Automotive Technology in Bavaria
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WITH SPECIAL SECTION E-CAR
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media mind GmbH & Co. KG Editorial Advert
BAYERN INTERNATIONAL Greeting Ulf Berkenhagen, AUDI AG Bavarian Research
2. CP 3 6 7 8
The Bavarian Research Foundation Author: Dorothea Leonhardt, Haed of Division Manageress Bavarian Research Foundation
Ensuring technological lead in the automotive industry Author: Jens Christian Koch, Patent attorney Grünecker, Kinkeldey, Stockmair & Schwanhäusser
Lighter without compromising on performance Author: Peter Gresch, Vice-President Brose Fahrzeugteile GmbH & Co.
Table of contents
Electrically heated high-tech coating for an upcoming genertation of applications Authors: Dr. Walter Schütz, Tomas Meinen FutureCarbon GmbH
Network of Automotive Excellence – NoAE Author: Dipl.-Kfm. H. Köpplinger NoAE
Tool clamping systems
HSK-T – unmatched in quality and accuray Author: Hubert Sykora OTT-JAKOB Spanntechnik GmbH
Hybrid Drives Hybrid Drives Authors: Dipl.-Ing. Gregor Habersbrunner Prof. Dr.-Ing. Georg Wachtmeister Lehrstuhl für Verbrennungskraftmaschinen, TU München
Automotive electronics and Information Technology Author: Dr.-Ing. Edwin Tscheschlok GIGATRONIK Ingolstadt GmbH
SIMENT GmbH – simulation in the SCHERDELGroup Author: Georg Hannig, Graduate in physics SCHERDEL Gruppe, SIMENT GmbH
The future potential of carbon composites in the field of lightweight construction Author: Prof: Dr.-Ing. Klaus Drechsler, Technical University of Munich, Chait of „Carbon Composites“
ENGINEERING AND CONSULTING
step1 – a project like no other Author: Frank Geiger GFi Gesellschaft für technische Ingenieurleistungen
AUDI AG: driveline strategy for the future – electric mobility as an integrated concept Contact: Eric Felber AUDI AG, Ingolstadt
Car Typ 0
Fraunhofer electric car puts new technologies to the test Authors: Dipl.-Ing. Patrick Heinrich, Dipl.-Ing. Falk Langer, Dipl.-Ing. Dirk Eilers, Fraunhofer Institute ESK
Charging station for E-vehiclesn
Charging the future – Rhode & Schwarz Teisnach offers revolutionary design to the world of E-Charging Author: Thorsten Frieb-Preis, Rohde & Schwarz, Teisnach
Audi AG, Ingolstadt
Editorial Aut(o)ptimism (o) – a little letter with a great impact and presence. It stands at the end of auto and the beginning of optimism and so is a synonym for the past and the future. The past with its unpleasant implications has been overcome. The future would like to bring new creative power to all researchers, developers and handlers in the field of automobiles.
Do concepts exist for the charging point of the future in the world of electric ‚petrol stations‘? Life without a car is unimaginable! Accompany us on our journey away from oil and into the area of electromobility.
“Automobiltechnologie in Bayern” (Automobile technology in Bavaria) contributes to this by answering important questions such as: Which networks and clusters can be used for lasting success? In which way can the Bavarian Research Foundation be of help in the implementation of technological ideas? Where are functionality and costs to be optimised in the area of development? Where does “intelligent lightweight construction” offer decisive advantages in large-scale production? What effects does HSK-T have on quality and precision? How does drive strategy look for the future? Which new developments geared especially towards electric cars are necessary in order for them to be tested in a real vehicle? How is context sensitive energy prediction to be reached along with the corresponding range prediction?
Walter Fürst Managing Director
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Internationalism is a crucial economic factor for a company like Audi. Internationalization and globalization are aspects of great importance to Audi – especially for the Purchasing division. And one of Audi‘s strengths lies in being able to act within the framework of a worldwide group of companies. Because a global manufacturing network also requires a global supplier environment, we want to acquire the world’s best and strongest suppliers for ourselves. This benefits both a company and its partners.
Audi is a company that feels and exhibits a strong sense of responsibility and commitment toward its German home and the employees who work there. “German engineering” continues to be admired all over the world. But “made in Germany” alone would lead us into a dead end. We need to ensure that it is still possible to manufacture goods profitably in our country. This makes it essential to keep expanding our international outlook. Even so, outsourcing abroad is not an end in itself, but rather is subject to the same clear
economic and quality requirements as purchasing in this country. We need to combine the potential of Germany as an industrial base with production locations all over the world. This ultimately enables us to bring attractive, top-quality products onto the market at competitive cost. To achieve this, strong suppliers are essential – both now and in the future.”
Ulf Berkenhagen Member of the Board of Management of AUDI AG Purchasing
The Bavarian Research Foundation
Bavarian Research Foundation
Sponsoring research - Intensitying transfer of knowledge - Creating innovations “With their excellent results the Bavarian Research Foundation has made a significant contribution to Bavaria‘s successful technology policy. Via targeted sponsoring of research they make it possible for companies, together with universities and research establishments, to make their technological ideas and the transformation of these ideas into innovations a reality.” With this statement, Prime Minister Horst Seehofer highlights the significance that the Bavarian Research Foundation has in the network of the innovationfriendly climes of Bavaria. Starting out with the idea of reinvesting profit made from the Free State of Bavaria‘s economic investments into economic research, this nonprofit-making foundation was founded in 1990 as an instrument which could strengthen the hightech location of Bavaria in worldwide competition, in the sphere of new technologies, via the efficient and flexible sponsoring of application-oriented research. This idea became a recipe for success: From the moment its sponsorship began in 1991 up until the end of 2009, the Bavarian Research Foundation has paid subsidies amounting to €435 million for around 560 projects, which have generated a total volume in the region of €970 million. This shows that for every Euro that the
Left: Vehicle dynamics: virtual assessment of different in-wheel systems in simulation models. Right: In-wheel system: chassis integration in the wheel (Example)
Bavarian Research Foundation uses for research projects in the sphere of high technology, more than one Euro is made by the Bavarian economy for investments in the region‘s future. In accordance with the law regarding the formation of the Bavarian Research Foundation, the foundation has the purpose of: 1. sponsoring, complementary to regional research promotions via additional means or using different methods, university or non-university research projects, which are significant for the scientific and technological development of Bavaria or the Bavarian economy or the conservation of nature in accordance with articles 131 and 141 of the Constitution, and 2. sponsoring the rapid use of scientific knowledge via the economy.
Together with the foundation committee, basic principles of the policies on sponsorship were drawn up, which guarantee the efficient realisation of this goal and satisfy the demands of modern innovation management: Each project, each research network must be jointly supported by scientists and economists. Economic partners must bring their own corresponding contribution to the project. The project must be innovative and be clearly related to technology. The focal point of the allocation of resources can be found in the area of application-oriented, pre-competitive research and development; later economic potential must be evident.
Bavarian Research Foundation Sponsorship is limited to a timeframe, starting with an innovative idea, up to the creation of a laboratory prototype or a functional model. The duration of the project has a deadline; the period of sponsorship is generally three years. Institutional sponsorship is excluded. Those entitled to apply are companies based in Bavaria, Bavarian universities and their members, as well as non-university research institutes. Particular attention is given to SMEs. The progress of the project is to be documented via factual reports and proof of costs is to be provided. From the moment of application to the end of the project, the foundation expects there to be intensive cooperation between the partners of the project. Contributions from the economy, generally at least 50% of the project costs, is a clear sign for the foundation, that the participating companies are convinced of the quality and benefit of the scientific monitoring and that projects are entered into with the aim of creating added value. Beyond the associated technology transfer, corporate ways of thinking are established during the university research process and young scientists gain an insight into economic demands. In order to fulfil the purpose of their foundation, around €20 million a year is made available to the Bavarian Research Foundation. With this they are able to grant means for around 35 to 45 new individual projects every year from the most varied areas of technology, whereby each project moves a sum of sponsorship money of between €200,000 and 1 million Euros. A
clear-cut technological problem is to be worked on by at least one partner from the area of economics and another from the area of science. In addition, each year, up to two new research networks are sponsored. Research networks handle a significant “general topic” which is at the forefront of scientific and technological development. They are characterised by a large number of members, several research establishments and a multitude of companies of all different sizes; a clearly interdisciplinary nature and their own organisational structure are standard. The individual sub-projects of the networks should create a synergy effect through their networking and develop a true added value. These networks are sponsored with up to €2.5 million and, together with the required industrial participation, have a project volume of around €5 million. With their sponsorship programme “High technology for the 21st century”, the Bavarian Research Foundation has been notified by the European Union. Its focal points can be seen in the areas of Life Sciences, Information and Communication Technology, Microsystems Technology, Materials Science, in the areas of Energy and the Environment, Mechatronics, Nanotechnology and Process and Production Techniques. Belonging to a specific area of technology is not a decisive factor in the granting of sponsorship. In the foreground are the level of innovation and the quality of an
idea. In addition, the amplitude of topic areas makes it possible to carry out important interdisciplinary research projects. At the same time, the bottom-up principle practised by the foundation has been preserved over the years: The initiative comes from researchers and scientists at universities or from companies. Their ideas generally find their way to the foundation in the form of sketches. With the support of the foundation‘s office, these become applications worthy of appraisal, which end up in future-oriented sponsorship projects. Speed and flexibility are the avowed goal of the Bavarian Research Foundation. More than half of the projects only take about half a year from the sketch phase to the entry of the application, through the intensive assessment and application procedure, up to the granting of sponsorship. Applications are made in electronic or written form (Application forms are available at www.forschungsstiftung.de) and are revised in an objective procedure. Here, consultants from outside of Bavaria are called in, who give their professional opinion to the departments responsible. The foundation committee makes a decision based on this preliminary work: Seven excellent representatives from the Bavarian fields of economy and science belong to the Scientific Advisory Committee, which advises the foundation on matters regarding research and technology. Based on the asses-
Left: installed experimental set-up (at the BMW plant in Dingolfing) Right: Reconstructed dent (Height: 12ìm, diameter: 6 mm, section 20x20 mm)
Bavarian Research Foundation
Pressure satellite ECU Lateral acceleration Acceleration sensors (-satellites)
Left:With Crash impact Sound Sensing, deformations of the vehicle can be detected and the safety system for the crash vehicle can be activated even more effectively and rapidly. Right: In the event of an even more dangerous side crash:With Crash Impact Sound sensing Side, the plausibility process in the airbag control unit can be sped up. Performance can be increased in the long-term via peripheral impact sound satellites
sment of experts from outside of Bavaria, the Scientific Advisory Committee gives recommendations to the individual research projects or research networks. The Foundation Management Board, which consists of one representative each from the Bavarian State Chancellery and the Departments of Economy, Science and Finance, makes its decisions based on the recommendations of the Scientific Advisory Committee and in agreement with the foundation council on the granting of funds for the individual research projects. In addition the Foundation Board conducts the business of the dayto-day management of the foundation. The board is supported by Presidents, its office and the manageress. The foundation council establishes the basic principles of the foundation‘s policies and the working schedule. It decides upon the budget and decrees guidelines regarding the awarding of subsidies. With a vote in favour, the foundation council is responsible for the final decision on the sponsorship of the individual projects. The chairman of the foundation council is the Minister-President of Bavaria; also on the council are the ministers for the economy, infrastructures, traffic and technology and science and research, as well as the minister for finance and two representatives each from
the Bavarian parliament, Economy and Science. Currently, in the area of Car and machine building, the multifaceted Bavarian Research Foundation proves to be particularly profitable. From new materials and sensor systems to mechatronics and innovative processing and production technology, the foundation has supported a multitude of successful cooperative research projects and has continuously sponsored new research projects. Over 50 individual projects and several research networks can be found in this area. In the recent past, the spectrum has ranged from optimised logistics processes for efficient car production, intelligent passenger protection in vehicles, high-quality light-weight seat components, procedures for heat recuperation in commercial vehicles, integrated shock absorbers, chassis / gear integration in the wheel to geometry and surface tests on unpainted building components, as well as fast 3D shape capture of reflective surfaces, to a great number of motor optimisation tests. (steering, CO2, particle), optimisation of vehicle power supplies and seamlessly integrated data logging. The focal points, energy and environment, are more and more widely reflected in the orientation of these research proposals. There is also an increasing demand in the applications regarding the entire
area of electromobility. Further details on the individual projects are available via a project finder on the foundation‘s homepage: http://www.forschungsstiftung.de/ index.php/Foerderprojekte.html. With the flexible financing of innovative research projects, carried out in cooperation with the departments of Science and Economy, the Bavarian Research Foundation guarantees an important contribution to the transfer of knowledge and the strengthening of this home of technology and research: Bavaria.
Author: Dorothea Leonhardt Head of Division Manageress
Contact: Bavarian Research Foundation Prinzregentenstraße 7 80538 München/Germany Phone 089 / 2102 86-3 firstname.lastname@example.org www.forschungsstiftung.de
Ensuring technological lead in the automotive industry good time will be able to secure themselves a decisive lead and prove that they are the creator of these results. Protective rights often open the doors to negotiations with competitors or customers, no matter whether these negotiations concern licensing or the mutual utilization of technologies. Those who do not protect their own developments are often left empty-handed and frequently miss chances. Sceptics often base their arguments on the costs entailed by protective rights. However, a comparison between the costs entailed by a patent application and the financial investment required for the development of a new product shows that these costs are negligible. Moreover, protective rights may avoid costs. This is often only realized when protective rights are asserted against one’s own enterprise. It will then turn out that the resultant costs are many times higher than the costs for one’s own protective right applications would have been. For warding off protective rights, comprehensive legal examinations and, in many cases, intricate searches and investigations are required. In addition, it may become necessary to institute timeconsuming and cost-intensive opposition proceedings and legal actions. If the litigation cannot be settled through an amicable settlement or the grant of a licence and if one loses the case as an infringer of protective rights, the follow-up costs may be immense. Due to the fact that the protective right owner is entitled to injunctive relief, one’s own produc-
tion and the fulfilment of supply contracts is jeopardized. In addition, the owner of the protective rights is entitled to claims for damages against the infringer of the protective rights. The long-lasting, lingering uncertainty about the result of such disputes impedes the conclusion of further contracts. The protective right owner is always in the more comfortable position. Whereas the infringer of the protective rights is confronted with acute risks concerning his own production and the fulfilment of supply contracts, the protective right owner essentially only risks his own protective right and thus has much less to lose. In the final analysis, an enterprise that is successfully operating in the market cannot do without an elaborate protective right strategy based on long-term considerations. Not to protect one’s own technical developments would be negligent and jeopardizes the existence of an enterprise in the long run. Author:
Jens Christian Koch Patent attorney
Grünecker, Kinkeldey, Stockmair & Schwanhäusser Leopoldstr. 4 80802 München/Germany Phone: 0049-89-21 23 50 Fax: 0049-89 22 02 87 E-mail: email@example.com www.grunecker.com
Technical protective rights, such as patents and utility models, have become increasingly important in recent years. They ensure the technological lead and thus the success of an enterprise. In the field of the automotive supplier industry there are, however, also voices that, in view of the often not unproblematic distribution of power between suppliers and car manufacturers, argue that protective rights are not worth the trouble or are of no use. As will be explained in the following, this objection is unfounded. It cannot be denied that there may be constellations which, due to the power relations between suppliers and car manufacturers, make it difficult to enforce protective rights. However, even under such disadvantageous constellations, the supplier is in a much better position with protective rights than without. Protective rights can hinder competitors who are not within the immediate sphere of influence of the car manufacturer. Protective rights document one’s own technological lead. The searches and examination proceedings conducted by the patent offices provide well-founded information indicating whether one‘s own activities may infringe the protective rights of a third party. Development requests are frequently assigned to several competitors at the same time. The often restricted problem specifications of such development requests may lead to similar results. Only those who apply for a protective right for their results in
Lighter without compromising on performance Electromobility is the talk of the global automotive industry. Whether or not the new drives will catch on as quickly as expected, is a controversial subject among experts. One thing is certain, though, lightweight design is "in" and, more than ever before, it constitutes an important competitive factor. However tomorrow's car may be propelled, it must be lightweight to keep energy consumption to a minimum and still be safe and comfortable to drive. Suppliers' innovative ingenuity is required precisely for these reasons. Development activities at Brose have long focused on optimizing consumption by reducing weight and improving energy efficiency â€“ in all product areas. New materials and production procedures along with the increased integration of functions in door, closure and seat systems have enabled the international automotive supplier to reduce the weight of its systems and components by 30 to 50%; simultaneously increasing functionality, without lowering standards of safety and comfort.
Weight reduction over the past 10 years
By using new materials and techniques as well as the increased integration of functions in door, closure and seat systems, Brose has succeeded in reducing the weight of its systems and components considerably over the past ten years
Door systems: formed parts with maximum integration of functions In view of the increasing pressure on prices and the multitude of options available for new models, the modu-
lar design plays a significant role in the automobile industry. In the vehicle door, stringent mechanical requirements have to be reconciled with increasing functionality and the necessary reduction in weight.
Brose is considered the inventor of the modular door. Over the past 20 years, the door system with wet/dry side separation has become established as the technical standard: all principal door functions are combined within a single system on a module carrier to form a pre-tested and ready-to-fit unit which is delivered just-in-sequence to the automobile manufacturersâ€™ assembly line. Having produced more than 120 million door systems, Brose is the most experienced manufacturer in series production and is world market leader in this product area. Which material provides the most benefit for the OEM and the greatest efficiency in the specific project? These are the deciding criteria when selecting material for the module carrier. The supplier therefore keeps the necessary resources and processes for the development, manufacture and supply of the various door system designs to hand.
Aluminum lightweight structure in the door: a question of precision The high-end lightweight design contains an aluminum inner door panel as well as a magnesium window frame and is used in luxury sports cars. At around 25 % lighter than comparable doors of this kind, the door structure is among the lightest on the market. The concept is based on the principle of the modular door with wet/dry side separation. It is the most sophisticated door of its kind to date, featuring not only window regulator, loudspeaker, crash sensors, electronics and wire harness, but also visible elements such as glass, cover panel, frame and trim strips as part of the door system, all this requiring particularly high-precision work.
Plastic carrier plate out of long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene: weight saving of 5 kilograms Long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene is another material which, in contrast to steel, provides a significant weight advantage and allows a maximum integration of functions. Using this material in large-scale production also provides new potential for saving weight and costs: window regulator rails, inner handle, loudspeaker frame,
The new latch design for side doors sets standards regarding size, weight, cost and comfort; on the left, the previous generation; on the right, the Unilatch®
fixing elements for cable and other components can be integrated in the module carrier of the plastic door system. With this in mind, and to increase added value, Brose invested in a fully automated injection molding system with in-line compounding process as well as in the corresponding material research. With thin walls around 1.8 mm thick, injection molding allows far greater freedom in design and for the integration of components than other processing methods. Fitted with the Brose Unilatch® side door lock and a lighter window regulator drive – just half the weight of the standard component due to a new ma-
Fitted with the new Brose Unilatch® side door lock and the reduced-weight window regulator, up to 5 kilograms in weight per vehicle can be saved by using highly integrated Brose plastic door systems
terial design – up to five kilograms in weight per vehicle can be saved by using highly integrated plastic door systems. At the same time, the plastic door system fulfills all international safety requirements in side crash tests.
The Brose Unilatch® : ingeniously simple – simply ingenious In line with the maxim “less is more”, the Unilatch® is a milestone in the design of side door latches. It is currently the smallest latch on the market, requiring 60% less installation space compared to commercially available closure systems and it provides weight savings of up to 1 kilogram per vehicle. Thanks to a far-reaching common-part strategy and modular structure, it can be adapted to customer requirements easily, integrated into any door and allows automakers a high degree of freedom in design as far as the car body is concerned. Haptic and acoustic feedback has been optimized and the unlocking time is 25 milliseconds. For comparison: commercially available latches currently require 40 milliseconds. As with the side door locks, Brose has also considerably reduced the weight of the liftgate latch: by dispensing with the transmission unit, a weight saving of 30% can be achieved with the new generation
are delivered to the OEM lines fully equipped for the specific vehicles, ready-to-fit, paint-sprayed and pre-tested.
Seat structures: intelligent combination of materials
Solid plastic structure: its low weight allows the liftgate to be moved by a single spindle drive
of closure systems against conventional technology, along with acoustic advantages.
Liftgate with plastic functional carrier: all from one source With its expertise in drives, electronics and sensor systems, Brose has teamed up with Plastic Omnium, market leader in plastic liftgate, to provide a lightweight variant based on a solid plastic structure. Besides the advantages of increased potential for integrating functions and greater freedom of design, a weight saving of 4 to 6 kilograms against steel liftgates is achieved. The low weight allows a new drive concept with well-balanced kinematics to be used, enabling the electrically powered liftgate to be moved by just one spindle drive. This is integrated out of sight in the spoiler area. Besides the acoustic advantages provided, it also reduces the risk of injury because there are no moveable elements like drive units or gas struts in the critical area between liftgate and body. Consequently, passive safety is increased and is further supple-
mented by a contact-free capacitive anti-trap system. This recognizes obstructions and stops the closing process short of the obstruction. Thanks to the electromagnetic transparency of the plastics used, the sensors for the capacitive antitrap system as well as the antennae can be integrated invisibly. The plastic liftgates fulfill stringent safety requirements like the FMVSS 301 high-speed crash test or the RCAR low-speed crash test for insurance classification. They
For over 40 years, Brose has been developing and producing adjuster systems for vehicle seats. Today, the company supplies more than 6.5 million seat structures and a further 13 million components from 8 plants to some 40 automakers and seat manufacturers per year. Brose disposes of expert knowledge and experience in the development and production of all mechanical, electric and electronic components. This ensures the rigorous further development of individual components under consideration of the overall system. Innovative production processes and new materials enable weight savings in complex seat structures, too, while still ensuring a high standard of safety and comfort. Both seat structure and individual components are the focus for further development. An example of this is the new generation of 4-pin adjuster motors with neodymium magnets; they are not only significantly smaller but also 30 % lighter than conventional drives. As the only supplier on the market,
The weight-optimized design and the use of neodymium magnets make the new generation of adjuster motors (B) some 30-50% lighter than conventional models (A)
Brose demonstrates its expertise in lightweight design with its seat concept: a combination of materials out of TWIP steel, plastic and aluminum makes the seat structure around 4 kg lighter than comparable seats on the market
Brose has developed individual motors with the respective performance categories for each plane of adjustment. Up to 12 motors are incorporated in comfort seats, resulting in a savings potential of over 1 kilogram per seat. These small drives make it possible in future for power seat structures to be in the same weight class as manual ones. Neodymium motors contribute to reducing weight not only on account of their low weight but also their significantly more compact design: these smaller, lighter drives can be positioned in the seat structure in such a way that the heavier power transmission elements like, for example, coupling rods, can be dispensed with. With a seat concept bringing a total of about 4 kilograms less weight on the scales than a comparable seat structure on the market, Brose again proves its expertise in lightweight design. The material mix is decisive here: new joining techniques such as adhesive bonding, laser or friction
If the folding function of a rear seat is replaced by a plastic module, its weight can be reduced by about 1.5 kilograms
welding allow an intelligent combination of materials within the seat structure like high-strength steel or plastics and aluminum. Since the cost factor has to be considered in all activities, especially new types of high-strength steel are most likely to be used in large-scale production. Depending on how much importance a customer attaches to lightweight design, materials other than steel can be used in seat structures allowing the utilization of more efficient structural components for seat pan and backrest. The folding function of a rear seat to provide more cargo space, for example, can be replaced by a plastic module with a weight saving against steel of 1.5 kilograms. Today, Brose's product range enables the company to reduce a vehicle's weight by up to 20 kilograms and lower energy consumption significantly. Lightweight designs for door and seat systems using new materials and processes contribute to this, as do brushless drives for engine cooling, climate control, power steering
or dual clutch transmissions. In all, this reduces CO2 emissions by some 17 g/km. Author: Peter Gresch The author, Peter Gresch, is Executive Vice-President of Development and Electronics with the Brose Group.
Brose Fahrzeugteile GmbH & Co. Kommanditgesellschaft, Coburg Ketschendorfer StraĂ&#x;e 38-50 96450 Coburg/Germany Phone 09561/21-0 Fax 09561/21-1429 www.brose.com
Turnover 2009 2.6 billion euro
Customers OEMs and automotive suppliers
Employees 2009 14,200
Electrically heated high-tech coating for an upcoming generation of applications In Carbo e-Therm the innovative company FutureCarbon, at home in Bayreuth/ Germany, has devised a heated coating based on carbon nanomaterials that can be applied as simply as paint to very different surfaces and geometries, showing the way to extremely high-efficiency, low-volt heating systems.
Carbo e-Therm Carbo e-Therm is a high-efficiency, electrically heated coating developed especially for operation on non-hazardous low voltage (e.g. 12 or 24 V). Carbo e-Therm consists of a dispersion on an acrylate or silicone base and special carbon additives to produce very high electric conductivity. It is suitable for purposes in which temperatures can reach as much as 250 Â°C. An outstanding feature of Carbo e-Therm is its excellent ease of application and flexibility of use. This heated coating can be applied to a whole variety of surfaces and materials such as metals, plastics, gypsum board and concrete. The strong points of Carbo e-Therm show in particular when you are confronted with the kind of complicated surface geometries found in mold making, and implementation of conventional heating solutions involves considerable cost and effort. Carbo e-Therm can be applied in very different ways. Manual application techniques are suitable, such as squeegeeing, rolling and spraying, as are industrial processes with automatic printing or coating plant.
Fig. 1: Heat distribution of Carbo e-Therm heating layer (left) versus conventional heating element (right)
Unlike conventional heating systems, heat is radiated evenly from the heated surface without producing undesirable local hot spots, as illustrated in Fig. 1. Carbo e-Therm heating layers are powered by means of metal contact strips normally concealed by the layer. The required temperatures are then simply controlled by current regulation. Compared to conventional resistance heating elements, heating systems based on Carbo e-Therm are also very cost-attractive, doing away with the need for extra carrier materials such as polyimide film, and thus any kind of finishing to match the form of the resistance tracks and the carrier material. Carbo e-Therm is used for a variety of purposes. In the automobile industry, for instance, surface heating systems are imple-
mented for integration in door panels, in a roof lining or dashboard. In mechanical and plant engineering Carbo e-Therm is in many cases an excellent alternative to conventional heating systems where technical heat is needed. In the building industry it forms the basis for new kinds of wall and floor heating. In sanitation Carbo e-Therm serves to eliminate thermal bridges and thus condensation and mold. There are many other applications in aerospace, the isothermalization of instrumentation and panel heating in a cabin for example, or in wind farms, where much importance attaches to the de-icing of rotor blades. Carbo e-Therm is just as diverse in its use in the whole field of commercial transport â€“ from construction site vehicles through trucks to buses and railways â€“ to heat cabs, de-ice roofs, avoid condensation in electrical systems, etc. Carbo e-Therm goes a long way: one liter suffices to coat a surface of up to 4 sqm. Coats dry in a matter of minutes and can already be painted. Heated coatings with Carbo e-Therm are highly rugged mechanically, exhibit good permanent elasticity, and ex-
Carbo e-Therm cellent resistance to water and alkalis.
Applications Automobile industry Given its special characteristics, Carbo e-Therm heating can be operated direct from an onboard vehicle network with voltage of 12 V and upwards. Interior paneling
Fig. 2: Automobile door paneling coated with Carbo e-Therm to produce a heating surface
and steering wheels for example, arm rests and ceilings are all easily heated with Carbo e-Therm to create a pleasant vehicle interior. This kind of surface heating system works independently of heat from the combustion engine, which reduces the time needed to heat a vehicle interior. Especially with a view to future technical developments in the context of electric vehicles, Carbo e-Therm will enable the implementation of highefficiency, battery-powered electric heating concepts in such vehicles. Wind energy Icing problems with wind power plants operating in winter months
or in cold climates can be overcome by a Carbo e-Therm coating to heat the rotor blades. This is an effective way of avoiding degradation of aerodynamic behavior and rotor unbalance caused by wet snow for example, or buildup of ice layers as a result of changes in temperature. The energy produced by the wind generator can easily be used to operate the Carbo e-Therm heated coating. Foodstuffs industry Carbo e-Therm is used in the industrial production of foodstuffs to generate the required process heat. Here it functions as an outer heated coating to homogeneously warm mixer tubs, piping, containers, pumps, etc and create the necessary temperature for the masses that are to be processed and prevent them from conglomerating or hardening. Carbo e-Therm dramatically reduces the expense and effort of generating heat in the production of foodstuffs because it does away with expensive double-walled containers with a fluid heating medium flowing through them. The result is very much simplified plant engineering, plus lower cleaning and maintenance costs. Building industry Carbo e-Therm is used in the building industry for floor and wall heating. Laminate flooring or ceramic tiles can be coated with it. This kind of coating ensures fast and homogeneous warming of the space. Operation with non-hazardous low voltage makes Carbo e-Therm suitable for wet areas. Another application for Carbo e-Therm is in the renovation of
old buildings, to dry brickwork and masonry or keep it dry, interrupt thermal bridges, prevent the formation of condensation and mold.
FutureCarbon profile FutureCarbon specializes in the development and manufacture of carbon nanomaterials and their refinement to create what are called carbon supercomposites, primary products for further industrial processing. Carbon supercomposites are combinations of materials that unfold the special characteristics of carbon nanomaterials in the macroscopic world of real applications. All of our materials are manufactured on an industrial scale.
Authors: Dr. Walter Sch端tz General Manager
Tomas Meinen General Manager
Fig. 3: Heavily iced rotor blade of a wind power plant (photo: ADEV 1998)
Fig. 4: Carbo e-Therm as floor heating
Gottlieb-Keim-Strasse 60 95448 Bayreuth/Germany Phone.: +49 (921) 507388 11 Fax: +49 (921) 507388 99 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.future-carbon.de
Network of Automotive Excellence – NoAE
Network of Automotive Excellence
NoAE objectives NoAE is a free, open initiative for the automobile and supplier industry NoAE is an intercompany professional network with the objective to intensify strategic organisational and technological exchanges of ideas and experiences between the companies
Vision To increase the competitiveness of the participating companies through co-operation within the network.
Strategy The work of NoAE should aid members in revealing their trendsetting company strategies and should thereby guide them. This will be realised through: co-operation based on partnership within the network exchanging ideas between experts, under the obligation of confidentiality estimating the relevance of trends, processes/methods and technologies use of synergies pooling of common energies an optimally accelerated implementation of innovations In order to accomplish this, trust, transparency and understanding are the significant factors of success for
NoAE and the participating companies.
History of NoAE NoAE was founded in 2002 by well-known personalities of the automotive branch and with the collaboration of the European Commission. NoAE is an interregional automotive member of „Initiative Networks of Competence Germany“ by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology.
NoAE Innovation Competition – a worldwide innovation Project
The importance of the automotive industry In Summer 2011, Germany is celebrating with the “automobile summer”, marking the 125th anniversary of the founding of Daimler-Benz. It was Henry Ford in the USA who played a crucial role in shaping the automotive industry around 100 years ago with the assembly line production of the Ford Model T. For the next 100 years, the automotive industry was considered to be and is a key industry in all developed economies. Overall economic factors such as economic growth, technological development and
innovation rate are significantly influenced by the automotive industry. In Germany, the automotive industry is the strongest economic sector, generates almost one-fifth of the German gross national product, and provides jobs for 5 million people.
The New Era Now, in the middle of 2010, the automotive industry is steadily recovering from the world economic crisis of 2008/2009. Increasing sales figures however, cannot conceal a new era in technology. After more than 100 years of dominance by the conventional combustion engine, we now enter into an era of the complete electrification of road traffic. No one can say right now with certainty for example, exactly how the electric vehicle will look in 2020. That is why predictions regarding the use of electric or hybrid vehicles vary greatly. Even customers are somewhat uncertain. However one thing is certain: A clear, new trend towards “Eco-prestige”. Even in current car countries such as USA, Germany and France, the desire for mobility continues and urbanisation will progress.
Who are the winners of tomorrow? One thing seems to be clear – we live in a time of transition and transformation: For the next 15 – 25 years, various technologies and drive concepts will be available side
Network of Automotive Excellence
by side. Technologies that are improved, refined and optimised, or materials and systems that are in the process of being developed. The question isn‘t either–or, but rather: How to find joint solutions for the tasks of the future. This in turn creates room for innovations, and new players from other sectors. Providers of future-oriented mobility solutions can expect significant growth potentials. The electronics industry as well as some branches in the energy and raw materials sectors and even local providers will profit. Current market shares will shift; there will be a lot more partners involved in the product “car” than there is now. Social critics are even speaking of a “democratisation of the industry”.
Innovations from the key factor Improvement and optimisation of current drive technologies – new materials for future drive technologies – and implementation of customer demands into products:
The common denominator of these challenges is innovations. Never in the almost 125-year history has the automobile ever
ticipated. For 2011, the project will be further expanded: The dates for 2011 are also already fixed:
17. March 2011
Kick-off for the NoAE Innovation Competition 2011 with an international partner meeting
1. April 2011
Registration and “First Call” begins
8. September 2011
Global “Final Call”
30. September 2011
Expiry of the submission deadline
23./24. November 2011
International innovations meeting and innovations preview
had such a need for innovation as here and now. It is exactly here that the NoAE Innovation Competition takes its position. The picture shows how NoAE Innovation Competition works: The demand side provides the content and topics and the supply side submits the suggestions and innovations. The NoAE Innovation Competition has been continuously expanded over the last few years. In 2010 a total of 20 countries actively par-
Dipl.-Kfm. H. Köpplinger
NoAE Becker-Gundahl-Str. 19 D 81479 München Phone + 49 (89) 74899-669 Mobil: + 49 (170) 52 77 666 eMail: email@example.com www.noae.com
HSK-T – unmatched in quality and accuracy
OTT-JAKOB, well-known as the markets‘ leader of automatic tool clamping systems, has performed yet another significant innovation step. The advancement of the HSKapplication which is marked by its permanence thru all fields of operation does clearly give proof of this. Outstanding quality and precision are of highest priority. Turning centers which have been equipped with HSK-T achieve excellent results. High rigidity and accuracy with the arrangement lead to low setup times and higher lifetime. Products for the automobile industry are bound to be produced in fully automatic and linked as well cost-efficient machining centers. A certain attention is also turned to the subject of sustainable environmental protection.. Development of the HSK-Technology HSK is an internationally standardized tool interface. The tool can be placed quickly into a spindle and it can be positioned in a µaccuracy. Consequently, in the operation process, preset tools can be translated immediately into productivity. This technology has established and proven itself worldwide. OTT-JAKOB principle of performance OTT-JAKOB has set the most efficient solutions in the market
Drehdurchführung mit integrierten Sensoren und Elektronik
and has not ceased to optimize its clamping units. Hundreds of thousands of tool changes can be carried out precisely and systemsecurely within the shortest interval of time. Clamping units with special coating show the results. Operation processes are realized at shortest periods. The mechanical movements to open, close and clamp have been optimized in this regard. Technology Requirements Cycle times for clamping and unclamping and tool changes as well were the focus of the efforts. Following intensive research it was possible to realize the holding process before the clamping process. Consequently, tools can be exchanged without the need to
control the clamping processes. Precious seconds can thus be saved in this important tool change process. Advantages and perspectives The current innovations are related to system monitoring. Tool clamping systems are supposed to always achieve the maximum performance so that the tool is set securely at highest rpm. Main subject of this process is always the expected-to-be quality. Development and Realization Company OTT-JAKOB as the only manufacturer of tool clamping systems achieved to install sensors within fast-rotating spindles. The status quo of the tool clamping systems can be clearly stated at up to 30,000 rotations.
Werkzeughalter für HSK-T Werkzeugköpfe
The definition of processes also raises the question about pull-in force, temperatures, vibration etc. The datas ascertained by this help to identify and correct the status of the system. Preventive maintenance can be organized accordingly and production planning optimized. Security has priority The universal application of OTT-JAKOB rotary unions is unquestionable and has been proven manifold. Concerning maintenance and inspection there are different points of view: On the one hand is the necessary effort, on the other hand production is supposed to run as smoothly as possible. The latest innovations state clearly at what time a service becomes necessary.
HSK Spannsätze mit DLC Beschichtung
OTT-JAKOB has integrated important surveillance technology into the compact unity of a rotary union. A monitoring sensor can retrieve leakage in connection with temperature and vibration consideration. This enables to
21 organize selective maintenance intervals. All these features offer security for the end-user and thus also clearly defined operation times and production quantities. Just-in-sequence deliveries, optimized flow of material and information about the machine itself are therefore not hindered anymore. Further HSK-advantages Application of HSK for turning centers becomes more and more a significant issue of the HSK technology. The necessary amend-
into revolver systems. The system has been developed for the optimal application with static or dynamic tools with HSK-interface. The compact construction of this manually operated clamping technology makes it possible to equip a star revolver with a wrench size of 270mm and 10 tool locations. Actuation over an archimedic spiral which can clamp thru self-holding ensures optimal security means. OTT-JAKOB engages in clamping of tools in operating spindles for more than 30 years. Research
Kpl. Werkzeugspannsystem inklusiv Sensoren und Elektronik mit berührungsloser Datenübertragung bis zu 30.000 Umdrehungen
ments have been transferred into the additional norm ISO HSK-T 1264-3/4 and are thus also for these applications available. Milling and turning centers move together regarding the operational concept and it is therefore optimal that proven HSK-tools of the milling process establish themselves more and more within the turning process as well. Only one approved and precise tool technology will be hence applied. With regard to the turning centers one benefits from great economization potentials. There are several users who save up to 25% of time; flexibility of the operating process is therefore ensured for complex work pieces. OTT-JAKOB has presented important products hereto at EMO 2009. Manually operated clamping technology Regarding the manually operated clamping technology, the Compact Clamping System (CCS) enables the next innovative step which offers direct integration
and development has opened many ways. Our highly motivated employees produce customized high-tech clamping technology of highest quality, key components for the automobile industry. We‘d be pleased to provide you our services.
OTT-JAKOB Spanntechnik GmbH Industriestr. 3-7 87663 Lengenwang/Germany Phone: +49 (0) 8364/98 21-40 Fax: +49 (0) 8364/98 21-10 e-mail: SYKORA@Ott-Jakob.de www.ott-jakob.de
Since 1993 the Technical University of Munich has had its focus on hybrid drive systems. Back then the newly Project 365 “EnvironmentFriendly Propulsion Technology for Vehicles” started. This involved the interdisciplinary work of six departments to design and optimize components for the first hybrid prototype. In Germany, the numbers of hybrid vehicles in comparison to conventional powered vehicles are rather minor (see Fig. 1). Nevertheless the registration figures of hybrid vehicles have steadily increased along with the growing public awareness of environmental issues. Meanwhile, the application of hybrid technologies has now moved onto all types of other vehicles, like construction and agricultural machinery. A simplified version of diesel-electric drives, in which an internal combustion engine is combined with an electric motor, has already been successfully used in locomotives,
Fig. 2: Energy Management in Hybrid Drives, by Source: Grünewald, B.: Mobilitätsszenarien der Zukunft – Entwicklungsschritte und Anforderungen an Elektromobilität.Toyota Motor Europe – Berlin Office. Berlin. 14. Januar 2010
trucks and marine applications. Irrespective of the specific application, the design procedure is always the same. The range in which the optimum efficiency of an internal combustion engines can be operated is very slim. Therefore the design of electric drive operation in hybrids is of upmost importance to compensate the internal combustion engine inadequate efficiency ranges, (see Fig. 2).
The main specification of designing a drive train or dimensioning an internal combustion engine differ depending on the varying boundary conditions. The main aspects, though, are cost, emissions and fuel consumption which later are decisive for market success. Another important feature is driving enjoyment, especially for passenger cars.
Fig. 1: Number of Private Cars in Germany on January 1, 2010, Source: Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt, own account
The European Union has set the target of reducing CO2-emissions by 20 % until the year 2020. In spite of this, Germany goes one step further and sets its target to reduce the greenhouse gases by 40 %. As a result, the emission limits become ever more stringent in both the private and industrial sector including commercial vehicles and agricultural machinery.
Fig. 3: Emission Course of a Gasoline Engine in the NEDC, Source: own measuring
The hybrid drive in combination with an accordingly designed internal combustion engine and an adequate operating strategy has emissions saving potential. Extremely critical is the engine warm-up phase of gasoline engines. Most pollutants are emitted in the first 20 seconds of engine operation as the catalyst has not reached its working temperature known as the so called “Light Off” phase, see Fig 3. By increasing the exhaust temperatures of the internal combustion engine in a hybrid drive the heating phase of the catalyst can be shortened thereby reducing emissions significantly. Turbocharged diesel engines, unlike port injected gasoline engines, have the problem of emitting soot. Especially during acceleration, soot emissions rise significantly due to the turbochargers inertia causing a slow increase of boost pressure and resulting in air-deficient combustion. In hybrid drives there is the possibility of assisting the engines acceleration phase by “boosting” with an electric motor and compensating the turbochargers cha-
racteristic behaviour. The driving enjoyment is thereby maintained at noticeably lower emissions. By incorporating the heating phase actively in the design or by using different methods of exhaust aftertreatment and operating strategies there are new potentials to further lower emissions. This design effort always has to be seen in comparison to conventional drive trains. Therefore the objective is to reduce the emissions of the internal combustion engine as much as possible by using hybrid technology while keeping the design of the currently indispensable aftertreatment systems simple and costs low.
Costs, Driving Pleasure and Fuel Consumption The advantages of hybrid drives are coupled with high costs. This is one reason why diesel hybrid drives play a negligible role on the current market. The complicated injection technique, the supercharging, the EGR etc. these days diesel engines are still more expensive than comparable gasoline engines. Through superchar-
ging and direct injection, gasoline engines are closing the technological gap to diesel engines, but there are still differences. An optimum design of a hybrid drive has the potential to reduce the complexity of an internal combustion engine and consequently reduce costs. A project was conducted at the department of internal combustion engines of the Technical University of Munich in which simplified diesel engines (e.g. without an intercooler or EGR) combined with different types of hybrid drives were modelled and examined. Complicated supercharger systems were replaced by simple non-regulated superchargers and instead of four-valves per cylinder the engines were modelled with only two valves per cylinder and simulated. The simulation results demonstrated that even with a simplified internal combustion engine significant fuel economy savings in hybrid drives is possible while keeping within the emissions limits. Despite the CO2 – problems, the success of a passenger car in its class still depends on the driving enjoyment. The good torque characteristic of electric motors (cf. Fig. 4) in small hybrid cars can undermine this by providing additional torque during acceleration.
Prospects Taking into account the above mentioned main objective of the hybrid technology, namely to compensate the disadvantages of the internal combustion engine, potentials for lowering fuel consumption and emissions with this technique do exist. Problems will occur if we lose sight of this aim and only use this technique for the sake of it. During fast rural driving i.e. motorways, hybrid drives in comparison to conventional drive with modern gasoline or diesel engines have no advantage due to their
24 energy conversion losses and the additional weight. Hybrid technology is currently being offered mainly in top-end vehicles and SUV. The high electrical power needed is immense and causes high system realization efforts. From the financial point of view, new technologies are first introduced in top-end vehicles, so that in time they can be fitted in the low-end classes. It is questionable, though, whether the hybrid technology is suitable for all car segments. Research work shows that fuel savings with hybrid drives are highest in the compact and subcompact car segment. In city traffic the classic advantages of hybrid drives like recuperation, start-stop or short electric propulsion runs can most likely be used. As performance requirements are low energy storage is not a problem. Long trips at a constant speed where a modern internal combustion engine operates at good efficiency occur less and hybrid drives actually have advantages in fuel consumption and emissions. Hybrid drives specifically designed for city use now are a reasonable alternative to electric cars.
Fig. 5: Exemplary Representation of Specific Emissions of different drive trains und Process Chains of Energy Supply, by Source: Horst, J., Frey, G., Leprich, U.: Auswirkungen von Elektroautos auf den Kraftwerkspark und die CO2-Emissionen in Deutschland, Kurzstudie,WWF Deutschland, Frankfurt am Main, März 2009
Despite the known problems of electric cars the Federal Republic of Germany wants 1 million electric cars on German roads by 2020. Here, one must not disregard the fact how our electrical power is generated. If the percentage of fossil sources is to large, electric cars don not emit less CO2-emissions than conventional drive trains (cf. Fig. 5). Another important aspect to be considered when looking at electric cars is the heating system. The supply of warm air is an energetic challenge in electric cars while with internal com-
bustion engines it is a normal wasteproduct. In order for hybrid drives to be a success, not alone the design of the drive train is important, but also the correct dimensioning of the internal combustion engine with the electric parts for their operational purpose. Hybridisation is not a sole solution technique for everything. When a system is correctly implemented, though, it has great potential over the conventional drive trains concerning fuel consumption and emissions. Authors: Dipl.-Ing. Gregor Habersbrunner is scientific assistant at the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines of TU München (Germany).
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Georg Wachtmeister is head of the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines at TU München (Germany).
Lehrstuhl für Verbrennungskraftmaschinen TU München, Motorenlabor des LVK
Fig. 4: Exemplary Comparison, Internal Combustion Engine – Electrical Motor Source: own account
Schragenhofstr. 31 80992 München/Germany Phone: 089 289 24137 Fax: +49 (0) 89 289 24100 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.lvk.mw.tum.de
Automotive Electronics and Information Technology Since it was founded in mid 2001 by a small group of visionary engineers and business economists, GIGATRONIK has grown into a specialist development partner for automotive electronics and IT.
throughout the company is through a holistic view of one‘s own performance.” Another quality that puts GIGATRONIK a cut above the competition is its autonomy and concentration on its core competencies. This becomes uncompromisingly clear in the company‘s corporate image: GIGATRONIK combines automotive electronics and IT into carIT. The basis for solving future challenges.
Joint Venture with… In summer 2009 GIGATRONIK and AEV, a 100 percent AUDI AG subsidiary, formed the Joint Venture Elektronische Fahrwerksysteme GmbH (short: EFS). The company, in which GIGATRONIK holds a 51% share, is based in Gaimersheim near Ingolstadt. The aim of the joint venture is to develop long-term working relationship between the two companies to consolidate and further develop software solutions for chassis electronics. As a result, promising technological competencies will be secured and bundled. Within the next few years, the company will employ a 70-strong workforce in the fields of system applications, new software development, and tools and products.
Mobile End Devices in Vehicles With the founding of Digitabel GmbH in Stuttgart the company has opened up a new business field: the development and sales of individual solutions for the most important end devices of our age. Whether it’s applications for consumers (B-toC), business customers (B-to-B) or in the area of automotives (applications to automotive): customers expect a professional and at the same time creative and slim solution. The GIGATRONIK-Group now has more than 500 employees in the locations Stuttgart (Headquarters), Ingolstadt, Munich, Cologne and Graz – and the sails are set for further steady development.
Dr.-Ing. Edwin Tscheschlok
GIGATRONIK Ingolstadt GmbH Am Augraben 19 D-85080 Gaimersheim/Germany Phone +49 8458 3488-00 Fax +49 8458 3488-099 E-Mail: email@example.com www.gigatronik.com
The steady growth that GIGATRONIK has enjoyed since its foundation is reflected in the rapidly-growing workforce at all the company’s locations. Behind this positive trend is unbroken customer demand for GIGATRONIK’s development solutions and a base of extremely satisfied customers. We talked to Dr. Edwin Tscheschlok, strategic head and one of GIGATRONIK’s two directors to tell us the secret of the company‘s success. “GIGATRONIK was quick to recognise the possibilities for synergies and the potential to merge automotive electronics and IT, in particular consumer electronics. We soon gained a competitive advantage in terms of both knowledge and competence, with both OEMs and component suppliers alike.” As he sees it, “If you have an advantage, you are committed to develop your own strengths, to turn your vision into targets and – no matter how much you push ahead – you must always aim at strengthening the targets and processes of your customers, and you must make sure your workforce feels that it is indeed one workforce. The only way to achieve solid and sustainable growth
SIMENT GmbH – simulation in the SCHERDELGroup
Numerical simulation optimizes functionality and costs in the development process Progress based on tradition — This is not only the main guiding principle of the corporate philosophy of the SCHERDELGroup but it also describes day-to-day reality in the research and development activities, to which the company attaches great importance. Here numerical simulation plays a major role as a tool used in process optimization and in product development. The main aims behind the use of computer-simulated processes are: shorter development times, cost-saving in relation to tests and prototype manufacture, more expertise in the choice of materials, and decisionmaking based on scientific knowledge. Since 1997 numerical simulation has become increasingly important in the SCHERDELGroup. This tool aimed at improving predictions relating to the technical characteristics of stampings and shaped components was first used at the location in Marktredwitz. However, the Mechanical Engineering Division with its headquarters in Coburg very soon began to benefit too from the use of the Finite Element Method in relation to product development. On account of this positive experience, the General Management
Mechanical stress and strength calculations
of the SCHERDELGroup decided to concentrate the tasks relating to numerical simulation in a company created for this purpose – the beginning of Siment GmbH. Today, this company is a firmly established member of the Group offering a wide range of services. Outside the SCHERDELGroup it also provides valuable support in relation to product development for well-known companies from many fields of industry. In addition to design, testing, prototype manufacture and decades of experience, simulation is one
of the main elements of all development processes in the SCHERDELGroup. The fact that the expertise available in all these fields can be called upon immediately results in an extremely dynamic development process. Problems are detected at an early stage and, on the basis of the virtual model, alternatives can be efficiently assessed and redesigned at a reasonable cost, or new, innovative solutions can be designed. Without the use of numerical tools, innovations such as sleeve springs for piezo-injection sys-
SCHERDELGroup tems, dynamically stable spiral springs for cam phasers, or complex stampings and shaped components for brakes would require an immense amount of prototyping and testing. Siment is the world leader with regard to the dynamic calculation of valve springs and the simulation of spring manufacturing processes for the exedition of residual stresses. In mechanical engineering the range of activities includes simple strength tests and stiff new analyses, transient calculations of dynamic processes and the calculation of highly complex, physically coupled connections in mechanical, electromagnetic or thermal systems. It makes no difference whether it's a question of vibrations in a
CFD simulation of car air nozzle
machine or the simulation of flow configurations in furnace installations — thanks to the use of numerical simulation during the development process the benefit for the customer is always the same: weak points are eliminated, efficiency is enhanced and functions are optimized. A team of expert engineers experienced in calculation work in various specialized fields (mechanical engineering, materials re-
Notch stress and topology optimization
Simulation of a coiling process
search, physics and mathematics) forms the core of Siment GmbH. These specialists devote all their energy to the tasks described above and are not satisfied until the problem has been solved. The calculation methods are continually being adapted to suit customer requirements. By means of the crash software known as „PamCrash“, for example, SCHERDEL was able to offer its
developer of metal structures for vehicle seating. At the end of 2008 Siment GmbH moved into new premises in the Walter Bach Development Centre in Poppenreuth near Marktredwitz. This has also paved the way for a possible increase in the number of staff employed. (dk)
Dynamic characteristics of valve spring
customers the complete development process relating to metal structures for vehicle seating. Whether design, calculation of the standard types of load (protection against load, headrest test etc.), prototyping or series production, all the measures are available from a single source. For the customers this represents a fully cost-optimized procedure which, in the last analysis, has definitely strengthened SCHERDEL’s position as a
Author: Georg Hannig Graduate in physics
SCHERDELGruppe SIMENT GmbH Scherdelstrasse 2 D-95615 Marktredwitz Phone: +49 9231 603-610 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The future potential of carbon composites in the field of lightweight construction
Of all classes of materials, fiber-reinforced composites offer the highest potential in the field of lightweight construction, particularly carbon fibers are used. A weight saving of thirty percent compared to aluminum and a weight saving of sixty percent compared to steel has been proved in a lot of examples of application. Therefore, the composites have been established since many years in aircraft construction, in racing and in exotic niche vehicles. Current commercial aircraft projects like Boeing 787 or Airbus A350 aircrafts reach â€“ with CFRP- wings and CFRP- aircraft body - a share of fiber-reinforced composites of over 50% and thus have replaced aluminum as the most important material (CFRP = carbon fiber reinforced plastic). A use of this potential in the field of lightweight construction also in large-scale automobile production would be very interesting in consideration of the reduction in consumption and emissions going along with it taking into account that 100 kilogram of weight reduction will save around 0.4 liter of gas per 100 kilometers and 10 gram of CO2 per kilometer respectively. Further advantages are a higher agility and safety in case of a crash as well as an improved long-term behavior due to being free of corrosion and due to a better crack growth behavior. The significance of lightweight construction in the vehicle structure will significantly increase in the next years if you want to compensate the additional weight caused by hybrid drive or batteries for electric drives. On the other hand, particularly new vehicles with electric drives offer great opportunities to introduce fiber-reinforced composites because the packaging can be completely remodeled and thus especially structuring concepts suitable for fiber-reinforced composites become possible. However, the way from aircraft construction with its very low number of pieces to large-scale automobile production still requires great rese-
Specific strength and rigidity of metals and fiber-reinforced composites (unidirectional)
arch- and development efforts. While aircraft construction can cope with over 100 Euro of additional costs for one kilogram of weight saving, automobile construction can only cope with less than 10 Euro at present. But not only do the cost structures vary by powers of ten. Also the manufacturing times vary largely. Several hours in aircraft construction are opposed by a few minutes in vehicle construction. A further aspect are the available manufacturing capacities for carbon fibers which at present do not meet the needs by far when used in largescale production, particularly if it is taken into account that also the need in aircraft- and machine construction or for wind energy plants steadily increases.
Costs, manufacturing times and availability of carbon fibers are not the only challenges or obstacles, however. In comparison to metals, anisotropic material properties, â€œrefractoryâ€œ failure mechanisms, no weldability, extremely low heat expansion as well as different detection and interpretation of damages are only a few examples. Also the lacking experience in construction and calculation as well as in operations have been frequently stood in the way of the use of CFRP until today. There are different scenarios with regard to the introduction of fiberreinforced composite technology in large-scale automobile production. Apart from the consequent development of complete fiber-reinforced composite car bodies which of course offers the highest potential with regard to lightweight construction, hybrid structures made of metallic materials and CFRP can be realized
Structuring- and construction concepts for composite vehicles
FRP – technology suitable for large-scale production
on the material- as well as on the component level. In case of a material hybrid, aluminum- and steel structures are locally reinforced with fiber-reinforced composite structures. This particularly makes a (local) improvement of the crash properties possible. A typical example are B-pillars with an optimized resistance to indentation. In case of a structural hybrid, the areas of a metal structure are identified in which CFRP is particularly efficient due to its anisotropic properties or the high energy absorption capacity and only these are replaced. Examples for this are bumper brackets. In both cases, effects like contact corrosion and different heat expansion coefficients must be taken into account and the corresponding joining methods must be used (often a combination of adhesive bonding and mechanical joining).
An efficient use of fiber-reinforced composites always requires a fundamental understanding of material-, manufacturing technology and structural mechanics. The high potential in the field of lightweight construction of carbon fibers can only be used if they are embedded into the polymer matrix as a long fiber appropriate to the load. One of the most promising manufacturing processes is based on the fact that the fibers in a textile process (for example braiding, weaving or knitting) are processed into near-net-shape “preforms”. Doing it, attention has to be paid to small damage to fiber, few cutting scraps and optimal fiber orientation. In a second step, these fiber preforms will be impregnated in an injection process with the polymer matrix, usually epoxide resin. This way, also complex structures can be manufactured in about 10 minutes
29 according to the state-of-the-art. In order to considerably continue to reduce these cycle times required for large-scale productions of around 100,000 vehicles per year, all manufacturing steps have to be consistently optimized. This is also necessary in order to realise a positive overall CO2 - balance as far as possible – not only with the help of saving during operations but also with the help of an energy-efficient manufacturing. This starts with the manufacturing process of the carbon fibers and ends with the renunciation of the cataphoretic painting. A further increase in productivity of the textile processes, new matrix systems that harden more quickly and have a higher damage tolerance, tools that can be heated and cooled down more quickly as well as a quicker final machining and joining are other examples. Structuring concepts suitable for fiber-reinforced composites, an optimal construction and design as well as a factory concept consistently tailored to all manufacturing steps are also crucial. On this basis, fiber-reinforced composites will definitely – despite higher material costs compared to steel and aluminum and other challenges for example in the field of repair and recycling – contribute to an improvement of environmental compatibility of the automobile and thus to guaranteeing mobility in the 21st century. Author: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klaus Drechsler
Technical University of Munich Chair of “Carbon Composites“
ITOOL simulation chain
85747 Garching Phone: (dienstl): 089 / 289 - 15087 Phone: (Sekr.): 089 / 289 - 15092 Fax: 089 / 289 - 15097 E-mail: email@example.com
step1– a project like no other
GFi ENGINEERING UND CONSULTING
While others work in strict secrecy on future topics in motor sport, GFi and its partners are building an open network full of opportunities and with one common goal: the step1 research project will create a prototype Group E2/C3 sports car that reflects the very latest state of technological knowhow. „step1“ is an acronym for „Sportsprototype Team Engineering Project 1“ and includes, alongside development and manufacture, the use and marketing of this „racer of the future“. Unusually, and completely contrary to normal practice in the automobile industry, this project will be interdisciplinary with a network that is open in all directions. The project includes well-known international companies with motor racing experience, which are financing the project from their own funds. Each of the partners is making specialists available for the project, and, as well as drawing on its internal resources, is also involving university students, interns and research institutes. In this project based on voluntary involvement, new technologies, materials and assembly techniques are being devised in order to develop a completely new vehicle, which satisfies current regulations - but, in addition, incorporates the future issue of e-mobility. step1 is, first of all, a playground for experts and lateral thinkers, who want to see the ideas and innovations they contribute realised and use them as references for their own goals. Beyond the current project, however, step1 is also a network of competent team members, who are potential B2B part-
First results analysis of the flow simulation (air flow around and through the vehicle)
ners. The special thing is that, apart from a few meetings per year, communication takes place virtually, for example using DeskShare and TeamViewer. Acting as an engineering partner in this inter-company project, GFi is expanding its competencies in lightweight construction technology and virtual product development through networking with research institutions. The structural design was developed at GFi and tuned to maximum stiffness with low weight. It was decided not to use a weight-intensive triangulation of the tubular lattice frame. Instead, rectangular structures were developed, which are stiffened with aluminium honeycomb shear fields. Significant challenges for all partners are the structural design of the vehicle's carbon fibre bodywork and the subsequent analysis and
optimisation of the aerodynamics through numerical flow simulation. This process is supported by a further network partner, a specialist in Formula 1 aerodynamics. Other experts in step1 are working on the design of the chassis, drive systems and the associated electrics/electronics and the on-board network. Since 1996, the name of GFi, an engineering and consultancy services company in the automobile industry, has stood for lightweight construction, first class quality, competence and innovative solutions. GFi offers services focused on consulting and development, prototypes, limited series and trade.
GFi Gesellschaft für technische Ingenieurleistungen Levelingstr. 40 85049 Ingolstadt/Germany Phone: +49 (0) 841/886 86-0 Fax: +49 (0) 841/886 86-98 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.gfi-group.net
Special Section e-Car
AUDI AG: driveline strategy for the future – electric mobility as an integrated concept
Q5 hybrid to be unveiled in 2010, A8 hybrid can be ordered from late 2011 World premiere for A1 e-tron study at Geneva Motor Show “e-tron” to be Audi‘s brand name for electric mobility Audi is working intensively to answer questions of future mobility. In late 2010/early 2011 the Q5 hybrid will reach the market, the first Audi with a combination of gasoline engine and electric motor. In Geneva Audi was exhibiting the A8 hybrid for the first time as a concept car: Its CO2 emissions of 144 g/km (231.75 g/mile) are the best figure in the full-size category. Another world premiere in Geneva was the A1 e-tron design study, which shows that Audi‘s expertise in electric drive systems extends down into the compact car segment. At the end of 2012 Audi will launch the e-tron electric car that was seen last year at the Frankfurt Motor Show (IAA). A small series will be built, and will be the first electric car to reach the market. In the words of Rupert Stadler, Chairman of the Board of Management of AUDI AG: “In future our customers will be able to choose from an increasingly broad range of driveline technologies. To accompany our high-efficiency TDI and FSI engines, we shall offer electric power in the best possible forms for a wide range of mobility needs. The hybrid driveline will be followed by all-electric vehicles.” The “e-tron” name
Study Audi A1 e-tron
will have an important part to play. “Just as “quattro” has become a synonym for all-wheel drive, so “e-tron” is to be the Audi brand name for electric mobility,” continues Stadler. When developing alternative drivelines, Audi is pursuing a strategy of introducing each technology where it is appropriate for specific model lines and markets, in other words where it will offer customers significant benefits. “We regard the full hybrid as we know it today primarily as a very specific technology for reducing fuel consumption. In due course plug-in hybrids will demonstrate their strong points when drivers
expect to cover longer distances in the pure electric mode, in combination with a conventional engine,” says Michael Dick, Member of the Board of Management for Technical Development at AUDI AG. According to Dick: “The strength of the electric car clearly lies in the urban mobility area, where the demand for emission-free local transportation will strongly increase.” In addition to hybrids and electric cars, Audi continues to develop its long-term competence in the development of basic propulsion concepts using fuel cells and hydrogen as an energy carrier.
Range extender of the study Audi A1 e-tron
Every year Audi invests around two billion euros in development projects, with the focus on continued progress in internal combustion engine design and associated areas. Electric mobility is a further priority: In this area the e-tron show car seen at the IAA was a dramatic signal. At the same time, the various activities are being grouped together strategically. Audi has established the e-perfor-
Interior of the study AUDI A1 e-tron
mance project house to deal with electric mobility topics. Since the autumn of 2009 a team has been at work on the research project of the same name, with support from the Federal German Ministry for Education and Research. Members of the team, consisting of AUDI AG development staff and scientists from various universities, are working on the development of a new overall electric vehicle concept, including the body, battery and power electronics.
Audi A1 e-tron Audi will be expanding its “e-tron” model family step by step: the A1 e-tron design study that the company was exhibiting at the Geneva Motor Show is an innovative Mega City Vehicle (MCV). Like the sports cars in the same family,
Engineering study A8 hybrid
it is electrically propelled and has a range of more than 50 kilometers (31 miles) in city traffic. With a peak power output of 75 kW (102 hp), the A1 e-tron is also fun to drive. When the battery‘s energy supply is exhausted, it is recharged by an exceptionally compact “range extender” consisting of a singlerotor Wankel engine and an electrical generator with a charge rating of up to 15 kW. This device gives the A1 e-tron an additional range of 200 kilometers (124 miles). According to the draft standard for determining the fuel consumption of range-extender vehicles, the mean fuel consumption is 1.9 liters per 100 kilometers (123.8 US mpg), equivalent to CO2 emissions of only 45 g/km (72.42 g/mile).
Audi A8 hybrid Audi was displaying the A8 hybrid as an engineering study at the Geneva Motor Show. Its two power units – the 2.0 TFSI engine and the electric motor – have a combined output of 180 kW (245 hp) and a torque of 480 Nm (354.03 lb-ft). They give the car the same outstanding performance as a large-capacity conventional six-cylinder engine. This syste-
matic downsizing demonstrates its fuel-consumption advantages in combination with the electric driveline: the average fuel consumption is only 6.2 l/100 km (37.94 US mpg), equivalent to CO2 emissions of 144 g/km (231.75 g/mile). The Audi A8 hybrid uses the parallel hybrid configuration – a highly efficient principle that avoids unnecessary friction and power losses. The powerful electric motor integrated between the 155 kW (211 hp) four-cylinder petrol engine and the eight-speed tiptronic transmission can supply a further 33 kW (45 hp) to the driveline, as well as a vigorous 211 Nm (155.63 lb-ft) of torque. The A8 design study is a full hybrid, that is to say the gasoline engine or the electric motor can propel it either separately or together. In the pure electric drive mode the car can reach 65 km/h (40.39 mph) and cover a distance of more than two kilometers (1.2 miles). Contact: Eric Felber AUDI AG I/GP-P 85045 Ingolstadt/Germany Phone: +49 (0)841/89-90703 Fax: +49 (0)841/89-90786 Mobil: +49 (0)172/5915104 email@example.com www.audi.com
Fraunhofer electric car puts new technologies to the test
Fraunhofer E-Concept Car Typ 0
A network of 33 Fraunhofer institutes is currently developing solutions for electric mobility. Among others, an electric car is being developed over the next year. The Fraunhofer E-concept car type 0 â€“ affectionately called Frecc0 â€“ will have a conventional chassis, but completely new electronics and power train. Fraunhofer ESK will be involved in integrating the electronics, which are based on standards that allow new developments for electric cars to be tested in a real vehicle.
The motor is not the only thing different about an electric car. To a large extent, the vehicle electronics architecture must be newly developed. Issues that have to be addressed include the battery system, high-voltage safety and the on-board power concept. The Frecc0 design will take into account the vehicleâ€™s interfaces to the power grid and how billing works with concepts such as smart metering (Fig. 1). Frecc0, a modular test platform, is a fully electric prototype vehicle
that relies on two hub motors and the Artega GT chassis. The interfaces of the individual components can be defined to ensure an extremely flexible system, so that batteries or e-motors can be easily swapped out for instance. Moreover, new components, even from third-party manufacturers, can be tested in a real environment. Fraunhofer ESK is responsible for specifying the vehicle interfaces and developing a central ECU that monitors the operation of the
Frecc0. This allows alignment of the battery charging and driving processes as an example. The central ECU can do even more though. It calculates the torque demand of the hub motors and optimizes the distribution of the mechanical and recuperative braking energy. Recuperative braking turns the motor into a generator to retrieve braking energy and charge the battery during operation. The goal is not only to develop Frecc0 into a prototype for driv-
Fig. 1: The Fraunhofer Frecc0 is opening up opportunities for research into electric power trains and electronic systems for electric cars, as well as the required infrastructures
Fraunhofer E-Concept Car Typ 0
35 communication. Of special interest is car-to-infrastructure communication, which not only enables high-quality driver assistance systems and active safety, but also leads to energy-efficient driving strategies that improve the energy consumption of the vehicle.
Fig. 2: Frecc0 combines the Artega GT chassis with state-of-the-art e-concepts and technologies for e-mobility
ing on test tracks, but to make it street legal. To do that, Fraunhofer ESK is also tasked with identifying the required safety concepts. One of the key aspects is the so-called functional safety. This means monitoring whether all components are functioning as planned and checking the reaction of the system when individual components experience one-off failure. Because many of the systems in electric cars are purely electronic and canâ€™t be mechanically controlled even in emergency situations, functional safety is particularly important. This places high demands on the researchers. Apart from developing and analyzing their own requirements, the researchers are also examining the functional safety requirements outlined in ISO Norm 26262, which will be published in 2011. Building on their own know-how, Fraunhofer ESK researchers are developing new concepts that will make future electric cars more fault tolerant.
Because electric car drivers require different types of information than before, researchers designed a new instrument cluster for the cockpit displays. Apart from the usual data such as speed, the instrument cluster also shows the battery level and current energy efficiency. With the market for electric cars steadily increasing, electromobility has become a key area of research. Consulting firm Roland Berger and the Center for Automotive Research estimate that electric power trains will grab a 12.7 percent market share in Europe by 2020. In China, the number could be as high as 50 percent. For this reason, Fraunhofer ESK is carrying out research outside of the Frecc0 project to identify ways to improve electric vehicles through innovations such as adaptive vehicle data networks. This development is designed to increase the reliability and reduce the power consumption of the ECUs. Another key area is inter-vehicle
Authors: Dipl.-Ing. Patrick Heinrich Scientific employee
Dipl.-Ing. Falk Langer Scientific employee
Dr.-Ing. Dirk Eilers Business Unit Manger Automotive
Fraunhofer Institute for Communication Systems ESK HansastraĂ&#x;e 32 80686 MĂźnchen/Germany Phone: 089 547088-383 Fax: 089 547089-66383 firstname.lastname@example.org www.esk.fraunhofer.de
Fraunhofer Institute for Communication Systems ESK Fraunhofer ESK undertakes applied research focused on information and communication systems that are simultaneously secure, powerful, intelligent and simple to use. The Fraunhofer ESK researchers are experts in a wide range of information and communication technology fields, from transmission technologies and protocols and systems to intelligent applications. Because information and communication systems are increasingly implemented with software, the researchers established software methodology as an additional area of expertise. The Fraunhofer ESK research expertise is applied by the
Automotive, Enterprise & Carrier Communication and Industrial Communication business units, which target industries that rely heavily on the use of information and communication technologies. The institute works with a wide range of customers and partners in the automobile, telecommunication, production technology, automation and facilities management industries.
Charging the future– Rohde & Schwarz Teisnach offers revolutionary design to the world of E-Charging
Charging station for E-vehicles
The beginning Rohde & Schwarz Teisnach positioned itself as a manufacturer of charging stations for electronic vehicles by winning a big order from RWE, one of four leading energy suppliers in Germany. Starting with the federal project „Elektro-Mobilität“, initiated by RWE, more than 800 charging stations have been manufactured. The manufacturing plant in its vision as service provider is responsible for the mechanical construction and manufacture as well as parts of the design of the charging station. The gain in experience made in this project induced Rohde & Schwarz Teisnach to create its own charging station.
The continuation In presence of the bavarian Minister of State Helmut Brunner, Rohde & Schwarz Teisnach celebrated the
From left to right: University President Prof. Dr. Reinhard Höpfl, Executive Director soleg group AG Bernhard Seiler, Minister of State Helmut Brunner, 2. Mayor of the city of Teisnach Markus Hauf, Executive Director soleg group AG Josef Weindl, Rohde & Schwarz plant manager Johann Kraus at the opening ceremony of the 1st charging station in the Bavarian Forest
opening ceremony of the first own brand charging station in the Bavarian Forest on May 1st 2010. Minister Helmut Brunner covered the first
meters in a small electro speedster only in walking pace. But then he accelerated and speeded through the parking area of the university
Charging station for E-vehicles
37 The design
From left to right: The product family of the E-POWER STATION with the types L 2300 S 1900, W 1000 und H 1000
campus in Teisnach. He turned skilfully, came back with high speed and stopped at the 1st solar charging station in the Bavarian Forest. How the charging station works, what benefits electric vehicles offer and
The concept of E-WALD
how E-cars and E-bikes drive has been proved by Minister Brunner and over 3000 visitors. But what makes the difference with the new charging station in the Bavarian Forest?
In the field of E-Mobility, importance is attached not only to a fancy design of the vehicles, but also to the design of the infrastructure. This is demonstrated by the charging station of Rohde & Schwarz Teisnach, which has been designed in authority of the Munich Designer Oliver Kessler. The charging stations of Rohde & Schwarz Teisnach have been created with the aim of greatest possible variability. Amongst others, one type features high positioned LED indicators, that show every user from a distance, if the station is occupied or free â€“ even in the rush hours. Moreover, there are variations for car parks or home charging. Clear style with high recognition value and optimized integration into public areas has been the most important target during the design phase. Of course, the outside appearance can always be adapted to the wishes of the operator.
Charging station for E-vehicles
38 The engineering With the E-POWER STATION, Rohde & Schwarz Teisnach supplies secure and user-friendly infrastructure for electric vehicles of all kind. Clever charging is now possible from lorries to bikes. Actually, Rohde & Schwarz Teisnach offers all available identification models as credit cards, automatic recognition of vehicles or through mobile phones. The housing is made of high-quality aluminium or stainless steel and protects the inner life against adverse weather conditions. The E-POWER STATION offers individual lacquering in any colours (RAL) to meet customers requirements. A graffiti resistant coating is also available on request. Particular attention is paid to a safe and vandal-proof design. Especially the areas of high voltage are protected against opening by force and the inserted plugs can be locked during the charging process. The ingress protection rating of the charging station is generally IP54. The charging points show either 3pole SCHUKO® sockets (230 V / 13 A) or 5-pole CEE sockets (400 V / 16 A etc.). A 7-pole IEC 2 standard socket for electric vehicles (400 V / 16 A or 32 A) offers high speed charging as an option. Every single socket is protected by an earth leakage circuit breaker and a standard circuit breaker to guarantee the safety of our product. A contactor control assures that there is no voltage on the sockets when the plug is not inserted or not locked safely. The E-POWER STATION is provided with power connection terminals for the connection to the grid and optionally with a separate feeding area with a house connecting box (type: JEAN-MÜLLER, KH00-100A, DIN 43627). An intelligent RFID system allows fast and secure identification of persons permitted to use the charging station and offers an easy
way of payment (prepaid system). The payment is based on the charging data collected by separate active current energy meters with MID approval (e.g. Finder 7E3684xxx). Optionally, the identification and billing data is sent to a central billing point via GSM or GPRS. The versions EPS_L 2300 (H/W/D ca. 2300 x 460 x 230) and EPS_L1900 (H/W/D ca. 1900 x 460 x 230) are equipped with a user interface displaying the charging status and further information like the next car parking or shopping facility.
The concept of E-WALD But ideas in Teisnach go far beyound. Simultaneously with the opening of the 1st charging station at the Technology Campus, Minister Brunner has been handed over a concept of the E-WALD. Rohde & Schwarz Teisnach, Soleg and the Technology transfer centres of the University of Deggendorf in Teisnach, Freyung and Cham have developed this concept together. Further companies as well as desicion makers on municipal levels have already been won over for the project. The already elaborated idea stipulates, that tourists leave their train at the main station in Plattling and change to a reserved E-car to drive to their vacation resort in the Bavarian Forest. The driver will be informed about charging stations and touristic highlights along the route through board computer and navigation system. Central locations like hotels, car parks, bus stations and public offices should be equipped with charging stations. One of these charging stations can be reserved by the driver and the car can be reloaded during a hiking trip in the national park or during a cultural event. The necessary charging infrastructure as well as the solar modules for the production of energy and the information systems can be devel-
oped and realized in the closer region. Even the necessary E-cars can be manufactured by co-operation partners.
Rohde & Schwarz The electronics group Rohde & Schwarz with its headquarters in Munich, Germany, counts among the leading suppliers worldwide in its business fields measurement, broadcasting, secure communications as well as radiomonitoring and radiolocation. Founded more than 75 years ago the independent company is represented through a sales and service network with subsidiaries and offices in more than 70 countries. Approximately 7.200 employees generated a net revenue of € 1,2 billion during the fiscal year 08/09 (July to June). In Teisnach, Rohde & Schwarz runs a manufacturing plant with about 1.100 employees. The complete mechanical and electromechanical manufacturing of Rohde & Schwarz products is realized in Teisnach. The widespread competence in manufacturing is also offered to external companies which take about 30% of the total manufacturing capacity.
Contact: Dipl.Kfm. Sales Manager Thorsten Frieb-Preis
Rohde & Schwarz Teisnach Kaikenrieder Str. 27 94244 Teisnach/Germany Phone: +49 (0)9923 8571 704 Fax: +49 (0)9923 8576 704 E-mail: email@example.com www.teisnach.rohde-schwarz.com