Legend of Sleepy Hollow Study Guide
Canton Symphony Orchestra is proud to present a NEW program to its Educational library. The Legend of Sleepy Hollow is now available for you to enjoy. With a spellbinding story based on Washington Irving's classic tale, this opera features imaginative scenery, special effects and delightful music by composer David Gooding with clever lyrics by Paul Lee.
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow Music by David Gooding Libretto by Paul Lee Thank you to our sponsors: March 19, 2012 - 9:30 and 10:30 am Timken High School Auditorium March 20, 2012 - 10:00 and 11:00 am GlenOak High School Auditorium National Endowment for the Arts ArtsinStark Rachel Schneider William P. Blair III Mr. & Mrs. Clingan & Jane Braster Michele Goff James Keller Natalie McGrew Richard & Marilyn Croasdaile Gary & Pamela Martzolf Cast Old Man/Brom Van Brunt .............................. Mark Wanich Old Woman/Katrina Van Tassel ..................... April Martin Traveller/Ichabod Crane ................................ David Fair Opera Orchestra Cello .............................................................. Paul Miahky Flute .............................................................. Katherine DeJongh Clarinet .......................................................... Alix Reinhardt French Horn ................................................... Meghan Guegold Percussion ..................................................... Jeffrey DeRoche Keyboard ....................................................... Judith Ryder Production Stage Director ............................................... David Bamberger Music Director .............................................. Judith Ryder Stage Manager/Lighting Designer ................ Bruce Balough Technical Assistant ....................................... Bill Hazlett Orchestra Manager ...................................... Michael Koscso Costumes ..................................................... George McCarty Study Guide Preparation Lisa Boyer, Director of Education & Community Engagement Layout and Design by Michelle Mullaly, Executive Director Beth Gray, Retired Music Educator The English, Language Arts and Social Studies Content Standards addressed in this Study Guide correlate to the current ODE standards. Special Thanks: Canton Symphony Orchestra would like to thank the following people and organizations: Cleveland Institute of Music, Players Guild Theatre of Canton, VOCI (Voices of Canton), Canton City Schools, Plain Local Schools, Arlene Hazlett, Lisa Kish, Mike Mullaly, and most importantly, our sponsors. 2 David Gooding, Composer David Gooding is a composer, performer, arranger, lyricist and music director with over 300 productions to his credit from the West Coast to Broadway. He was resident Music Director/ Composer for the Cleveland Play House, Organist for the Cleveland Orchestra under George Szell, and a Lake Erie College Professor of Music. He is Organist/Choirmaster for Fairmount Temple and the Director of Music Ministries at Messiah Lutheran Church in Fairview Park, Ohio. Gooding was honored with an EMMY for his work as Music Director for NBC-TV’s HICKORY HIDEOUT, and in 1995, was the recipient of the Cleveland Arts Prize in Music. Cleveland Magazine named him one of 2000’s most interesting people. With lyricist Paul Lee, Gooding composed two critically acclaimed operas for young people, THE LEGEND OF SLEEPY HOLLOW and A TALE OF PETER RABBIT. His third commissioned opera, AN AESOP ODYSSEY, for which he was also the lyricist, received its world premiere in 1997. The three operas have reached an audience of over 400,000 people in live performances around the US. David Gooding’s liturgical compositions are published through Cantorello Press. In his other life, Gooding is a voice teacher, specializing in rehabbing injured voices. David Gooding is currently teaching in Cleveland and New York City. Project Background The Legend of Sleepy Hollow was originally commissioned by Cleveland Opera in 1988 for three voices and keyboard. It had a run of nearly 20 years before being retired by Cleveland Opera on Tour. Canton Symphony Orchestra reawakened this delightful piece after receiving a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts in 2011. David Gooding was approached to re-orchestrate the score to include instruments of the orchestra, creating a comprehensive orchestra and opera education piece. ’s ving r I n o t g n i Wash f o d n e g The Le w o l l o H Sleepy 3 Washington Irving - Biography (1783-1859) Washington Irving, a famous American writer, was born on April 3, 1783 in Tarrytown, New York, just after the end of the Revolutionary War. He was named Washington after George Washington, who was a hero of that war. He was one of 11 children of Scottish-English descent, born to William and Sarah Irving. His passion for books began at a young age with stories like Robinson Crusoe, Sinbad, The Sailor and The World Displayed. Those adventure stories inspired him to explore the world and visit distant lands. Though he studied to be a lawyer, he was not happy in that work. He left his job and traveled through England, France, Germany and Italy, always writing about the places he saw. In 1806 he and some friends started a literary club. They wrote short stories under pen names* and published them in a magazine. One of Irving’s pen names was Diedrich Knickerbocker. “Knickerbocker” soon became a common term referring to people from New York. That’s where the New York Knickerbockers (Knicks) Basketball Team got their name. When the War of 1812 broke out, Irving served in the US Army. After the war, he went back to Europe where he lived for 17 years. He traveled a lot and lived in many different cities, including Dresden, London, Paris and Madrid. He met famous writers like Mary Shelley, Henry Wadsworth, Longfellow and Charles Dickens. He missed his home in the Hudson River Valley, though, and dreamed of returning to New York. It was then he began to write his most famous work The Sketch Book, a collection of short stories that included “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” and “Rip Van Winkle.” Sleepy Hollow was the name he made up for the area of Hudson Valley near his hometown in Tarrytown. He returned to the United States and was welcomed with great praise because he was the first American to gain international fame as an author. He was still eager to see new places, so he set out to explore the American West. He traveled by wagon, horseback, canal boat and steamboat, writing of his adventures all along the way. He later served as the American Ambassador to Spain and the President of the Astor Library, now known as the New York Public Library. He bought a cottage near his hometown in Tarrytown and lived there until his death on November 28, 1859. Bells tolled and flags were hung at half-mast to honor this great man of literature and politics. * A “pen name, or nom de plume, is a name a person makes up when he or she doesn’t want others to know the writer’s true identity 4 The Legend of Sleepy Hollow The Cast Old Man/Brom Van Brunt .....................Baritone Old Woman/Katrina Van Tassel .............Soprano or Mezzo-Soprano Traveller/Ichabod Crane ........................Tenor or Baritone The Story in 5 Scenes The Beginning: An old cottage in Sleepy Hollow An old man and an old woman provide refuge to a weary traveller on a stormy night. The old woman begins to tell the traveller a famous local story of a Headless Horseman who terrorizes the countryside by riding in the woods at night. As she tells the story, the scene changes to a schoolhouse. At the Schoolhouse in Sleepy Hollow We meet Ichabod Crane who introduces himself and his classroom (the audience). His music lesson is interrupted by the arrival of Katrina, who invites him to a party scheduled for the next evening at her house. They have a lively conversation about food for the party. After Katrina leaves, Ichabod reveals his plan to “win her hand,” sends the students to their homes, and departs. At Katrina’s Farmhouse that Afternoon Katrina has a different plan, one to win the handsome Brom. Brom arrives, reveling in his own wild adventures. Anticipating a jealous reaction, Katrina tells him that she will marry Ichabod. Brom, somewhat taken aback, pretends to find the match amusing. Ichabod arrives unexpectedly. Katrina uses the opportunity to play her two suitors against each other. Brom, knowing full well that Ichabod is superstitious, warns him of the dangers in Sleepy Hollow on nights when there is a full moon, since it is then that the Headless Horseman often appears. Ichabod hastily leaves. In the Woods of Sleepy Hollow that Night On his way home, Ichabod fearfully enters the woods. He remembers Brom’s warning, becomes terrified, and soon finds himself totally lost. The ghostly Headless Horseman appears and pursues Ichabod, who falls while trying to flee. After a wild chase, the Horseman throws a pumpkin carved like a head right at Ichabod. Horrified, Ichabod runs away, never to be seen again. The Ending: at an Old Cottage As we return to the old cottage, we hear the woman finishing her story of the Headless Horseman. Brom, now happily married to Katrina, arrives with a basket of food. He introduces himself to the Traveller who is none other than the writer Washington Irving. The old woman confides that some people think that on that fateful night Ichabod encountered a real person carrying a pumpkin. The Traveller thanks the woman for her kindness and her story. As he prepares to leave he asks Brom if he can take along a pumpkin. With a twinkle in his eye, Brom says yes. The pumpkin patch belongs to him. With the story completed, the cast join together to say goodbye to the audience. 5 The Instruments of The Legend of Sleepy Hollow Opera Orchestra Cello - the second largest member of the string family, played by drawing a bow across the strings or plucking the strings with the fingers. It has a deep, rich voice; the cello stands vertically on the floor and rests between the seated performer’s knees when played. Flute - a woodwind instrument often made of silver, consisting of a narrow tube about 2’ in length with a series of fingerholes or keys on one side; the player blows air across the small hole in the mouthpiece. It is often used by composers to represent birdsong (like the little bird in Peter and the Wolf) because of its high, pure melodic sound that can be soft and mellow or high and piercing. Clarinet - a woodwind instrument that is made of a black cylindrical tube with keys and levers along its length and a single reed attached to the mouthpiece. It has the largest range of all the orchestra instruments and is sometimes called “The Queen of the Orchestra”. French Horn - a member of the brass family, made of about 12’ of tubing wound into a circle with a flaring bell at the end, like old hunting horns; sound is produced by buzzing lips through a mouthpiece, pressing valves with the left hand and moving the right hand inside the bell. A trio of French Horns are the Wolf in Peter and the Wolf. Marimba - a barred percussion instrument, originating in Africa then altered and popularized in Central America. It consists of a set of graduated wooden bars set on a frame with long metal resonators underneath; played with yarn-wrapped mallets, two in each hand. Xylophone - a barred percussion instrument consisting of a graduated series of wooden bars on a frame, laid out much like a piano keyboard, with tube resonators underneath. It is played by striking with round mallets of different hardness depending on the sound required. Orchestra bells - (Glockenspiel) – a percussion instrument made of steel bars mounted in a wooden case and arranged like the keys of a piano or other keyboard instrument; played using mallets with small round heads made of rubber, yarn, wood or metal. Many beginning percussionists have these in their “bell kits”. Keyboard - Electronic keyboards look like regular pianos, having black and white keys. However, electronic keyboards are capable of making the sounds of many different instruments and also have rhythm tracks programmed into them in various styles. If you take piano lessons, you can play a keyboard!! Cymbal A concave plate of brass or bronze that produces a sharp, ringing sound when struck. It is played either in pairs, striking both, or by itself, striking it with a drum stick or mallets. 6 Glossary: Opera, Music, Theatre, Stage Opera Terms Aria A song for one singer to sing. An aria often expresses the thoughts, emotions, or reactions of the singer’s character. Libretto (Italian for ‘little book’) The text or words for an opera. Opera Drama set to music. There may be spoken dialogue, but more often the words are sung, with solos, duets, etc. The music is designed to dramatize the action and also “show off” the skills of the singers. Operetta A form of musical theatre that often uses spoken dialogue and musical scenes. It is usually shorter than a full opera and often uses a comic subject and characters from everyday life. Overture An introductory piece to an opera or larger musical work, from the opera or work. It is sometimes called a prelude. Premiere A first performance of a musical piece, play or opera. often introducing melodies Vocal Types Soprano The highest female voice. Mezzo-Soprano A lower female voice, sometimes called an alto. Tenor The highest male voice. Baritone The male voice between tenor and bass. Bass The lowest male voice. Musical Combinations Solo A piece of music for one, often called an aria when sung. Duet A piece of music for two. Trio A piece of music for three. Quartet A piece of music for four. Chorus A piece of music for a group of many singers, also the name of the group who sings them. Music and Theatre Terms for this show Arpeggios The quick playing of all the notes in a chord, one after another. Dissonance Musical sounds that seem to clash; unpleasant or tense harmony. Downstage The part of the stage that is closest to the audience. Harmony Two or more tones sounding together, such as a chord. Pizzicato “Plucked”, when stringed instruments are plucked instead of bowed. Upstage The part of the stage that is furthest from the audience. Wings The sides of the stage that cannot be seen by the audience. 7 Washington Irving ... a Man of the World New York City, New York. Washington Irving was born on April 3, 1783 Irving lived with his brother and nieces at Sunnyside Manor just outside of Tarrytown, New York. Tarrytown is located north of New York City. In 1835 Irving travelled to Fort Gibson in what is now known as Oklahoma. Fort Gibson is southeast of Tulsa. Irving settled in Madrid, Spain where he worked for the U.S. Embassy between the years of 1826-1829 and then again from 1842-1845. Between the years of 18221825, Irving lived in Dresden, Germany; London, England; and Paris, France. 8 Sample Lesson Plans and Activities 1. Have your students read Washington Irving’s The Legend of Sleepy Hollow or read it to them. A. Discuss the elements of a short story. B. With your students, list the elements of a folktale. Ask your students if they know if they know any other folktales. Which ones? Language Arts Standard: Concepts of Print, Comprehension Strategies and Self-monitoring Strategies Benchmark B: Apply effective reading comprehension strategies, including summarizing and making predictions, and comparisons using information in text, between text and across subject areas. 4th Grade Indicators: 2, 4, 5, and 7 5th Grade Indicators: 2, 4, and 5 Extensions C. Have the students read Irving’s other classic short story, Rip Van Winkle. Use a Venn Diagram to compare and contrast the two Irving stories. D. Have the students write their own folktale. Have them make puppets to tell their story to the class, or else take their puppet show “on the road” to other classrooms. LA Standard: Concepts of Print, Comprehension Strategies and Self-Monitoring Strategies Benchmark B: Apply effective reading comprehension strategies, including summarizing and making predictions, and comparisons using information in text, between text and across subject areas. Benchmark C: Make meaning through asking and responding to a variety of questions related to text. 4th Grade Indicators 3, 5, 6 5th Grade Indicators 3, 5, 6 2. Read the included Washington Irving biography with your students. A. Washington Irving traveled throughout his life. Ask your students if they have ever lived anywhere else. Have they ever been on vacations? What interesting things have they seen on trips? Have these insights changed their lives in any way? (e.g., Seeing manatees caused them to contribute to preserving manatees through an “Adopt a Manatee” program) B. From the biography, timeline and map, have your students make a list of the countries and cities that Washington lived in or visited in Europe and the United States. Have them find those cities on a map. Social Studies Standard: Geography Benchmark A: Use map coordinates of latitude and longitude to determine the absolute location of points in North America. 4th Grade Indicator 1 5th Grade Indicator 1 C. What sights would Washington Irving have seen during his travels (e.g., landmarks such as Notre Dame, London Tower, etc.) D. When Irving traveled westward into the area now known as Oklahoma in 1835-36, many of the western states did not yet exist. Ask your students which states existed and which states had not yet been formed. 9 Social Studies Standard: Skills and Methods Benchmark B: Use a variety of sources to organize information and draw inferences. 5th Grade Indicator 1a E. Traveling to Europe and the United States is very different today than it was 150 years ago. Ask your students to compare how people travel now to how they did in the 1800’s. What dangers did they face? What are the dangers of traveling now? Ask your students to estimate how much longer it would take to travel from New York to Oklahoma in 1836 than it would today. Social Studies Standard A: Use map coordinates to locate physical and human features of North America 4th Grade Indicators 4, b and c 5th Grade Indicators 2, b, c and d Social Studies Standard D: Analyze ways that transportation and communication relate to patterns of settlement and economic activity. 4th Grade Indicators 8, 9c 5th Grade Indicators 8, 9b F. Have your students imagine they were pioneers in 1836 moving westward to Oklahoma with their families. Have them write a story or diary/journal entry telling what they might have experienced. (You may wish to use Oregon Trail software.) Social Studies Standard: History Benchmark B: Describe the cultural patterns that are evident in North America today as a result of exploration, colonization and conflict. 5th Grade Indicator 2, 3, 6 Language Arts Standard: Writing Application Benchmark D: Write informal reports that include facts, details and examples that illustrate an important idea. 4th and 5th Grade Indicator 5 G. Irving wrote many letters to family and friends when he was traveling. Have students write letters to family members or friends describing where they would like to travel and why. Point of View Retelling: Grades: 4-6 Objective - Differentiate between points of view in a narrative text. After reading or listening to The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, students will choose a character from the story and retell the story from that character’s point of view. The retelling should include the characters, setting, problem, sequential events of the story, solutions to the problem, and ending of the story. Point of view retellings should include the vocabulary from the teacher’s resource packet. Materials: Story of The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, writing paper Standards Connections: Writing Applications Benchmark A – Write narrative accounts that develop character, setting and plot. Grade 4 Indicator 1 – Write narratives that sequence events including descriptive details and vivid language to develop plot, characters and settings and to establish a point of view. Grade 5 Indicator 1 – Write narratives with a consistent point of view, using sensory details and dialogue to develop characters and plot. 10 Job Application: Grades: 4-6 Objective - Produce writing, e.g., job application, that follows the conventional style appropriate to the text and include appropriate details. Standards Connections: Writing Applications Benchmark C-Write formal and informal letters that include important details and follow correct letter format. Grade 4 Indicator 4 â€“ Write informational reports that include facts and examples and present important details in a logical order. Benchmark C â€“ Produce letters (e.g., business, letters to the editor, job applications) that address audience needs, stated purpose and context in a clear and efficient manner. Grade 5 Indicator 4 â€“ Write informational essays or reports, including research that organize information with a clear introduction, body and conclusion following common expository structures when appropriate (e.g., cause-effect, comparison-contrast) and include facts, details and examples to illustrate important ideas. Standards Connections: Communication: Oral and Visual Standard Benchmarks: D - Identify examples of facts and opinion and explain their differences. Benchmarks: F - Clarify information in presentations to provide through the use of important details from a variety of sources, effective organization and a clear focus. Benchmarks: G - Deliver a variety of presentations, using visual materials as appropriate. Grade 4 Indicator- Speaking Applications: 8- a, c, d, e, f Grade 5 Indicator: Speaking Applications: 10 - Deliver persuasive presentations that: a. establish a clear position and b. include relevant evidence to support a position and to address potential concerns of listeners. 11 Timeline World Events Irving’s Life 1783 : Treaty of Paris ends Revolutionary War 1783 : Washington Irving is born on April 3 1786 : Mozart composes “The Marriage of Figaro” 1806 : Irving returns to U.S. after time in Europe 1787 : U.S. Constitution is written 1812 : Joins U.S. Army and serves in War of 1812 1793 : Cotton Gin invented by Eli Whitney 1804 : Lewis and Clark Expedition sets out Canton Events 1795 : Treaty of Greenville between the United States and several Native American tribes establishes peace in this region 1803 : Ohio becomes a state November 15, 1805 : Bezaleel Wells recorded Canton as the first town in Stark County 1819-1821 : The Legend of Sleepy Hollow is published as part of The Sketchbook Geoffrey Crayon 1809 : Stark County formally founded, named after General John Stark 1826-1829: Settles in Madrid, Spain and works for U.S. Embassy 1812 : Stark County militia fight in the War of 1812 1829-1832 : Is appointed Secretary to the American Legation in London March 30, 1815 : First issue of The Repository was published by John Saxton for Canton’s 500 residents 1812 - 1815 : War of 1812 occurs 1820 : Tomato, previously thought to be poison, is first accepted as food by U.S. 1822 : American professor Clement Moore writes Twas the Night Before Christmas 1832 : Returns to New York as internationally famous author 1825 : The Erie Canal Opens 1817 : First Stark County Courthouse was completed 1835 : Tours American West 1829 : The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad system opens - first major U.S. railroad 1846 : First baseball game on record played 1836-1842 : Lives with family outside Tarrytown, New York 1842-1845 : Is U.S. Ambassador to Spain 1847 : Thomas Edison is born 1846 : Returns to Tarrytown, New York 1828 : Cleveland to Massillon section of the Erie Canal completed. Although not on the Canal, Canton’s population tripled between 1820-1840. 1840 : William Henry Harrison came to Massillon and Canton during his campaign for President. 1848 : U.S. Gold Rush begins 1858 : Soccer is banned for being too violent 1859 : Harper’s Ferry Raid is led by abolishionist John Brown 12 1848 : Becomes President of Astor Library (later New York Public Library) 1859 : Irving dies on November 28 and is buried in a cemetery in Sleepy Hollow, New York 1850 : 2600 people living in Canton 1851 : First passenger train came through Stark County in Alliance 1857 : The Repository wished readers a “Happy Christmas” for the first time Word Search Beware! The Headless Horseman rides again! 13 EVALUATION FORM Please take a moment to provide feedback regarding The Legend of Sleepy Hollow performance that you recently attended Your comments are invaluable to us in designing quality educational - and entertaining - programs. Thank you. Teacher:_________________________________________________________________________________ School:__________________________________________________________________________________ Class Subject:_____________________________________________________________________________ Grade Level:______________________________________________________________________________ Concert Attended:_________________________________________________________________________ Date Attended:____________________________________________________________________________ 1. What spurred your interest in attending our concert? (referral, integration with classroom unit of study, live orchestral music experience, etc.) 2. Did you use the concert study guide before and/or after the concert? If so, how? 3. Please comment on the following: guide format, age-appropriateness. 4. Was the concert a valid educational experience for your students? If so, how? If not, please explain. 5. Were the concert arrangements managed efficiently? If not, please explain. 6. Other comments/suggestions: Your thoughtful responses are greatly appreciated. Thank you. Please return this form to: Lisa Boyer, Education Director, Canton Symphony Orchestra, 1001 Market Avenue North, Canton, OH 44702. Canton Symphony Orchestra 1001 Market Ave N Canton, OH 44702 330.452.3434 cantonsymphony.org