Undergraduate Architecture Portfolio University of Malta
Includes some of the work done while studying at the University of Malta - Update 2
Sergei Mikhailenko Sliema Road Alfrida flats, Flat 6 Gzira, Malta +356 79999919 email@example.com I was born in Rostov-on-Don, Russia and at the age of six, during the time of the Russian `Perestroika', I immigrated to Malta where I currently live together with my mother. It was a difficult social and economic time not only because I had to leave my relatives behind but also because of the uncertainty of life in a new environment. Nevertheless, this situation instilled humanistic values in me which gave me the confidence to face problems, opened my mind to the world and blurred my understanding of borders. Rather than being a citizen of a state, I felt I am a citizen of the world. As an Architecture & Civil Engineering student at the University of Malta, I was able to satisfy my desire for belonging to the world as well as my passion for design. I successfully completed an Erasmus study semester in Rome at La Sapienza, an internship at CRIBA Design under Prof. Gociman in Bucharest, an internship at aurelVR under Princeton and ETH graduate Aurel von Richthofen in Berlin, various national architectural workshops and an EASA international workshop in Italy. These experiences helped me grow professionally, socially and linguistically. I am a humanist, a futurist and a perfectionist. I believe that the solution to human problems is technology and I apply this philosophy in my work. I dream of the moment when humanity will be set free by acknowledging the reality of its being. Education University of Malta Msida, Malta 01/10/2007 - 01/07/2012 Bachelor of Engineering & Architecture (Honours) Sapienza University of Rome Rome, Italy 01/10/2009 - 24/02/2010 Erasmus Student Work Experience aurelVR Berlin, Germany Architectural Intern 01/07/2011 - 16/09/2011 Worked on an urban design of a city, a land art project, and a villa of an artist in Oman CRIBA Design Bucharest, Romania Architectural Intern 15/07/2010 - 31/08/2010 Designed (from conception to technical documentation) a two-storey villa located in an 800m� site, constantly adapting the design to the client's needs Leadership Experience IELS Sliema, Malta Activity group leader 15/06/2009 - 30/09/2009 Organised and accompanied English language students to various activities ESE St.Julians, Malta Activity group leader 15/06/2008 - 30/09/2008 & 15/06/2007 - 30/09/2007 Organised and accompanied English language students to various activities Language Skills English, Maltese, Russian (mother languages) Italian (intermediate spent a total of 7 months in Italy) French (beginner - studied French for 5 years in secondary school) German (beginner - took German classes and spent more than 4 months in Germany) Interests & Activities Table tennis: had been playing table tennis since age 14. Won numerous national prizes, played in the national first division, was ranked top 20 in the Maltese rankings during 2006, represented Malta in the Fisec Games of 2006 Watching Italian TV: this is the way I learned Italian language and later in my studies I was able to use this knowledge to travel throughout Italy for my architectural endevours Watercolor painting: in my free time I enjoy reading about the 'art & science' of mixing watercolors and testing these new techniques on paper. I like to apply this knowledge to some of my architectural renders Achievements & Participation EASA Architectural Workshop 2009 Val Camonica, Italy 1st prize national student design competition, Bonsai Garden Design, 2011 Publication of the bonsai garden in major local architectural magazine "The Architect", Issue 57 Software Proficiency Rhino 3D, Grashopper, 3ds Max, Adobe Illustrator, Photoshop, InDesign, AutoCAD, Vray plugin, Ecotect 01SOLAR CITY parameters of a Location: Qurm, Oman Date: August 2011 Type: Professional project Organisation: aurelVR, Berlin Supervisor: Aurel von Richthofen Short description Redevelopment of a historic area located in the Grand Harbour (Malta) into a boutique hotel with complementary functions. An urban project in Oman in which the design is based upon environmental, functional and social parameters. A design of a house which is based upon the idea of flexibility to provide for the ever changing needs of a young Omani artist. Design of a boutique hotel with the objective of healthy living and cultural & environmental sustainability. Studies of natural and man made forms using the digital tools of Rhinocerous and 3ds Max to understand the spacial characteristics. Date of project Name of project 06/2012 boutique hotel in the 08/2011 parameters of a 07/2011 house of 04/2011 boutique hotel of 11/2009 the science of 01GRAND HARBOUR 02SOLAR CITY 03METAMORPHOSIS 04ECOTOURISM 05REPRESENTATION 01GRAND HARBOUR boutique hotel in the Location: Senglea, Malta Date: June 2012 Type: Academic project Organisation: University of Malta Level: Year 5 Thesis project Supervisor: Prof. Denis De Lucca This project is concerned with the regeneration of an area in the historic peninsula of Senglea (Malta) situated in the Grand Harbour. As a student in a group of four people, the brief required us to locate a potential site, analyse it, come up with an overall masterplan which would regenerate the area and detail the buildings involved. After the site analysis was performed, it was evident that the area would benefit from touristic activities, hence it was decided that the four designated buildings would host a boutique hotel spread over the top floors of the buildings (connected by bridges) , a restaurant complementing the boutique hotel, an artisan shop, a caf�-library focusing on Maltese literature and an interpretation centre hosting exhibition pieces by groups such as the Senglea Historic Society. Although the site analysis and the overall master plan was tackled as group, each one of the four designated buildings was undertaken individually by a member of the group in harmony with the other member's buildings under the agreed parameters of the master plan. The building undertaken by the author is leftmost one, facing the city of Birgu. It hosts the entrance and lobby of the boutique hotel, three suites and a restaurant. The concept of the building originated after observing the character of Senglea which follows an irregular pattern of rectangular forms as well as a regular pattern seen in the openings. Hence the idea was to follow this irregular forms/regular openings combination in order to blend with and enhance the surrounding building character. On an urban level, the proposal included the integration of the new water taxi routes, the connection of the new cruise liner port which will be built in Senglea, a lift which connects the lower part of the bastions to the upper part, a public convenience area, a redevelopment of the garden situated on fort St.Micheal, an automated parking area situated beside the bastion wall, a park and ride system and a reorganisation of traffic on site. Previous: interiors of Suite La Vallette. Top: views from Valletta of the proposed buildings showing the relationship of the buildings with one another and the rest of the city. Middle: street views of the building in question. Bottom left: physical model of the site taken from an aerial perspective. Bottom right: an early diagrammatic scheme explaining the use allocation of the four buildings. boutique hotel suites lobby & restaurant kitchen & restaurant artisan workshop cafe-library interpretation centre 6 7 8 5 14 13 15 16 7 8 18 6 7 20 8 6 7 8 23 20 2 4 4 19 12 3 1 11 9 10 1 9 19 19 17 21 22 18 18 level -01 plan 1m 5m level 00 plan level 01 plan level 02 plan roof plan Legend: 1. restaurant terrace 2. dining area 3. kitchen 4. WCs 5. cold room 6. store 7. staff lift 8. guest lift 9. service lift 10. restaurant counter 11. guest entrance 12. lobby 13. office 14. deliveries & empties 15. refuse 16. service entrance 17. suite La Vallette 18. suite terrace 19. bathroom 20. suite St.Angelo 21. suite Pinto de Fonseca 22. grassy area 23. photovoltaic panels North-East facade North-West facade South-West facade New limestone 1m 5m Existing limestone Top left: transversal section facing South. Top right: longitudenal section facing the city of Birgu to the East. The building is divided into four floors and a roof. The bottom most floor hosts the restaurant and kitchen. Above that, there is a continuation of the restaurant connected by a set of stairs and elevators. On the same floor there is also the hotel lobby which accommodates a reception, storage spaces, WCs and a staff office. The above two floor host three suites, namely, Suite La Vallette, Suite Pinto De Fonseca and Suite St.Angelo, all of which are named after the views one can see from the respective rooms. The top floor is connected by a bridge which links the other three buildings together. A guest elevator and a staff elevator span in all of the four floors. Staircases in the top three floors are fire protected with automatically closing doors and adequate space. The roof is accessible either through a staircase or through the adjacent building by means of a bridge. Part of the roof is a green roof which can be used by guests at any time of the day. The other part is dedicated to photovoltaic panels. The roof is inclined at various angles in different parts both to provide a reclined space for the guests to enjoy the view while lying on the grass as well as to obtain an optimum angle for photovoltaics without the need of inclining the panels on an individual level (thus gaining more in effective area). Since roofs are connected by means of bridges, the roofs on all of the four buildings act as one long roof providing the necessary leisure amenities found in a luxury hotel. 1 4 3 5 7 8 2 12 13 33 32 32 31 29 30 28 35 1 5 6 24 21 34 2 27 13 B 4 9 15 10 11 14 1 5 6 17 26 20 24 22 18 18 19 22 20 16 1 36 2 21 12 7 11 10 Detail A 2 Detail B 24 5 26 19 23 12 21 A 25 Detail C 10cm 50cm Detail D Legend: 1. limestone 2. veneer base & plaster 3. shelf angle 4. continuous flashing 5. polystyrene foam 6. cavity 7. concrete beam 8. ceiling service shelf 9. precast stone lintel 10. window mounting bracket 11. glass steel frame 12. polished slate tiling 13. concrete slab 14. wash 15. drip 16. treated plywood 17. exterior stone tiling 18. concrete foundation 19. fine concrete fill 20. hardcore 21. screed 22. earth 23. backfill 24. concrete block 25. drainage pipes 26. membrane 27. levelling brick 28. mulch layer & soil 29. filter mat 30. drainage layer 31. root protection membrane 32. separation layer 33. roof sealing 34. gutter 35. gutter filter 36. in-wall channel The building is composed of an outer limestone skin and an inner concrete block structural frame which supports the building by means of columns and slabs. The roof is inclined by means of a screed and it is fitted with the required layers which allow the containment of natural grass. C D 1m 2.5m Section A-A 19 15 11 12 13 2 14 16 17 24 23 9 1 18 21 22 10 7 5 8 6 3 4 Suite La Vallette Plan 20 0m 1m 2.5m Left: planar arrangement of Suite La Vallette showing the different areas, furniture and materials. Right: interior perspectives (day and night) of Suite La Vallette facing the terrace. Legend: 1. entrance 2. classic king-size bed 3. timber lacquered table 4. timber lacquered chair 5. minimalist leather sofa 6. classic leather armchair 7. minimal coffee table 8. minimal TV cabinet 9. light curtains 10. flat screen TV 11. verandah 12. outdoor furniture set 13. summer hammock 14. minimal wardrobe 15. classic nightstand 16. washbasin 17. bathtub with waterfall shower 18. toilet 19. open windows 20. double-glazed windows 21. shaft 22. shaft access 23. polished slate tiling 24. ceramic bathroom tiling Suite La Vallette's main aim is to capture the historic character of the Grand Harbour accentuating its breathtaking views by placing them in a `frame'. It also serves as a merging point where the `new' and the `old' meet in a coherent whole, effectively accommodating the needs of the contemporary society while acknowledging the rich history of the place. LaVallette -SUITE- De La Sengle -FINE DINING- 21 22 3 25 23 18 5 6 27 17 12 2 26 13 10 11 8 1 19 20 24 9 4 7 14 15 16 14 De La Sengle Restaurant Plan Left: planar arrangement of De La Sengle restaurant showing the different areas, furniture and materials. Right: interior perspectives of De La Sengle restaurant. Legend: 1. dining area 2. kitchen 3. outside dining area 4. cold room 5. timber lacquered table 6. timber lacquered chair 7. male restroom 8. female restroom 9. shaft with wall acces 10. preparation area 11. cooking area 12. washing area 13. service lift 14. store 0m 1m 2.5m De La Sengle is a fine dining restaurant which caters for both the hotel clients and outside guests coming solely to eat (guests however may opt to eat in the privacy of their own rooms for exclusivity). The atmosphere of the restaurant complements well with the character of the Grand Harbour where a regal ambience infuses the experience of dining with a fine taste which accompanies each meal and service. 15. guest lift 16. staff lift 17. stairs leading to upper restaurant 18. two-storey window 19. existing door 20. existing window 21. outdoor finished table 22. outdoor finished chair 23. exterior stone tiling 24. polished slate tiling 25. ceramic kitchen tiling 26. ceramic bathroom tiling 25. bastion wall 26. tunnel 27. stairs leading to sea 02SOLAR CITY parameters of a Location: Qurm, Oman Date: August 2011 Type: Professional project Organisation: aurelVR, Berlin Supervisor: Aurel von Richthofen "Parameters of a Solar City" is an urban design of the city of Qurm in Oman where the actual design is informed by environmental, functional and social parameters. As an intern at aurelVR, my job was to assist architect Von Richthofen with developing the concept by drawing up plans, sections, diagrams, perspectives and tweaking the design parametrically in order to understand and at the same time explore new possibilities of design. The overall objective was to design a self-sustaining city in terms of energy efficiency. The whole design of the city was developed using Grasshopper based on the parameters of: area (to obtain an overall relationship of building and open area), rotation of building (based on the optimum solar orientation as obtained from Ecotect), internal street creation (to optimize ventilation, derived from the wind rose), courtyard creation (based on the function of the building), internal side street creation (to optimize view from buildings), Floor Area Ratio adjustment (based on the required FAR). area definition A = 2A' A A' rotation of building = optimum building angle creation of internal ventilation streets = optimum street angle creation of courtyards based on the function of the building (work, play, live, etc) 1 courtyard 2 courtyards 3 courtyards creation of side streets perpendicular to view perpendicular to view Previous: artist's impression of a typical neighbourhood in the Solar City. Right: the regulating parameters which were used in Grasshopper as the variable factors for the design of the city. adjustment of floors based on the required floor area ratio (FAR) terraced oors facing view 1 FAR 2 FAR 3 FAR As soon as the overall design was established by means of form giving parameters, further block-specific parameters were to be established which would affect each block individually, keeping in mind the goal of a self-sustaining city. These were namely the external parameters: temperature & humidity, sun, wind, topography, vegetation, sea view and geo-location; program parameters: structure, privacy, materials, entrances, and views; site parameters: plot size, FAR, density, access roads and light & shade. Each of which ensured that every building would be designed within the overall sustainable framework. Below: block specific parameters which affect each block individually: external, program and site parameters. External parameters Program parameters Site parameters Each block belongs to either live, play, work, buy, learn or green function, however 30% of the block's function is of another nature to reduce segregation and to ensure that each block would be equally used. e.g. a block can have the designated live function, however the live block would also host 30% of play and buy functions. Right: an urban perspective of the blocks from bird's eye view complete with the road network and the underlying contours. Below: an example of the program distribution which explains the functions and their inter relationship with each other. live play work learn buy green empty access nodes The road network is composed of a grid, a circular and a curvilinear type of system. The grid being the streets in between neighbourhoods, the circular providing a faster means of travel through the city and the curvilinear is the exisitng road network which is integrated into the new system. From street level, a driver would be able to drive inside a neighbourhood composed of 4 blocks and park underground. Pedestrian circulation is situated above ground level, free from automobiles. A platform connects the 4 neighbouring blocks and facilitates pedestrian traffic. Right: neighbourhood study which explains the different functional levels within a 4 block neighbourhood and its surroundings. Below: an overall urban plan showing the road network being composed of grid, circular and curvilinear type of patterns. platform street above level inter-building connections ring road live connecting platform play street to underground road connection buy learn garage reached by underground roads work entertain 03METAMORPHOSIS house of Location: Muscat, Oman Date: July 2011 Type: Professional project Organisation: aurelVR, Berlin Supervisor: Aurel von Richthofen "House of Metamorphosis" is a house designed for an Omani/British artist who is constantly commuting between Muscat and London. The concept of Metamorphosis was born from the functional requirements of the artist as well as this double identity of hers, her belonging to two different worlds (London and Muscat). The brief required an adaptable space, one which could change easily with little effort to cater for the different needs of the artist. At aurelVR I was involved in the concept phase: brainstorming and development. I was also given the task to come up with morphing spaces and understand how these can be developed and integrated into the design. I was also responsible of producing diagrams and perspectives of both these adaptable spaces and the overall house. The house adopts mechanically movable contraptions which make it possible to increase or decrease space on request. These consist of movable pods, elevator platforms and sliding walls. The space is divided into working, sleeping and living areas. Apart from being a swimming pool deck, the roof area can be used for leisure activities. In fact one can also bring the movable pods on the roof by means of a 2m x 2m elevator. The pods represent the heart of the house, they can be considered `a house within a house'. They merge with every living part of the house to provide a flexible space which caters for the needs of the user. The pods were developed to include three main spacial functions, mainly the sleeping function, the leisure function and the storage function. wo rk de sle e n pi ga a re po sit ory liv in g& tin ea ga a re r wo kin p gs e ac po ol Previous: perspective of the house situated on the coast of Oman. Right: planometric view of the house showing the different functions as well as the movable pods. po ds r wo kd e s po ito ry n tra en ce ga rde n Sleeping pods can be used as extra space for guests sleeping over or else they can be used as a private shell. Sleeping pods can be moved on the roof by means of an elevator for the user to enjoy the Omani sun. Leisure pods provide the user a secluded, mobile environment for the purpose of personal well being. Party pods and Library pods can be used inside the house as well as on the roof to enjoy the Omani sunsets with friends, sipping cocktails or to enjoy a book while connecting with the environment. Storage pods are designed for varying sizes of articles to be stored, from statues to A4 papers. They provide a flexible solution in terms of space and are easily opened and closed (sliding & rotating systems). The House of Metamorphosis is a sophisticated desert dwelling that consumes little energy due to the passive and active systems embedded into the design. 1: Party pod 2: Sleeping pod 3: Storage pod (closed) 4: Storage pod (opened) 4 1 2 3 Wind catchers similar to Omani vernacular architecture are an integral part of the roof, these catch breezes to cool the spaces inside. A labyrinthine ventilation system situated below the house uses thermal mass to cool interior spaces at any time. External window blinds made from recycled boat parts shade the interior from the desert sun. The swimming pool can be covered during the day when not used to be protected from the sun, the thermal mass will cool the spaces inside. At night the pool will be open to release the heat accumulated during the day. Right: exploded planometric view explaining the sustainable systems used. Below: study of an Omani dhow explaining its composing parts which can be used as shading structures. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 recycled dhow shading safety railing solar pv-panels wind catcher recycled dhow shading swimming pool wind catcher circulation path car access pods 7 stern and rudder member x 1 entrance recycled dhow shading 4 exterior decking elements x 35 5 hull ribs x 96 6 external skin members x 20 thermal mass labyrinth 1 canopy support columns x 4 2 canopy vertical elements x 9 3 horizontal hull members x 5 The interiors of the house were designed in a way to ensure enough day lighting and ventilation. This is attained with the use of glazed walls (with adequate exterior shading) and high ceilings. These features also enhance the architectural quality of the house rendering its spaces interesting. Another planning objective was to relate spaces with one another for the user to be able to use the spaces efficiently. In fact the workshop of the client was placed on one side of the house while the resting area was placed on another side with a buffer zone in between. All the areas interlink with each other in an open plan. Top: interior perspective of open plan living/sleeping area. Sleeping area and living area are on two different levels with stairs linking them together. Sliding library wall divides the sleeping and living areas according to the user's needs. Bottom left: perspective of living area showing the generous amount of light coming in from the glazed facade. Bottom right: view of roof leisure area together with swimming pool, party pod (to the left) and recycled dhow timber as shading. 04ECOTOURISM boutique hotel of Location: Mtarfa, Malta Date: April 2011 Type: Academic project Process: Individual work Organisation: University of Malta Level: Year 4, Semester 2 Supervisor: Prof. Dennis De Lucca "Boutique Hotel of Ecotourism" is a fourth year university project which required the student to design a boutique hotel in a location of his own choice. The choice of the site was based on the natural feel of the area, it is located on high grounds surrounded by farmer fields on one side and low storey buildings on the other. The view and the low population in the area is ideal for a high class, exclusive boutique hotel. The site hosted the living quarters of the British army during World War 2. Currently the classic English buildings are abandoned, hence the boutique hotel would help to regenerate the area. The theme of the boutique hotel was chosen to be ecotourism due to the intimate connection one feels with the natural, untouched environment surrounding the site. The design concept was also inspired by nature. The organic yet ordered pattern of the farmer fields was the inspiration which united all the elements of the building with the site. This concept was applied both to the plan and section of the building where angular patterns, like those of the farmer fields, divided the spaces as well as merged with each other forming functional interrelationships. The Boutique Hotel of Ecotourism caters for guests wishing to indulge themselves in wellness and health while experiencing the Maltese way of life. Guests will be able to eat healthy, exercise regularly, relax and live in a sustainable manner. The hotel restaurant will offer meals where ingredients are locally produced and organic, the spa will offer body treatments which relaxes the body using local herbs, oils, honey and milk, guests will be able to regular exercise with the help of the indoor and outdoor pools, a fitness centre and by hiking or cycling around the island using the provided hotel equipment. Also the design of the hotel itself will contribute to a better living by providing adequate natural lighting, ventilation and other factors which affect the human body. Previous: interior perspective of a typical suite. Right: concept sketches showing block studies and the evolution of the concept from abstract farmer field angular shapes to experimental plans and sections. The main objective behind the suites was to connect the user with nature. This was attained by surrounding the rooms with a garden from one side and a swimming pool leading onto a panoramic view from the other side. The swimming pool was further introduced inside the room covered by structural glass panels and left open near the terrace. Guests situated on the ground floor can access the swimming pool from their own room or else they can choose to swim in the privacy of their terrace. The outdoor swimming pool is divided into deep and shallow with sunken lounges floating in the shallow part. The indoor swimming pool lies in a double height building which hosts saunas, massage rooms and a fitness centre all of which overlook the 180 degree panorama. The restaurant, together with the kitchen also enjoys a prime view. This will not only increase the reputation of the restaurant but it will also attract VIP chefs into the kitchen. 9 16 15 14 11 12 17 13 N 10 6 5 4 8 7 1 2 3 20 scale 0m 18 10m 20 17 19 20 20 17 1 . Ki tch e n 2 . C o l d r o o m s & sto r a g e 3 . Sta ff ch a n g i n g r o o m s 4 . Offi ce s 5 . R e ce p ti o n 6 . En tr a n ce h a l l 7 . R e sta u r a n t 8. Lounge 9 . Ba r 1 0 . C o n fe r e n ce r o o m 11 . Sa u n a 1 2 . In d o o r p o o l 13. Changing rooms 1 4 . Su n ke n l o u n g e a r e a s 1 5 . Ou td o o r p o o l 1 6 . Ou td o o r d e ck 1 7 . Se r vi ce r o o m 1 8 . Ga r d e n 1 9 . M a ssa g e a r e a 2 0 . Gu e st r o o m s Right: ground floor plan, first floor plan, second floor plan, south elevation (from top to bottom). 1 Existing circulation 2 Excavation for parking & services 3 Excavation for outdoor pool views 4 New circulation 5 Proposed functions 6 Exposure to views inclined photovoltaic roof 7 Cross ventilation potential 8 Southern exposure to sun 9 Mechanical services The existing circulation pattern 1 did not allow for good pedestrian flow, parking spaces, nor efficient use of facilities, hence, the area was excavated for additional parking and service facilities 2 . The new circulation pattern 4 provided for parking and service areas underground segregating pedestrians from vehicles, providing the pedestrian with direct access to the garden. The suites, the leisure areas, the restaurant area and the hall 5 were planned in such a way that every function would expose the guest to a 180 degree panorama 6 . The positioning of the massing is ideal for cross-ventilation 7 and solar panels are positioned on top of the specially inclined roof for maximum sun exposure 8 . Mechanical services 9 are situated below level. They service the building through a system of shafts. Right top: perspective of north facade showing the three blocks overlooking the outdoor swimming pool. Right bottom: view of south face where the restored facade overlooks the garden. Bottom: interior perspective of the restaurant kitchen allowing an abundance of natural light and a panorama which attracts the brightest staff into the workplace. "The Science of Representation" or "Scienza della Rappresentazione" in Italian, was an 8 ECTS credit course at Roma La Sapienza where I studied for a semester as an Erasmus exchange student. This course sparked my passion of 3D modelling, rendering and geometry. From this moment onwards I was captivated by the possibilities and the complexities the digital machine might offer to architecture. 05REPRESENTATION the science of Date: November 2009 Type: Academic project Process: Individual work Organisation: Sapienza University of Rome Level: Year 3, Semester 1 Supervisor: Prof. Anna Laura Carlevaris 1 2 3 4 5 6 11 7 8 9 10 12 "Scienza della Rappresentazione" involved understanding the geometrical properties of various forms found in nature and the built world through the use of digital tools, mainly Rhinoceros (although I also probed into other tools such as Grasshopper and 3ds Max). Previous & Right: the stairs of Ridolfi constructed in Rhino using the principles of Rotational Translation (Rototraslazione) as well as the Array programmatic function. Rendered in 3ds Max & Vray. Applied Depth of Field in 3ds Max to visualise the three detail views. Above: a study of the Rotational Translation principle using different case studies as examples. 1 - 6: Generic Helicoids (helicoidi generici) created by revolving while translating a curve around an axis. 7: Solomonic Column (colonna torsa) generated by revolving and translating a circumference around a curved axis which is always perpendicular to the direction of the axis. 8, 9: Serpentine & St.Gilles Helix. The Serpentine Helix's generator circle is perpendicular to the direction of the path while the St.Gilles' generator circle is coplanar with the axis. 10 - 12: variations of the Generic Helicoid. 1 2 3 4 7 5 6 8 1 - 3: Conoids generated using 2 curves and intersecting planes, the resulting intersections are joined to produce a surface. 4: Hyperboloid and Hyperbolic Paraboloid sharing the same intersecting curve. 5: Cylindroid created by linking the points on 2 curves. 6: Hyperboloid created using the polar array functio`n, replicating a line along a circle keeping the same angle with respect to the circle. 7 - 9: Hypebolic Paraboloids generated by linking points across 2 lines. 10: Sine Conoid surface created by linking points across 2 sine curves. 10 9 1: a study of Regular Polyherda: Tetrahedron, Hexahedron, Octahedron, Dodecahedron and Icosahedron. 2 - 6: geometric studies using Rhinoceros of the concept of duality where each polyhedron has a dual counterpart which has faces in place of the vertices and which also has the same number of edges. This can be observed in the Tetrahedron 2 , its dual counterpart is an upside down Tetrahedron. The counterpart of the Dodecahedron is the Icosahedron and vice versa 3 and 4 . The Hexahedron's dual counterpart is the Octahedron and vice versa 5 and 6 . 7: a stellation of an Octahedron whose vertices meet with that of a Hexahedron. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 15 16 10 11 12 13 14 17 18 1 - 9: a study of loci using a rotating circle following different paths. 1 Inverted Astroid 2 Deltoid 3 Epicycloid with 2 cusps 4 Cardioid 5 Line of De La Hire 6 Astroid 7 Evolute of a Cycloid 8 Regular Cycloid, Extended Cycloid, Curtailed Cycloid 9 Epicycloid with 5 cusps 10, 11: Conical Archimedean Spiral created by intersecting an extruded Archimedean Spiral with a cone. 12: Conical Logarithmic Spiral created by intersecting an extruded Logarithmic Spiral with a cone. 13: Loxodrome created by intersecting a sphere with an Archimedean Spiral extruded towards the centre. 14: Loxodrome created by intersecting a sphere with a Logarithmic Spiral extruded towards the centre. 15. Loxodrome created by splitting a sphere into lattitudinal and longitudinal pieces, connecting successive intersections by a curve. 16: Archimedean Spiral. It is distinguishable from other spirals due to the fact that the distance between a point and its successive point on the next rotation is equal to the following point on the next rotation. 17: Logarithmic Spiral. Its main feature is that it grows in distance from the centre in a Geometric Progression. 18: an arrayed Archimedean Spirals forming a pattern which can be seen in many instances throughout history. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1: spherical dome lying on an octagonal based support. 2: octagonal based vault. 3: Sail Vault which has the shape of a truncated sphere and has the ability to be placed on a rectangular base. 4: Groin vault., able to lie on a rectangular base. 5: "Luetta Cilindrica" (Cylindrical Lunette). 6: "Lunetta Sferica" (Spherical Lunette). 7: Groin Vault which shares the same shape as the domical vault (extracted under it). 8: Model of the dome of Santa Maria del Fiore designed by Brunelleschi using the octagonal base. A part (oneeighth) was modelled and copied as a polar array in Rhinoceros to obtain the full dome.