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intermediate & advanced

Cadillac

A FULLY ILLUSTRATED MANUAL

Copyright © 2003 by Merrithew Corp., Toronto, Canada. Reprinted 2012, 2010, 2007, 2005. All rights reserved. No part of this book, including photography, may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher. STOTT PILATES; Intelligent Exercise. Profound Results.; Flex-Band; Fitness Circle; Merrithew Health & Fitness; Stability Chair; STOTT PILATES Network; The Professional’s Choice and ZEN•GA are trademarks or registered trademarks of Merrithew Corporation.

INTELLIGENT EXERCISE. PROFOUND RESULTS.®

merrithew.com

basic principles SCAPULAR MOVEMENT & STABILIZATION SCAPULAR MOVEMENT & STABILIZATION PRINCIPLE EXPLAINED

Stabilizing the scapulae (shoulder blades) on the rib cage is extremely important as they serve as an anchor for the arms as well as support the cervical spine. When this is not done, there is a tendency to overwork the muscles around the neck and shoulders. Be aware of scapular stabilization at all times: a) when the spine is neutral and the arms are resting; b) when the spine is flexing or extending; c) when the arms are moving in any direction. Due to the lack of direct bony attachment to the rib cage and spine, the scapulae have a great deal of mobility. In making a greater range of motion available to the arms, the scapulae can glide upward (elevation), downward (depression), inward (retraction) and outward (protraction), can rotate upward or downward, or perform any combination of the above. Through the whole shoulder girdle, a sense of stability, not rigidity, should always be maintained. A sense of width should be maintained across the front and back of the shoulder girdle.

The shoulders should not be allowed to give in to excessive movements. The scapulae should lie flat on the rib cage and glide across it without winging markedly (this refers to the medial border of the scapulae coming away from the rib cage). Keep in mind that the scapulae will react to movements of the arms and thoracic spine. For example, the scapulae will naturally elevate and upwardly rotate during overhead movements and protract during thoracic flexion. Be aware that a neutral placement of the scapulae may be slightly different from a particular individual’s natural resting position. An ideal working alignment must be established for each individual. Scapular stabilization should be part of the initiation of all exercises, and established before the movement of exercise begins. When flexing the torso off the mat from a supine position, scapular stabilization will discourage neck tension and excessive protraction of the scapulae and medial rotation of the humeri. Spinal extension should be initiated with stabilization of the scapulae while reaching the top of the head away from the tailbone. This limits the tendency to over-exaggerate movements and decrease dynamic stability through the whole upper kinetic chain. Throughout this manual, when describing the exercises, we will refer to the scapular stabilizers collectively rather than naming individual muscles. The focus is on serratus anterior, trapezius, rhomboids, levator scapulae and pectoralis minor.

Scapular Elevation & Depression

elevation

depression

Protraction & Retraction position 1

neutral

12

protraction

B A S I C P R I N C I P L E S • I N T E R M E D I AT E & A D V A N C E D C A D I L L A C M A N U A L

retraction

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SCAPULAR MOVEMENT & STABILIZATION

2. SCAPULA ISOLATIONS / ELEVATION & DEPRESSION

PRINCIPLE EXERCISES

STARTING POSITION

The following movements demonstrate the principle of scapular movement and stabilization.

Supine, pelvis and spine neutral. Knees flexed, feet abducted hip-distance apart on mat. Arms long, by sides, palms facing down.

1. SCAPULA ISOLATIONS / PROTRACTION & RETRACTION

INHALE

slide shoulders up toward ears, elevating scapulae.

EXHALE

slide shoulders away from ears, lightly pressing palms into mat, depressing scapulae; imagine inferior angle of scapulae being gently pulled down the back and in toward the spine in a V shape. Avoid allowing the shoulders to round forward during depression.

STARTING POSITION 1

Supine, pelvis and spine neutral. Knees flexed, feet abducted hip-distance apart on mat. Arms long, reaching to ceiling, palms facing in. STARTING POSITION 2

Seated, pelvis and spine neutral. Arms reaching out in front of torso, palms facing in. INHALE

protract scapulae, widening between shoulder blades.

EXHALE

bring scapulae back to neutral position, widening across anterior shoulder girdle⁄collarbone.

Repeat 3–5 times. INHALE

retract scapulae, bringing shoulder blades closer together.

EXHALE

bring scapulae back to neutral position, widening across posterior shoulder girdle.

3. ARM SCISSORS STARTING POSITION

Supine, pelvis and spine neutral. Knees flexed, feet abducted hip-distance apart on mat. Arms long, reaching to ceiling, palms facing in. INHALE

to prepare.

EXHALE

reach one arm overhead, other arm down by hip, maintaining abdominal connection, contact between rib cage and mat and sense of stabilizing scapulae.

INHALE

reach both arms to ceiling.

Repeat scissoring arms opposite way.

Repeat 3–5 times. Perform the same movements starting from a seated position with the arms reaching forward.

4. ARM CIRCLES STARTING POSITION

Supine, pelvis and spine neutral. Knees flexed, feet abducted hip-distance apart on mat. Arms resting by sides. INHALE

reach arms toward ceiling and overhead, maintaining abdominal connection and contact between rib cage and mat, as well as the sense of stabilizing scapulae.

EXHALE

circle arms out to sides and around to hips.

Repeat exercise in reverse direction.

Protraction & Retraction position 2

neutral

protraction

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retraction I N T E R M E D I AT E & A D V A N C E D C A D I L L A C M A N U A L • B A S I C P R I N C I P L E S

13

roll-down bar SIDE BEND

INTERMEDIATE

STARTING POSITION

ESSENCE

Side-lying with head toward push-thru bar. Pelvis and spine neutral. Bottom arm straight, supporting head, palm up. Top arm straight, holding center of roll-down bar. Legs straight, ball of top foot braced against back upright at hip-height, ball of bottom foot braced against front upright.

TARGET MUSCLES: transversus abdominis to compress abdomen and stabilize lumbo-pelvic region; deep pelvic floor to aid in firing transversus; ipsilateral internal and external obliques concentrically to laterally flex spine, eccentrically on return; scapular stabilizers STABILITY:

spine during articulation; pelvis on femurs; scapulae

EXERCISE

MOBILITY:

spinal articulation

INHALE

EXHALE

stabilize pelvis and spine in neutral, lengthen torso along bed and start to laterally flex spine away from bed, bringing bottom arm off bed with torso. stabilize scapulae, flex top elbow and pull elbow into side to recruit resistance of spring and laterally flex spine further. Simultaneously, allow top ankle to dorsiflex and allow top side of pelvis to open slightly.

INHALE

plantar flex top ankle and lengthen top arm, lengthening torso to begin returning to bed.

EXHALE

continue to lengthen torso to bed, returning to starting position.

FOCUS ■

avoid rotation of pelvis and spine during lateral flexion

stabilize pelvis and spine in neutral

avoid tension in upper trapezius especially as elbow flexes

emphasize feeling of lengthening before laterally flexing

Complete 5 repetitions on each side. Side Bend

30

1. starting position

2. start to laterally flex

3. flex elbow and laterally flex more

4. lengthen top arm

E X E R C I S E S • I N T E R M E D I AT E & A D V A N C E D C A D I L L A C M A N U A L

© 2012 MERRITHEW CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED IN WHOLE OR IN PART.

MODIFICATIONS 1. PREP.

Omit elbow flexion. Use two breaths to begin lateral flexion.

INHALE

stabilize pelvis and spine in neutral, lengthen torso along bed and start to laterally flex spine away from bed, bringing bottom arm off bed with torso.

EXHALE

lengthen torso to bed and return to starting position.

2. SWITCH LEGS. Full exercise with top foot braced against front upright and bottom foot braced against back upright. Requires more strength from lateral flexors because top side of pelvis cannot open. 3. FLEX AND EXTEND ELBOW THREE TIMES. Maintain lateral flexion of spine. Requires more muscular endurance from lateral flexors.

Modification 2

5. return

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switch legs I N T E R M E D I AT E & A D V A N C E D C A D I L L A C M A N U A L • E X E R C I S E S

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trapeze SPREAD EAGLE NOTE: Trained professional must spot throughout exercise, ensuring secure grip with hands and ensuring feet are secure in trapeze.

INTERMEDIATE

EXHALE

initiate from head and return to neutral with pelvis neutral on femurs and body in one line from feet to shoulders. Then begin to sequentially articulate spine through flexion, and begin to lengthen elbows.

INHALE

continue to articulate spine through flexion to neutral, allowing hips to release into flexion and pelvis to drop back into starting position.

STARTING POSITION

Suspended from horizontals, front of body facing ceiling. Legs straight with ankles resting on top of trapeze, legs laterally rotated with feet hooked around springs. Hands holding horizontals positioned so that when pelvis is pulled up to make one line from shoulders to feet, hands are directly above shoulders. Pelvis dropped toward bed as neutral as possible. Scapulae stabilized. EXERCISE

To prepare, inhale... EXHALE

INHALE

keep legs straight and scapulae stabilized and initiate from tail to sequentially articulate spine through flexion, and extend hips until pelvis is neutral on femurs and body is one line from feet to shoulders. Keep cervical spine long but in slight flexion with eyes looking toward feet. flex elbows only enough to facilitate stabilizing scapulae and extend evenly through spine, leading with thoracic, so sternum lifts toward ceiling.

Complete 3 – 5 repetitions. ESSENCE TARGET MUSCLES: transversus abdominis to compress abdomen and stabilize lumbo-pelvic region; deep pelvic floor to aid in firing transversus; rectus abdominis and obliques concentrically to flex spine; erector spinae concentrically to extend spine; obliques to prevent overextension of lumbar; gluteus maximus and hamstrings concentrically to extend hips and lift pelvis, eccentrically as pelvis lowers; scapular stabilizers; muscles of forearm to stabilize wrists and hands STABILITY:

spine during articulation; scapulae and arms

MOBILITY:

spinal articulation; pelvis on femurs

SEQUENCING: spinal articulation from tail to head on roll up, head to tail on roll down

Spread Eagle

46

1. starting position

2. flex spine from tail

4. extend spine

5. return to one line

E X E R C I S E S • I N T E R M E D I AT E & A D V A N C E D C A D I L L A C M A N U A L

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FOCUS ■

engage scapular stabilizers to prevent body from sinking between shoulders (especially lower trapezius and latissimus dorsi in starting position and middle trapezius and rhomboids through neutral)

start from as neutral a position as possible with spine, do not hold lumbar in flexion and tuck pelvis under

engage gluteus maximus and hamstrings to support pelvis

initiate spinal extension by stabilizing scapulae

maintain support of abdominals in extension to avoid overextending lumbar spine

flex elbows only enough to facilitate thoracic extension, avoid flexing elbows too much and making focus arm work

MODIFICATION

To prevent overextension of lumbar or cervical spine, use an exhale during extension to help keep support of abdominals and deep neck flexors. 1. REVERSE BREATHING.

3. one line from feet to shoulders

6. roll through flexion

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7. return to starting position

I N T E R M E D I AT E & A D V A N C E D C A D I L L A C M A N U A L • E X E R C I S E S

47

trapeze WALKOVER Position horizontally sliding bar so that with legs in splits one ankle is resting on sliding bar, opposite ankle is resting on strut across top of uprights. If they are too far apart the foot reaching to strut may miss.

EQUIPMENT SET-UP:

ADVANCED

EXERCISE INHALE

press down on trapeze and flex other leg to rest ankle on horizontally sliding bar. Maintain support of gluteus maximus and hamstrings to keep pelvis lifted.

EXHALE

flex leg on trapeze and take legs into splits, suspending in splits for a moment, reaching back ankle to strut across top of uprights.

It is important to maintain a good grip on horizontals when attempting this exercise. Use gripper mats to help avoid slipping.

INHALE

reach front ankle to strut across top of uprights, so both ankles are securely resting on top of strut and hips are flexed, torso inverted.

STARTING POSITION

EXHALE

dorsiflex ankles and hook feet around strut, flex knees and bring spine and hips into full extension, with front of body facing bed.

INHALE

initiate from head to flex spine, extending knees and flexing hips, torso inverted, ankles resting on strut.

EXHALE

take legs into splits, suspending in splits for a moment, then reach back ankle to horizontally sliding bar.

INHALE

flex front leg and reach it down to trapeze.

EXHALE

flex other leg and reach it down to bed.

Trained professional must spot throughout exercise, ensuring secure grip with hands and secure placement of feet on bars. NOTE:

NOTE:

Standing on Cadillac, facing trapeze. Supporting leg straight, gesture leg straight with ankle resting on top of trapeze. Both legs laterally rotated. Pelvis and spine neutral, pelvis as square and level as possible. Hands holding horizontals, scapulae stabilized.

Complete one repetition on each side. Walkover

52

1. starting position

2. ankle to sliding bar

3. flex leg

6. extend spine

7. flex spine from head

8. legs into splits

E X E R C I S E S • I N T E R M E D I AT E & A D V A N C E D C A D I L L A C M A N U A L

© 2012 MERRITHEW CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED IN WHOLE OR IN PART.

ESSENCE

FOCUS

transversus abdominis to compress abdomen and stabilize lumbo-pelvic region; deep pelvic floor to aid in firing transversus; gluteus maximus and hamstrings concentrically to lift pelvis and extend hips; obliques to prevent overextension in extended position; rectus abdominis and obliques concentrically to flex spine out of extension; latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major to stabilize shoulders as legs walk over; scapular stabilizers; muscles of forearm to stabilize wrists and hands

do not attempt if shoulders have been injured or are unstable since they will be placed in full extension while supporting weight of body

maintain support around shoulder girdle and arms to protect wrist, elbow and shoulder joints

engage gluteus maximus and hamstrings to extend hips and stabilize pelvis and lumbar spine while lifting to inverted position

work abdominals and spinal extensors equally to stabilize torso in neutral while inverted

maintain abdominal connection in extension to prevent severe overextension of lumbar spine

maintain ankles in dorsiflexed position to hold onto strut and support weight of torso in extension

TARGET MUSCLES:

STABILITY: spine during articulation; scapulae and arms; shoulders in extreme range of motion MOBILITY:

spinal articulation; hip flexion and extension

BALANCE:

in inverted position to prevent torso swaying

COORDINATION:

complex sequence of movement with breath

4. legs into splits

5. rest ankles on strut

9. flex front leg

10. ankle on trapeze

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11. return to starting position I N T E R M E D I AT E & A D V A N C E D C A D I L L A C M A N U A L • E X E R C I S E S

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push-thru bar with springs from above SIT-UP COMBO Attach push-thru springs to eyehooks on strut across top of uprights. Swing push-thru bar toward bed and attach springs to eyehooks.

EQUIPMENT SET-UP:

EXERCISE

To prepare, inhale... EXHALE

initiate from head and sequentially articulate spine through flexion until sacrum area is just off bed, weight back of sit-bones. Simultaneously, flex elbows and stabilize scapulae to recruit support of springs.

INHALE

stay.

NOTE: Trained professional must spot throughout exercise with hand on push-thru bar. Spotter must not lean over bar.

Begin with 2 springs, then with 1 spring, then with 0 springs

INTERMEDIATE

STARTING POSITION

Then...

Supine, with head toward push-thru bar. Pelvis and spine neutral. Positioned so that hands are well below shoulder level when reaching up to hold bar. Legs flexed and adducted, feet flat on bed. Arms straight holding bar, palms facing in.

EXHALE

roll lumbar and lower thoracic onto bed through imprint; maintain upper torso flexed off bed.

INHALE

initiate by sliding rib cage toward pelvis and roll up until sacrum area is just off bed, weight back of sit-bones.

Complete 5– 10 repetitions.

Sit-Up Combo

60

1. starting position

2. flex off bed

3. roll lumbar onto bed

4. flex off bed

E X E R C I S E S • I N T E R M E D I AT E & A D V A N C E D C A D I L L A C M A N U A L

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hanging from horizontals BEATS

ADVANCED

STARTING POSITION

EXERCISE

Hanging from horizontal across top of Cadillac, front of body facing Cadillac. Hands holding horizontals shoulder-distance apart (use gripper mats to prevent slipping). Scapulae stabilized. Spine in slight extension, but well stabilized. Legs straight, adducted and slightly laterally rotated, hips extended so thighs are not resting against edge of bed.

INHALE

for four counts, opening and closing legs with ankles plantar flexed, emphasizing adduction.

EXHALE

for four counts, opening and closing legs with ankles dorsiflexed, emphasizing adduction.

Complete 4 sets.

Beats

96

1. starting position

2. slightly open legs

3. close legs

4. slightly open legs, dorsiflexed

E X E R C I S E S • I N T E R M E D I AT E & A D V A N C E D C A D I L L A C M A N U A L

5. close legs, dorsiflexed

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arm springs standing BUTTERFLY

INTERMEDIATE

STARTING POSITION

FOCUS

Standing, facing away from vertically sliding bar. Pelvis and spine neutral, with whole body leaning away from Cadillac. Feet hip-distance apart, legs straight. Arms long and abducted just lower than shoulder level, with hands holding handles and palms facing forward, wrists and fingers long. Scapulae stabilized.

stabilize scapulae and arms so arms remain constant in relationship to torso

isolate movement to lateral flexion of torso

maintain neutral alignment through torso and pelvis in lean

take torso forward into lean by allowing ankle joint to dorsiflex; avoid flexing hips

keep shoulder girdle open and scapulae stabilized

maintain neutral pelvis using gluteus maximus, hamstrings and abdominals

engage hip abductors to prevent pelvis shifting laterally during sidebend

lengthen spine before sidebending to avoid crunching vertebrae

maintain equal pressure with both hands into handles so torso does not rotate

keep spine neutral in sagittal plane, avoid extension

keep wrists as long as possible without ‘breaking’

EXERCISE

To prepare, inhale... EXHALE

INHALE

maintain pelvis and torso facing squarely forward, and pelvis still in space. Keep equal pressure with both hands into handles and laterally flex spine to one side, keeping arms in same relationship to torso. return spine to vertical.

Complete 3 repetitions on each side, alternating. ESSENCE

transversus abdominis to compress abdomen and stabilize lumbo-pelvic region; deep pelvic floor to aid in firing transversus; rectus abdominis, obliques and erector spinae to stabilize torso; abdominals challenged by resistance from behind; gluteus maximus, hamstrings and abdominals to stabilize pelvis; ipsilateral internal and external obliques concentrically to laterally flex spine; anterior deltoid and pectoralis major isometrically to maintain arm position against resistance from behind; deltoids to maintain height of humeri; scapular stabilizers, especially serratus anterior challenged by resistance from behind TARGET MUSCLES:

STABILITY:

spine during articulation; pelvis on femurs; scapulae

MOBILITY:

spine into lateral flexion

MODIFICATIONS

Once torso is in laterally flexed position, abduct top arm and adduct bottom arm, increasing range of motion at shoulder joint. Return arms directly out to sides before returning torso to vertical. 1. CONTINUE MOVEMENT WITH ARMS.

2. KNEELING ON CADILLAC BED. Maintain neutral and vertical position. To focus stabilization at hip joints rather than throughout legs as in standing version.

Place one foot slightly forward of the other and flex front leg. Maintain one line from back heel to top of head. To help stabilize torso and balance in lean position. 3. LUNGE POSITION.

Butterfly

1. starting position

2. laterally flex

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3. return

I N T E R M E D I AT E & A D V A N C E D C A D I L L A C M A N U A L • E X E R C I S E S

135

FOCUS

MODIFICATION

actively use abdominals to peel spine off bed instead of relying only on straps

avoid hinging at hips when lifting pelvis off bed

Forward...

roll only as far as upper thoracic spine, not onto cervical spine

To prepare, inhale...

keep torso in place as heels pull toward sit-bones or as knees extend

EXHALE

roll up with legs straight and parallel.

INHALE

laterally rotate legs, flex knees and dorsiflex ankles.

articulate sequentially, so each vertebra peels off bed separately on roll up and each makes contact separately on roll down

EXHALE

keep heels close to seat and roll down.

INHALE

extend knees.

avoid rounding shoulders and tensing neck during roll up or roll down

strongly connect inner thighs and hip extensors to stabilize hip joints during articulation when legs are long

INHALE

flex knees.

EXHALE

roll up with knees flexed, heels toward seat.

engage transversus abdominis to avoid ‘popping’ abdominals

INHALE

extend knees and reach feet to ceiling.

EXHALE

roll down with legs straight and parallel.

1. ON FOUR BREATHS.

Reverse...

Short Spine – Reverse

1. starting position

2. flex knees

3. roll up

4. extend legs to ceiling

5. no hinge at hips

6. down to sacrum

7. rotate legs laterally

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I N T E R M E D I AT E & A D V A N C E D C A D I L L A C M A N U A L • E X E R C I S E S

154

intermediate & advanced CADILLAC LEGEND:

▲ = i ntermediate level ■

= advanced level

ROLL-DOWN BAR

▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ■ ■ ■

PUSH-THRU BAR SPRINGS FROM BELOW

NECK PULL

3 TO 5 REPS

ROLL-DOWN WITH BACK EXTENSION

3 REPS

TWIST WITH PULSES

3 REPS

PORT DE BRAS SIDE BEND

PREP

3 REPS

▲ ▲ ▲ ■

MONKEY

3 TO 5 REPS

GUILLOTINE

3 TO 5 REPS

PREP

HIP OPENER

5 REPS

TEASER SERIES

12345

5 TO 10 REPS

5 REPS

PREP

TWIST AROUND THE WORLD

3 REPS

THIGH STRETCH

5 REPS

12

AIRPLANE

3 TO 5 REPS

ARM SPRINGS

▲ ▲ ■

BACK ROWING

5 REPS

12

FRONT ROWING

12345

FLYING EAGLE WITH LEG SPRINGS

5 REPS 3 TO 5 REPS

ROLL-DOWN BAR STANDING

TRICEPS LUNGE

10 REPS

TRAPEZE

▲ ▲ ▲ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

BALLET STRETCHES STANDING SPREAD EAGLE

1 REP 3 TO 5 REPS

PULL UP

3 TO 5 REPS

REVERSE PULL UP

3 TO 5 REPS

WALKOVER

1 REP

SCISSORS IN AIR

3 TO 5 REPS

BICYCLE IN AIR

3 TO 5 REPS

TUCK INTO FLEXION & EXTENSION

1 REP

PUSH-THRU BAR SPRINGS FROM ABOVE

▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ■ ■ ■

SIT-UP COMBO TEASER SERIES

5 TO 10 REPS 12345

PUSH-THRU WITH FEET PREP 1 2 3

5 TO 10 REPS 3 REPS

CAT

3 TO 5 REPS

PUSH-THRU ON STOMACH

3 TO 5 REPS

MERMAID WITH ROTATION

2 REP

SIDE BODY TWIST

3 TO 5 REPS

PUSH-THRU ON BACK WITH BACK EXTENSION

3 TO 5 REPS

BRIDGE

12

3 REPS

HANGING FROM UPRIGHTS

SPREAD EAGLE

ARM SPRINGS STANDING

▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲

SIDE TWIST STANDING REVERSE EXPANSION

5 REPS 12345

OFFERING

4 REPS 5 REPS

HUG A TREE

5 TO 10 REPS

BUTTERFLY

3 REPS

PUNCHES

8 TO 10 REPS

FENCER LUNGES

PREP 1 2

SQUATS

5 REPS 5 REPS

LEG SPRINGS

▲ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

BEATS

4 SETS

SHORT SPINE

3 REPS

LONG SPINE

3 REPS

MAGICIAN CIRCLES

10 REPS

MAGICIAN BEATS

4 SETS

MAGICIAN WALKS

4 SETS

LEG SPRINGS SIDE-LYING

▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲

SCISSORS OVALS

8 TO 10 REPS 5 TO 10 REPS

12

SIDE KICK STRETCH

3 REPS

DEVELOPÉ

3 TO 5 REPS

ROND DE JAMBE

3 TO 5 REPS

3 TO 5 REPS

FUZZY HANGING STRAPS HANGING FROM HORIZONTALS

■ ■ ■ ■

KNEE RAISES

5 TO 10 REPS

KNEE RAISES WITH OBLIQUES

5 TO 10 REPS

CIRCLES

5 TO 10 REPS

BEATS

4 SETS

▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲

BALLET STRETCHES SPREAD EAGLE ABDOMINAL CURLS HALF HANG FULL HANG

1 REP 3 TO 5 REPS 10 REPS 1 REP

12

1 REP

m e r r i t h e w. c o m 2 2 0 0 Y O N G E S T R E E T, S U I T E 5 0 0 , T O R O N T O , O N , C A N A D A M 4 S 2 C 6 . 4 1 6 - 4 8 2 - 4 0 5 0

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I N T E R M E D I AT E & A D V A N C E D C A D I L L A C M A N U A L • W O R K O U T C H A R T

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Intermediate/Advanced Cadillac Sample