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VERDI

MAC BE TH 2013 – 2014 Season

2013 – 2014 Season Minnesota Opera Ticket Office 620 North First Street Minneapolis, MN  55401 612-333-6669

contents 8 Macbeth 10 Synopsis 12 M  acbeth: When the hurlyburly’s done … 16 Composer Giuseppe Verdi 18 Director’s Notes 22 The Artists 28 M  eet the Artists: Brenda Harris and Greer Grimsley 30 Feature: Head of Music Rob Ainsley and the Minnesota Opera Chorus 34 F eature: Minnesota Opera Broadcasts 36 Tempo

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38 N  ew Works Initiative: Dominick Argento

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40 Upcoming Events 41 T he Dream of Valentino Preview 42 E  ducation at the Opera: Red Wing Residency 44 M  innesota Opera Board of Directors, Staff and Volunteers 46 Annual Fund 51 Legacy Circle 52 Institutional Giving

Regular Hours: Mon.-Fri., 9am-6pm. Performances:  Weekdays — phones open until curtain. Weekends — phones open at 2pm for evening performances and at 10:30am for matinee performances. Minnesota Opera staff will be available at the Ordway’s Box Office 90 minutes prior to curtain. mnopera.org Visit mnopera.org to watch behind-the-scenes videos, read synopses and blog posts and browse digital programs. Join our e-club to receive special offers and Opera news. Tickets are not refundable.  Subscribers may make exchanges for a different performance or opera up to one hour prior to curtain. Any ticket may be returned for a tax deductible donation up until curtain. Call the Minnesota Opera Ticket Office at 612-333-6669. Parking Prepaid parking is available for opera patrons at the Lawson Commons Ramp. Call 612-333-6669 to purchase passes, or online at mnopera.org. Subject to availability. Opera Insights Come early for Opera Insights — free, fun and informative sessions held in the lobby one hour before curtain. Accessibility For patrons with disabilities, wheelchairaccessible seats are available. Audio description will be available for select performances. Please call 612-333-6669 for details and indicate any special needs when ordering tickets. At Ordway, accessible restrooms and other facilities are available, as well as Braille or large-print programs and infrared listening systems. Ordway is a smoke-free facility.  Latecomers will be seated at an appropriate break. Please have all cell phones and pagers turned to the silent mode. Cameras and recording equipment are strictly prohibited in the theater. Please check these items with an usher. The phone number for emergencies is 651-2244222. Please leave seat locations with the calling party. Lost and Found is located at the Stage Door. Call 651-282-3070 for assistance.

Large-print and Braille programs are available at the Patron Services Office.

Kevin Ramach

Welcome Happy New Year! In 1846 Giuseppe Verdi had faced a lifethreatening illness and was ordered to rest for six months. During that time he thought about creating an opera with theatrical elements as important as the music. For the first time, Verdi turned to Shakespeare, a source of inspiration to which he would return often. He chose Macbeth as his subject, a play he considered “one of mankind’s greatest creations.” When it opened, the opera was considered a triumph, but the version you see here was a revision that Verdi completed nearly 20 years later. It seems even genius can be improved upon. And that brings me to part of our ritual as we turn the page to a new calendar – most of us make New Year’s resolutions. The end of a year allows us to reflect and think about where we can improve. At Minnesota Opera we are in the middle of a five-year strategic plan that challenges our staff and the Minnesota Opera Board of Directors to continue to improve upon a great opera company. We are resolved to do this. As part of that plan, we want to be more transparent in our operations. To that end, we have shared our Capital Annual Community Report

on mnopera.org. This Report showcases the company’s commitment to combining a culture of creativity and fiscal responsibility to produce opera and opera education programs that expand the art form, nurture artists, enrich audiences and contribute to the vitality of the community. You will also find multiple years of financial statements for our company. We’ve had a great success with our first two operas here at the Ordway, and Minnesota Opera is also active with Education and Community Programs. You can read more about our residency in Red Wing, Minnesota on page 42 of this program. Project Opera, Minnesota Opera’s youth training program, just performed Griffelkin by Lukas Foss at the Lab Theater in Minneapolis for four sold-out performances. We want to continue to make Minnesota Opera a critical part of our community and promote opera to a broader audience. Thank you for your support in making all of this possible. Please enjoy today’s performance. President and General Director

Griffelkin

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2014 © Sigrid Redpath for Minnesota Opera

Lukas Foss (2014)

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MACBETH Music by Giuseppe Verdi Libretto by Francesco Maria Piave and Andrea Maffei after the tragedy by William Shakespeare

cast

(characters listed in order of vocal appearance)

Macbeth, Greer Grimsley general in the Scottish army

Banquo, Alfred Walker general in the Scottish army

Lady Macbeth

A servant

Macduff, Lord of Fife

Brenda Harris Christian Zaremba Harold Meers

Lady-in-waiting to Lady Macbeth Shannon Prickett

Malcolm, son to King Duncan

John Robert Lindsey

Fleance, Banquo’s son Riley Eddins A murderer

Christian Zaremba

Three apparitions Matthew Opitz, Christie Hageman, Riley Eddins

A herald Matthew Opitz

A doctor

Christian Zaremba

Witches, messengers of the king, King Duncan, Scottish nobles and exiles, assassins, soldiers The appearances of Christie Hageman, John Robert Lindsey, Victoria Vargas and Alfred Walker, regional finalists; and Matthew Opitz and Shannon Prickett, district finalists of the Metropolitan Opera National Council Auditions, are made possible through a Minnesota Opera Endowment Fund established for Artist Enhancement by Barbara White Bemis. The appearances of the Resident Artists are made possible, in part, by the Virginia L. Stringer Endowment Fund for the Minnesota Opera Resident Artist Program.

World premiere at the Teatro della Pergola, Florence March 14, 1847 revised for the Théâtre Lyrique, Paris, April 21, 1865 January 25, 28, 30, February 1 and 2, 2014 Ordway, Saint Paul Sung in Italian with English translations

creative team

Conductor Michael Christie

Stage Director

Scenic Associate and Costume Designer

Lighting Designer

Joel Ivany Camellia Koo Jason Hand

Projection Designer Sean Nieuwenhuis

Wig and Makeup Designer Jason Allen

Chorusmaster Rob Ainsley

Assistant Director

Daniel Ellis

Assistant Conductor Aaron Breid

Répétiteurs

Production Stage Manager

Geoffrey Loff, Sheldon Miller Kerry Masek

Brenda Harris’ appearance is generously sponsored by Vicki and Chip Emery. Greer Grimsley’s appearance is generously sponsored by Kathy and John Junek. The Minnesota Opera season is sponsored by

MACBETH

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Macbeth 2010 © Sam Garcia for Opera Lyra

Synopsis

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Act I Scene one – A forest

Returning from battle Macbeth and Banquo happen upon a coven of witches that makes three rather unsettling predictions: they promise Macbeth his noble rank shall rise from Thane of Glamis to Thane of Cawdor, and then he shall be king; to Banquo they foretell that kings shall number among his descendants. The witches vanish, leaving the bewildered Macbeth and Banquo to consider what they’ve witnessed. Messengers inform them of the treasonous Thane of Cawdor’s recent execution – Macbeth has been named his successor. Already dark thoughts of ambition begin to cloud his judgment.

Scene two – A hall in the castle

Lady Macbeth reads a letter from her husband detailing his unusual experiences and the swift fulfillment of the first prophesy. She draws the conclusion that their next step must be to usurp the throne. A servant informs his mistress that King Duncan plans to spend the night as their guest. Late in the evening, the Macbeths hash out their deadly scheme. After his wife gives the signal that all have retired to bed, Macbeth murders the sleeping Duncan. His remorse is pronounced, but Lady Macbeth holds strong, returning to the scene of the crime and planting the bloodstained dagger among the king’s sleeping bodyguards to implicate them. As dawn breaks Macduff and Banquo discover the king has been assassinated.

Scene one – A room in the castle

Duncan’s son, Malcolm, has fled Scotland. As a result he is now suspected of the regicide. Macbeth, now crowned king, is still unsettled by the witches’ third prediction – that Banquo’s offspring shall one day rule. He and his wife concur more blood must flow.

but Banquo’s progeny is displayed in a parade of specters, followed by the reappearance of Banquo’s ghost. The witches vanish. Macbeth confides the strange happenings to his wife. Recognizing Macduff as the most serious threat, they agree his castle should be destroyed and Lady Macduff and her children must die.

Act IV

Scene two – The castle park

Scene three – A magnificent banquet hall

A celebration is held in Macbeth’s honor, and Lady Macbeth leads the toast. A murderer quietly confirms that Banquo has been killed, but Fleance remains at large. To his guests, Macbeth notes Banquo’s absence and makes the noble gesture to seat himself at his place. He is visibly horrified to see Banquo’s ghost. The guests are shocked by the strange behavior, and Lady Macbeth demands he control himself. To divert everyone’s attention she strikes up the drinking song again, but the ghost returns, and Macbeth loses his composure. Macduff grows suspicious.

intermission Act III A dark cave

Regrouped for the sabbath, the witches prepare an unearthly brew. Macbeth returns in search of more answers. The powers of darkness yield an apparition warning him to beware Macduff. The second spirit advises him not to fear any man born of a woman. A final apparition assures him not to worry until Birnam Wood moves against him. Macbeth is reassured but insists on knowing the fate of Banquo’s son. The witches refuse to answer,

Scene one – A deserted place on the Scottish border

A chorus of Scottish refugees bewail the plight of their oppressed country under Macbeth’s tyrannous rule. Macduff agonizes over the slaughter of his wife and children. Malcolm arrives with English soldiers. He instructs the army to camouflage themselves with branches from the forest. Scene two – A room in the castle

The queen’s lady-in-waiting confers with a doctor. Together they observe the strange nocturnal activities of Lady Macbeth. She enters as if in a trance, and while trying to wash imagined blood from her hands, she exposes the hideous details of her crimes. Scene three – A room in the castle

Macbeth has been informed of the uprising against him. In light of the witches’ promises, he is certain the battle will be won. He receives news of his wife’s suicide but is barely moved. Yet his confidence is shaken by reports of Birnam Wood advancing on the castle. Macduff confronts Macbeth. The king’s belief in the final prophecy is crushed when Macduff reveals that he was not born of a woman the usual way but “… from his mother’s womb untimely ripped.” Malcolm enters with soldiers and women of the castle. Macduff informs them that Macbeth has been slain. All hail Malcolm as their new king.  Macbeth 2007 © Ed Ellis for Edmonton Opera

Assassins descend on Banquo and his young son, Fleance. Banquo is killed, but Fleance manages to escape.

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Act II

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David Sander

Macbeth: When the Hurlyburly’s Done …

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iuseppe Verdi was in the middle of his in Parma, Rome and Naples). The Pergola “galley years” when a commission came already had staged six of Verdi’s nine operas from the Florentine Teatro alla Pergola (apparently to his satisfaction), usually less in early 1846. The stress of churning out than a year following their premieres in operas had worn him down, but after other Italian cities. a brief hiatus, he was back on track with The onerous task of converting the play three possible texts on the table: Schiller’s into a libretto was given to Francesco Maria Die Räuber, Grillparzer’s Die Ahnfrau Piave (who already had worked with Verdi and Shakespeare’s Macbeth. The Pergola’s on two operas, Ernani and I due Foscari). impresario, Alessandro Lanari, was specific Here we see the composer at his worst. on only one point – the opera had to be Having given the poet a scenario, much of of the genere fantastico, a which already was written story with supernatural in prose, Verdi constantly elements on the same par as badgered for revisions and two recently restaged popular corrections: “Always keep in works, Meyerbeer’s Robert mind: use few words … few le diable and Weber’s Der words … few but significant Freischütz. Verdi’s tendency … I repeat few words.” toward Macbeth depended on A dramatist as well as a the availability of two singers, musician, Verdi had a very Sophie Loewe and Felice specific vision of how the Varesi, both “singer-actors” action should play. In the who he felt could best convey end, the merciless taskmaster the emotional complexity of dismissed Piave (who at least the two evil protagonists. was paid for his services) The composer took and entrusted the final a big risk – at that time amendments to his friend Shakespeare was not familiar Andrea Maffei. Although in Italy, and Macbeth had Piave was still responsible for yet to be staged in spoken much of the text, his name Ellen Terry as Lady Macbeth form. Verdi’s confidence did not appear on the title (1885–86) in the Bard grew out of John Singer Sargent (1856–1925) page of the completed book a lifelong passion for his nor was his preface included Tate Gallery (London, Great Britain) works. In time, he would (as was customary), much consider several other plays: Tate, London/Art Resource, NY to his dismay. Ironically, King Lear, The Tempest, the critics later found the Cymbeline, Othello and The Merry Wives most fault with Maffei’s revised passages. of Windsor, the latter two finally making it The composer managed to mend the to the operatic stage toward the end of his relationship, and together they went on to career as Otello and Falstaff. The composer produce six more operas, including two of also was excited to work in Florence, a city Verdi’s most enduring works, Rigoletto and with surprisingly liberal policies and few La traviata. censoring impediments (something that Once in the theater, Verdi was equally would become an issue in later remountings severe with the cast. Rehearsals were

past was marred by a trail of unwanted pregnancies. The situation would become full-blown a few years down the road when the couple set up house together, but Verdi would stand up to his father-in-law’s slanderous innuendos, and Barezzi would come to embrace Strepponi as a daughter. But the story of Macbeth was far from over. In 1864 the composer was approached by the Parisian Théâtre Lyrique. Verdi’s French publisher, Léon Escudier, and the theater’s impresario Léon Carvalho together had produced extremely successful French versions of Rigoletto and Violetta (La traviata) and had generously compensated the composer with a commission they were not obligated to pay. The two were convinced a third work would be another financial windfall for all parties involved. Verdi took the bait, but upon reexamining the score after an 18-year gap he noticed a number of things he wished to change: revised arias for Lady Macbeth in Act ii and Macbeth in Act iii, a revised chorus for Act iv and a new finale, moving Macbeth’s death offstage and ending with a victory hymn. In fact, once he dove into the score, he changed quite a bit more, and it is this version that has become the standard for performance today. It is a curious blend of Verdi’s style at two points in his career, a pastiche Verdi intentionally, even blatantly, left intact. Of course this wasn’t exactly the version that was performed in Paris. Carvalho was notorious for tinkering with his composers’ operas and suggested fleshing out a greater role for the tenor, thereby practically guaranteeing greater box office receipts. Verdi flatly refused – the drama was too sharply focused on three main characters: Macbeth, Lady Macbeth and the witches. A major tenor role would be inappropriate and superfluous. Nevertheless, Carvalho and Escudier went ahead with their plan, expanding Macduff’s role in Act iv with some of Malcolm’s lines, extending his aria and giving him the reprise of the Act ii drinking song. Further, without Verdi’s continued on next page

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frequent and unending, and as Marianna Barbieri-Nini, the soprano who replaced the pregnant Sophie Loewe as Lady Macbeth, later recalled, “nary a word of encouragement escaped from the maestro’s lips.” On the day of the invited dress rehearsal, just before curtain, Verdi led his two principals to the foyer for one final run-through of the Act i duet, one of the scenes he found to be crucial to the success of the entire work. Varesi complained they already had done it 150 times, to which the composer crustily retorted, “I would not say that if I were you, for within half an hour it will be a hundred and fifty-one.” He was just as meticulous about the sets, fabrics and direction, researching the period of Scottish history upon which the tragedy was based. The witches’ sabbath of Act iii was the crux of the phantasm, and Verdi tried his best to employ the most current special effects available for the appearance of the apparitions. His efforts paid off, for the opera was a tremendous success – three pieces were encored, and Verdi received more than 30 curtain calls. Following the premiere, Verdi wrote a touching letter to his former father-in-law and lifelong supporter, Antonio Barezzi, offering the score to him. “For a long time I have been thinking of dedicating an opera to you, who have been my father, benefactor and friend …. Now here is my Macbeth, which I love more than my other operas and thus believe it worthy of being presented to you.” Barezzi’s tearful yet “troubled” response might have gotten past the composer but in retrospect provides a curious insight – Barezzi may have known of Verdi and Giuseppina Strepponi’s newly established romantic liaison. She had come to Florence for the premiere from Paris (where she had recently relocated) and was rumored to have spent a few evenings at Verdi’s hotel. As a surrogate father figure, Barezzi was, of course, always looking after Verdi’s best interests, which included the selection of a suitable second wife, and he disapproved of Strepponi, whose dubious

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continued from previous page consent, they subdivided the acts from four to five – a traditional format of the Opéra – as they were in direct competition with the rival house’s staging of Meyerbeer’s L’Africaine (which, as it turned out, was tremendously popular). In the end, Verdi may have regretted not traveling to Paris to oversee the remounting of Macbeth himself. The lackluster reception must have been puzzling – indeed, his French cohorts tried to keep news of it from him but still received his angry admonishments. Examining all the facts, the composer alluded that the failure was likely due to Carvalho’s practice of emphasizing stage machinery over the music. Verdi openly took the defensive when the Parisian critics claimed he didn’t know his Shakespeare. “It may be that I have not rendered Macbeth well, but [to say] I don’t know, don’t understand and don’t feel Shakespeare – no, by God, no. He is a favorite poet of mine, whom I have had in my hands from earliest youth, and whom I read and reread constantly.” The revised version of the opera quickly took hold in Italy and around Europe, but Macbeth was not revived in Paris until the 20th century.

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The “Scottish Play” Shakespeare wrote Macbeth with a very specific purpose in mind – to flatter and pander to the tastes of the new English monarch, James i. James ascended the throne after the passing of his cousin, Elizabeth i, who died in 1603 without an heir, thus putting an end to the Tudor dynasty. As James vi he had been the ruler of Scotland since 1567 – his crowning as king of the English united the two nations. James had only been in power for three years when Macbeth was performed before the royal court and the visiting king of Denmark, Christian iv. Shakespeare’s choice of a subject from Scottish history would have appealed to James’ desire to have a greater understanding of Scotland among the English people. The inclusion

of Banquo in the story would have touched him personally – his family traced its lineage back to the unfortunate noble just as Shakespeare’s witches had predicted. The juxtaposition of a dark period of medieval Scotland to the relatively happy accord of the newly united kingdom had its political advantages as well. Shakespeare drew the bulk of his material from Holinshed’s Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland, the closest thing to real history one might find at the time. Predominantly it was the story of Macbeth that prompted his interest, but there the Bard immediately found a problem – Banquo had conspired in Duncan’s assassination. To sanitize his reputation, Shakespeare made Banquo a guiltless victim in his play and transferred the role of accessory to Macbeth’s wife, who only received casual mention in the Chronicles. Macduff’s role also is enhanced in the play – immediately after Macbeth’s coronation in Act ii he makes his break with the new king, destined to become his chief adversary. One important detail Shakespeare skirts over in his adaptation is that Macbeth had a legitimate claim to the throne. He and Duncan were first cousins, Malcolm ii being their mutual grandfather (and Lady Macbeth was related as well – granddaughter to Kenneth iii, all three descended from Malcolm i). Scotland at this point in history did not have a clear-cut system for ascension. It was a bloody struggle between chieftains of subsidiary clans who were ultimately branches of the same family. The family of the dead king’s predecessor inherited the right to rule. Curiously, the ten reigning monarchs preceding Duncan had been slain – it must have been of little surprise when the king turned up dead in Macbeth’s castle. The reality of Duncan’s ineffectual rule is also omitted from the play – Shakespeare transforms his physical makeup and demeanor to become a wise and capable old man in order to intensify the degree of Macbeth’s betrayal. The naming of

seems to extend beyond their domain, and their resemblance to the three fateweaving Norns of Teutonic mythology is not without notice. Again, the Chronicles serve as inspiration, this time going back as far as Natholocus, King of Scotland from 242–280 ad. “The Witch consulting with hir spirits, declared in the end how it should come shortlie to passe, that the king shoulde bee murthered, not by his own enimies, but by the hands of one of his most familiar friendes, in whome he had reposed an especiall trust.” Later Chronicles detail Macbeth and Banquo’s encounter with the witches, found in the play almost verbatim. From the top of the drama the witches’ declamation “Fair is foul and foul is fair” indicates the topsy-turvy world of Shakespeare and his dichotomy of the human psyche. The Chronicles dryly report the facts, but the Bard invests in his protagonists powerful emotions, both forceful and faltering. At first Macbeth is ambitious yet fearful, hesitant then remorseful when it comes down to the actual killing of Duncan. His wife strengthens his resolve, badgering him to complete the crime as planned, and indeed, finishes the messy task herself by disposing of the murder weapons. Yet she is not completely devoid of sensitivity, albeit of an odd sort. “Had he [Duncan] not resembled my father as he slept, I had done’t.” On the other side, Macbeth is “too full o’ th’ milk of’ human kindness” and troubled by his treachery, though finds killing a little easier as time goes on – by the end of the play he is a confident and accomplished assassin (falsely comforted by the seemingly impossible second set of unearthly predictions). By Act v the situation has reversed – Lady Macbeth begins to falter, not during the light of day but at night, when repressed fears and a guilty conscience can take control. Where sleeping disorders earlier disturbed her husband, she now falls victim to somnambulism. continued on page 17

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Malcolm as Prince of Cumberland (thereby officially Duncan’s heir and defying the usual communal tradition of nominating a related thane) spurs the usurper into motion as much as any witches’ predictions. Lady Macbeth evolved to become a powerful player. Historically, she had an axe to grind with Duncan’s family, for they had murdered her kinsman, Kenneth iii, to ensure Duncan’s eventual succession. To flesh out Lady Macbeth’s character, Shakespeare freely adapted from an earlier Chronicle, the slaughter of King Duff by Donwald. “Donwald thus being the more kindled in wrath by the word of his wife, determined to follow her advise in the execution of so heinous an act.” By the end of the story, under suspicion Donwald flees without informing his wife. She and the children are taken into custody and put to the rack, where she confesses everything under duress. Further role models for Lady Macbeth included Elizabeth i’s contemporary Catherine de Medici, who as queen mother of France initiated a number of ruthless killings and was especially unpopular in the eyes of the English; Livia, Augustus Caesar’s scheming wife who commonly poisoned her enemies for political purposes; and Medea, the mythological sorceress who murdered her own brother, children and husband’s brideto-be for love, spite and revenge. There’s little love in Lady Macbeth – much of her steely mettle was born of Shakespeare’s own imagination, making King Lear’s Regan and Goneril pale by comparison. The witches are the final component in the mix. The inclusion of the three “weird” (a conflation of “wayward”) sisters were no doubt intended to please not only James (he had a healthy interest in demonology) but to shock and entertain Jacobean audiences who wholeheartedly believed ghosts and evil spirits were just around the corner – encountering a coven of witches would not have been out of the realm of possibility. The power of the wicked sisters

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Composer

Giuseppe Verdi b Le Roncole, October 9 or 10, 1813; d Milan, January 27, 1901

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orn into a relatively poor family near Verdi’s third opera for La Scala, Nabucco, the town of Busseto, Verdi owed his is generally considered his first masterpiece. Its first musical training to Antonio Barezzi, most notable element is a long, slow chorus for a local patron. Barezzi arranged for the Israelites, yearning for their homeland: “Va, Verdi to go to Milan, where he failed the pensiero.” Italian patriots, then under Austrian entrance exams to domination, heard in the Conservatory. it their own situation; Verdi then returned at its premiere and at to Busseto to most performances assume, amid fierce afterwards, audiences controversy, the demanded the post of maestro di chorus to be sung musica and to marry again, despite police Barezzi’s daughter, prohibitions. In the Margherita, in years that followed, 1836. They had Verdi and his two children, but librettists wrote as tragically, within boldly as the censors a three-year period would allow. His Margherita and stirring patriotic their children died. choruses made him In despair, Verdi a symbol of the pursued his career Risorgimento, the elsewhere. Then he political movement returned to Busseto for a unified Italy. with Giuseppina In a 54-year period, Strepponi, the Verdi wrote 26 operas soprano who (two of which were created the role of revised extensively and Abigaille in Nabucco retitled). The years and whom he later 1851–1853 marked the married. He bought peak of Verdi’s career, Portrait of Verdi Standing a nearby farm, built with the composition Anonymous (19th century) a large comfortable of his three most Museo Teatrale alla Scala (Milan, Italy) house and – with popular pieces: Scala/Art Resource, NY only occasional Rigoletto, Il trovatore interruptions to travel, compose or produce and La traviata. These famous operas hark back an opera – managed the farm until his to the musical style of Nabucco, with simpler death in 1901. accompaniments and superbly crafted melodies.

In 1859 Napoleon iii of France drove the Austrians out of Lombardy. As Verdi had long been considered an artist of revolution, he was pressed into accepting a seat in the new Italian Parliament. During his parliamentary career he found time to compose only one opera, La forza del destino. Macbeth was revised in 1865 and presented in Paris, where Verdi agreed to write Don Carlos. Aida, first performed at the Cairo Opera House in 1871, proved the perfect vehicle for showcasing Verdi’s gifts, and it contained some of his finest music. Following Aida, Verdi firmly stated he had retired for good. He was now devoted to his villa, Sant’Agata, and to revising and remounting several earlier works, pausing briefly to write a powerful Requiem. Coaxed out of his retreat by a lifelong love of Shakespeare, the septuagenarian composer produced Otello and Falstaff to great acclaim. Verdi’s final years were focused on two philanthropic projects, a hospital in the neighboring town of Villanova, and a rest home for aged and indigent musicians in Milan, the Casa di Riposo. Giuseppina died in 1897, and Verdi’s own passing several years later was an occasion of national mourning. One month after a small private funeral at the municipal cemetery, his remains were transferred to Milan and interred at the Casa di Riposo. Two hundred thousand people lined the streets as “Va, pensiero” was sung by an 800-person choir led by conductor Arturo Toscanini. 

Like Nabucco‘s Abigaille, Lady Macbeth is destroyed in the end. The crux of the play is not the atrocity or frequency of the crimes (each one hangs on the last), but the fragile, tenuous human psychology that lies at its core. In Verdi’s hands, the drama acquired even more focus. His additional emphasis on Macbeth and his wife led to the removal of many characters – the thanes of Ross, Angus, Lennox, Menteith and Caithness are folded into the chorus, Malcolm’s brother Donalbain disappears entirely as does the drunken porter and his famous scene of comic relief, and Siward and Young Siward, Malcolm’s uncle and cousin who rally the troops on the English side of the border. Others are generalized – the three witches become a chorus of several (though still very important in Verdi’s mind), as do the assassins and messengers. Banquo and Macduff are reduced to one aria each, Malcolm is demoted to a subsidiary role and Duncan never utters a word. Verdi saw the character of Lady Macbeth with even more contempt than did the playwright – at every suggestion of murder she is there to urge her husband forward (in the play decisions to slay Banquo and Macduff are made by Macbeth alone). Fortunately for Verdi, Shakespeare’s Macbeth was written with comparative brevity (James had a short attention span), though it is believed some of it may be lost. Half the length of Hamlet, it possesses no subsidiary plot frequently found in Shakespeare, nor does it have the typical love interest. The play satisfied the composer’s preference for taut action in a concise framework. Still, the important dramatic moments of the play remain intact (though sometimes rearranged and folded into fewer segments), and as a result, Macbeth remains one of Verdi’s most significant achievements of his early period, enhanced with revision by the wise eyes of experience. 

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Joel Ivany

Director’s Notes

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n Aristotle’s Poetics, he writes that the most important element in a great tragedy is the plot. He also writes that the best plot should arouse both fear and pity. It is no surprise that Verdi went to Shakespeare to find that epic tragedy as inspiration for Macbeth, his fusion of music and drama. Last year at Minnesota Opera, I had the pleasure of presenting Thaddeus Strassberger’s production of Nabucco. I was able to work with both Brenda Harris and the Minnesota Opera Chorus. If you were lucky enough to see this rarely performed opera, you will remember the powerful character of Abigaille (sung by Ms. Harris) and the patriotic “Va, pensiero” sung by the chorus. We continue, a few years later, by presenting Verdi’s 10th opera. In Macbeth, Verdi focused on three main characters, writing, “Above all, bear in mind that there are three roles in this opera and three is all there can be: Lady Macbeth, Macbeth and the chorus of witches. The witches dominate the drama. They are truly a character, and a character of the utmost importance.” Designer Camellia Koo and I needed to find out “who” the witches were in our story. Once we answered that question, the rest would fall in line. Our story opens with Macbeth and Banquo returning from fighting in a war. Our research began there and led us to

images of war fields and battlegrounds. All images are bleak and full of death and decay. On discovering images of World War i, we were piqued by the images of gas masks. These foreign shapes and eerie, sterile faces intrigued us. The masks are meant to save lives. War creates much death. These ideas led us to commedia dell’arte masks and eventually to carrion crows (known collectively as a “murder” of crows). These crows adapt to their situation and hover as they wait to eat. They can assess a situation and respond to changes that are presented. This is where our witches began and the other costumes followed suit. Today, you may find yourselves being watched. You may look twice at the shadow on the wall. The story of Macbeth is one of a common man driven by greed, ambition and power. His ambitions are voiced aloud by the witches and, from there, is a psychological journey that goes deeper and deeper into Macbeth’s psyche. He is a man who quickly depends less on his relationships and more on the supernatural powers of the witches. He distances himself from his friends and wife. There are differences between the opera and Shakespeare’s play. Verdi has made Lady Macbeth much more ambitious and in control than her husband. He has created a strong, focused and determined character. The

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first three acts are building Lady Macbeth built content to help us enact much of into a woman after blood. As if following these fantastical elements. We have used Aristotle’s textbook, it all comes crashing parts of the set and some of the cast in down in the fourth act as we witness her creating some of the visuals that you will sleepwalking scene. Before writing the see. They should show a cold world of music for this scene, Verdi wrote, “It is a concrete and desolation. Much of this great scene in the play; if the music is any opera is set during nighttime when the owls come out and good at all, the effect shadows creep up. will be made.” It was I believe you’ll see meant to be and is one today the best of both of the highlights of the theatrical and this haunting opera. musical aspects of Another difference this opera. All of the between the opera principals are worldand play is the use of class singers and the witches. Verdi uses equally convincing the entire women’s actors. This new chorus for the production will witches, rather than hopefully highlight Shakespeare’s three. new aspects of the I’ve enjoyed working Costume renderings by Camellia Koo storyline and also with the chorus here allow the plot to in Minnesota. In be seen as clear as this opera and many possible. others, the chorus When Verdi is the foundation of wrote Macbeth he success. They keep dedicated it to his scenes moving, draw former father-infocus to the action and law writing, “Here are tireless performers. now is this Macbeth, Their willingness to which I love in play, work hard and preference to my seek out excellence has other operas.” He been humbling. would come back to Verdi was intent on creating something fantastic. The it 18 years later for a Paris debut in which plot deals with witches, apparitions and he wrote new music and generally this ghosts. The audience of his time believed is the version that is performed today. in witchcraft and magic. Today, there You will be seeing this revised version are still businesses where you can have here at the Ordway. I hope you enjoy palm readings, and some of us still look this interpretation of this classic story for protection from the Evil Eye. We’re and stunning opera. — Mr. Ivany’s biography excited to have Sean Nieuwenhuis, our appears on page 23 projections and video designer, who has

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the artists Michael Christie conductor

Michael Christie became Music Director of the Minnesota Opera in September 2012 after eight years as the Virginia G. Piper Music Director of the Phoenix Symphony. Michael opened his 13th season as music director of the Colorado Music Festival in Boulder, Colorado this year and has been music director of the Brooklyn Philharmonic and chief conductor of the Queensland Orchestra (Brisbane, Australia). Recent opera engagements have included acclaimed productions with Opera Theatre of St. Louis (Alice in Wonderland, The Ghosts of Versailles and The Death of Klinghoffer), Wexford Festival Opera, Minnesota Opera (La traviata, Wuthering Heights, Silent Night, Madame Butterfly, Nabucco, Anna Bolena, Turandot, Manon Lescaut and Arabella) and Aspen Opera Theatre (The Ghosts of Versailles and West Side Story). In 2013, Michael helped inaugurate Opera Philadelphia’s ten-year New American Opera Project with the East Coast premiere of Silent Night and made his San Francisco Opera debut conducting the world premiere of The Gospel of Mary Magdalene. Michael lives with his family in Minneapolis.

Greer Grimsley

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macbeth

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Bass-baritone Greer Grimsley is internationally recognized as an outstanding singing actor and one of the most prominent Wagnerian singers of our day. Continuing his reign as a leading interpreter of Wotan, he recently sang the eminent role for the Metropolitan Opera’s Ring Cycle in 2013, directly followed by the same role for Seattle Opera. This past season’s engagements also included Don Pizarro in Fidelio for Seattle Opera and the High Priest in Samson et Dalila at New Orleans Opera. The current season sees returns to San Francisco Opera as the title role in The Flying Dutchman, which he will also perform for Opera Carolina, Wotan in Die Walküre at the Gran Teatre del Liceu as well as Tokyo’s Nikikai Opera, Don Pizaro in Fidelio for Santa Fe Opera and his debut as Claggart in Billy Budd with Los Angeles Opera. Through 2017 he will return to the Metropolitan Opera, Seattle Opera, Dallas Opera, Gran Teatre del Liceu, New National Theatre Tokyo and Minnesota Opera. Additional engagements include Telramund in Lohengrin with the Metropolitan Opera. He was last seen at Minnesota Opera in the title role of The Flying Dutchman. Mr. Grimsley’s appearance is generously sponsored by Kathy and John Junek.

Jason Hand lighting designer

Selected opera designs include Les contes d’Hoffmann (Edmonton Opera); La bohème, Le nozze di Fiagro, The Turn of the Screw (Against the Grain); Opera Briefs 2013 (Tapestry New Opera); Dido and Aeneas (Opera on the Avalon); and Giulio Cesare (Orchestra London). Selected theater designs include Blue Planet (Young People’s Theatre) This, The Arsonists, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, The Winter’s Tale (Canadian Stage); The Barber of Seville (Soulpepper); The Amorous Adventures of Anatol (Tarragon); The Trespassers (Stratford Festival); The Ugly One [Dora Nomination] (Theatre Smash). Upcoming productions include Arms and the Man (Shaw Festival), The Cunning Little Vixen (Royal Conservatory of Music) and Pelléas et Mellisandé (Against the Grain Theatre). Jason has been twice nominated for Dora Awards for Outstanding Lighting Design, protégé recipient of the 2012 Siminovitch Prize in Theatre, and was part of a Canadian team that placed third in the 2011 European Opera Directing Prize. He lives in Toronto.

the artists Brenda Harris lady macbeth

Soprano Brenda Harris appears in leading roles with many of the world’s most prominent opera companies and orchestras. Recent stellar reviews have said that “Brenda Harris delivered a stunning account of the vengeful Greek princess, distinguished by scrupulous observation of the score, including the marked pianissimos that are so rarely heard …. [Her] formidable achievement would easily transfer to a larger house, where she would sing the role more completely than most of her current competition.” (Opera News) and “Pitch perfect, Harris exhibits a flawless legato with a naturalism that perfectly exemplifies the Bel Canto form.” (The Examiner) Recent engagements have taken her to the stages of the Metropolitan Opera, and to Teatro Massimo (Palermo), Washington National Opera, New York City Opera, Opéra du Rhin in Strasbourg, Michigan Opera Theatre, Canadian Opera Company, Edmonton Opera and Opera Theatre of St. Louis, among others. During the 2012–2013 season the soprano joined Minnesota Opera as Abigaille in Nabucco, the Sarasota Opera as the title role in Turandot, Des Moines Metro Opera as the title role in Elektra and Washington Concert Opera as Elisabetta in Maria Stuarda. In March, she returns to Minnesota as June Mathis in The Dream of Valentino and in 2015 creates Mrs. Iselin in The Manchurian Candidate. Ms. Harris’ appearance is generously sponsored by Vicki and Chip Emery.

Joel Ivany stage director

Stage director Joel Ivany was a recent finalist and prize winner in the Sixth European Opera Directing competition for his concept presentation of Bellini’s I Capuleti e i Montecchi alongside designers Camellia Koo and Jason Hand. His most recent projects include directing the world premiere of Gavin Bryars chamber opera Marilyn Forever with the Aventa Ensemble in Victoria, directing a new production of Les contes d’Hoffmann with Edmonton Opera, reviving Minnesota Opera’s Nabucco and writing a new contemporary libretto and directing a new adaptation of Le nozze di Figaro, entitled Figaro’s Wedding, for Against the Grain Theatre. He has directed for Against the Grain Theatre, Canadian Opera Company, Aventa Ensemble, Canadian Children’s Opera Company, Centre for Opera Studies in Italy, U of T Opera Division, Wilfrid Laurier University, Music Niagara, Opera Nuova and The Banff Centre. He is the founder and artistic director of Against the Grain Theatre (AtG), a cuttingedge company producing intimate, innovative theater.

Camellia Koo Camellia is a Toronto-based set and costume designer for theater, opera, dance and site-specific performance installations. Recent designs for opera include Marilyn Forever (Aventa Ensemble), Les contes d’Hoffmann (Edmonton Opera), Maria Stuarda (Pacific Opera Victoria), The Lighthouse (Boston Lyric Opera), The Turn of the Screw and La bohème (Against the Grain), Dido and Aeneas (Opera on the Avalon), Don Giovanni (University of Toronto), Giiwedin (Native Earth) and The Shadow (Tapestry New Opera). She was associate designer on productions of The Magic Flute (Budapest State Opera) and Candide (eno/Châtelet/Hyogo PAC, Japan) for designer Michael Levine. Theater collaborations include designs for numerous mid-size to regional theater companies including Soulpepper Theater Company and six seasons at The Shaw Festival. She is the recipient of five Dora Mavor Moore Awards (Toronto), the 2006 Siminovitch Protégé Prize and was a member of the Third Prize Team with Joel Ivany and Jason Hand at the 2011 European Opera Directing Prize.

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scenic associate and costume designer

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the artists John Robert Lindsey malcolm

Tenor John Robert Lindsey is currently in his third year as a Resident Artist with Minnesota Opera, where he has performed in 12 productions. Past engagements include Count Elemer in Arabella, Edmondo in Manon Lescaut, Pang in Turandot, Ismaele in Nabucco, Goro in Madame Butterfly, Jonathan Dale in the Pulitzer Prize-winning production of Silent Night, Don José in Carmen, Sam Polk in Susannah and the Stage Manager in Rorem’s Our Town. He has also covered several lead roles with Minnesota Opera including Des Grieux in Manon Lescaut, Matteo in Arabella and Macduff in Macbeth. His concert repertoire has included the tenor soloist in Parables by Robert Aldridge and Herschel Garfein, the Mozart Requiem, the Mozart Mass in C Minor and Handel’s Messiah. Upcoming performances include Marvin Heeno in The Dream of Valentino and Monostatos in The Magic Flute. John is a graduate of Colorado State University where he earned his Bachelor’s degree under Todd Queen, and the University of Colorado at Boulder for a master’s in voice under Joel Burcham and Julie Simson.

Harold Meers

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macduff

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Tenor Harold Meers has rapidly established himself as one of the outstanding young American singers currently assaying the romantic Italian and French repertoire. With his foray into the masterworks of Donizetti, Gounod, Massenet, Puccini and Verdi, Mr. Meers has garnered the critical praise reserved for opera’s brightest hopefuls. Since his professional debut with Opera Theatre of St. Louis, Mr. Meers has frequented the principal lyric venues of North America, including bows with the San Francisco Opera, Opera Philadelphia, Baltimore Opera, New Orleans Opera, Boston Lyric Opera, Cleveland Opera, Glimmerglass Opera, Opera Omaha, Virginia Opera, Des Moines Metro Opera, Nashville Opera and Minnesota Opera (Rodolfo in La boème), among others. Mr. Meers made his international debut with the Bangkok Opera as Tamino in Die Zauberflöte. Of his San Francisco Opera debut in Billy Budd, the San Francisco Chronicle noted, “Cast standouts were many, especially tenor Harold Gray Meers in a heartrending performance.” Other roles there include those in Il trovatore, Turandot and Arshak Erkrord.

Sean Nieuwenhuis projection designer

As a video and projection designer and producer, Sean’s work has been seen in an extensive variety of corporate, charitable and theatrical events for the past 20 years. Selected credits include Faust (Metropolitan Opera); Nixon in China (San Francisco Opera, Kansas City Lyric Opera, Vancouver Opera); Lillian Alling (Vancouver Opera, world premiere) Jesus Christ Superstar (Broadway, Stratford Festival, La Jolla Playhouse); Sideways, Yoshimi Battles the Pink Robots (La Jolla Playhouse); Tommy, A Word or Two, Wanderlust, Evita, Cabaret (Stratford Festival); A Handmaid’s Tale (Royal Winnipeg Ballet); Alton Brown Live, Mythbusters Live, Kids In The Hall (touring); the Vancouver 2010 Paralympic Winter Games Opening and Closing Ceremonies; and the 100th Grey Cup Halftime. Upcoming projects include Nixon in China (Wide Open Opera – Dublin) and Man of La Mancha (Stratford Festival).

the artists Matthew Opitz

a herald; an apparition

A native of Arizona, baritone Matthew Opitz recently graduated from the Indiana University School of Music with a master’s degree in voice, where he later sang Eddie Carbone as a guest artist in A View from the Bridge. Other iu Opera credits include Professor Bhaer in Little Women, Mercutio in Roméo et Juliette, the Priest in The Light in the Piazza and Farfarello in The Love for Three Oranges. He also appeared as a soloist in Szymanowski’s Stabat mater, Britten’s Cantata Misericordium and Don Freund’s Passion with Tropes. Mr. Opitz completed his undergraduate degree at Northern Arizona University, where his roles included Guglielmo in Così fan tutte, Count Carl-Magnus Malcom in A Little Night Music, Bob in The Old Maid and the Thief and Dr. Falke in Die Fledermaus. Most recently, he appeared as the Imperial Commissioner in Madame Butterfly for Arizona Opera and was a Central City Opera Young Artist, singing Dr. Bartolo in a family performance of The Barber of Seville. For Minnesota Opera, Mr. Opitz sang the First Gravedigger in Hamlet, Ping in Turandot, Lescaut in Manon Lescaut and Dominik in Arabella. He returns as the Second Armored Man in The Magic Flute.

Shannon Prickett lady-in-waiting

Hailed as a soprano with “a vocalism that is rich and unforced, equally capable of a sudden drop to a sustained whisper or being ratcheted up to a thrilling forte without a hint of strain” by Madison Magazine, Shannon Prickett is becoming a well-known performer in the Madison area. She recently completed her Master of Music degree in opera, singing the title role in Médée and Suzel in L’amico Fritz. During the summer of 2012, Shannon performed the title role of Suor Angelica in Siena, Italy. In the spring of 2012, she won first place at the Iowa District Metropolitan National Council Opera Auditions, advancing to the regional competition, in which she received third place. This past year, at the University of Wisconsin, Shannon was the soprano soloist in Verdi’s Requiem as well as Mimì in La bohème and Donna Elvira in Don Giovanni. In 2010, she made her debut at the Des Moines Metro Opera, singing the role of the Lady-inwaiting in Verdi’s Macbeth. For Minnesota Opera this season, she also appears as the Fortune Teller in Arabella, the Woman in Red in Valentino and the Second Lady in The Magic Flute.

Alfred Walker Gaining rapid international and national acclaim for his commanding performances, Alfred Walker returns to the title role of Der fliegende Holländer at the Wagner Geneva Festival in the 2013–2014 season. He also returns to Seattle Opera for the Four Villains in Les contes d’Hoffmann, New Orleans Opera for Colline in La bohème and the American Symphony Orchestra for Kunrad in Feuersnot. He also joins the Toronto Symphony Orchestra as Porgy in Porgy and Bess. His engagements in future seasons include further performances of the Four Villains in Les contes d’Hoffmann with Den Norske Opera and the title role of Der fliegende Holländer with Théâtre de Caen and Grand Théâtre de Luxembourg. Last season, he sang his first American performances of the title role of Der fliegende Holländer with Boston Lyric Opera and also in Italy at the Teatro alla Scala. He returned to the Boston Symphony Orchestra to reprise Porgy in Porgy and Bess and to the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra for Verdi’s Requiem in addition to the Metropolitan Opera for Il trovatore and Don Giovanni. He was last seen at Minnesota Opera in The Magic Flute.

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banquo

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the artists Christian Zaremba

a doctor; a servant; a murderer

Hailed by The New York Times as “a stage animal with a big bass voice” the 26-year-old basso cantante is quickly garnering praise from companies and critics alike. He made his debut this summer at Glimmerglass Opera as the Bass Soloist in David Lang’s Little Match Girl Passion, appeared as Pistola in Falstaff with the Martina Arroyo Foundation and as Zuniga in Carmen and Colline in La bohème with Long Island Opera. Christian performed the speaking role of the Porter in Manon at the Metropolitan Opera, covered the principal acting role of Agamemnon in Iphigénie en Tauride at the Metropolitan Opera and appeared at Weill Hall as Il Commendatore in Don Giovanni. He has sung Sarastro in Die Zauberflote, Zuniga in Carmen and Angelotti in Tosca with New York Lyric Opera as well as Don Basilio in Il barbiere di Siviglia with Capitol Heights Opera. The 2013–2014 season will see Christian make his debut with Minnesota Opera as Sarastro (The Magic Flute), Lamoral (Arabella), the Innkeeper (Manon Lescaut) and cover Banquo (Macbeth).

Minnesota Opera Orchestra

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Violin I

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Allison Ostrander Concertmaster Julia Persitz David Mickens Judy Thon-Jones Angela Waterman Hanson Conor O’Brien Natalia Moiseeva Heidi Amundson Maise Block

Violin II

Laurie Petruconis Elizabeth Decker Stephan Orsak Melinda Marshall Margaret Humphrey Elise Parker Lydia Miller Huldah Niles

ViolA

David Auerbach Emily Hagen Laurel Browne Jenny Lind Nilsson James Bartsch Valerie Little

CELLO

Jim Jacobson Sally Gibson Dorer Thomas Austin Teresa Richardson Kirsten Whitson Joseph Englund

BASS

John Michael Smith Constance Martin Jason C. Hagelie Michael Watson

FLUTE

Michele Frisch

BASSOON

Coreen Nordling Laurie Hatcher Merz

HORN

Matt Wilson Charles Hodgson Timothy Bradley Lawrence Barnhart

TRUMPET

John G. Koopmann Christopher Volpe

Trombone

PICCOLO

Phillip Ostrander John Tranter David Stevens

OBOE

Steve Skov

Amy Morris

Michael Dayton Ryan Walsh, double English horn

CLARINET

Jennifer Gerth Nina Olsen

CIMBASSO TIMPANI

Kory Andry

PERCUSSION

Matthew Barber Steve Kimball

HARP

Min J. Kim

OFFSTAGE BANDA

Jeffrey Marshak, oboe Marlene Pauley, clarinet Paul Schulz, clarinet Rena Kraut, clarinet Matt Bertand, bassoon Cheryl Kelley, contra bassoon

the artists CHORUS Matthew Abbas Karen Bushby Carolyn Cavadini Joseph Clegg Cecile Crozat-Zawisza Greg Dokken Jennifer Eckes Andy Elfenbein Carole Finneran Peter Frenz Thomas Glass Michelle Hayes

Sandra Henderson Benjamin Hills Cresta Hubert John Humphrey Kathleen Humphrey Ben Johnson Hye-Won Kim Erin Klenotich Elizabeth Kohl Gary Kubert Katie Kupchik Evan Kusler

Michelle Liebl Elizabeth Longhurst Joel Mathias Michael Mayer Riley McNutt Monica Murray John Allen Nelson Phong Nguyen Rick Penning Mario Perez Alex Ritchie Grant Scherzer

Cathryn Schmidt Lauren Stepka Kristie Tigges Kelly Turpin Colyn Tvete Eryn Tvete Tricia Van Ee John Verkuilen Rachel Vickers Lola Watson

Joe Johnson Lucy Juncosa Ryan Lear

Thomas Lorendo Ronald Schultz Shelby Scott

SUPERNUMERARIES Joe Allen Christopher Bauleke Stephanie Bright

Alex Cotant Andy Flamm Stephen Hage

production multimedia A & C Publishing, Inc. – Wendy Wagner, Director of Operations Aleutian Calabay – Publicity Photographer

MINNESOTA PUBLIC RADIO®

Michal Daniel – Production Photographer QuarterTon Productions – Publicity Video

Classical MPR – Broadcast Recording

Celebrating the 61St year of the Metropolitan Opera National Council

Upper Midwest Region Auditions

February 1, 2014, 12pm Ordway Mainstage Judges are Executive Director Gayletha Nichols with Dan Novak from Lyric Opera of Chicago’s Ryan Opera Center and bass Kevin Langan.

For more information visit moncuppermidwest.com

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The auditions are free and open to a public audience.

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Meet the Artists

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Brenda Harris

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AND

Greer Grimsley How many years have you worked together, and what is a lasting impression from your many collaborations? GG: Brenda and I have worked together for more than 20 years. The foremost and lasting impression of Brenda is her beautiful voice and flawless technique as well as her great sense of humor. That said,

her commitment to the text and drama is amazing. BH: We’ve had wonderful times on all of our collaborations, but the lasting memory from each and every production for me is the laughter. We did a comedy together once and in performance, I often was unable to sing for laughing.

2014 © Calabay Productions

Come quickly, hour of death, Fate’s remorseless decree; this business will end with crime since it was begun with blood. Vengeance! – Act iii

How often have you performed this role? GG: This will make my fourth production as Macbeth, and every time I have gotten to perform this amazing role has been special for me. BH: I think I’ve sung this great Lady in five or six productions and honestly, they were all memorable for different reasons: in one, the production concept, in another, the amazing chorus, and yet another, my colleagues. I’ve loved each and every one. What is your favorite line of the opera? GG: I really can’t say I have a favorite line. My duets with Brenda and the scene with the witches are real highlights. BH: There are just too many lines, both from Shakespeare and Verdi, to pick one! 

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How has your past history together influenced your partnership in this production of Macbeth? BH: It’s just easier. When you have a good history with a colleague, you can cut to the heart of the work – no need to dance around egos or issues, just work. I love that! GG: There is a comfort and trust when you get to work with a dear friend. This is nice when we explore such a dark work.

Left bottom clockwise: Harris in Roberto Devereux, 2010, and in Maria Padilla, 2005; Grimsley and Harris in The Tales of Hoffmann, 1996 (© Gary Mortensen); Grimsley in The Flying Dutchman, 2003, and Tosca, 1998. All photos, unless noted, © by Michal Daniel.

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Rob Ainsley

© Michal Daniel for Minnesota Opera

The Minnesota Opera Chorus

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(2013)

through weeks of rehearsal, guiding them through the considerable vocal, dramatic and memorization challenges involved in performing this score and molding them into an ensemble that can fully inhabit their roles as individual performers, but which sings with a single unified voice of precision, clarity and specific emotional intent. Growing up in North East England in the small city of Durham, with its magnificent thousand-year-old Norman cathedral, I was surrounded by choral music from an early age, singing as a boy chorister at school, studying the organ in the great cathedral itself and eventually going on to 2013 © Noorah Bawazir for Minnesota Opera

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ew operas make such heavy demands on the chorus as Macbeth: they are called upon to play fantastical witches, horrified castle-dwellers, bewildered members of the king’s court, soldiers, bards, Scottish refugees and assassins in the course of one evening, singing from their softest pianissimo to the most red-blooded, full-throated fortissimo, often in the same measure. Verdi himself said there were three main characters in Macbeth: Macbeth, Lady Macbeth and the Witches. Part of my duties as the new Head of Music at Minnesota Opera is to act as Chorusmaster, leading this group of highly trained professional singers

Manon Lescaut

Rob Ainsley (above) leads Opera Insights, Minnesota Opera’s pre-show events which are free to concert-goers and held in the Marzitelli Foyer one hour prior to curtain. He also hosts Behind the Curtain preview events. More at mnop.co/BTC.

become an organ scholar at St. Catharine’s College, Cambridge, where I directed the chapel choir. Before going into opera, I had spent many years working with church choirs and choral societies, training singers of all ages and abilities in a wide range of different repertoires. It was a natural move to become a Chorusmaster and Head of Music, a post I have held at Portland Opera, Oregon, and currently also hold at the Opera Theatre of Saint Louis in the summer. The unique challenge of singing in an opera chorus stems from the contradiction of having to act like an individual, with your own unique staging, expressions and interactions with other cast members, but sing precisely together with everyone else on stage and in the pit, regardless of whether you are downstage center, or off in the wings. Unlike most choral literature, an opera chorus usually acts as a single character, “the public voice,” and their utterances have to sound like direct speech, rather than poetry. Oddly, the more people sing a line at once, the more diluted the intent generally becomes – questions and exclamations lose their energy and direction, emotion becomes clouded. Much of our work revolves around ensuring that the

intention of each line they deliver comes across, which takes great linguistic precision, exaggerated energy from each chorister and a complicated interplay of ears, eyes and intuition to ensure that everyone delivers the line at the same instant. I have been extremely fortunate to find here in Minnesota an immensely devoted group of singers, as fanatical as I about the quality, depth and importance of their work. Often, the chorus’ job is to lead your emotional reactions to the drama, cueing you as to what you should be feeling through their words. In this show, they also drive the drama, fueling and speeding Macbeth’s downfall. Although I am always out of sight backstage, when everything comes together, and the soloists soar above the roar of the chorus in the grand act finales, or the solo choral movements are spine-tinglingly effective, my satisfaction and pride is just as great as those in costume. Spare a special thought today for those hard-working choristers up there, and the integral part they play in making your experience at the opera so powerful. Head of Music

Arabella

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© Michal Daniel for Minnesota Opera

(2013)

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Want to sing with Minnesota Opera? Chorus auditions for Minnesota Opera’s 2014–2015 season will be held

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© Michal Daniel for Minnesota Opera

Tuesday, April 15 through Saturday, April 19 , 2014

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at Minnesota Opera Center, 620 North First Street in Minneapolis.

mnop.co/opera-chorus

Nabucco (2012)

Feature

Minnesota Opera Broadcasts MINNESOTA PUBLIC RADIO®

Doubt – Tuesday, February 25, 2014 at 8pm

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© Michal Daniel

© Calabay Productions

Anna Bolena – Wednesday, April 9, 2014 at 8pm

A notorious life hangs precariously in the balance. The walls are closing in on Anne Boleyn (soprano Keri Alkema) as she fails produce Anna Bolena to a male heir. (2012) Bursting with vocal pyrotechnics, Donizetti’s legendary masterpiece is a gripping tale of intrigue and betrayal. This sumptuous production marks the not-to-be-missed conclusion of Minnesota Opera’s Tudor trilogy and features bass-baritone Kyle Ketelsen as King Henry viii.

© Calabay Productions

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© Michal Daniel

Moral certainty requires no proof. The Bronx, 1964 – Suspicion ignites a battle of wills at a Catholic school. Sister Aloysius (soprano Christine Brewer) embarks on a personal Doubt crusade to ruin Father Flynn (2013) (baritone Matthew Worth), whom she accuses of abusing the school’s only black student. This riveting new opera poses questions to ponder long after the curtain goes down. Mezzo-sopranos Denyce Graves and Adriana Zabala also star in this Minnesota Opera New Works Initiative production with music by Douglas J. Cuomo and libretto by John Patrick Shanley, based on his play © 2005 and film © 2008.

Visit mnop.co/listen for more information on Minnesota Opera’s broadcasts and ongoing relationship with Minnesota Public Radio.

upcoming events

Tempo is in its second decade of engaging 20- and 30-somethings with Minnesota Opera through one-of-a-kind events and steeply discounted tickets for opening night performances. For only $50, your Tempo membership includes exciting benefits to help you get the most out of your experience.

mnop.co/tempo mnop.co/blog 612-333-6669 tempo@mnopera.org

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Arabella Tempo Night Out + After Party 2013 © Corinne Standish

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February 17 – The Dream of Valentino Tempo Happy Hour + Behind the Curtain Meet up at The Tangiers in the North Loop neighborhood for cocktails and casual fare. Then head over to the Minnesota Opera Center for Behind the Curtain. Get the inside scoop as opera experts and members of the cast and creative team lead discussions exploring the music, history and design of Valentino. Behind the Curtain classes are ideal for first-time opera goers and long-term fans alike.

MARCH 1 – The Dream of Valentino Tempo Night Out + After Party After the opening night performance of Dominick Argento’s tango-tinged opera about the real-life silent film star, head over to Sakura and join Tempo as we return to 1920s Hollywood for an evening of glamour and passionfilled dancing. You may even meet Valentino himself!

New Works Initiative

Dominick Argento 2009 © Michal Daniel

COMPOSER

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I

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n a way, I’m looking forward to this as the ‘real’ premiere [of The Dream of Valentino] because I have a feeling that Eric Simonson, who you’ve gotten to be the stage director, seems to know Hollywood, which is for me the key to the whole thing. The opera is primarily my love letter to Hollywood and that movie era between the two World Wars – the silent movies and all those great stars. I always wanted to write an opera about this but unfortunately at Kennedy Center, we got a [director] from Sweden who had little sympathy or understanding, and Eric Simonson … who lives in Hollywood.” This began an intriguing and insightful conversation between Minnesota Opera’s Artistic Director Dale Johnson and one of the foremost American opera composers of the 20th century, Dominick Argento. When asked how The Dream of Valentino came to be, Argento replied: “I came up with the idea, and Charles [Nolte, my librettist] seconded it immediately.

Dominick Argento’s wife, soprano Carolyn Bailey, in Blow’s Venus and Adonis, 1964.

I think he would have been happier if we had thought about Sunset Boulevard – I still think Boulevard would make a great opera … but we agreed about Valentino. What interested me primarily was the idea of him being destroyed at the height of his career, and the matter of his destruction has always bothered me. You may know he died of perforated ulcers. That was evidently brought on by a wave of scandal, and the scandal was created by the moguls in Hollywood who wanted to get him back into the movie business where they could make a lot of money … The whole idea that a young man who comes to America, seeks a fortune, finds it and then is immediately surrounded by unscrupulous people who destroy him – that just made for me an interesting dramatic arc in an era and an environment that I was dying to use.”

Visit mnop.co/valentino to watch the full

The Masque of Angels (1964)

Postcard from Morocco (1971)

A Water Bird Talk (1981)

The Aspern Papers (1991)

(1981)

The Voyage of Edgar Allan Poe (1976)

Casanova’s Homecoming (1985 and 2009)

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The Dream of Valentino is Argento’s only major opera not yet produced by Minnesota Opera, and it will finally grace the Ordway stage beginning March 1, 2014, in a brand new production by Eric Simonson (The Grapes of Wrath, Wuthering Heights, Silent Night).

Miss Havisham’s Wedding NIght

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conversation and to learn more about the opera.

Upcoming events at Minnesota Opera

FEB 17 – Tempo Happy Hour + Behind the Curtain More on page 36 or at mnop.co/tempo.

| minnesota opera  twitter.com/mnopera

FEB 17 – Behind the Curtain: The Dream of Valentino Look behind the curtain to see what it takes to bring innovative opera to the stage. Hosted by Minnesota Opera’s new Head of Music Rob Ainsley, composer Dominick Argento will be the evening’s special guest, sharing his reflections about not only the creation of this piece, but about its re-creation, including the changes made to highlight this production’s leading man, tenor James Valenti. More at mnop.co/Valentino-BTC.

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FEB 25 – Doubt Broadcast Minnesota Public Radio will broadcast Minnesota Opera’s 2013 world premiere production of composer Douglas J. Cuomo and librettist John Patrick Shanley’s Doubt at 8pm. Hailed as “an absorbing opera of ideas ... that speaks to the heart” by Star Tribune, this allstar cast features Christine Brewer and Denyce Graves. More on page 34 about this and future broadcasts, or at mnop.co/listen.

FEB 27 – Social Media Preview: The Dream of Valentino Minnesota Opera hosts a Social Media Preview for bloggers, tweeters and social media savvy individuals. Beginning with refreshments and a pre-rehearsal discussion with a special guest, the event continues with exclusive access to the final dress rehearsal. R.S.V.P. online at mnop.co/preview by February 24. MAR 1 – Tempo Night Out + After Party More on page 36 or at mnop.co/tempo. MAR 1-9 – Dominick Argento’s The Dream of Valentino A sultry young dancer is transformed from an unknown immigrant into a silent film sensation. Rudolph Valentino’s stardom blazes across the silver screen but is quickly consumed by the same forces that ignited it. Seduction and scandal swirl in Dominick Argento’s tangotinged opera about an artist discovered and destroyed by Hollywood. Opera Insights – Come early and enjoy free, fun and informative half-hour sessions, hosted by Minnesota Opera artistic staff in Ordway’s mezzanine lobby one hour prior to each performance. Join us for Opera Insights and get an overview of the characters and music, historical and cultural context for the opera and highlights to watch for during the show.

Dale Johnson

I

first became associated with Dominick Argento’s music when I was a young pianist living in New York. I was trying to make a living only as a rehearsal pianist and also as a studio accompanist for many prominent voice teachers. The years after I graduated from Manhattan School of Music were all about finding out who I was as a musician and if there was a place for me in the world of opera. I had the good fortune to work with singer and teacher Judith Raskin, who immersed me both in the world of Mozart, Schubert and Puccini as well as Rossini and Donizetti. At the same time Judith was a great advocate for contemporary music. She encouraged me to seek out opportunities to work in that genre. One of my early ventures into the world of contemporary music was playing Argento’s early song cycle, Songs About Spring. I was first surprised that these songs were quite melodic and attractive as well as being gently “modern.” I searched for other opportunities and was engaged by Encompass Music Theater to be the pianist for the rehearsals of Postcard from Morocco, the chamber opera that put Dominick Argento on the map as one of the foremost composers of opera in the second half of the 20th century. This opera was a revelation and dealt with the interesting subject of making

choices and defending one’s motivation to others. Indeed this was a piece that looked beyond the surface. The virtuosic display of music from various genres was a pleasure, however, as a pianist and instrumentalist, I became most fascinated with how Argento used the colors of the orchestra to explore the inner soul. When I came to Minnesota, one of my first operas was Casanova’s Homecoming. This piece scared me to death! It looked on paper to be so difficult as the chorus writing was complex as well as intricate. As I began to decipher the piece, I felt that same excitement I had felt with Postcard. Argento is a composer who can write a beautiful melody in the Italian style but surround it with some of the most complex 20 th -century techniques, all serving that melody. Dominick is a true 20 th-century composer who loves and pays homage to his Italian bloodline with beautiful and moving melodies and gorgeous instrumentation. The Dream of Valentino has enchanted me for a long time – its storyline, the tango music, the subject matter which is so very American. I can’t wait to bring this moving opera to Minnesota.  Artistic Director

| MACBETH

The Dream of Valentino Preview

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Republican Eagle photo by John R. Russett

Red Wing Community Residency Minnesota Opera

“Opera’s Greatest Hits”

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T

his fall, Minnesota Opera traveled to scenic Red Wing, Minnesota for a three-week community residency that engaged students and adults alike. From October 7–26, 2013 Teaching Artist Bergen Baker and other Minnesota Opera Artists led the students of Red Wing High School in a series of individual voice lessons, group rehearsals and interactive lessons about the art form of opera. The students then partnered with Minnesota Opera artists, students of Shattuck–St. Mary’s School in Faribault, the Red Wing Singers and the Cannon Valley Community Orchestra for a two-concert series of “Opera’s Greatest Hits” at the historic Sheldon Theatre in Red Wing. Together with our community partners, we served over 800 students and adults! © Corinne Standish

| minnesota opera  youtube.com/minnesotaopera

Education

© Noorah Bawazir

Teaching Artist Bergen Baker leads students of Red Wing High School in a rehearsal of “Ricevete o padroncina” from Mozart’s The Marriage of Figaro.

The Cannon Valley Regional Orchestra, The Red Wing Singers, students from Red Wing High School and members of Shattuck–St. Mary’s Vocal Performance Program rehearse for “Opera’s Greatest Hits” at the Sheldon Theatre in Red Wing.

After the performance with (L-R) Minnesota Opera Board Chair Shelli Chase, Bergen Baker, Rodolfo Nieto, Christie Hageman, Aaron Breid and President and General Director Kevin Ramach.

| MACBETH

© Corinne Standish

at the Sheldon Theatre was, well … a hit!

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minnesota opera staff President and General Director | Kevin Ramach Artistic Director | Dale Johnson Music Director | Michael Christie

Artistic

Production

Artistic Administrator | Roxanne Stouffer Artist Relations and Planning Director  |  Floyd Anderson Dramaturg | David Sander Head of Music | Robert Ainsley Resident Artists  |  Aaron Breid, Daniel Ellis, Christie Hageman, Rebecca Krynski, John Robert Lindsey, Geoffrey Loff, Sheldon Miller, Matthew Opitz, Shannon Prickett, Victoria Vargas, Christian Zaremba Master Coaches | Lara Bolton, Mary Jo Gothmann Artist Administration Intern  |  Thomas Glass

Production Director | Karen Quisenberry Production Stage Manager | Kerry Masek Assistant Stage Managers | Shayna j. Houp, Andrew Landis

Costumes

| minnesota opera  mnopera.org

Costume Shop Manager | Corinna Bohren Assistant Costume Shop Manager | Beth Sanders Tailor  |  Yancey Thrift Drapers  |  Chris Bur, Emily Rosenmeier First Hands  |  Helen Ammann, Kelsey Glasener, Rebecca Karstad Stitchers  |  Allison Guglielmi, Ann Habermann, Rachel Skudlarek Wig/Makeup Supervisors  |  Priscilla Bruce, Ashley Joyce Wig/Makeup Run Crew  |  Sarah Bourne, Suzanne Jankowski, Dominick Veldman

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Scenery Technical Director | Mike McQuiston Properties Master | Jenn Maatman Properties Assistant  |  Michael C. Long Lighting Coordinator  |  Wm. P. Healey Assistant Lighting Coordinator  |  Tom Rost Production Carpenter | JC Amel Scene Shop Foreman | Rod Aird Master Carpenters | Nate Kulenkamp, Steven Rovie, Eric Veldey Charge Painter | Jeffery Murphey

Administration Finance Director | Jeff Couture Operations/Systems Manager  |  Steve Mittelholtz HR/Accounting Manager | Jennifer Thill Director of Board Relations  |  Theresa Murray Finance Assistant | Michelle Gould

Development Vice President of Development | Corey Cowart Director of Development | Dawn Loven Director of Institutional Support | Beth Comeaux Director of Special Events | Emily Skoblik Individual Gifts Officer | Jenna Wolf Development Associate | Seana Johnson

Education Community Education Director | Jamie Andrews Teaching Artist | Bergen Baker Project Opera Music Director | Dale Kruse Project Opera Accompanist | Kathy Kraulik Project Opera Assistant | Maria Moua

Marketing/Communications Senior Director of Marketing and Communications  | Lani Willis Marketing Director  |  Katherine L. Castille Communications Manager | Daniel R. Zillmann Program Manager, Marketing and Communications | Kristin Matejcek Technology and Interactive Media Manager |  Adam Holisky Ticket Office Manager | Julie Behr Assistant Ticket Office Manager | Kevin Beckey Ticket Office Associate  |  Sarah Fowler Ticket Office Assistants  |  Carol Corich, Kärsten Jensen, Carrie Walker Photography Intern | Noorah Bawazir

minnesota opera board

OfFIcers Rachelle D. Chase, Chair Kevin Ramach, President and General Director James Johnson, Vice Chair Robert Lee, Secretary Patricia Johnson, Treasurer

Directors­­­­­ Patricia Beithon Peter W. Carter Rachelle D. Chase Jane M. Confer Sara Donaldson Chip Emery Bianca Fine Sharon Hawkins Ruth S. Huss Heinz F. Hutter Mary IngebrandPohlad Philip Isaacson James Johnson Patricia Johnson Christine Larsen Robert Lee Steve Mahon

David Meline Leni Moore Albin “Jim” Nelson Kay Ness Luis Pagan-Carlo Jose Peris Stephanie Prem Kevin Ramach Elizabeth Redleaf Connie Remele Don Romanaggi Christopher Romans Linda Roberts Singh Nadege Souvenir Simon Stevens Virginia Stringer H. Bernt von Ohlen Margaret Wurtele

Emeriti Karen Bachman John A. Blanchard, III Burton Cohen

Julia W. Dayton Mary W. Vaughan

Honorary Directors Dominick Argento Philip Brunelle Dolly Fiterman

Norton M. Hintz Liz Kochiras Patricia H. Sheppard

Legal Counsel James A. Rubenstein, Moss & Barnett

Tempo Board Ryan Alberg Thomas Bakken Benjamin Canine Leslie Carey Melissa Daul Katie Eiser Kara Eliason Jennifer Engel Laura Green Ben Jones Claire Joseph Carolina Lamas Susan N. Leppke

Kristin Matejcek, Staff Liaison Megan Mehl, Board Chair Alex Morton Chrissi Reimer Jana Sackmeister Polina Saprygina Rhonda Skoby, Vice Chair Carrie Walker Jenna Wolf

minnesota opera volunteers The following volunteers contribute their time and talent to support the key activities of Minnesota Opera. If you would like to learn more about volunteering please visit mnopera.org/volunteer, email volunteering@mnopera.org or call Jenna Wolf at 612-342-9569. Lynne Beck Gerald Benson Debra Brooks Jerry Cassidy Judith Duncan Jane Fuller Joan Gacki Merle Hanson Robin Keck Mary Lach Jerry Lillquist Joyce Lillquist Melanie Locke Yelva Lynfield

Suzan Lynnes Mary McDiarmid Verne Melberg Barbara Moore Douglas Myhra Candyce Osterkamp Dan Panshin Pat Panshin Sydney Phillips Kari Schutz Janet Skidmore Wendi Sott Barbara Willis

Minnesota Opera is a proud member of The Arts Partnership with Ordway Center for the Performing Arts, The Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra and The Schubert Club.

| MACBETH

board of directors

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annual fund | education outreach Anoka, MN

© Sigrid Redpath for Minnesota Opera

Community Outreach (2013)

| minnesota opera  facebook.com/minnesotaopera

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innesota Opera provides in-school education and programs that bring opera to students in unique and engaging ways. Several hundred students at Anoka High School were treated to a special performance and a Q&A session (done via Twitter!) from Arabella stars Craig Irvin (Mandryka) and Brian Jagde (Matteo). Craig and Brian are passionate about music education, and wanted to share their love and knowledge of opera with Minnesota students. This visit was facilitated by Michelle Hayes, the choir director at Anoka High School and a member of the Minnesota Opera Chorus. In the spring, Minnesota Opera will

return for a third year to St. Cloud for a three-week residency serving nearly 7oo students. Sixth graders in School District 742 will learn about opera, rehearse and perform an Italian opera chorus, and attend a performance of Through the Eyes and Ears of Mozart at the Paramount Theater in Downtown St. Cloud. Students will join Minnesota Opera Artists and members of the St. Cloud Symphony Orchestra onstage for the performance, giving young operagoers a quality artistic experience in Greater Minnesota. Residencies like these are perfect examples of how Minnesota Opera reaches beyond the borders of the Twin Cities into communities across our state. 

Minnesota Opera needs your support to make programs like these possible for thousands of kids and adults each year. Visit mnop.co/support to make a tax-deductible gift online (select “other” for the gift designation, and enter “Education”), call 612-342-9569 to give by phone.

Thank you!

annual fund | individual giving It is with deep appreciation that Minnesota Opera recognizes and thanks all of the individual donors whose annual support helps bring great opera to life. It is our pleasure to give special recognition to the following individuals whose leadership support provides the financial foundation which makes the Opera’s artistic excellence possible. For information on making a contribution to Minnesota Opera, please call Dawn Loven, Director of Development, at 612-342-9567 or email her at dloven@mnopera.org.

bel canto circle Platinum  $25,000 and above

Gold  $15,000–$24,999

Anonymous (1) Mary and Gus Blanchard Jane M. and Ogden W. Confer Julia W. Dayton Sara and Jock Donaldson Vicki and Chip Emery Mr. and Mrs. William Frels Ruth and John Huss Heinz Hutter Mr. and Mrs. Philip Isaacson James E. Johnson Lucy Rosenberry Jones The Art and Martha Kaemmer Fund of HRK Foundation Elizabeth Redleaf Mrs. Mary W. Vaughan C. Angus and Margaret Wurtele

Anonymous (1) Tracy and Eric Aanenson Karen Bachman Rachelle Dockman Chase Ellie Crosby William I. and Bianca M. Fine Charitable Trust N. Bud and Beverly Grossman Foundation Kathleen and John Junek Robert L. Lee and Mary E. Schaffner Barbara and David Meline Moore Family Fund for the Arts Judy Mortrude and Steven Mahon Albin and Susan Nelson Kay Ness and Chris Wolohan Joseph Sammartino Bernt von Ohlen and Tom Nichol

Silver  $10,000–$14,999

Anonymous (2) Dominick Argento Patricia and John Beithon Donald E. Benson Susan Boren Sharon Hawkins Garrison Keillor and Jenny Lind Nilsson Warren and Patricia Kelly Harvey T. McLain Mary Ingebrand Pohlad Connie and Lew Remele Patricia and Don Romanaggi Robert and Barbara Struyk Maggie Thurer and Simon Stevens Virginia L. and Edward C. Stringer Wayne Zink and Scott Gallus

Platinum  $7,500–$9,999

Allegro Fund of The Saint Paul Foundation Shari and David Boehnen Alexis and Michael Christie Patricia Johnson and Kai Bjerkness Erwin and Miriam Kelen Jose Peris and Diana Gulden Chris Larsen and Scott Peterson Lynne Looney Lois and John Rogers Jennifer and Chris Romans

Gold  $5,000–$7,499

James Andrus Anonymous (2) Martha and Bruce Atwater Fund of The Minneapolis Foundation William Biermaier and David Hanson Peter Davis and Pamela Webster Cy and Paula Decosse Fund of The Minneapolis Foundation Jodi Dehli Dolly J. Fiterman Lonnie and Stefan Helgeson

Andrew Houlton Cynthia and Jay Ihlenfeld Debra and James Lakin Mary and Barry Lazarus Ilo and Peggy Leppik Mr. and Mrs. Donald Lucker Mr. and Mrs. Reid MacDonald Kendrick B. Melrose Family Foundation Diana and Joe Murphy Bill and Barbara Pearce Stephanie Prem and Tom Owens Mary and Paul Reyelts Nadege Souvenir Dr. and Mrs. Andrew J. Thomas Stephanie C. Van D’Elden Lori and Herbert Ward

Silver  $2,500–$4,999

Anonymous (4) Nina and John Archabal Martha Goldberg Aronson and Daniel Aronson Annette Atkins and Tom Joyce Alexandra O. Bjorklund Ken and Peggy Bonneville Dr. Lee Borah, Jr.

Margee and Will Bracken Rita and Kenneth Britton Barry and Wendy Brunsman Juliet Bryan and Jack Timm Christopher J. Burns Kathleen Callahan Mr. and Mrs. Richard A. Carlson Darlene J. and Richard P. Carroll Nicky B. Carpenter Rusty and Burt Cohen Gisela Corbett Jennifer and Corey Cowart Rebecca and Jay Debertin Thomas and Mary Lou Detwiler Ralph D. Ebbott Nancy and Rolf Engh Rondi Erickson and Sandy Lewis Gail Fiskewold Melanie and Bruce Flessner Patricia R. Freeburg Meg and Wayne Gisslen Mrs. Myrtle Grette Ms. Susanne Haas and Mr. Ross Formell Michele Harris and Peter Tanghe Alfred and Ingrid Lenz Harrison Dorothy Horns and James Richardson

| MACBETH

camerata circle

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annual fund | individual giving camerata circle Dr. and Mrs. Arthur Horowitz Bill and Hella Mears Hueg Diane and Paul Jacobson Dale A. Johnson Robert and Susan Josselson Nancy and Donald Kapps Warren and Patricia Kelly Lyndel and Blaine King Robert Kriel and Linda Krach David MacMillan and Judy Krow Helen L. Kuehn Dr. Caliann Lum Margery Martin and Dan Feidt Roy and Dorothy Mayeske Mary Bigelow McMillan

(continued)

Velia R. Melrose Karla Miller Dr. and Mrs. Alfred Moore Sandy and Bob Morris Nancy and Richard Nicholson Mr. and Mrs. Rolf Peters Marge and Dwight Peterson Mrs. William Phillips Sara and Kevin Ramach Rhoda and Paul Redleaf Thomas D. and Nancy J. Rohde In Memory of Agnes M. Romanaggi Nina and Ken Rothchild James A. Rubenstein, Moss & Barnett Kay Savik and Joe Tashjian

Mary H. and Christian G. Schrock Drs. Joseph and Kristina Shaffer Lynda and Frank Sharbrough Andrea and Bob Sheehy Stephanie Simon and Craig Bentdahl Julie and Bruce Steiner Dr. Norrie Thomas William Voedisch and Laurie Carlson Dr. Craig and Stephanie Walvatne Sonja and Jerry Wenger Nancy and Ted Weyerhaeuser Carolyn, Sharon and Clark Winslow Woessner Freeman Family Foundation

artist circle

| minnesota opera  twitter.com/mnopera

$1,000–$2,499

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Anonymous (3) Mary and Charles Anderson Kim A. Anderson Betty Andrews Ruth and Dale Bachman Barbara and David Baker In memory of Kent Bales Ann and Thomas Bagnoli Mrs. Paul G. Boening Allan Bradley Drs. Jan and Eli Briones Juliet Bryan and Jack Timm Ann and Glen Butterman Scott Cabalka Elwood and Florence Caldwell Joan and George Carlson Wanda and David Cline In Memory of Kathy Coleman Bruce Coppock and Lucia May Barb and Jeff Couture Susan and Richard Crockett Helen and John Crosson Jeff and Wendy Dankey Fran Davis Ruth and Bruce Dayton The Denny Fund of The Minneapolis Foundation Margaret DiBlasio Elise Donohue Joan Duddingston Joyce and Hugh Edmondson Ann Fankhanel Ester and John Fesler Joyce and Hal Field Salvatore Silvestri Franco Emil and Robert Fredericksen Terence Fruth and Mary McEvoy Family Fund of The Minneapolis Foundation Bradley Fuller and Elizabeth Lincoln Christine and Michael Garner

Mr. and Mrs. R. James Gesell Heidi and Howard Gilbert Stanley and Luella Goldberg Dr. Richard Gregory Bruce and Jean Grussing Hackensack Fund of The Saint Paul Foundation Don Helgeson and Sue Shepard Jean McGough Holten Thomas Hunt and John Wheelihan Ekdahl Hutchinson Family Fund of The Minneapolis Foundation Teresa and Chuck Jakway Margaret and Philip Johnson Paula and Bryce Johnson Sharon and Fredrik Johnson Janet Jones Wadad Kadi Stan and Jeanne Kagin Terri and Alan Kildow E. Robert and Margaret V. Kinney Fund of The Minneapolis Foundation Hugh Klein and Judy Lebedoff Gerard Knight Mrs. James S. Kochiras Kyle Kossol and Tom Becker Constance and Daniel Kunin Bryan Lechner Stefanie Lenway and Tom Murtha Mr. and Mrs. Seymour Levy Helen and Ben Liu Bill Long Richard and Elizabeth Longfellow Family Dawn M. Loven Barbara McBurney Laura McCarten Helen and Charles McCrossan Sheila McNally Deb and Jon McTaggart Judith and James Mellinger David and LaVonne Middleton

Jill Mortensen and Kay Phillips Judy and David Myers Elizabeth B. Myers Joan and Richard Newmark Douglas and Mary Olson Pat and Dan Panshin Derrill M. Pankow Paula Patineau Sally and Thomas Patterson Suzanne and William Payne Susanne and Rick Pepin J.M. Pickle Mary and Robert Price Kari and Dan Rasmus Courtney and Scott Rile John and Sandra Roe Foundation Kim and Peter Rue Kristine and Roger Ruckert Terry Saario and Lee Lynch Anne and Lee Salisbury Sampson Family Charitable Foundation Dr. and Mrs. Richard J. Schindler In Memory of Lyle R. Schumacher Gloria and Fred Sewell Ardath and Glenn Solsrud Matthew Spanjers Edson Spencer Michael Steffes Donna Stephenson Dana and Stephen Strand Vern Sutton Michael Symeonides and Mary Pierce Jennifer and David Thomas Schelly and Bryn Vaaler Patricia and Douglas Vayda Cindy and Steven Vilks Mr. and Mrs. Philip Von Blon James and Sharon Weinel Lani Willis and Joel Spoonheim In Honor of Ron Wyman

annual fund | individual giving patron circle Bridget Manahan and Joe Alexander Barbara S. Belk Gerald and Phyllis Benson Debra Brooks and James Meunier Christine and Jon Galloway Jennifer Gross and Jerry LeFevre Charles Hample The Mahley Family Foundation Carolyn and Charles Mayo Ann M. Rock David E. Sander Warren Stortroen David L. Ward John W. Windhorst, Jr.

Silver  $500–$749

Anonymous (3) Arlene and Tom Alm Alvaro Alonso August J. Aquila and Emily Haliziw Dr. and Mrs. Orn Arnar Dan Avchen and David Johnson Jo and Gordon Bailey Family Fund of the Catholic Community Foundation Rebecca Arons and Thomas Basting, Jr. Donald and Naren Bauer Carl and Joan Behr Chuck Bennett Dennis and Judy Berkowitz Diane and David Blake Martin and Patricia Blumenreich Allen Brookins-Brown Thomas and Joyce Bruckner Jim and Julie Chosy Joann Cierniak J.P. Collins Ann Marie and Jim Collins Brenda Colwill Norma Danielson Eileen Dauer

Amos and Sue Deinard Mary Elise Dennis Mona Bergman Dewane and Patrick Dewane Lois Dirksen Joshua A. Dorothy Holli Egerstrom Mrs. John C. Rowland Steven Engle Herbert and Betty Fantle C.D.F. Foundation Kingston Fletcher Jane Fuller Joan and William Gacki W. Michael and Christine Garner David and Terry Gilberstadt Mark and Diane Gorder Roger and Eleanor Hall David and Chris Hansen Bonita Hanson Blanche and Thane Hawkins Stefan and Lonnie Helgeson Sharon and Cliff Hill Norton and Mary Hintz Henry and Jean Hoover The Josal Foundation Barbara Jenkins Bryce and Paula Johnson Charles and Sally Jorgensen Samuel L. Kaplan and Sylvia Chessen Kaplan Markle Karlen Carole and Joseph Killpatrick Katherine and Scott Kovarik James and Gail LaFave Chris and Marion Levy Ruth W. Lyons Dusty Mairs Tom and Marsha Mann Kristin and Jim Matejcek Patricia N. and Samuel D. McCullough Lee Mitau and Karin Birkeland Steven J. Mittelholtz Jack and Jane Moran Theresa and Jim Murray

Lucia Newell Ann and John O’Leary Dennis R. Olson Ruth and Ahmad Orandi Jim Pagliarini and Elizabeth Raymond Kathleen and Donald Park Lana K. Pemberton Ilya Perepelitsyn Ron and Mary Peterson Dwight and Christina Porter Matthew Ralph and Kristina Carlson Carroll and Barbara Rasch Dennis M. Ready Lawrence M. Redmond George Reid Bryn Roberts and Marcy Jefferson Richard G. and Liane A. Rosel Enrique and Clara Rotstein Marian R. Rubenfeld and Frederick G. Langendorf Georgie Saumweber Chris and Mark Schwarzmann John W. Shigeoka Cherie and Robert Shreck Topsy Simonson Stanislaw Skrowaczewski Clifford C. and Virginia G. Sorensen Charitable Trust of The Saint Paul Foundation Mark and Kristi Specker Jon Spoerri and Debra Christgau Chichi Steiner Judith Stone Roxanne Stouffer Dr. Anthony Thein Jill and John Thompson Jean Thomson and John Sandbo Susan Truman Mary Weinberger Howard and Jo Weiner Barbara and Carl White Barbara and James Willis

Not only has Minnesota Opera evolved to equal or excel any regional opera company, but through imaginative management, programming, innovation and the introduction of new works, Minnesota Opera has become a leader in its field. We have been both proud and gratified to witness this evolution as well as the outpouring of community support for what has become a vital cultural asset both for the Twin Cities community and our country at large.

— Fran and Arthur Horowitz, Minnesota Opera donors and subscribers

| MACBETH

Gold  $750–$999

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annual fund | individual giving associate circle

| minnesota opera  youtube.com/minnesotaopera

$250–$499

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Anonymous (2) Thomas O. Allen Katherine Anderson Linda Z. Andrews Jerry Artz Suzanne Asher Marcia J. Aubineau Eric S. Anderson and Janalee R. Aurelia Thomas Bailey James and Gail Bakkom Bishu and Irina Bandyopadhyay Laird Barber Carolyn Beatty Kevin Beckey Bender Vocal Studio Bill Bertram Matthew Brummer Philip and Carolyn Brunelle Dan Buivid Keith Campbell Renee Campion and David Walsh Jerome and Linda Carlson Katherine L. Castille John Chrisney Gretchen Collins Elisabeth Comeaux Jeanne E. Corwin Melissa Daul Mark Dickey Barry Divine Linda S. Donaldson Katherine and Douglas Donaldson Leah and Ian Evison Charles and Anne Ferrell Brian M. Finstad Christine Fleming Judith Garcia Galiana and Alberto Galiana Greta and Paul Garmers Hunt Greene and Jane Piccard William and Aimee Guidera Margaret Gunther Russell and Priscilla Hankins Anne Hanley and George Skinner Douglas and Doris Happe

Todd and Amy Hartman Jill A. Heath John and Rosmarie Helling Frederick J. Hey, Jr. Mary K. Hicks Andrew Holey and Gary Whitford Steve Horan Burton and Sandra Hoverson Worth L. Hudspeth Margaret F. Humphrey Ray Jacobsen Ed and Jean Jasienski Dr. and Mrs. Eric Jolly Erika and Herb Kahler Jeff and Andrea Kaiserman Kathryn Keefer Janice Kimes John Krenzke and Michelle Davis Kelly and Adam Kuczkowski Robert and Venetia Kudrle Nathan Kulenkamp Scott and Karla Lalim Beatrice and Robert Langford Kenyon S. Latham Lisa and Jonathan Lewis Sarah Lutman and Robert Rudolph Joan E. Madden Donald and Rhoda Mains Diane Malfeld Julie Matonich and Robert Bras David Mayo Beth McGuire and Tom Theobald Malcolm and Wendy McLean Harry McNeely Laurie and David Mech Curtis and Verne Melberg Robert Messner John L. Michel and H. Berit Midelfort Michael J. and Judith Mollerus Brad Momsen and Rick Buchholz David Mowry Virginia Dudley and William Myers Merritt C. Nequette William and Sharon Nichols Lowell and Sonja Noteboom Ms. Kathleen Nye-Reiling

Patricia A. O’Gorman Robert and Dorothy Ollmann Vivian Orey Donna and Marvin Ortquist Scott J. Pakudaitis Julia and Brian Palmer James A. Payne Carol Peterson Edward and Beverly Phares Walter Pickhardt and Sandra Resnick John and Norma Pierson Nicole and Charles Prescott Christina Reimer Robert E. Rocknem Michael and Tamara Root Bob and Donna Rose Daniel Roth Patricia and Stephen Rowley David M. Sandoz Mary Savina Mr. Jon L. Schasker and Ms. Debbie Carlson Deborah and Allan Schneider Paul L. Schroeder Estelle Sell Morris and Judith Sherman The Singer Family Foundation Debra Sit and Peter Berge Arthur and Marilynn Skantz Emily Skoblik Dr. Leslie W. Smith Jim Snustad Mary K. and Gary Stern Delroy and Doris Thomas Katharine E. Thomas Emily Anne and Gedney Tuttle Elaine B. Walker David Walsh and Renee Campion Wesley Wang Ellen M. Wells David Wendt Deborah Wheeler John and Sandra White Wendy Wildung John M. Williams Daniel Richard Zillmann

These lists are current as of January 1, 2014, and include donors who gave a gift of $250 or more during Minnesota Opera’s Annual Fund Campaign. If your name is not listed appropriately, please accept our apologies and contact Jenna Wolf, Individual Gifts Officer, at 612-342-9569.

become a donor

Bring innovative opera productions to life with your charitable gift, and join Minnesota Opera’s family of donors today.

Visit mnop.co/support to give online. THANK YOU!

La traviata 2011 © Michal Daniel for Minnesota Opera

LEGACY CIRCLE

Minnesota Opera thanks the following donors who, through their foresight and generosity, have included the Opera in their wills or estate plans. We invite you to join other opera-lovers by leaving a legacy gift to Minnesota Opera. If you have already made such a provision, we encourage you to notify us so that we may appropriately recognize your generosity. Anne P. Ducharme Sally Economon * Ester and John Fesler Paul Froeschl Katy Gaynor Robert and Ellen Green Ieva Grundmanis * Julia Hanna* Ruth Hanold * Fredrick J. Hey, Jr. Norton M. Hintz Jean McGough Holten Charles Hudgins * Dale and Pat Johnson Ruth Jones* Drs. Sally and Charles Jorgensen Robert and Susan Josselson Charlotte * and Markle Karlen Mary Keithahn Patty and Warren Kelly Margaret Kilroe Trust *

Blaine and Lyndel King Gretchen Klein * Bill and Sally Kling Gisela Knoblauch * Mr. and Mrs. James Krezowski Robert Kriel and Linda Krach Venetia and Robert Kudrle Robert Lawser, Jr. Jean Lemberg * Gerald and Joyce Lillquist David Mayo Barbara and Thomas * McBurney Mary McDiarmid Mildred McGonagle * Beth McGuire Mary Bigelow McMillan Margaret D. and Walter S. Meyers* John L. Michel and H. Berit Midelfort Susan Molder *

Edith Mueller * Kay Ness Joan and Richard Newark Philip Oxman and Harvey Zuckman Scott Pakudaitis Lana Pemberton Sydney and William* Phillips Richard G. * and Liane A. Rosel Mrs. Berneen Rudolph Mary Savina Frank and Lynda Sharbrough Drew Stewart James and Susan Sullivan Gregory C. Swinehart Stephanie Van D’Elden Mary Vaughan Dale and Sandra Wick Richard Zgodava* Daniel R. Zillmann * In Remembrance

For more information on making planned giving arrangements, please contact Dawn Loven, Director of Development, at 612-342-9567. Your attorney or financial advisor can then help determine which methods are most appropriate for you.

| MACBETH

Anonymous (4) Valerie and Paul Ackerman Thomas O. Allen Mr. and Mrs. Rolf Andreassen Mary A. Andres Karen Bachman Randolph G. Baier* Mark and Pat Bauer Mrs. Harvey O. Beek * Barbara and Sandy* Bemis  Dr. Lee Borah, Jr. Allan Bradley C. T. Bundy, II Joan and George Carlson Darlene J. and Richard P. Carroll Julia and Dan Cross Judy and Kenneth * Dayton Charles Denny Mrs. George Doty Rudolph Driscoll *

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institutional giving Minnesota Opera gratefully acknowledges its major institutional supporters: $100,000+ Hearst Foundations

The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation

This activity is made possible by the voters of Minnesota through a Minnesota State Arts Board Operating Support grant, thanks to a legislative appropriation from the arts and cultural heritage fund.

$50,000–$99,999

| minnesota opera  mnopera.org

$25,000–$49,999

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$10,000–$24,999

For information on making a corporate or foundation contribution to Minnesota Opera, please contact Beth Comeaux, Director of Institutional Support, at 612-342-9566 or email her at bcomeaux@mnopera.org.

institutional giving minnesota opera sponsors Season Sponsor

Ascent Private Capital Management of U.S. Bank

Production Sponsors

Manon Lescaut Ascent Private Capital Management of U.S. Bank The Dream of Valentino The Aaron Copland Fund for Music, Inc. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation The Magic Flute National Endowment for the Arts Target

Gala Sponsors

3M Ascent Private Capital Management of U.S. Bank JB Hudson Jewelers – Official Jeweler of Opera Gala 2013

Media Sponsor

Minnesota Public Radio

Opera Insights Comcast

Production Innovation System General Mills

Behind the Curtain

Resident Artist Program

Camerata Dinners

Tempo After Parties

Pine River Capital Management LP Abbot Downing

Wenger Foundation Sakura

corporations, foundations and government 3M Foundation Ameriprise Financial, Inc. Fred C. and Katherine B. Andersen Foundation Ascent Private Capital Management of U.S. Bank F.R. Bigelow Foundation The Ruth Easton Fund General Mills Foundation Hearst Foundations Knight Foundation The McKnight Foundation Medtronic Philanthropy through Medtronic Foundation The Michelson Family Foundation Minnesota State Arts Board National Endowment for the Arts The Saint Paul Foundation Target U.S. Bank Foundation United Health Foundation

Platinum $10,000– $24,999

The Aaron Copland Fund for Music, Inc. Abbot Downing Fred C. and Katherine B. Andersen Foundation Best Buy Children’s Foundation Cargill Foundation Comcast

Dorsey & Whitney Foundation Ecolab Foundation Ann and Gordon Getty Foundation MAHADH Fund of HRK Foundation Mardag Foundation Pine River Capital Management LP Travelers Valspar Foundation Wells Fargo Foundation Minnesota Wenger Foundation Xcel Energy

Gold $5,000–$9,999

Accenture Boss Foundation Briggs & Morgan, P.A. Harlan Boss Foundation for the Arts Anna M. Heilmaier Charitable Foundation R. C. Lilly Foundation Mayo Clinic The Pentair Foundation The Carl and Eloise Pohlad Family Foundation PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP Rahr Foundation RBC Wealth Management Schwegman, Lundberg & Woessner, p.a.

Securian Foundation Thomson Reuters Twin Cities Opera Guild

Silver $2,500–$4,999

Cleveland Foundation Dellwood Foundation Faegre Baker Daniels Hutter Family Foundation Le Jeune Family Foundation Maslon Edelman Borman & Brand, LLP The Elizabeth C. Quinlan Foundation Margaret Rivers Fund Robins, Kaplan, Miller & Ciresi Spencer Stuart Summit Brewing Company Tennant Foundation

Bronze $250–$2,499

The Curtis L. Carlson Family Foundation Enterprise Holdings Foundation Hammel, Green and Abrahamson, Inc. McVay Foundation Onan Family Foundation Peravid Foundation Sewell Family Foundation Sit Investment Foundation

| MACBETH

Sponsors $25,000+

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Minnesota Opera's Macbeth Program