Training and development banking sector in bangladesh
Due to globalization every thing is now in high competition. In the field of business and economics it is in the most severe form and getting more and more complex with the passes of time. To survive and be successful in this global economy a business organization must be competitive and equipped with good strategies. There are many source of competitive advantage but not all the sources are sustainable and good in quality
Training and development Banking Sector in Bangladesh Chapter one Introduction 1.0 Introduction Due to globalization every thing is now in high competition. In the field of business and economics it is in the most severe form and getting more and more complex with the passes of time. To survive and be successful in this global economy a business organization must be competitive and equipped with good strategies. There are many source of competitive advantage but not all the sources are sustainable and good in quality. Human resources of an organization is one of the best source of sustainable competitive advantage because superior human resource, unlike other physical resources, not so to reproduce. To achieve sustainable competitiveness through it, organization must have ability to attract retain competitive human resources available in the market. Training and development is the major factor that has a critical impact in hiring and retaining superior human resources. As a result training and development should be designed in a way that it can satisfy both the competent manpower, by establishing internal and external equity, in this paper training and development program are made for bank sector by utilizing commonly used methods and procedures. 1.1 Background of the Study The organization can attain the goal by the performance of the employee. The investor should have the right knowledge to operate the employee. If the employee is motivated, well trained and effective then the organization can reach the mission and vision within the period of time which one the investor is looking for. If the management can lead the employee as a effective way then the organization can run on the exact way to accomplish the goal. The appropriate training method can make the employee effectively and efficiency. Because on the training period the employee will learn what will he do on his job life? On the training period he can achieve the knowledge about his work style. On the job period he will apply the knowledge what could he learn? Thatâ€™s the training period is more important for the employee. Here, motivation part is necessary to the manager. Because on the branch level the manager should run the branch. If the manager should motivate the employee then the branch can make good profit. The training evaluation process also is important for the trainee. Because on the basis of the evaluation he can know about his efficiency. 1.2 Objective of The study: It is said that without theory, practice is blind and without practice theory is meaningless. The General objective of the study is to provide an overview of learning of the course during the BBA program and fulfill the course requirement. Beside the general objective, the report can be categorized into main objective and specific objectives. The objectives behind this report are mentioned below: Main Objective: The main objective of this study is to prepare a thesis report (which is a partial requirement of the graduation program) on the specified topic to analyze Training & Development practices in banking sector measures for improvement of their employees; hence practical training has been made integral part of the management education in Bangladesh. The training programmers are designed to give a manager the future of the corporate happenings and work culture. It exposes the potential of the manager of the future to the actual tune of the working. In order to achieve long-term results through training, we must broaden our vision to include people development as part of our strategic planning. Although training covers a broad range of subjects under the three main categories (skills, attitude, knowledge), using the term "training" Improving business performance is a journey, not a destination. Business performance rises and falls with the ebb and flow of human performances. HR professionals lead the search for ways to enhance the effectiveness of employees in their jobs today and prepare them for tomorrow. Over the years, training programs have grown into corporate with these goals in mind. Training programs should enhance performance and enrich the contributions of the workforce. The ultimate goal of training is to develop appropriate talent in the workforce internally. Training has made significant contributions to development of all kinds. Training is essential; doubts arise over its contribution in practice. Complaints are growing over its ineffectiveness and waste. The training apparatus and costs have multiplied but not its benefits. Dissatisfaction persists and is growing at the working level where the benefits of training should show up most clearly. This disillusionment shows in many ways â€“ reluctance to send the most promising people for training, inadequate use of personnel after training etc. With disillusionment mounting in the midst of expansion, training has entered a dangerous phase in its development. Training is neither a panacea for all ills nor is it a waste of time. What is required is an insight into what training can or cannot do and skill in designing and carrying out training effectively and economically. Specific Objectives: The specific objectives of this report are as follows: • To assess the current provision of, and identify shortcomings in, current training and • development opportunities; • To recommend and initiate improvements; • To establish appropriate structures and resources for the implementation of • appropriate industry needs; and • To put in place measurable outcomes and accountabilities within BANKS for structural reform and additional resource allocation • To provide a detailed description of the training & Development in Human Resource Department. • Finding out the problems which are commonly facing at present. • To identify the employee’s satisfaction about the training. • To identify about the trainee efficiency. • To identify the output of the employee on the training period. • To find out the employees benefit on the job period • To identify whether the employee are applying their knowledge on the job life This objective of training (i.e. to make its other services more effective) involves mostly the acquisition of knowledge needed for staff to perform their functions. This is an important prerequisite to staff undertaking the second role of an employers' organization in training, which is to provide training to members (and sometimes to nonmembers) in areas in which they expect services. But unlike in the case of the first objective of training earlier referred to, this second role or objective requires not only knowledge in the areas of training, but also training skills i.e. in training techniques or methodologies As you go through this analysis, consider the strengths and weaknesses in your company and try to identify the deficiencies that, when corrected, represent a potential for upside gain in your business. Common areas for improvement in many companies is helping supervisors better manage for performance. Many people are promoted into managerial positions because they're technically good at their jobs, but they aren't trained as managers to help their subordinates achieve peak performance. Determining your training and development needs based on targeted results is only the beginning. The next step is to establish a learning dynamic for your company. In today's economy, if your business isn't learning, then you're going to fall behind. And a business learns as its people learn. Your employees are the ones that produce, refine, protect, deliver and manage your products or services every day, year in, year out. With the rapid pace and international reach of the 21st century marketplace, continual learning is critical to your business's continued success. This report is a working document and recommends only the foundation for change and the first steps in improving the provision of all training and development in the thoroughbred sector. A detailed Action Plan is being developed behind this report. It is intended that implementation of this report is reviewed annually as changes are made and individually assessed. It has aimed to recommend strategies, which are achievable and build on positive elements of existing training provision, where this is appropriate, instead of wholesale change. A number of recommendations have already been progressed during the timeframe of this training review. Training is the process of increasing the knowledge and skill for doing a particular job. It is an organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and skill for a definite purpose. The purpose of training is basically to bridge the gap between job requirements and present competency of an employee. 1.3 Methology: This report is a descriptive one, which was administered by collecting primary and secondary data. Descriptive Research has an important objective: gives description of characteristics of function and also the description of phenomenon or characteristic associated with an object population. The theoretical part of this report was prepared with the help of different Human Resources Management/ personnel Management text books. The main focus of this report is training and development practices in bank sector. Through the theoretical discussions are done only to fulfill the objectives. Sources of data: This study covered two types of data, which are: â€˘ Primary data â€˘ Secondary data Primary Data: Primary data has been collected through a structured questionnaire, constructed specially for this report. Secondary Data: Going through different documents and papers developed by the company personnel and by others are the sources of secondary data. Collection procedure of data: Personal interview technique was the primary tool used in collecting information. Interview with the personnel have done through questionnaire in order to discuss about the related matters before preparing the report. People of banking industries were the main sources of secondary data. Analysis of Data: Collected data are analyzed by using table and graphical charts to draw the conclusion. All the data have shown in tabular form. Sampling Plan and Sample Size: Study population: The first step of the sampling design is to define the study population. Due to time restriction and other limitations, the survey will only focus into some surrounded people. The sample area has been selected on the basis of organizationâ€™s interest. Sampling Method: To investigate the factors for peoplesâ€™ preference, Non-probability Sampling Procedure has been used. The sampling unit was selected through Convenience Sampling: where the selection of the sampling unit is left primarily on the interviewer. The reason behind choosing Convenience Sampling is many but here most importantly, there is no appropriate structure or framework that can aid to select the sample. Further, these procedures are both time saving and inexpensive. Sample size: The total sample size for the study was 50. The researcher will peak 10 respondents from each area. Thus the total sample size for the study is 50 employment people. Data Collection Method: The data will be collected through questionnaire survey. The answers will be on the basis of peopleâ€™s own and individual opinion. Coding, Tabulation and Analysis Procedure: The response of the respondent will be entered into the computer for tabulation and analysis. Microsoft Excel and MS Word have been used to analyze the data. 1.4 SCOPE OF STUDY The report is concerned with the HR Divisions of selected banks and concerned with the comparison of HR Divisions and their Employment of Personnel practices in Banking Sector with selected banks. Different Public, Denationalized, Private, Foreign Banks, Specialized Banks are considered for the comparison of HR Divisions 1.5 Limitation Nothing beyond limitation and I also had some limitations to prepare this thesis effectively. Following listed the major limitations that affected most: - As an internee it was not possible for me to collect all the necessary secret information. - I had to complete this thesis within a very short span of time (three month) that was not sufficient for investigation. . - Besides this, it was very difficult to carry out the whole analysis on the basis of Training & Development. - Non-availability of the most recent statistical data study. - Since the Bank personnel are very busy with their activities, as a result they failed to cooperate with me to complete this report. Chapter two Banking sector in Bangladesh 2.1 Introduction: The Jews in Jerusalem introduced a kind of banking in the form of money lending before the birth of Christ. The word 'bank' was probably derived from the word 'bench' as during ancient time Jews used to do money -lending business sitting on long benches. First modern banking was introduced in 1668 in Stockholm as 'Svingss Pis Bank' which opened up a new era of banking activities throughout the European Mainland. In the South Asian region, early banking system was introduced by the Afgan traders popularly known as Kabuliwallas. Muslim businessmen from Kabul, Afganistan came to India and started money lending business in exchange of interest sometime in 1312 A.D. They were known as 'Kabuliawallas'. Number and types of Banks: The number of banks in all now stands at 49 in Bangladesh. Out of the 49 banks, four are Nationalized Commercial Banks (NCBs), 28 local private commercial banks, 12 foreign banks and the rest five are Development Financial Institutions (DFIs). Sonali Bank is the largest among the NCBs while Pubali is leading in the private ones. Among the 12 foreign banks, Standard Chartered has become the largest in the country. Besides the scheduled banks, Samabai (Cooperative) Bank, Ansar-VDP Bank, Karmasansthan (Employment) Bank and Grameen bank are functioning in the financial sector.The number of total branches of all scheduled banks is 6,038 as of June 2000. Of the branches, 39.95 per cent (2,412) are located in the urban areas and 60.05 per cent (3,626) in the rural areas. Of the branches NCBs hold 3,616, private commercial banks 1,214, foreign banks 31 and specialised banks 1,177. Bangladesh Bank (BB) regulates and supervises the activities of all banks. The BB is now carrying out a reform programme to ensure quality services by the banks. 2.2 Public bank: Rupali Bank Limited Rupali Bank Ltd. was constituted with the merger of 3 (three) erstwhile commercial banks i.e. Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd., Australasia Bank Ltd. and Standard Bank Ltd. operated in the then Pakistan on March 26, 1972 under the Bangladesh Banks (Nationalization) Order 1972 (P.O. No. 26 of 1972), with all their assets, benefits, rights, powers, authorities, privileges, liabilities, borrowings and obligations. Rupali Bank worked as a nationalized commercial bank till December13, 1986. Rupali Bank Ltd. emerged as the largest Public Limited Banking Company of the country on December 14, 1986. Mission: The bank participates actively in socio-economic development of the country by performing commercially viable and socially desirable banking functions. Sonali Bank: Soon after independence of the country Sonali Bank emerged as the largest and leading Nationalized Commercial Bank by proclamation of the Banks' Nationalization Order 1972 (Presidential Order-26) liquidating the then National Bank of Pakistan, Premier Bank and Bank of Bhwalpur. As a fully state owned institution, the bank had been discharging its nation-building responsibilities by undertaking government entrusted different socio-economic schemes as well as money market activities of its own volition, covering all spheres of the economy. The bank has been converted to a Public Limited Company with 100% ownership of the government and started functioning as Sonali Bank Limited from November 15 2007 taking over all assets, liabilities and business of Sonali Bank. After corporatization, the management of the bank has been given required autonomy to make the bank competitive & to run its business effectively. Sonali Bank Limited is governed by a Board of Directors consisting of 13(thirteen) members. The Bank is headed by the Chief Executive Officer & Managing Director, who is a well-known Banker and a reputed professional. The corporate head quarter of the bank is located at Motijheel, Dhaka, Bangladesh, the main commercial center of the capital. Vision: Socially committed leading banking institution with global presence. Mission: Dedicated to extend a whole range of quality products that support divergent needs of people aiming at enriching their lives, creating value for the stakeholders and contributing towards socio-economic development of the country. Pubali Bank Limited: The Bank was initially emerged in the Banking scenario of the then East Pakistan as Eastern Mercantile Bank Limited at the initiative of some Bangalee entrepreneurs in the year 1959 under Bank Companies Act 1913 . After independence of Bangladesh in 1972 this Bank was nationalized as per policy of the Government and renamed as Pubali Bank. Subsequently due to changed circumstances this Bank was denationalized in the year 1983 as a private bank and renamed as Pubali Bank Limited. The Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh handed over all assets and liabilities of the then Pubali Bank to the Pubali Bank Limited. Since then Pubali Bank Limited has been rendering all sorts of Commercial Banking services as the largest bank in private sector through its branch network all over the country. Pubali bank limited is the largest Commercial Bank in Private Sector in Bangladesh. It provides mass banking services to the customers through its branch network all over the country. This Bank has been playing a vital role in socio-economic, industrial and agricultural development as well as in the overall economic development of the country since its inception through savings mobilization and investment of funds. During the last 5 years the growth rate of bank's earnings is more than 25% on average. PUBALI BANK 2.3 Private bank in Bangladesh Dutch-Bangla Bank Limited (DBBL) Dutch-Bangla Bank started operation is Bangladesh's first joint venture bank. The bank was an effort by local shareholders spearheaded by M Sahabuddin Ahmed (founder chairman) and the Dutch company FMO. From the onset, the focus of the bank has been financing high-growth manufacturing industries in Bangladesh. The rationale being that the manufacturing sector exports Bangladeshi products worldwide. Thereby financing and concentrating on this sector allows Bangladesh to achieve the desired growth. DBBL's other focus is Corporate Social Responsiblity (CSR). Even though CSR is now a cliche, DBBL is the pioneer in this sector and termed the contribution simply as 'social responsiblity'. Due to its investment in this sector, DBBL has become one of the largest donors and the largest bank donor in Bangladesh. The bank has won numerous international awards because of its unique approach as a socially conscious bank. DBBL was the first bank in Bangladesh to be fully automated. The Electronic-Banking Division was established in 2002 to undertake rapid automation and bring modern banking services into this field. Full automation was completed in 2003 and hereby introduced plastic money to the Bangladeshi masses. DBBL also operates the nation's largest ATM fleet and in the process drastically cut consumer costs and fees by 80%. Moreover, DBBL choosing the low profitability route for this sector has surprised many critics. DBBL had pursued the mass automation in Banking as a CSR activity and never intended profitability from this sector. As a result it now provides unrivaled banking technology offerings to all its customers. Because of this mindset, most local banks have joined DBBL's banking infrastructure instead of pursuing their own. Even with a history of hefty technological investments and an even larger donations, consumer and investor confidence has never waned. Dutch-Bangla Bank stock set the record for the highest share price in the Dhaka Stock Exchange in 2008. Mission Dutch-Bangla Bank engineers enterprise and creativity in business and industry with a commitment to social responsibility. "Profits alone" do not hold a central focus in the Bank's operation; because "man does not live by bread and butter alone". Vision Dutch-Bangla Bank dreams of better Bangladesh, where arts and letters, sports and athletics, music and entertainment, science and education, health and hygiene, clean and pollution free environment and above all a society based on morality and ethics make all our lives worth living. DBBL's essence and ethos rest on a cosmos of creativity and the marvel-magic of a charmed life that abounds with spirit of life and adventures that contributes towards human development. Objectives Dutch-Bangla Bank believes in its uncompromising commitment to fulfill its customer needs and satisfaction and to become their first choice in banking. Taking cue from its pool esteemed clientele, Dutch-Bangla Bank intends to pave the way for a new era in banking that upholds and epitomizes its vaunted marques "Your Trusted Partner" Islami Bank Limited: Bangladesh is one of the largest Muslim countries in the world. The people of this country are deeply committed to Islamic way of life as enshrined in the Holy Qur'an and the Sunnah. Naturally, it remains a deep cry in their hearts to fashion and design their economic lives in accordance with the precepts of Islam. The establishment of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited on March 13, 1983, is the true reflection of this inner urge of its people, which started functioning with effect from March 30, 1983. This Bank is the first of its kind in Southeast Asia. It is committed to conduct all banking and investment activities on the basis of interest-free profit-loss sharing system. In doing so, it has unveiled a new horizon and ushered in a new silver lining of hope towards materializing a long cherished dream of the people of Bangladesh for doing their banking transactions in line with what is prescribed by Islam. With the active co-operation and participation of Islamic Development Bank (IDB) and some other Islamic banks, financial institutions, government bodies and eminent personalities of the Middle East and the Gulf countries, Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited has by now earned the unique position of a leading private commercial bank in Bangladesh. Mission: Achieve balanced growth and equitable development through diversified investment operation particularly in the priority sectors and less development areas of the country. Objective: • To conduct interest-free banking • To establish participatory banking instead of banking on debtor-creditor relationship. • To invest on profit and risk sharing basis. • To accept deposits on Mudaraba & Al-Wadeah basis. • To establish a welfare-oriented banking system • To extend co-operation to the poor, the helpless and the low-income group for their economic upliftment.. • To play a vital role in human development and employment generation. â€˘ To cibute towards balanced growth and development of the country through investment operations particularly in the less developed areasontr. â€˘ To contribute in achieving the ultimate goal of Islamic economic system One Bank limited: ONE Bank Limited was incorporated in May, 1999 With the Registrar of Joint Stock Companies under the Companies Act. 1994, as a commercial bank in the private sector. The Bank is pledge-bound to serve the customers and the community with utmost dedication. The prime focus is on efficiency, transparency, precision and motivation with the spirit and conviction to excel as ONE Bank in both value and image. The name 'ONE Bank' is derived from the insight and long nourished feelings of the promoters to reach out to the people of all walks of life and progress together towards prosperity in a spirit of oneness. OBL is a private sector commercial bank dedicated in the business line of taking deposits from public through its various saving schemes and lending the fund in various sectors at a higher margin. However, due attention is given in respect of risk undertaking, risk hedging and if not appropriately hedged, reflection of the same in pricing. In the financing side, the bank's major concentration is in trade finance covering about 20.88% of total financing as on YE2006 which is mainly a short-term investment. The banks financing concentrate in both, working capital finance and long-term finance. OBL has major concentration of financing in medium and large industries. Since the short-term finance carries low risk compared to long-term finance; the financing strategy of OBL will assist the bank to keep the risk at minimal. While financing the industrial sector, the major concentration of the bank appeared to be in the textile and RMG sector; both the above sectors cover 30.89% of the total portfolio. OBL also involved in cement construction and transport sector financing. In the investment portfolio, OBL have substantial investment in quoted and non-quoted shares of different organization including some very prospective financial institutions. The bank has shown its acumen in reducing its exposure from ship scrapping sector, steel re-rolling where the bank had investment earlier. With the increase in exposure to RMG, the bank has increased its non-funded business income substantially. With an age of only 8 years, the OBL has taken initiative to launch IT based banking products like ATM facilities, E-banking etc that are praiseworthy. Vision: â€˘ To establish ONE Bank limited as a Role Model in the Banking Sector of Bangladesh. • To meet the needs of our Customers, Provide fulfillment for our People and create Shareholder Value Mission: • To constantly seek to better serve our Customers. • Be pro-active in fulfilling our Social Responsibilities. • To review all business lines regularly and develop the Best Practices in the industry. • Working environment to be supportive of Teamwork, enabling the Employees to perform to the very best of their abilities. Mercantile Bank limited: Development of the country. The Bank commenced its operation on June 2, 1999. Mercantile Bank Limited emerged as a new commercial bank to provide efficient banking services and to contribute socio-economic The Bank provides a broad range of financial services to its customers and corporate clients. The Board of Directors consists of eminent personalities from the realm of commerce and industries of the country. Vision Would make finest corporate citizen. Mission Will become most caring, focused for equitable growth based on diversified deployment of resources, and nevertheless would remain healthy and gainfully profitable Bank. Objectives • To achieve positive Economic Value Added (EVA) each year. • To be market leader in product innovation. • To be one of the top three Financial Institutions in Bangladesh in terms of cost efficiency. â€˘ To be one of the top five Financial Institutions in Bangladesh in terms of market share in all significant market segments we serve. National Bank limited: National Bank Limited has its prosperous past, glorious present, prospective future and under processing projects and activities. Established as the first private sector bank fully owned by Bangladeshi entrepreneurs, NBL has been flourishing as the largest private sector Bank with the passage of time after facing many stress and strain. The members of the board of directors are creative businessmen and leading industrialists of the country. To keep pace with time and in harmony with national and international economic activities and for rendering all modern services, NBL, as a financial institution, automated all its branches with computer networks in accordance with the competitive commercial demand of time. Moreover, considering its forth-coming future, the infrastructure of the Bank has been rearranging. The expectation of all class businessmen, entrepreneurs and general public is much more to NBL. Keeping the target in mind, NBL has taken preparations to open 10 new branches and 5 SME centers by the year 2010. In addition, we are further expanding our presence through developing and expanding the SME financing, Any Branch Banking and Off-shore Banking facilities. The emergence of National Bank Limited in the private sector was an important event in the Banking arena of Bangladesh. When the nation was in the grip of severe recession, the government took the farsighted decision to allow the private sector to revive the economy of the country. Several dynamic entrepreneurs came forward for establishing a bank with a motto to revitalize the economy of the country. National Bank Limited was born as the first hundred percent Bangladeshi owned Bank in the private sector. From the very inception, it was the firm determination of National Bank Limited to play a vital role in the national economy. We are determined to bring back the long forgotten taste of banking services and flavors. We want to serve each one promptly and with a sense of dedication and dignity. The then President of the People's Republic of Bangladesh Justice Ahsanuddin Chowdhury inaugurated the bank formally on March 28, 1983 but the first branch at 48, Dilkusha Commercial Area, Dhaka started commercial operation on March 23, 1983. The 2nd Branch was opened on 11th May 1983 at Khatungonj, Chittagong. At present, NBL has been carrying on business through its 121 branches and 10 SME centers spread all over the country. Since the very beginning, the bank has exerted much emphasis on overseas operations and handled a sizable quantum of home bound foreign remittance. It has drawing arrangements with 415 correspondents in 75 countries of the world, as well as with 37 overseas Exchange Companies located in 13 countries. NBL was the first domestic bank to establish agency arrangements with the world famous Western Union in order to facilitate quick and safe remittance of the valuable foreign exchanges earned by the expatriate Bangladeshi nationals. This has meant that the expatriates can remit their hard-earned money to the country with much ease, confidence, safety and speed. NBL was also the first among domestic banks to introduce international Master Card in Bangladesh. In the meantime, NBL has also introduced the Visa Card and Power Card. The Bank has in its use the latest information technology services of SWIFT and REUTERS. NBL has been continuing its small credit programmes for disbursement of collateral free agricultural loans among the poor farmers of Barindra area in Rajshahi district for improving their livelihood. Despite shaken domestic economic condition due to global recession, performance of 2009, the year under review was noteworthy. In 2009, the pretax profit of National Bank stood at 3,197.50 million, registering a growth of 13.03 percent over the previous year and profit after tax & other provisions stood at Taka 2,070.47 million reflecting a growth of 36.45 percent. Further, bank's revenue, loans & advances, deposit and assets registered a growth of 22.98, 28.55, 27.66 and 27.53 percent respectively. Capital adequacy maintained at Tk.9,124.62 million, which was 13.56 percent against statutory requirement of 10 percent. The earning per share for the year 2009 was Tk.72.74 compared to Tk.53.31 of previous year. Being a regular tax payer, the bank made a direct contribution of Tk.1,366.20 million to Government Exchequer in 2009 representing an increase of 79.35 percent over 2008. Mission Our mission is to continue our support for expansion of activities at home and abroad by adding new dimensions to our banking services which have been ongoing in an unabated manner. Alongside, we are also putting highest priority in ensuring transparency, account ablility, improved clientele service, as well as our commitment to serve the society through which we want to get closer to the people of all strata. Winning an everlasting seat in the hearts of the people as a caring companion in uplifting the national economic standard through continuous upgradation and diversification of our clientele services in line with national and international requirements is the desired goal we want to reach Vision Ensuring highest standard of clientele services through best application of latest information technology, making due contribution to the national economy and establishing ourselves firmly at home and abroad as a front ranking bank of the country have been our cherished vision. City Bank limited: City Bank is one of the oldest private Commercial Banks operating in Bangladesh. It is a top bank among the oldest five Commercial Banks in the country which started their operations in 1983. The Bank started its journey on 27th March 1983 through opening its first branch at B. B. Avenue Branch in the capital, Dhaka city. It was the visionary entrepreneurship of around 13 local businessmen who braved the immense uncertainties and risks with courage and zeal that made the establishment & forward march of the bank possible. Those sponsor directors commenced the journey with only Taka 3.4 crore worth of Capital, which now is a respectable Taka 330.77 crore as capital & reserve. The bank currently has 87 online branches and 10 SME service centers spread across the length & breadth of the country that include a full fledged Islami Banking branch. Besides these traditional delivery points, the bank is also very active in the alternative delivery area. It currently has 46 ATMs of its own; and ATM sharing arrangement with a partner bank that has more than 550 ATMs in place; SMS Banking; Interest Banking and so on. It already started its Customer Call Center operation. The bank has a plan to end the current year with 100 own ATMs. City Bank is the first bank in Bangladesh to have issued Dual Currency Credit Card. The bank is a principal member of VISA international and it issues both Local Currency (Taka) & Foreign Currency (US Dollar) card limits in a single plastic. VISA Debit Card is another popular product which the bank is pushing hard in order to ease out the queues at the branch created by its astounding base of some 400,000 retail customers. The launch of VISA Prepaid Card for the travel sector is currently underway. City Bank has launched American Express Credit Card and American Express Gold Credit card in November 2009. City Bank is the local caretaker of the brand and is responsible for all operations supporting the issuing of the new credit cards, including billing and accounting, customer service, credit management and charge authorizations, as well as marketing the cards in Bangladesh. Both cards are international cards and accepted by the millions of merchants operating on the American Express global merchant network in over 200 countries and territories including Bangladesh. City Bank also introduced exclusive privileges for the card members under the American Express Selects program in Bangladesh. This will entitled any American Express card members to enjoy fantastic savings on retail and dining at some of the finest establishment in Bangladesh. It also provides incredible privileges all over the globe with more than 13,000 offers at over 10,000 merchants in 75 countries. City Bank prides itself in offering a very personalized and friendly customer service. It has in place a customized service excellence model called CRP that focuses on ensuring happy customers through setting benchmarks for the bank's employees' attitude, behavior, readiness level, accuracy and timelines of service quality. City Bank is one of the largest corporate banks in the country with a current business model that heavily encourages and supports the growth of the bank in Retail and SME Banking. The bank is very much on its way to opening many independent SME centers across the country within a short time. The bank is also very active in the workers' foreign remittance business. It has strong tie-ups with major exchange companies in the Middle East, Europe, Far East & USA, from where thousands of individual remittances come to the country every month for disbursements through the bank's large network of 97 online branches and SME service centers. The current senior management leaders of the bank consist of mostly people form the multinational banks with superior management skills and knowledge in their respective "specialized" areas. The newly launched logo and the pay-off line of the bank are just one initial step towards reaching that point. Prime Bank limited: In the backdrop of economic liberalization and financial sector reforms, a group of highly successful local entrepreneurs conceived an idea of floating a commercial bank with different outlook. For them, it was competence, excellence and consistent delivery of reliable service with superior value products. Accordingly, Prime Bank Ltd. was created and commencement of business started on 17 th April 1995. The sponsors are reputed personalities in the field of trade and commerce and their stake ranges from shipping to textile and finance to energy etc. As a fully licensed commercial bank, Prime Bank Ltd. is being managed by a highly professional and dedicated team with long experience in banking. They constantly focus on understanding and anticipating customer needs. As the banking scenario undergoes changes so is the bank and it repositions itself in the changed market condition. Prime Bank Ltd. has already made significant progress within a very short period of its existence. The bank has been graded as a top class bank in the country through internationally accepted CAMEL rating. The bank has already occupied an enviable position among its competitors after achieving success in all areas of business operation. Prime Bank Ltd. offers all kinds of Commercial Corporate and Personal Banking services covering all segments of society within the framework of Banking Company Act and rules and regulations laid down by our central bank. Diversification of products and services include Corporate Banking, Retail Banking and Consumer Banking right from industry to agriculture, and real state to software. The bank has consistently turned over good returns on Assets and Capital. During the year 2005, the bank has posted an operating profit of Tk.1520.34 million and its capital funds stood at Tk.3177.32 million. Out of this, Tk.1400 million consists of paid up capital by shareholders and Tk.1777.32 million represents reserves and retained earnings. The bankâ€™s current capital adequacy ratio of 9.96% is in the market. In spite of complex business environment and default culture, quantum of classified loan in the bank is very insignificant and stood at less than 0.96%. Prime Bank Ltd., since its beginning has attached more importance in technology integration. In order to retain competitive edge, investment in technology is always a top agenda and under constant focus. Keeping the network within a reasonable limit, our strategy is to serve the customers through capacity building across multi delivery channels. Our past performance gives an indication of our strength. We are better placed and poised to take our customers through fast changing times and enable them compete more effectively in the market they operate Vision To be the most efficient bank it terms of customer services, profitability and technology application. Mission Continuous improvement in our business policies and procedures cost reduction through integration of technology at all levels. IFIC Bank limited: International Finance Investment and Commerce Bank Limited (IFIC Bank) is banking company incorporated in the Peopleâ€™s Republic of Bangladesh with limited liability. It was set up at the instance of the Government in 1976 as a joint venture between the Government of Bangladesh and sponsors in the private sector with the objective of working as a finance c company within the country and setting up joint venture banks/financial institutions aboard. In 1983 when the Government allowed banks in the private sector, IFIC was converted into a full fledged commercial bank. The Government of the Peopleâ€™s Republic of Bangladesh now holds 32.75% of the share capital of the Bank. The Government of the Peopleâ€™s Republic of Bangladesh now holds 32.75% of the share capital of the Bank. Directors and Sponsors having vast experience in the field of trade and commerce own 11.42% of the share capital and the rest is held by the general public. Mission: Our Mission is to provide service to our clients with the help of a skilled and dedicated workforce whose creative talents, innovative actions and competitive edge make our position unique in giving quality service to all institutions and individuals that we care for. We are committed to the welfare and economic prosperity of the people and the community, for we drive from them our inspiration and drive for onward progress to prosperity. We want to be the leader among banks in Bangladesh and make our indelible mark as an active partner in regional banking operating beyond the national boundary. In an intensely competitive and complex financial and business environment, we particularly focus on growth and profitability of all concerned. Trust bank limited: Trust Bank Limited is one of the leading private commercial bank having a spread network of 45 branches and 5 SME center across Bangladesh and plans to open few more branches to cover the important commercial areas in Dhaka, Chittagong, Sylhet and other areas in 2010. The bank, sponsored by the Army Welfare Trust (AWT), is first of its kind in the country. With a wide range of modern corporate and consumer financial products Trust Bank has been operating in Bangladesh since 1999 and has achieved public confidence as a sound and stable bank. In 2001, the bank introduced automated branch banking system to increase efficiency and improve customer service. In the year 2005, the bank moved one step further and introduced ATM services for its customers. Since bankâ€™s business volume increased over the years and the demands of the customers enlarged in manifold, our technology has been upgraded to manage the growth of the bank and meet the demands of our customers. In January 2007, Trust Bank successfully launched Online Banking Services which facilitate Any Branch Banking, ATM Banking, Phone Banking, SMS Banking, & Internet Banking to all customers. Customers can now deposit or withdraw money from any Branch of Trust Bank nationwide without needing to open multiple accounts in multiple Branches. Via Online Services and Visa Electron (Debit Card), ATMs now allow customers to retrieve 24x7 hours Account information such as account balance checkup through mini-statements and cash withdrawals. Trust Bank has sucessfully introduced Visa Credit Cards to serve itâ€™s existing and potential valued customers. Credits cards can now be used at shops & restaurants all around Bangladesh and even internationally. Trust Bank is a customer oriented financial institution. It remains dedicated to meet up with the ever growing expectations of the customer because at Trust Bank, customer is always at the center. Vision We aim to provide financial services to meet customer expectations so that customers feel we are always there when they need us, and can refer us to their friends with confidence. We want to be a preferred bank of choice with a distinctive identity. Chapter three Literature review, Training and Development 3.1 Introduction Every organization needs to have well-trained and experienced people to perform the activities that have to be done. If current or potential job occupants can meet this requirement, training is not important. When this is not the case, it is necessary to raise the skill levels and increase the versatility and adaptability of employees. 3.2.1 Meaning of training Training is a learning experience in that it seeks a relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve his or her ability to perform on the job. We typically say training can involve the changing of skills, knowledge, attitudes, or social behavior. It may mean changing what employees know, how they work, their attitudes towards their work, or their interactions with their co-workers or their supervisor. For another purpose, Training will be presented as it applies primarily to operative employees in the organization 3.2.2 Method of training The most popular training methods used by organization can be classified as either on-the-job of offthe-job training. 126.96.36.199 on-the job training The most widely methods of training take place on the job. This can be attributed to the simplicity of such methods and the impression that they are less costly to operate. On-the job training places the employees in an actual work situation and makes them appear to be immediately productive. It is learning by doing. For jobs that either are on the job training makes sense. One of the drawbacks to on the job training can be low productivity while the employees develop their skills. Another drawback can be the errors made by the trainees while they learn. However, when and personnel are limited or costly, and where it is desirable for the workers to learn the job under normal working conditions, the benefits of on the job training frequently offset its drawbacks. Apprenticeship Programs. People seeking to enter skilled trades to become, for example. Plumbers, electricians, or ironworkers are often required to undergo apprenticeship training before they are accepted to journeyman status typically, this apprenticeship period is from two to five years .For instance, a cosmetician’s apprenticeship is two years, a bricklayer’s is three years, machinists and printers spend four years, and a patternmaker requires five years. During the apprenticeship period, the trainee is paid less than a fully qualified worker. Apprenticeship programs put the trainee under the guidance of a master worker. The argument for apprenticeship programs is that the required job knowledge and skills are so complex as to rule out anything less than a long time period where the trainee understudies a skilled master journeyman. Job Instruction Training. During World War II, a systematic approach to on-the –job training was developed to prepare supervisors to train operatives. This approach, called job instruction training (JIT) was part of the Training within Industry programs. JIT proved highly effective and became extremely popular. JIT consists of four basic steps: (1) preparing the trainees by telling them about the job and overcoming their uncertainties; (2) presenting the instruction, giving essential information in a clear manner; (3) having the trainees try out the job to demonstrate their understanding; understanding; and (4) placing the workers into the job, on their own, with a designated resource person to call upon should they need assistance. The sequence of these activities is shown in finger 10-3. A revival of JIT achieved impressive result. When twenty supervisors who had received training for twenty –five hours over ten weeks in turn retrained their subordinates, all but three supervisors were able to show tangible result of job training in their areas. Productivity was significantly improved, and rejects where cut by approximately yow-thirds. 188.8.131.52 Off-the Job Training Off-the –job training covers a number of techniques –classroom lectures, films, demonstrations; case, studies and other simulation exercises, and programmed instruction. The facilities needed for each of these techniques very from a small makeshift classroom to an elaborate development center with large lecture halls, supplemented by small conference rooms with sophisticated equipment, tow-way mirrors, and all the frills. Off – the job training is given outside the actual work place. audiovisual Lectures/Conferences: - This approach is well adapted to convey specific information, rules, procedures or methods. This method is useful, where the information is to be shared among a large number of trainees. The cost per trainee is low in this method. Films: - can provide information & explicitly demonstrate skills that are not easily presented by other techniques. Motion pictures are often used in conjunction with Conference, discussions to clarify & amplify those points that the film emphasized. Simulation Exercise: - Any training activity that explicitly places the trainee in an artificial environment that closely mirrors actual working conditions can be considered a Simulation. Simulation activities include case experiences, experiential exercises, vestibule training, management games & role-play. Cases: - present an in depth description of a particular problem an employee might encounter on the job. The employee attempts to find and analyze the problem, evaluate alternative courses of action & decide what course of action would be most satisfactory. Experiential Exercises: - are usually short, structured learning experiences where individuals learn by doing. For instance, rather than talking about inter-personal conflicts & how to deal with them, an experiential exercise could be used to create a conflict situation where employees have to experience a conflict personally & work out its solutions. Vestibule Training: - Employees learn their jobs on the equipment they will be using, but the training is conducted away from the actual work floor. While expensive, Vestibule training allows employees to get a full feel for doing task without real world pressures. Additionally, it minimizes the problem of transferring learning to the job. Role Play: - Itâ€™s just like acting out a given role as in a stage play. In this method of training, the trainees are required to enact defined roles on the basis of oral or written description of a particular situation. Management Games: - The game is devised on a model of a business situation. The trainees are divided into groups who represent the management of competing companies. They make decisions just like these are made in real-life situations. Decisions made by the groups are evaluated & the likely implications of the decisions are fed back to the groups. The game goes on in several rounds to take the time dimension into account. In-Basket Exercise: - Also known as In-tray method of training. The trainees is presented with a pack of papers & files in a tray containing administrative problems & is asked to take decisions on these problems & are asked to take decisions on these within a stipulated time. The decisions taken by the trainees are compared with one another. The trainees are provided feedback on their performance. 3.3 The Model of Training: 3.3.1 Systematic Model Training The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to make further improvements. The training should achieve the purpose of helping employee to perform their work to required standards. The steps involved in System Model of training are as follows: 1. Analyze and identify the training needs i.e. to analyze the department, job, employees requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn, estimating training cost, etc The next step is to develop a performance measure 2. Design and provide training to meet identified needs. This step requires developing objectives of training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing and structuring the contents. 3. Develop- This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that will assist the participants to learn, selecting delivery method, examining the training material, validating information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals & objectives. 4. Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. 5. Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. Making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices. 3.3.2 Transitional Model: Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. Vision â€“ focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the defined point of time. Mission â€“ explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position in the community. Values â€“ is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It reflects the deeply held values of the organization and is independent of current industry environment. For example, values may include social responsibility, excellent customer service, etc. The mission, vision, and values precede the objective in the inner loop. This model considers the organization as a whole. The objective is formulated keeping these three things in mind and then the training model is further implemented 3.4 Role of Training: The role of training and development in creating employee 'readiness' for effective workplace change. To the customer, it indicates that you care about obtaining and retaining their business. To the employee, training indicates that you are willing to make an investment in them and the future of the company. Even though you are asking them to accomplish more, you are willing to give them something in return - the training to enhance their skill set so that they can serve the customer better. This diagram shows how the pattern of training. Employee development, career development, career management, career planning, career guidance, career coaching, career counseling, mentoring, and initiatives with similar names and labels have been used by organizations. Role of Trainee in Transfer of Training: The trainee is a major stakeholder in a training program. The whole training program is developed for the trainees only. Each candidate plays an important role in the transfer of training because one participant's attitude regarding the training influence the other participants and also each participant can assist by advancing the learning process to realize the training objectives. Participant's willingness to invest in the program is directly proportional to the benefits of the learning that the trainee could expect. Each participant forms their own perception towards training. Some perceptions remain the same during the program, while some faded depending upon the assessment of a program by the participant. 3.5 Reasons for Training Typical Reasons for Employee Training and Development Training and development can be initiated for a variety of reasons for an employee or group of employees, e.g.: • When a performance appraisal indicates performance improvement is needed • To "benchmark" the status of improvement so far in a performance improvement effort • As part of an overall professional development program • As part of succession planning to help an employee be eligible for a planned change in role in the organization • To "pilot", or test, the operation of a new performance management system • To train about a specific topic (see below) Typical Topics of Employee Training 1. Communications: The increasing diversity of today's workforce brings a wide variety of languages and customs. 2. Computer skills: Computer skills are becoming a necessity for conducting administrative and office tasks. 3. Customer service: Increased competition in today's global marketplace makes it critical that employees understand and meet the needs of customers. 4. Diversity: Diversity training usually includes explanation about how people have different perspectives and views, and includes techniques to value diversity 5. Ethics: Today's society has increasing expectations about corporate social responsibility. Also, today's diverse workforce brings a wide variety of values and morals to the workplace. 6. Human relations: The increased stresses of today's workplace can include misunderstandings and conflict. Training can people to get along in the workplace. 7. Quality initiatives: Initiatives such as Total Quality Management, Quality Circles, benchmarking, etc., require basic training about quality concepts, guidelines and standards for quality, etc. 8. Safety: Safety training is critical where working with heavy equipment , hazardous chemicals, repetitive activities, etc., but can also be useful with practical advice for avoiding assaults, etc. 9. Sexual harassment: Sexual harassment training usually includes careful description of the organization's policies about sexual harassment, especially about what are inappropriate behaviors General Benefits from Employee Training and Development There are numerous sources of online information about training and development. Several of these sites (they're listed later on in this library) suggest reasons for supervisors to conduct training among employees. These reasons include: • Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees • Increased employee motivation • Increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain • Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods • Increased innovation in strategies and products • Reduced employee turnover • Enhanced company image, e.g., conducting ethics training (not a good reason for ethics training!) • 3.6 Risk management, e.g., training about sexual harassment, diversity training Developing An organization already provides extensive employee and management development programs. A long term career focus should increase the organization’s effectiveness in managing its human resources 3.6.1 Meaning of Development Employee development is more future oriented, and more concerned with education, than is employee training, or assisting a persons to become a performance. By education, we mean that Employee development activities attempt to instill sound reasoning process-to enhance one’s ability to understand and interpret knowledge rather than imparting a body of serial facts or teaching a specific set of motor skills. Development therefore focuses more on the employee’s personal growth. Successful managers have analytical, human, conceptual, and specialized skills. They are able to think and understand. Training per se cannot overcome a manager’s or potential inability to understand cause-and-effect relationships, to synthesize from experience, to visualize relationships, or to think relationships or to think logically. 3.6.2 Methods of Development -On-the-job Development The development of a manager’s abilities can take place on the job. We will review four popular onthe-job techniques Coaching: when a manager’s takes an active role in guiding another manager’s, we refer to this activity as coaching. Just as track coaches observe, analyze, and attempt to improve the performance of their athletes ‘coaches’ on the job can do the same. The effective coach on the track or in the corporate hierarchy gives guidance through direction, advice, criticism, and suggestions in attempts to aid the growth of the employee. Understudy Assignments: By Understudy Assignments, we mean potential managers are given the opportunity to relieve an experienced manager’s of his or her job and act as his or her substitute during the period. This level also described permanent assistant to position as well as temporary opportunities to assists managers in completing their jobs. Job rotation: job rotation can be either horizontal or vertical. Vertical rotation is nothing more than promoting a worker into a new position. On the other hand horizontal dimension of job rotation or what may be better understood as lateral transfer. Committee Assignments: Assignment to a committee can provide an opportunity for the employee to share in managerial decision making, to learn by watching others, and to investigate specific organizational problems. Off-the-job Development: There are wealth of employee development techniques that personal can partake in off the job. We will briefly discuss four of the more popular ones. They are as follow: 3.7 Needs Analysis: Why is the survey being conducted? Meetings are held to determine the goals and objectives, as well as the content of the project. Whether implemented through individual interview or focus group this needs analysis will ensure that the critical information is gathered in the manner that best fits the customer need and will assist in determining the best method of collecting the data. 3.8 Advantages of Training and Development: There are numerous sources of online information about training and development. Several of these sites suggest reasons for supervisors to conduct training among employees. These reasons include: • Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees • Increased employee motivation • Increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain • Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods • Increased innovation in strategies and products • Reduced employee turnover • Enhanced company image, conducting ethics training not a good reason for ethics training • 3.9 Risk management, training about sexual harassment, diversity training Problems: Conflict can arise between HR/Training and other parts of the organization, commonly due to differing priorities among performance management functions within a business, and notably relating to training, development and welfare of staff. • Management resisting release of staff for training due to day-to-day work demands. • Short-term needs of performance management vs. long-term outlook of HR. • HR have no line authority over trainees therefore cannot control training take-up. • Training is rarely well followed-through once delegates are back in jobs, despite HR efforts to achieve this via managers. • 3.10 HR budgets are often cut if profits come under pressure. Findings: The findings of this inquiry suggest more practical and direct implications for practitioners in the field of Experiential Training and Development. The apparent success of the narrative-based processing procedure employed in this inquiry could imply a need to consider the effects of splitting the principle and practices of Experiential Training and Development into two fields: Experiential Training and Experiential Development. Experiential Training programs could continue to use the conventional teaching-based processing methods. Chapter Four Data Presentation Questioner Form: Name of Respondent: Gender: M / F Designation: Education: Experience: Statement.............................................................................................Responses Statements Strongly Disagree Moderately Disagree Neutral Moderately Agree Strongly Agree Training can enhance the skill level of the employees of an organization 1 2 3 4 5 Training and development 1 concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings This activity is focused on the job that employee currently hold or may 1 potentially hold in the future 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 Training and development programs 1 should be designed and developed based on both the organization's and the individual's needs 2 3 4 5 The training element gives staff the understanding, practical skills and motivation to carry out particular work-related tasks. 1 2 3 4 5 The development work relates to 1 the ongoing, long-term improvement of employees' skills so that they can fulfill their potential within their organization. Considering the costs of planned programs and keeping within budgets as assessing the return on 1 investment of any training or development program is becoming increasingly important. 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 Amending and revising programs as necessary, in order to adapt to the changes that occur in the work environment. 1 2 3 4 5 Developing effective induction 1 programs and keeping up to date with developments in training by reading relevant journals, going to meetings and attending relevant courses 2 3 4 5 Training and development 1 increasing its importance for the benefit of the academic and corporate communities, as well as those engaged in public policy formulation and implementation. 2 3 4 5 Training and development is essential in attracting and retaining 1 a knowledgeable and skilled workforce. 2 3 4 Bar Chart: As these data are categorical, we are not doing any mean median mode calculation. 5 Experience 25 Frequency 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 Experience Gender 40 Frequency 30 20 10 0 Male Female Gender Training and performance 25 Frequency 20 15 10 5 0 Neutral Modarately agree Strongly agree Training and performance Job related training 14 Frequency 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Modarately disagree Neutral Modarately agree Job related training Strongly agree Need based training 25 Frequency 20 15 10 5 0 Neutral Modarately agree Strongly agree Need based training Motivation after training 20 Frequency 15 10 5 0 Neutral Modarately agree Motivation after training Strongly agree Long term skill 20 Frequency 15 10 5 0 Neutral Modarately agree Strongly agree Long term skill Cost minimization after training 25 Frequency 20 15 10 5 0 Neutral Modarately agree Cost minimization after training Strongly agree Amanding and revising 25 Frequency 20 15 10 5 0 Neutral Modarately agree Strongly agree Amanding and revising Keeping up to date by training 20 Frequency 15 10 5 0 Neutral Modarately agree Keeping up to date by training Strongly agree Academic corporate and policy importance 25 Frequency 20 15 10 5 0 Neutral Modarately agree Strongly agree Academic corporate and policy importance Knowledge and workforce 25 Frequency 20 15 10 5 0 Modarately agree Strongly agree Knowledge and workforce Chapter Five Data Analysis Data Analysis: After the data presentation of all statements regarding training and development of Banking sector. Now I will go with Data Analysis of all statements. Frequency Table Description of the study participants: Gender Valid Frequency 32 8 40 Male Female Total Percent 80.0 20.0 100.0 Valid Percent 80.0 20.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 80.0 100.0 Designation Valid Frequency Senior officer 8 Junior officer 22 Trainee 10 Total 40 Percent 20.0 55.0 25.0 100.0 Valid Percent 20.0 55.0 25.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 20.0 75.0 100.0 Education Valid BBA graduate MBA masters Total or or Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent 27 67.5 67.5 67.5 13 32.5 32.5 100.0 40 100.0 100.0 Experience Valid 1 2 3 4 Frequency 22 10 5 3 Percent 55.0 25.0 12.5 7.5 Valid Percent 55.0 25.0 12.5 7.5 Cumulative Percent 55.0 80.0 92.5 100.0 Total 40 100.0 100.0 Training and skill level Valid Neutral Moderately agree Strongly agree Total Frequency Percent 1 2.5 Valid Percent 2.5 Cumulative Percent 2.5 8 20.0 20.0 22.5 31 40 77.5 100.0 77.5 100.0 100.0 Frequency Percent 2 5.0 Valid Percent 5.0 Cumulative Percent 5.0 15 37.5 37.5 42.5 23 40 57.5 100.0 57.5 100.0 100.0 Training and performance Valid Neutral Moderately agree Strongly agree Total Job related training Valid Moderately disagree Neutral Moderately agree Strongly agree Total Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent 3 7.5 7.5 7.5 15 12 10 40 37.5 30.0 25.0 100.0 37.5 30.0 25.0 100.0 45.0 75.0 100.0 Need based training Valid Neutral Moderately agree Strongly agree Total Frequency Percent 7 17.5 Valid Percent 17.5 Cumulative Percent 17.5 21 52.5 52.5 70.0 12 40 30.0 100.0 30.0 100.0 100.0 Valid Percent 10.0 Cumulative Percent 10.0 Motivation after training Valid Neutral Frequency Percent 4 10.0 Moderately agree Strongly agree Total 20 50.0 50.0 60.0 16 40 40.0 100.0 40.0 100.0 100.0 Frequency Percent 3 7.5 Valid Percent 7.5 Cumulative Percent 7.5 18 45.0 45.0 52.5 19 40 47.5 100.0 47.5 100.0 100.0 Frequency Percent 4 10.0 Valid Percent 10.0 Cumulative Percent 10.0 25 62.5 62.5 72.5 11 40 27.5 100.0 27.5 100.0 100.0 Frequency Percent 2 5.0 Valid Percent 5.0 Cumulative Percent 5.0 15 37.5 37.5 42.5 23 40 57.5 100.0 57.5 100.0 100.0 Frequency Percent 9 22.5 Valid Percent 22.5 Cumulative Percent 22.5 18 45.0 45.0 67.5 13 40 32.5 100.0 32.5 100.0 100.0 Valid Percent 7.5 Cumulative Percent 7.5 Long term skill Valid Neutral Moderately agree Strongly agree Total Cost minimization after training Valid Neutral Moderately agree Strongly agree Total Amending and revising Valid Neutral Moderately agree Strongly agree Total Keeping up to date by training Valid Neutral Moderately agree Strongly agree Total Academic corporate and policy importance Valid Neutral Frequency Percent 3 7.5 Moderately agree Strongly agree Total 22 55.0 55.0 62.5 15 40 37.5 100.0 37.5 100.0 100.0 Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent 15 37.5 37.5 37.5 25 40 62.5 100.0 62.5 100.0 100.0 Knowledge and workforce Valid Moderately agree Strongly agree Total Chapter Sex Findings Finding: In the field of human resource management, training and development is the field concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. It has been known by several names, including employee development, human resource development, and learning and development. Training is generally defined as "change in behavior" yet, how many trainers and managers forget that, using the term training only as applicable to "skills training"? What about the human element? What about those very same people we want to "train"? What about their individual beliefs, backgrounds, ideas, needs and aspirations? In Bangladesh, training as an activity has been going on as a distinct field with its own roles, structures and budgets, but it is still young. This field is however; expanding fast but controversy seems to envelop any attempts to find benefits commensurate with the escalating costs of training. The searchlight of inquiry may make the task and challenges stand out too starkly, too simply. Using experience with training in Bangladesh and other rapidly developing countries has this advantage at similar risk. The contribution that training can make to development is needed acutely and obviously. At the same time, the limited resources available in these countries make this contribution hard to come by. These lines are sharply drawn; on the one hand, no promise can be ignored; on the other, no waste is permissible. Much of the training provided today proceeds as if knowledge and action were directly related. This assumption is itself a striking illustration of the wide gulf that separates the two. On a continuum with personal maturation and growth at one end and improvement in performance of predetermined tasks at the other, education lies near the former, and training near the later. Focusing training on skill in action makes the task wide and complex. Training embraces an understanding of the complex processes by which various factors that make up a situation. Reasons for emphasizing the growth and development of personnel include • Creating a pool of readily available and adequate replacements for personnel who may leave or move up in the organization. • Enhancing the company's ability to adopt and use advances in technology because of a sufficiently knowledgeable staff. • Building a more efficient, effective and highly motivated team, which enhances the company's competitive position and improves employee morale. • Ensuring adequate human resources for expansion into new programs. Research has shown specific benefits that a small business receives from training and developing its workers, including: • Increased productivity. • Reduced employee turnover. • Increased efficiency resulting in financial gains. • Decreased need for supervision. Employees frequently develop a greater sense of self-worth, dignity and well-being as they become more valuable to the firm and to society. Generally they will receive a greater share of the material gains that result from their increased productivity. These factors give them a sense of satisfaction through the achievement of personal and company goals. Once a company implements a training program, it must evaluate the program's success, even if it has produced desired results for other companies and even if similar programs have produced desires for it. Companies first must determine if trainees are acquiring the desired skills and knowledge. If not, then they must ascertain why not and they must figure out if the trainees are failing to acquire these skills because of their own inability or because of ineffective training programs. In order to evaluate training programs, companies must collect relevant data. The data should include easily measurable and quantifiable information such as costs, output, quality, and time. Companies also can use qualitative data such as work habits, attitudes, development, adaptability, and initiative to evaluate training programs. Most companies, however, prefer to place more weight on the quantitative data previously outlined. Furthermore, companies tend to evaluate training and development programs on four levels: behavior, learning, reaction, and results. Businesses examine employee behavior after training programs in order to determine if the programs helped employees adjust to their environment; also, companies can obtain evidence on employee behavior via observation and interviews. Throughout the training process, employers monitor how well trainees are learning about the company, the atmosphere, and their jobs. Finally to evaluate training and development programs effectively, employers also gauge employee reactions to the programs. This feedback from trainees provides companies with crucial information on how employees perceive their programs. Chapter seven Recommendation Training and development -- or "learning and development" as many refer to it now -- is one of the most important aspects to our lives and our work. In our culture, we highly value learning. Yet, despite our having attended many years of schooling, many of us have no idea how to carefully design an approach to training and development. This topic in the research provides an extensive range of information about training and development, including to depict how that information is organized. So the goal of the topic is not only to convey lots of information, but to help the reader gain a broad understanding of how training and development can be designed to meet the nature and needs of the reader. Business owners believe the future cannot be predicted or controlled and their efforts, therefore, are best centered on current activities i.e., making money today. A well-conceived training program can help a firm succeed. A program structured with the company's strategy and objectives in mind has a high probability of improving productivity and other goals that are set in the training mission. Using questionnaires and interviews, companies can identify employee attitudes toward various aspects of the training programs. Finally, employers attempt to determine the results of their training programs by studying the quantifiable data addressed earlier as well as by considering the employee turnover rate and job performance of workers who recently completed a training and development program. The rapid growth of the banking industry in Bangladesh has increased the need of human capital in various national and private banks of the country. The crisis of trained professionals in various banks of Bangladesh has become so acute that some of the banks themselves are taking initiative to prepare the needed human resources for their establishments. Therefore, various highly defined training and development courses in Banking are being offered in different parts of the country. Chapter Eight Bibliographies & Appendix Bibliographies: BOOK: 1. Effective Training Systems, Strategies and Practices. Second Edition. James W.Thacker 2. Decenzo D.A. and Robbins S.P. (2005) Human Resource Managements, Eight Edition, John Wiley and sons, inc. USA. 3. Stephen P. Robbins S.P. (2003) Organizational Behavior, 10th Edition, Prentic â€“ Hall, inc. USA. Website: http://www.rupalibank.org/ http://www.pubalibangla.com/ http://www.dutchbanglabank.com/ http://www.islamibankbd.com/jobs.php http://www.onebankbd.com/terms.php http://www.nblbd.com/ https://www.city-bank.com/ http://www.primebank.com/ http://www.ificbank.com.bd/branch.php http://www.trustbank.com.bd/ Appendix: Name of Respondent: Gender: M / F Designation: Education: Experience: Statement.............................................................................................Responses Statements Strongly Disagree Moderately Disagree Neutral Moderately Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 Training and development 1 concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings This activity is focused on the job that employee currently hold or may 1 potentially hold in the future 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 Training and development programs 1 should be designed and developed based on both the organization's and the individual's needs 2 3 4 5 The training element gives staff the understanding, practical skills and motivation to carry out particular work-related tasks. 1 2 3 4 5 The development work relates to 1 the ongoing, long-term improvement of employees' skills so that they can fulfill their potential within their organization. 2 3 4 5 Training can enhance the skill level of the employees of an organization Considering the costs of planned programs and keeping within budgets as assessing the return on 1 investment of any training or development program is becoming increasingly important. 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Developing effective induction 1 programs and keeping up to date with developments in training by reading relevant journals, going to meetings and attending relevant courses 2 3 4 5 Training and development 1 increasing its importance for the benefit of the academic and corporate communities, as well as those engaged in public policy formulation and implementation. Training and development is essential in attracting and retaining 1 a knowledgeable and skilled workforce. 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 Amending and revising programs as necessary, in order to adapt to the changes that occur in the work environment.