Her ties and commitment to Aberdeen run deep as she will always consider it her hometown. For her senior capstone project of her Interior Design degree, she gave the city a new and improved Union Gospel Mission homeless shelter, and her designs have been used to spark interest in the community about the possibilities that exist and have helped to raise money for the project. Also, thanks to her involvement in extracurricular activities while in school, she is a true Photo of the Designer Aberdeen Bobcat at heart. 10 Photo by Terry Kuhnau EDITORIAL Ultimately, we are a social species. We crave interaction with all things. Person-to-person interaction is the most basic type of interaction. However, we also interact with our surroundings as well as create buildings that interact with the surrounding environment. Design plays a key role in how successfully this interaction occurs. Understanding how we interact with others, and how the designs we create interact with their environment, is an important competency. While poor design can hinder this interaction to the point of nonexistence, good design will allow for simplicity and ease of interaction. Interaction within an interior space is vastly different from interaction that occurs outside. Inside we are protected from the elements, we feel more comfortable and more prone to person-to-person interaction. With less background noise to compete with, we keep our voices lower; we stand closer together, feeling contained within the interior space. We also interact with the interior space itself, sitting on the furniture, examining paintings or photographs, feeling the texture of a pillow or blanket, and appreciating the space as a whole. For these reasons, a poorly functioning interior space can leave us feeling dissatisfied and ill at ease. We interact with the building as a whole. If we flip a switch, the building responds by turning on a light; if we open a door, the building responds by granting us access to a new space. We have many expectations of the buildings we use; if we turn the heat on, we expect the system to work and provide us with warmth. However, if we turn the heat on and the space does not heat up, perhaps due to a poorly designed system or lack of insulation to contain the heat, we feel that the building has failed us and may choose to no longer make use of that building or space. The exterior space created by the accumulation of multiple buildings can produce incredible interactive spaces if designed well, but can be ill-fated if designed poorly. When designed well, these spaces can become active public gathering centers and destinations where numerous interactions can occur. If designed poorly, these spaces begin to serve as transition spaces rather than social gathering spaces. We are finally beginning to appreciate how the buildings we create interact with their existing site. The care that we express for our interactions with others has translated to the buildings we create and how they interact with the environment. We care that a building treats the environment well, because we not only interact with that building, but also with the surrounding environments, and want to be satisfied with both. Comprehending how we interact with others, as well as the spaces around us, will give a greater understanding of how to facilitate these interactions in a way that is satisfying. Through this understanding we will be able to design spaces that are appreciated by the users due to how they function, how they ease human interactions, and how the space itself interacts with its surroundings. 11 BACKGROUND & INITIAL RESEARCH CONTEXT: WASHINGTON STATE 14 Satellite image of Washington State with Aberdeen circled in yellow Photo from Google Earth CONTEXT: GRAYS HARBOR COUNTY GRAYS HARBOR COUNTY Grays Harbor County, home to 71,600 people based on a 2010 count, boarders the Pacific Ocean. The county is home to one of the stateâ€™s largest harbor inlets at the mouth of the Chehalis River. On either side of this harbor inlet are two cities, Ocean Shores to the North and Westport to the South. Ocean Shores has a popular clamming beach, with a wonderful sandy expanse and numerous festivals including sand castle competitions. Westport has a large boat harbor and is a starting point for many commercial and recreational fishing boats. This beach is also quite popular for the cold water surfing crowd. The county also houses the Quinault Rain Forest, the United Statesâ€™ only temperate rain forest, at the southern gateway to the Olympic National Park. Grays Harbor County, with Aberdeen circled in yellowt Photo from Google Earth 15 ABOVE: From Left to Right, The neighboring towns of Hoquiam, Aberdeen, and Cosmopolis as well as the neighborhood of Central Park. Photo from Google Earth LEFT: The Town of Aberdeen. Downtown and the high school are located to the north of the river. The South Aberdeen neighborhood is home to the Jr. High, G. H. Community College, a mall, and the site (circled in yellow). Photo from Google Earth CONTEXT: SITE The Weyerhaeuser Sawmill as it appears today, 7 years after shutdown. The road to the north of the river is highway 12 and the primary route into town from Seattle, Olympia, and anywhere to the East. Photo from Google Earth 17 ABERDEEN HISTORY Aberdeen, Washington was first settled in the early 1860’s. The densely forested land, being at the mouth of the Chehalis river, provided lots of opportunities for logging, fishing, and livestock raising. There is some debate as to where the name Aberdeen came from. One story has an early resident, Jean Stewart, claiming “I wrote a letter to one of the papers suggesting that the new settlement be called Aberdeen, since it was at the mouth of the Rivers Wishkah and Chehalis, just as Aberdeen in Scotland is at the mouth of the Don and the Dee, and also since Aberdeen means ‘at the mouth of the river.’ George W. Hume, who built a salmon cannery at the mouth of the Wishkah in ’77, saw the letter, and when Mr. Benn, in 1884, went to record the place as Heraville, he showed him the letter, and so the change was made to Aberdeen as being more appropriate”. (historylink.org) The first sawmill in town was opened by A.J. West in 1884. Five years later, Aberdeen had a total of four mills and was producing “nearly 30 million board feet of lumber” (historylink.org). The first mill in South Aberdeen (and the site of this thesis project) was built in 1890 by Edward Hulbert; it was called the Union Shingle Mill. In 1895, the Northern Pacific Railroad came to town, and in doing so, helped businesses begin to boom by providing easier transport of goods out of town. With business booming, “Aberdeen at the dawn of the new century was home to six sawmills, two shingle mills, a stave factory, and two shipyards, in addition to three canneries. The young town was also home to two hospitals, three schools, numerous churches, and two 18 theaters.” (historylink.org) Aberdeen did have its seedier side though. “By 1900, Aberdeen was considered one of the grittiest towns on the West Coast, with many saloons, whorehouses, and gambling establishments populating the area. Aberdeen was nicknamed ‘The Hellhole of the Pacific’, or ‘The Port of Missing Men’, because of its high murder rate.” (Wikipedia) Today as a nod to this part of Aberdeen’s history, the popular restaurant Billy’s is decorated to look like a saloon, and its upstairs windows are adorned with saloon girls inviting you inside. Today Aberdeen is still the largest city in Grays Harbor County and also its financial hub. However, it has experienced many business losses. In 2004 the Weyerhauser industry chose to close its sawmill in Aberdeen, and in 2005 Weyerhaeuser’s Pulp Mill in Cosmopolis shut as well. This was due, in part to the recession and lack of market, but also as part of Weyerhaeuser’s transition from mill ownership to land. As with any city though there is always a rise and fall of power, and Aberdeen is on its way back up. The next page lists only a few of the positive things that are beginning to happen on the harbor. NEW JOBS AROUND ABERDEEN While Aberdeen and the surrounding towns in Grays Harbor County have experienced many losses in previous years, things are beginning to look up for the area. Within the past five years a number of large corporations with many job opportunities have moved into the area. A few of these businesses are: Cosmo Specialty Fiber - Cosmo recently purchased the old Weyerhaeuser Pulp Mill site in Cosmopolis and reopened operation in 2011. Imperium Grays Harbor - In 2007 the United States’ largest biodiesel plant opened in Aberdeen with the capability to produce 100 million gallons of fuel a year. Grays Harbor Paper - this paper production mill was recently shut down, but is in talks to re-open under new ownership. The Port of Grays Harbor - in recent years the port has been revived with many new jobs and clients. Pontoons - Aberdeen won a contract to construct new pontoons for Seattle’s 520 floating bridge. Grains - a number of large soybean storage bins have been set up at the port, not only to serve the biodiesel plant, but to also serve as a storage point before being shipped overseas. Cars - Jeep has a contract with the port and their vehicles are stored on site before being shipped overseas to china. Aberdeen recently set a record for the amount of vehicles that have been shipped out of the port. Satsop Business Park - less than 30 minutes outside of Aberdeen, development has been booming at the site of the never used Satsop Nuclear Plant. The business and technology park is “home to more than 30 businesses, offers 440 acres of developed, pad-ready land and buildings supported by super-sized infrastructure and surrounded by 1,300 acres of sustainable managed forestland.” (www.satsop.com) 19 GRAYS HARBOR HISTORICAL SEAPORT The Grays Harbor Historical Seaport has put together plans for the existing dock on the Weyerhaeuser Sawmill site, as well as the site just to the west. So in the scope of this thesis, the designer chose not to fully develop that portion of the site. The following information is a brief outline of some of the plans that exist, as outlined in their published document Seaport Landing: A new public waterfront facility in Aberdeen, homeport for Grays Harbor’s Tall Ships. Seaport Landing is a project of Grays Harbor Historical Seaport Authority (GHHSA), a municipal non-profit corporation 501(c)(3), (Public Development Authority), chartered by the City of Aberdeen, Washington in October of 1986 to “develop, operate and maintain a first class development devoted to maritime heritage.” GHHSA is governed by a nine-member Board of Directors appointed by the Mayor. GHHSA also has a 21 member Advisory Council. GHHSA currently owns and operates two tall ships, Lady Washington and Hawaiian Chieftain, as well as a number of smaller vessels and the Seaport Learning Center, a 214acre industrial site with 30,000 square feet of shop, office and classroom space that includes a 122-foot woodworking tracer lathe, two sawmills, wood shops and sailmaking loft. Evidence of community interest in a first-class maritime heritage facility goes back to a study by Grays Harbor Regional planning in the early 1980s (GHO 80s). Developing a public waterfront facility in South Aberdeen has been listed as a priority in Aberdeen Parks and Recreation plans since 1990. A recent multiyear community visioning project, Grays Harbor Vision 2020, solicited input from thousands of individuals and stakeholder groups from around Grays Harbor County. One of the top priorities identified by this public process was 20 development of a signature destination waterfront tourist attraction that would also serve as a homeport for GHHSA’s tall ships. There is significant public interest and support for moving this project forward. Seaport Landing Design Goals 1. Create a quality destination attraction that will serve our community, attract tourists and visiting vessels to our area. 2. Develop and incorporate interpretive opportunities that will tell Grays Harbor stories throughout the site including: boatbuilding, timber and sawmills, cultural and natural history. 3. Embrace and restore the waterfront, maximizing public access facilities. 4. Create partnerships to help develop the site, and to develop on-site programs. 5. Create a cornerstone to promote South Aberdeen and further waterfront redevelopment. 6. Design to create “landmark” visibility and iconic recognition. 7. Incorporate small boat, canoe and/or kayak experiences, rentals and tours. 8. Develop hands-on program opportunities based on the identified themes listed above. 9. The Master Plan must accommodate phased development and potential expansion. 10. Site design must address long-term maintenance and create positive cash flow. 11. Establish and maintain on-site design esthetics. Seaport Landing will be a collaboration of public and private interests that will result in a vibrant mixed-use waterfront development that will become a landmark community resource, attracting visitors, stimulating the local economy, and serving the needs of our citizens. GRAYS HARBOR HISTORICAL SEAPORT Two renderings of the plans that have been created for the museum on the existing dock at the Weyerhaeuser Sawmill site. Images from historicalseaport.org The logo of Seaport Landing Image from historicalseaport.org 21 GRAYS HARBOR COUNTY DEMOGRAPHICS Grays Harbor County Population Demographics Chart from www.ghedc.com From the information in the chart above, Aberdeen is distinguished in Grays Harbor County as being the largest town. However based on the chart to the right and the earlier Google Earth images, it is easy to see that there is little separation between Aberdeen and its neighboring cities of Hoquiam and Cosmopolis. Based on this information, any new project designed for Aberdeen, would also have a high impact on these neighboring towns as well. The total combined population of Aberdeen, Hoquiam and Cosmopolis is 26,865 people. It is also important to note that, while not the largest city, Montesano is the County Seat for Grays Harbor County. 22 Grays Harbor County Distance between Cities Demographics Chart from www.ghedc.com ABERDEEN DEMOGRAPHICS Modes of Transportation in Aberdeen Graph from www.city-data.com Travel time to work in Aberdeen Graph from www.city-data.com The graphs above show that for most Aberdonians the travel time to work is only 5 to 15 minutes. However, even with this short travel time, over 75% of citizens drive alone to work. It must be noted that this is the least sustainable mode of travel. Other modes, such as carpooling, the extensive county bus system, walking and biking are all viable options for getting to work within town. 23 ABERDEEN DEMOGRAPHICS Bedrooms in owned homes in Aberdeen Graph from www.city-data.com The above graphs show that most owner-occupied homes in Aberdeen are three bedroom and cater to families with two cars. 24 Cars at owned homes in Aberdeen Graph from www.city-data.com ABERDEEN DEMOGRAPHICS Bedrooms in rented homes in Aberdeen Graph from www.city-data.com Cars at rented homes in Aberdeen Graph from www.city-data.com The above graphs show that most renter-occupied homes in Aberdeen are one- to three-bedroom and cater to families with one car. 25 ABERDEEN CLIMATE Monthly Climate Summary Graph from Western Regional Climate Center, wrcc.dir.edu 26 ABERDEEN CLIMATE CLIMATE ANALYSIS The chart to the left shows average temperatures for Aberdeen, Washington based on numbers from the year 1931 until 2005. Averages by season are as follow: Average High Average Low Overall Average Spring Summer Fall Winter 57.3 42.0 49.6 67.4 52.9 60.1 60.5 44.9 52.7 48.3 36.6 42.4 Based on these numbers, it can be concluded that Aberdeen is in a temperate climate zone with relatively little difference between average highs and lows. Most often people are comfortable outside while wearing a light jacket. 27 ABERDEEN PRECIPITATION Monthly Precipitation Summary Graph from Western Regional Climate Center, wrcc.dir.edu 28 RAIN DERBY RAINFALL ANALYSIS Every year the Hoquiam Lions Club hosts its annual Rain Derby fundraiser. This is a competition where those involved try to guess the yearly rain total as well as the December rain total. The closest guess to these numbers wins $1000 and if they are exact in both categories, they win a total of $5000. Due to this competition and the high participation of residents in the area, most people are keenly aware of the total rainfall numbers for the area. As can be seen in the chart to the left, the area receives a large amount of rainfall. The yearly average for the area is 65.36 inches based off of the rain derby information collected 1946-2010. The data to the right shows the Rain Derbyâ€™s published records for total rainfall from 1946-2010. The logo of the annual rain derby competition Image from Hoquiam Lions Club www.hoquiamlions.com Year Annual Rainfall 1946-1978 (Average) 70.69 1979 70.18 1980 63.17 1981 76.04 1982 75.76 1983 79.12 1984 77.12 1985 40.38 1986 61.47 1987 50.11 1988 58.63 1989 56.66 1990 85.15 1991 66.69 1992 57.53 1993 54.94 1994 70.17 1995 80.04 1996 86.15 1997 84.68 1998 80.87 1999 85.97 2000 55.71 2001 60.04 2002 52.35 2003 64.60 2004 44.50 2005 53.73 2006 71.52 2007 62.80 2008 53.20 2009 51.72 2010 55.13 29 CHEHALIS RIVER 124° 123°30' 123° JEFFERSON GRAYS HARBOR 47° 30' EXPLANATION REAL-TIME SURFACE-WATER SITE KITSAP Fork 15 20 KING 20 MILES 25 30 KILOMETERS st Ea or Fork ddle For i k M k Clo quallum Cr Riv er Ea st West River River F PIERCE 12037400 12035000 River THURSTON 12031000 Tenino Grand Mound Bucodachuck m 12025000 k North For 12024400 So th h Fork Newaukum R 12024000 12020800 LEWIS S ou WAHKIAKUM 12025700 ive r, er ukum R iv Chehalis WASHINGTON River Centralia Chehalis 12025100 Ne 12021800 wa Pe Ell 12026150 12026400 er, 12027500 Ri v Chehalis ut 12035002 12035100 Sko ok u Chehalis Rive r Montesano OCEAN PACIFIC 10 er R iv 30 5 15 MASON 12020000 Willapa Bay 46° 30' 10 i Fork Chehal Grays Aberdeen Harbor ah 0 5 12036000 p Satso Hoquiam 47° 12035400 12039005 am 0 Wynoochee r West F ork Hoqu i Rive East Fork r, Wis hk Hum ptu lips Rive West Fo rk Bi g GRAYS HARBOR PACIFIC The Chehalis River Watershed Image from USGS wa.water.usgs.gov 122°30' s As stated earlier, the Chehalis river which passes directly by the Weyerhaeuser Sawmill site, leads to one of the state’s largest harbor inlets. Large lumber hauling ships and barges, even cruise ships can travel up the river as far as Aberdeen. However, the river is not only used for shipping, it is also a popular fishing spot for both salmon and steelhead. The Tall Ships “Lady Washington” and “Hawaiian Chieftain” also call the Chehalis River home and come back for tours at least once a year. The image on the next page shows the 100 and 500 year flood zones for the Chehalis River on the Sawmill site. The lightest area, Zone C, is a no-flood zone, the medium dark area, Zone B, is in the 500 year floodplain, and the darkest area, Zone A, is the 100 year floodplain. Even though the zone is called the 100 year floodplain, it must be noted that within the last 10 years, Aberdeen has experienced two 100 year floods. Cr “The Chehalis River flows approximately 125 miles in southwestern Washington north-northwesterly to Grays Harbor and the Pacific Ocean, draining an area of approximately 2,700 square miles. The Chehalis River Basin is the second largest basin in Washington State. It is bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the east by the Deschutes River Basin, on the north by the Olympic Mountains, and on the south by Cowlitz River Basin. The basin includes portions of Grays Harbor, Lewis, Mason, and Thurston Counties and the Cities of Aberdeen, Centralia, Chehalis, and Hoquiam, and the Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation. Population in the Chehalis River Basin was about 141,000 in 2000.” - USGS wa.water.usgs.gov COWLITZ FLOOD MAP Aberdeenâ€™s Floodplains from a FIRM (Flood Insurance Rate Map) effective date July 16, 1984 revised Sept 3, 1998 Image from aberdeenwa.gov 31 CHEHALIS RIVER FLOOD ZONES The site floodplains as translated to the final design site plan 32 CHEHALIS RIVER MODIFIED FLOOD ZONE The site floodplains modified by the final design site plan 33 CONTEXT PHOTOS 34 Panoramic of the Weyerhaeuser Sawmill site and the Chehalis River Bridge Photo by Monika Kuhnau Panoramic view of the bluff looking out from the site Photo by Monika Kuhnau Panoramic of Aberdeen and Hoquiam as seen from Hospital Hill Photo by Monika Kuhnau 35 CONTEXT PHOTOS 36 View of the Weyerhaeuser Sawmill site and the Chip Shooter Photo by Monika Kuhnau View of the Chehalis River Bridge and the Tall Ships at their current dock Photo by Monika Kuhnau 37 CONTEXT PHOTOS A birdâ€™s eye view of the log yard taken from the top of the bluff Photo by Seventy2002 www.panoramio.com 38 The Lady Washington sails along the river in front of the mill as part of a 4th of July river cruise. Photo by Monika Kuhnau 39 ORIGINAL TOWN PLATTING The image to the left shows the original town platting and how Aberdeen would have grown onto the site without the incorporation of a mill. Based on this plan there are over 27 city blocks of expansion area into the site. 40 The planning of the Weyerhaeuser Sawmill site to incorporate into the city grid. Retrieved from Aberdeen Public Works Department in City Hall ZONING Although the site is currently zoned as Industrial, the city is willing to rezone it as Waterfront Development should a decent project present itself. They recently stated in the local paper “The Daily World” that “The city is interested in a ‘First-class public waterfront facility’ that turns the former industrial site into something that is ‘practical, economic, and environmentally safe.’” (The Daily World) City of Aberdeen Zoning Map Retrieved from Aberdeen Public Works Department in City Hall Zoning map zoomed in on site Retrieved from Aberdeen Public Works Department in City Hall 41 CASE STUDY Village Homes is a seventy-acre subdivision located in the west part of Davis, California. It was designed to encourage both the development of a sense of community and the conservation of energy and natural resources. The principal designer was Mike Corbett. Construction on the neighborhood began in the fall of 1975, and construction continued from south to north through the 1980s, involving many different architects and contractors. The completed development includes 225 homes and 20 apartment units. areas rather than the streets, so that emphasis in the village is on pedestrian and bike travel rather than cars. A number of design features help Village Homes residents live in an energy-efficient and aesthetically pleasing manner: Edible Landscaping — Fruit and nut trees and vineyards form a large element of the landscaping in Village Homes and contribute significantly to the provender of residents. More than thirty varieties of fruit trees were originally planted, and as a result some fruit is ripe and ready to eat nearly every month of the year. Orientation — All streets trend east-west and all lots are oriented north-south. This orientation (which has become standard practice in Davis and elsewhere) helps the houses with passive solar designs make full use of the sun’s energy. Street Width — Our roads are all narrow, curving culde-sacs; they are less than twenty-five feet wide and generally aren’t bordered by sidewalks. Their narrow widths minimize the amount of pavement exposed to sun in the long, hot summers. The curving lines of the roads give them the look of village lanes, and the few cars that venture into the cul-de-sacs usually travel slowly. Pedestrian/Bike Paths and Common Areas — Alternating with the streets is an extensive system of pedestrian/ bike paths, running through common areas that exhibit a variety of landscaping, garden areas, play structures, statuary, and so on. Most houses face these common 42 Natural Drainage — The common areas also contain Village Homes’ innovative natural drainage system, a network of creek beds, swales, and pond areas that allow rainwater to be absorbed into the ground rather than carried away through storm drains. Besides helping to store moisture in the soil, this system provides a visually interesting backdrop for landscape design. Open Land — In addition to the common areas between homes, Village Homes also includes two big parks, extensive greenbelts with pedestrian/bike paths, two vineyards, several orchards, and two large common gardening areas. The commonly owned open land comes to 40 percent of the total acreage (25 percent in greenbelts and 15 percent in common areas), a much greater proportion than in most suburban developments. Thirteen percent of the developed land area is devoted to streets and parking bays, and the remaining 47 percent to private lots, which generally include an enclosed private yard or courtyard on the street side of the house. Information from villagehomesdavis.org VILLAGE HOMES Site plan of Village Homes Image from www.michaelcorbettmasterbuilder.com 43 CASE STUDY The following statements are from the FAQ section of the Village Homes website www.villagehomesdavis.org only what their families can consume. We spray only lime sulfur on our fruit trees to be as organic as possible. What is Village Homes? Village Homes is a 70 acre subdivision in Davis, CA. How did Village Homes get such narrow streets? Mr. Corbett built off-street parking bays for our visitors so there is no parking on the streets. This allows the streets to be narrow yet still provide access to fire trucks should that be necessary. What year was Village Homes constructed? Construction began on the Village in 1975. How many homes are in Village Homes? There are 225 homes in our community. How big is Village Homes? The Village occupies 70 acres. How many acres are in agricultural lands? There are 23 acres in orchards, vineyards, greenbelts, common areas, and parks. How many are owner-occupied today? At any given time all but around 25 to 30 are occupied by the owners. Are all the homes solar? No, most are passive solar, some are active solar, and a few are traditional homes. What are some of the features of Village Homes that help it to achieve sustainability? Many factors promote sustainable living, such as land use, runoff management, solar construction, food consumption, pest management, green architecture, etc. We have 23 acres in greenbelts, orchards, vineyards, vegetable gardens, and edible landscape. Swales run through the Village to catch rainwater and deep water the trees planted near them. Two thirds of the homes are still active solar as well as our Community Center and our Pool. Residents may harvest fruit from common area trees and vines. Harvesting goes by the honor system; residents pick 44 How are decisions concerning the community made? Decisions are made by the Village Homes Board of Directors at monthly meetings by a 3-2 vote. How does being in Davis affect Village Homes? The weather here is perfect for effective use of solar energy. Village Homes residents are encouraged to bike to work and downtown. How does having the university here affect the community? Many residents work at the University and it is handy to get there by bike. What is the motto of the Village Homes? Live In Peace. Is there anything that the developer of Village Homes wouldnâ€™t do today if he had it do over again? Mr. Corbett has said that he would do away with carports and build all garages. VILLAGE HOMES Images of some of the houses in Village Homes Images from villagehomesdavis.org 45 CASE STUDY Zero Net Energy Community Case Study: University of California Davis, West Village Basics •Largest planned “zero net energy” community in the United States at 130 acres. •662 apartments for students •343 single-family homes for staff •3,000 people in total •42,500 sq. ft. of commercial space/Town Center •Recreation center •Community College Satellite Campus •Preschool/day care center WEST VILLAGE Timeline •Broke ground: August 2009 •First students moved in: August 2011 •Classes at the Community College begin: January 2012 •Student Housing completed: 2013 •Single-family model homes completed: Late 2012 CASE STUDY How it Accomplishes ZNE: Materials/Design Features •Solar-reflective roofing •Radiant barrier roof sheathing •2” x 6” exterior walls for added insulation •Roof overhangs •Window sunshades •Patio doors and over-sized windows let in ‘Delta breeze’ for cross ventilation and provide natural light How it Accomplishes ZNE: Appliances •High-efficiency light fixtures •Programmable, high-efficiency heat pump and cooling systems •Energy star appliances •High-efficiency clothes washer •Ceiling fans in living rooms and bedrooms 48 How it Accomplishes ZNE: Technology •Smart phone app that lets residents turn off lamps and plugged-in electronics remotely •Web-based tool (GreenWave) that enables energy use monitoring •A four-megawatt photovoltaic system on rooftops and canopies shading parking areas and pathways. •Biogas generator (newly developed by a staff member) that converts campus waste such as table scraps, animal and plant waste into electricity. WEST VILLAGE Other Sustainable Features not Related to Energy •Drought-tolerant landscaping •Natural drainage systems create greenbelts to cleanse water before entering storm drains •Water saving toilets •Water saving faucets •Low VOC paints and finishes •Floors are 50% recycled materials •Countertops from recycled quartz How it Encourages a Sustainable Lifestyle •Encouraged bike and alternate transportation use •Residents will not be allowed to buy parking passes for on-campus parking •U-Hub will be located in commercial area to educate residents and visitors on energy usage •A cap is placed on the amount of electricity and water usage, already included in rent, and if the residents exceed this they have to pay extra. Affordability •Community Land Trust Program University owns the land, individuals will own singlefamily houses. Prevents houses from being sold at a large increase from their purchasing price. •Apartments on the high end of area’s rates at $745 per bed (includes utilities and internet) 49 PROGRESSION OF DESIGN PROPOSED PROGRAM Mixed Use Center Community Center Seaport Museum Education Center Commercial Spaces Small Businesses Offices Restaurants 7 Day Farmers Market Hotel Residential Spaces Condos Rental Units Residential Neighborhood Single Family Housing Single Family Housing Rentals Multi-Family Housing Multi-Family Housing Rentals City Park Orchards Community Gardens Boat Launches Running Paths Biking Trails Grays Harbor Transit Stop Community Parking 52 The Proposed program would turn the old Weyerhaeuser Sawmill site into a sustainable mixed use community development. The site would provide a new community center for the City of Aberdeen, a variety of housing types for the mixed incomes of Aberdonians, and a variety of business options to sustain itself. The image on the following page was the initial site schematics proposed at the end of the Fall 2011 semester, based off all the initial research done. SCHEMATICS Site Boundary Park Space Park Path Community Center Mixed Use Mixed Residential Highway 12 Highway 101 Highway 105 Ideal Site Entry Points Ideal location of in-stream generators 53 In this progression of the design, the dark blue highlights the community center, the brown highlights businesses, the light blue is parking, pink is housing and the green is park spaces. All other area outside these colors would be constructed wetland. 54 This design is still focused around the existing dock on site, blue highlights the fishing related elements, brown highlights commercial businesses, pink signifies residential and green is the park spaces. 55 This design progression follows the city grid more rigidly. The red points out the road system, brown highlights businesses, blue shows boating and fishing elements, pink highlights residential, and green is the park system. 56 This plan attempts to break away from the grid pattern of the city. Purple highlights the boating area, brown signifies businesses, blue shows parking, pink highlights residential houses, green outlines the community garden and the green dots highlight constructed wetlands. The red line shows a running and biking path around all the elements. 57 At this point in the design it was determined that the floodplains would have a great influence on the overall site design. The plans on the next page begin to explore 58 how all the program elements could fit within the no flood zone. The exercises were completed with string and pins, marks on the strings signify 300 feet. 59 From the string exercise this plan was chosen to develop further. Blue lines signify streets, blue dotted lines show alleys, orange shows the commercial district, pink highlights residential, the green hatch highlights 60 park space, and the green line shows the course of the running and biking path. This flood map was created after the decision was made that the running path could act as a dike and modify the floodplain to create more buildable space. 61 The final schematic drawing presented before moving the design process into AutoCad. 62 This images shows the topographic lines of the site as found on a USGS CD-ROM set. However the lines are modified by the running path implemented on the site. The lines are at 5 foot intervals surrounding the site, and 3 foot intervals on the site. The breaks in the running path show where floodgates would exist at the roadway entries to the site; at these points the path would bridge over the road and gate. 63 DESIGN AT MIDTERM The site plan of the developed area as presented at midterm. 66 Street sections as presented at midterm. 67 The picture to the left shows how the project was presented at midterm. Missing from the picture is the concentrated site plan on the big table. Both table displays were to signify models that would be built, the smaller showing the entire site and some of the context around and across the river, and the larger focusing on the further developed part of the site. To represent the history of the site and its production of dimensional lumber, 1’x8’ lumber pieces were chosen to present the drawings and panoramic images. The images presented at midterm were: • A small context drawing placing Aberdeen in relation to Washington state. • A panoramic of Aberdeen and Hoquiam from the viewpoint on Hospital Hill to give some context of the environment the project will be placed into. • A title image for the project • Street Sections • The floodplains before modification and after. For the midterm presentation we were given a 30 minute time limit to present the project as well as receive critique. Due to this time limit and the scope of my project I chose to leave out a lot of background information from my presentation. I gave almost no information about Aberdeen and the history of the site, and just jumped into a discussion of where the design was currently. 68 Display at Midterm REFLECTIONS Some comments from professors of the midterm presentation include: • Don’t forget to talk about the city where the project will be placed and the overall size of the site. • Maybe I chose to tackle too large of a project. Choose an area within the plan to define further. • Include a diverse selection of housing types. • Propose the possibility of the project through development phases. • Consider pocket parks. • Create a transitional zone to give cars a chance to slow down, maybe through the use of a stoplight. • Consider cul-de-sacs to be non-ideal for the fire department, no matter how well they are sized. • Create more public space along the river. Based on these critiques, it was obvious there was still a lot of design work to do and considerations to make. Some of the decisions were easy; for one, the town homes were sized too large; two homes were able to fit into the site dedicated to one in the midterm plan. Rather than include cul-de-sacs along the river, a curving street was designed to give more houses direct views to the river. ON MIDTERM CRITIQUE The big design decision that was made after midterm was to go into further detail on a small part of the site. After much debate, the area along the boardwalk was chosen to be the area to develop further. This was for two reasons. The first, and more practical reason, was that by creating a well-developed and exciting boardwalk in the most highly visible portion of the site, passers-by on Highway 12 across the river would find themselves drawn into the site to explore this new community. The second reason for this choice was that the designer found this area to create the most appeal for her personal design skills. Both a hotel and three condo buildings look directly out onto the boardwalk. The designer not only thought that these building types would be the most enjoyable to develop but that they would also make good portfolio pieces as she progressed to the working world. The challenge that lay ahead was that there was a deadline fast approaching, and not much time to start designing not one but two building types before the final presentation day. 69 FINAL DESIGN 72 The new development placed on the site Photo by Monika Kuhnau 73 FINAL PROGRAM Full Site..... 120.4 acres Boat launch for personal fishing boats Small dock for recreational boats Boat trailer sized parking lot 5 accessible parking spots 15 boat trailer and RV sized parking spots 56 regular parking spaces 76 spaces total Campground for RV and boating traffic 2.15 mile running/biking path to serve as a dike for flood control River turbines for energy generation Developed site ..... 89.4 acres Commercial Core Space for a minimum of 122 businesses Parking lots 281 total parking spaces 19 accessible spaces Parallel parking on all streets Centrally located park Boardwalk along river Hotel 125 rooms 2 large ballrooms 2 small conference rooms recreational pool restaurant Parking lot 63 total parking spaces 5 accessible spaces 74 Condos 24 units 1365 sq. ft. livable space 2 bedroom 2.5 bath Fireplace Porch overlooking boardwalk Access to both boardwalk and street Apartments Space for 288 1- and 2-bedroom apartments Residential Core Parallel parking on all streets Open community space within all blocks totaling 21.7 acres 24% of developed site 96 Single family homes 3-4 bedrooms 2 floors max Garages behind the house Shared driveways with neighbor 101 town homes 2-3 bedroom 4 bath 3 floors garages on ground floor accessed from the driveway around back OTHER IMPORTANT NUMBERS SITE VILLAGE HOMES Total number of housing units for the site: 509 Total acreage of developed site: 89.4 Density of site: 5.69 units/acre Total number of housing units: 242 Total acerage: 70 Density of Village Homes: 3.5 units/acre ABERDEEN (Numbers from Wikipedia) WEST VILLAGE Total population: 16,896 Total number of housing units: 7,536 Total acerage: 7807 Density of Aberdeen: .97 units/acre Total number of housing units: 1005 Total acerage: 130 Density of West Village: 7.7 units/acre 75 FINAL DESIGN Development Level 1: The Full Site Full Site Development 78 100 300 ft. ft. 0 ft. 500 ft. 200 400 ft. ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. 3000 ft. The overall site plan 79 100 300 ft. ft. 0 ft. 500 ft. 200 400 ft. ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. Full site elements all together 80 3000 ft. 100 300 ft. ft. 0 ft. 500 ft. 200 400 ft. ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. 3000 ft. The existing dock for which the Grays Harbor Historical Seaport has been developing plans; they currently own the site just to the left of the dock. 81 100 300 ft. ft. 0 ft. 500 ft. 200 400 ft. ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. 3000 ft. Fishing and Boating Elements. The dark gray represents the boat launch for boat trailers to be driven into the river. The brown is the dock for smaller recreational 82 boats like kayaks and canoes. The light blue color is the location of the parking lot sized for trucks with trailers or RVs. 100 300 ft. ft. 0 ft. 500 ft. 200 400 ft. ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. 3000 ft. The green in this image highlights the location of the Campground with room for the fishermen who come to the river, or the RV units to stop and stay before continuing on to the nearby beaches. 83 100 300 ft. ft. 0 ft. 500 ft. 200 400 ft. ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. 3000 ft. The ideal locations to place turbines in the river for energy production is along the outside curve of the bend in the river, highlighted in purple. This is because at 84 this point in the bend, the water on the outside edge is moving faster than on the straight stretches and inside bend, therefore it would generate the most power. 100 300 ft. ft. 0 ft. 500 ft. 200 400 ft. ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. 3000 ft. The running and biking path around the outside of the site not only helps to shelter the interior from floodwaters, but it also creates a wonderful 2.15 mile path that meets up with an existing running and biking path that runs along the river to the east. 85 FINAL DESIGN Development Level 2: High Density High Density Concentrated Site 88 100 ft. 0 ft. 300 ft. 200 ft. 500 ft. 400 ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. 3000 ft. The concentrated site plan 89 Residential Site 90 An aerial view of the residential portion of the site, taken from the top of the bluff. The mill just beyond the site is Pacific Veneer. The steam rising in the distance is from Cosmo Specialty Fiber Pulp Mill, which was also a Weyerhaeuser mill that was shut down in 2005 and reopened in 2011. 91 100 ft. 0 ft. All the residential aspects together 92 300 ft. 200 ft. 500 ft. 400 ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. 3000 ft. 100 ft. 0 ft. 300 ft. 200 ft. The housing elements of the residential portion of the site. The dark purple represent single family homes at 1-2 floors and 3-4 bedrooms. The light purple represent the garages for the homes. Green highlights the private 500 ft. 400 ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. 3000 ft. yards for the homes, and magenta highlights the town homes, at 3 floors and 2-3 bedrooms. Parking for the town homes is in a garage on their first floor. 93 100 ft. 0 ft. The parking elements of the residential portion of the site. Purple highlights the parallel parking on the streets. The light gray signifies where driveways exist. Driveways for the single family homes are shared for 94 300 ft. 200 ft. 500 ft. 400 ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. every two units, to reduce the amount of concrete used and the impact on the site. Driveways for the town homes lead to the back of the houses and entry into the garages. 3000 ft. 100 ft. 0 ft. 300 ft. 200 ft. The pedestrian elements of the residential portion of the site. The red highlights the running path around the site, gray highlights the sidewalks and maroon shows where the crosswalks exist. 500 ft. 400 ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. 3000 ft. 95 Commercial Site 96 100 ft. 0 ft. 300 ft. 200 ft. 500 ft. 400 ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. 3000 ft. All the commercial aspects together 97 100 ft. 0 ft. The business elements of the commercial portion of the site. Yellow highlights the location of the hotel, pale green highlights the 7-day farmersâ€™ market which sells produce from the nearby edible forest. The businesses 98 300 ft. 200 ft. 500 ft. 400 ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. highlighted in red are recreationally focused, green denotes daily use businesses, and blue points out where offices would be. There is room for 122 businesses. A list of possible business types is on the following page. 3000 ft. BUSINESS TYPE LIST The following list of business types was compiled through personal observation of the designer, requests from residents of Aberdeen and its neighboring cities through a Facebook discussion and face-to-face conversations. Most are business types that Aberdeen does not have and residents must travel over an hour to Olympia for the same selection of stores. Others, like the restaurants and hotel, would help bring outsiders into the site to experience the community. RECREATIONAL BUSINESS TYPES Restaurants overlooking the water Restaurants that open up into sidewalk cafes A sporting goods store Clothing boutiques An art gallery A bar that caters to those outside of the logging business A branch of the Westport Winery A bookstore DAILY USE BUSINESSES Coffee shops A bakery A daycare A gym with space for classes Non-governmental post office boxes A craft store Baby supply store A Florist OFFICE TYPE BUSINESSES Dentists Law offices Tax offices 99 100 ft. 0 ft. The housing elements of the commercial portion of the site. Ground floor is dedicated to businesses, but each building is 2-3 floors and the upper floors are housing elements through rental apartments or owned condos. 100 300 ft. 200 ft. 500 ft. 400 ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. The orange highlights the condo units, and the teal highlights the apartment units. The design incorporates 24 2-bedroom condos and up to 288 1- and 2-bedroom apartment units. 3000 ft. 100 ft. 0 ft. 300 ft. 200 ft. The parking elements of the commercial portion of the site. The light blue highlights the parking lots, dark blue being the accessible spaces. Purple highlights on street parallel parking. The larger parking lot caters to the 500 ft. 400 ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. 3000 ft. entire commercial portion of the site, with 218 parking spaces 14 of which are accessible. The smaller parking lot caters to the hotel; it can hold 63 cars, and 5 of those spaces are accessible. 101 100 ft. 0 ft. 300 ft. 200 ft. The pedestrian elements of the commercial portion of the site. The red highlights the running path around the site, gray highlights the sidewalks and maroon shows where the crosswalks exist. The green square denotes 102 500 ft. 400 ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. where the public park would exist, and the brown is the location of the boardwalk overlooking the river. 3000 ft. Street Typologies 103 100 ft. 0 ft. The primary residential streets on the site 104 300 ft. 200 ft. 500 ft. 400 ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. 3000 ft. STREET SECTIONS: RESIDENTIAL PRIMARY 0 ft. 20 ft. RESIDENTIAL PRIMARY STREETS Gap between yard and sidewalk: 1.5 ft. Width of sidewalk: 5.5 ft. Width of bio-swale: 8 ft. Type of bio-swale: vegetated Width of parallel parking lane: 8 ft. Width of driving lane: 12 ft. Total yard to yard distance: 70 ft. Pedestrian crossing time: 12 seconds Design speed: 20-25 mph 105 100 ft. 0 ft. The secondary residential streets on the site 106 300 ft. 200 ft. 500 ft. 400 ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. 3000 ft. STREET SECTIONS: RESIDENTIAL SECONDARY 0 ft. 20 ft. RESIDENTIAL SECONDARY STREETS Gap between yard and sidewalk: 1.5 ft. Width of sidewalk: 5.5 ft. Width of bio-swale: 8 ft. Type of bio-swale: vegetated Width of parallel parking lane: 8 ft. Width of driving lane: 8 ft. Total yard to yard distance: 62 ft. Pedestrian crossing time: 8.5 seconds Design speed: 20-25 mph 107 100 ft. 0 ft. The primary commercial streets on the site 108 300 ft. 200 ft. 500 ft. 400 ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. 3000 ft. STREET SECTIONS: COMMERCIAL PRIMARY 0 ft. 20 ft. COMMERCIAL PRIMARY STREETS Width of sidewalk: 12 ft. Width of bio-swale: 8 ft. Type of bio-swale: vegetated Width of parallel parking lane: 8 ft. Width of driving lane: 12 ft. Total building to building distance: 80 ft. Pedestrian crossing time: 12 seconds Design speed: 20-25 mph 109 100 ft. 0 ft. The secondary commercial streets on the site 110 300 ft. 200 ft. 500 ft. 400 ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. 3000 ft. STREET SECTION: COMMERCIAL SECONDARY 0 ft. 20 ft. COMMERCIAL SECONDARY STREETS Width of sidewalk: 7 ft. Width of bio-swale: 4 ft. Type of bio-swale: standing water Width of parallel parking lane: 8 ft. Width of driving lane: 12 ft. Total building to building distance: 62 ft. Pedestrian crossing time: 12 seconds Design speed: 20-25 mph 111 100 ft. 0 ft. The boardwalk street on the site 112 300 ft. 200 ft. 500 ft. 400 ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. 3000 ft. STREET SECTIONS: BOARDWALK 0 ft. 20 ft. COMMERCIAL BOARDWALK STREET Width of sidewalk: 7 ft. Width of bio-swale: 4 ft. Type of bio-swale: standing water Width of parallel parking lane: 8 ft. Width of driving lane: 12 ft. Total building to building distance: 62 ft. Pedestrian crossing time: 12 seconds Design speed: 20-25 mph Elevation change between street level and boardwalk: 3 ft. Width of sidewalk above stairs: 12 ft. 3 in. Width of boardwalk: 60 ft. High tide water level: 28 ft. above sea level Height of boardwalk: 39 ft. above sea level Floor to ceiling height of business level: 20 ft. Floor to ceiling heights of condos: 9.5 ft. 113 Community Spaces 114 100 ft. 0 ft. 300 ft. 200 ft. 500 ft. 400 ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. 3000 ft. Community spaces 115 100 ft. 0 ft. Community spaces 116 300 ft. 200 ft. 500 ft. 400 ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. 3000 ft. COMMUNITY SPACES Chip shooter COMMUNITY SPACES Running path Boardwalk Community gardens Constructed wetlands Dog park Edible forest Natural forest growth Playground Community center (building and park) Open community space on the site totals 21.7 acres; this is 24% of the 89.4 acre developed site. This is comparable to the case study of Village Homes which has 25% open space. The park within the commercial core is available to be used by anyone who visits the site, however the community spaces within the residential portion of the site are for community members and managed by the houses surrounding them. These spaces can change with the needs of the houses that surround them. The natural forest growth areas will allow trees to grow to help block sound from the bordering Pacific Veneer plant to the Southeast. The large section of edible forest to the south of the commercial district is for the use of the Farmerâ€™s Market. The vendors at the market would be responsible for care of the forest and its produce will be sold in the market. The teal community gardens will have space for the owners and tenants of the town home units since, unlike the single-family homes, they do not have their own yards. Public park 117 Sustainable Highlights 118 100 ft. 0 ft. 300 ft. 200 ft. 500 ft. 400 ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. 3000 ft. Sustainable highlights 119 100 ft. 0 ft. Sustainable highlights 120 300 ft. 200 ft. 500 ft. 400 ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. 3000 ft. SUSTAINABLE HIGHLIGHTS Constructed wetlands SUSTAINABLE HIGHLIGHTS Bio-swales Cisterns are designated to be one for each city block, and a small one for each single family home. Cisterns Bio-swales exist as a buffer between every roadway and sidewalk. Community gardens The living machine is placed at the bottom of the gradual 9 foot decline. While Washington State law may not currently allow for the re-use of treated water to flush toilets, hopefully a change will be made soon. But for now the water can be used to water plants, and any extra will be cleaner than most of the Chehalis river it will flow into. Edible forest Living machine 121 FINAL DESIGN Development Level 3: The Boardwalk 124 The fully developed boardwalk portion of the site sitting next to the existing Chip Shooter. 125 THE BOARDWALK WHY DEVELOP THE BOARDWALK The boardwalk was chosen as the area to develop further for two reasons. The first and more practical reason was that by creating a well-developed and exciting boardwalk in the most highly visible portion of the site, passers-by on Highway 12 across the river would find themselves drawn into the site to explore this new community. The second reason for this choice was that the designer found this area to create the most appeal for her personal design skills. Both a hotel and three condo buildings look directly out onto the boardwalk. The designer not only thought that these building types would be the most enjoyable to develop but that they would also make good portfolio pieces as she progressed to the working world. 126 100 ft. 0 ft. 300 ft. 200 ft. 500 ft. 400 ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. 3000 ft. Highlights of the boardwalk, hotel and condos. 127 Hotel 128 View looking east of the hotel as it faces the boardwalk. 129 14 10 15 3 9 11 4 13 2 7 6 5 8 7 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 130 The first floor of the hotel THE HOTEL: FIRST FLOOR SPACES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Hotel rooms Restaurant kitchen Restaurant Maid’s office and laundry center Maid’s closet Guest laundry room Small conference room Business center Restrooms Recreational pool Lobby Stair to green roof above parking Office Large ballroom with mezzanine Ballroom with room dividers 131 14 1 1 1 1 1 1 15 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 132 The second floor of the hotel 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 The third floor of the hotel 133 THE HOTEL: GREEN ROOF Birdâ€™s eye view of the hotel green roof. On the roof, surrounded by planters to prevent tripping, are 20 solar tubes to help naturally light the parking lot below. 134 SOLATUBE® Solatubes are highly efficient ways of daylighting spaces that cannot have access to windows. In the hotel parking garage they are used to naturally light the large expance where daylight would not normally reach the center. The following statements are pulled from the solatube website to describe how they work, and work better than the traditional skylight system. How does a Solatube Daylighting System work? The Solatube Daylighting System captures light through a dome on the roof and channels it down through our internal reflective system. This tubing is far more efficient than a traditional drywall skylight shaft, which can lose over half of the potential light. The tubing will fit between rafters and will install easily with no structural modification. At the ceiling level, a diffuser that resembles a recessed light fixture spreads the light evenly throughout the room. What is a Solatube Daylighting System and how does it compare to a traditional box skylight? Traditional skylights have their place, as do Tubular Daylighting Devices. There are a few key benefits of the Solatube Daylighting System, however, including flexible location options, low cost of installation and better lighting performance. Also, traditional skylights do not offer any optical enhancement devices to help increase performance. On the north side of a sloped roof, the light output from a regular skylight is significantly reduced without these devices. The Solatube Daylighting System, for example, features several patented enhancement devices, which work in concert to capture more light from all angles and reflect it down the tube for higher light output during early morning, late afternoon and in the winter months when the sun is low on the horizon. The Solatube Daylighting System transfers the maximum amount of ambient light into a room with minimal light loss, allowing it to provide great performance even on cloudy or rainy days. In fact, it captures ambient light so well, on a full-moon night, you can actually see a nice glow. What happens on a cloudy day? Our proprietary LightTracker™ technology inside of our dome with RayBender® 3000 Technology, along with Spectralight® Infinity, help to transfer the maximum amount of ambient light down into the room with minimal light loss even on cloudy days. Can Solatube Daylighting Systems tolerate very heavy rain? Yes, the circular seamless one piece flashing design allows rain to naturally bypass the daylighting system. The flashings have no weak points that could separate and allow water to enter. However an optional turret extension may be added to raise the dome above the roof deck where required. An image showing how the Solatube® harvests daylight. Photo from www.roofright.com 135 HOTEL ROOMS: SINGLE ROOMS 0 ft. Room types from left to right: basic king, spa king, double queen, and family room (with two full sized beds and a twin sized bunk bed). 136 20 ft. HOTEL ROOMS: DOUBLE ROOMS 0 ft. 20 ft. Room types from left to right: family suite, which can be separated into two rooms when necessary; spa king suite, with kitchen for long-term stay guests. 137 Condos 138 View looking west of the condos and businesses as they face the boardwalk. 139 THE CONDOS: BUSINESS LEVEL 140 The ground floor of the condo buildings is dedicated to businesses on the recreational business block. On the side of the building that opens onto the boardwalk, the businesses have large garage doors that can open on nice days to blur the space between outdoor and in. THE CONDOS: PATIO LEVEL The patio level of the condo buildings allows the condos to have a â€˜front yardâ€™ space overlooking the street. To create a further appearance of privacy, stairs to this level are only shared between two condos, with one set of condos also having access to an elevator. 141 THE CONDOS: FIRST FLOOR The first floor of the condos is entered from the semi-private patio space above the business level. Amenities of the space include a kitchen island with breakfast bar, washer and dryer hookups tucked under the stairs, a fireplace and a back porch overlooking the boardwalk. 142 0 ft. 20 ft. THE CONDOS: SECOND FLOOR The second floor of the condos consists of two bedrooms each with their own private bathroom. The master bedroom, which overlooks the boardwalk, also has a large walk-in closet. In order to get natural daylight into the stairwell and landing space, a Solatube速 is utilized. Also in this landing space is a small linen closet. 0 ft. 20 ft. 143 REFLECTIONS ON FINAL CRITIQUE The larger of the two models presented for the final critique was designed so the presentation could be projected onto it. The projections would highlight areas 146 as they were being talked about. The model was painted with figure ground markings in a light color to not distract too much from images projected on top. The smaller final presentation model shows the full site and the context of the bluff across the river; it was painted as figure ground with the elements of the site appearing darker than those outside the site. 147 148 The image on the previous page was presented as the printed board, allowing discussion to happen in the critique without flipping through PowerPoint slides. In the image above are all of the elements presented at the final critique, including the panoramic of the full site with the project placed on it. 149 Images on this page attempt to show how the project was presented by being projected onto the model. 150 THE FINAL CRITIQUE allowing them to express themselves better. Create a destination not only out of the site itself but also at the ends of roadways so that people are drawn throughout the site. Consider adding more references to the history of the site, possibly through mill artifacts. The designer during the critique portion of her final presentation Image by Terry Kuhnau The final presentation of this project took place at 11:30 on the morning of April 26th, 2012. Seven professors were present for the hour long event and provided constructive feedback. Some of the comments given include: The plan possesses strict zoning; consider ways to blur the zoning types. Why not break the dike and allow the floodplain to cross into the community open areas? It would bring in wildlife and another level of interaction with the surrounding environment. What creates a specific identity for the area and differentiates it from the areas surrounding it? Consider addressing the materiality of the hotel and businesses to have a larger degree of transparency, The cross axis of the residential streets provide a wonderful space for something great to happen. Donâ€™t just let it be streets crossing. Donâ€™t end the primary road through the residential area with a house, it is not that interesting to look at, it could become a powerful and iconic vista. Consider the streets to be the path of a pilgrimage with stops all along the way, rather than just a way to get to a destination. Looking back on the final critique I know there are many aspects to the design that I never got around to thinking of. That being said, I do believe that I presented a very successful project, and learned a lot from the process. It was quite an experience to work on a full site plan and community design rather than just a single building and its surrounding block. Given the time frame, a large quantity of work was completed. Overall, I was very happy with how the project turned out at the end, and know that while it was called a final design, there is always still more to do and consider. 151 WORKS CITED “98520 Zip Code (Aberdeen, Washington) Profile.” City Data. Web. 9 Dec. 2011. <http://www.city-data.com/ zips/98520.html>. “Aberdeen -- Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org. Web. 6 May 2012. <http://www.historylink.org/index. cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&file_id=7390>. “Aberdeen, Washington.” Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 6 May 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aberdeen,_Washington>. “Aberdeen, Washington - Climate Summary .” Western Regional Climate Center. Web. 9 Dec. 2011. <http://www.wrcc. dri.edu/cgi-bin/cliMAIN.pl?wa0008>. “Chehalis River Basin.” USGS Washington Water Science Center. Web. 25 Oct. 2011. <http://wa.water.usgs.gov/projects/chehalis/>. “City of Aberdeen Flood Mapping.” City Of Aberdeen Washington - Grays Harbor WA - Official Site. 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