Importance of production techniques on apparel industry
Production Techniques is very important of Apparel Industry. It can be spun in to yarn or processed in textile such as fabric, knit, non-woven etc by means of yarn an appropriate interacting method. It should have sufficient length, fineness strength, elasticity and softness. The availability and price are also important for a fabric to be used as textile.
Introduction: Production Techniques is very important of Apparel Industry. It can be spun in to yarn or processed in textile such as fabric, knit, non-woven etc by means of yarn an appropriate interacting method. It should have sufficient length, fineness strength, elasticity and softness. The availability and price are also important for a fabric to be used as textile. The apparel industry traditionally has consisted mostly of production workers who performed the cutting and sewing functions in an assembly line. This industry remains a labor-intensive one, despite advances in technology and workplace practices. Although many workers still perform this work in the United States, the industry is increasingly opening factories in other countries or contracting out its production work to foreign suppliers to take advantage of other countries' lower labor costs. In its place, a growing number of apparel manufacturers are performing only the entrepreneurial functions involved in apparel manufacturing. These include buying raw materials, designing clothes and accessories and preparing samples, arranging for the production and distribution of the apparel, and marketing the finished product. The word “textile” originally applied only to woven fabrics, now generally applied to fibres, yarns, or fabrics or products made of fibers, yarns or fabrics. The term textile originates from the Latin verb texere –to weave-but, as the textile institute’s terms and definitions glossary explains, it is now “a general term applied to any manufacture from fibres, filaments or yarns characterized by flexibility, fineness and high ratio of length to thickness”. Textiles, especially fabric are the fundamental component of a readymade garment, because it is the basic material of garments. So it is important to know the manufacturing sequence of fabric from fibre. The quality product is the main goal at present time. Without knowledge of textile manufacturing i.e. fiber, yarn and fabrics it is impossible to maintain the quality of a garment. Task-1 Apply understanding of industrial equipment to develop manufacturing skills Task-1.1 Select and use machinery, hand tools and techniques suitable for identified purposes: The development of the sewing machine was hard at work at the end of the eighteenth century in England, France, and the United States. Leather and canvas could be stitched by this heavy machine, which used a notched needle and awl to create a chain stitch. Like many early machines, it copied the motions of hand sewing. A critical innovation was patented. Their sewing machine used a needle with an eye in the point of the needle instead of at the top. Sewing machine: A sewing machine is a textile machine used to stitch fabric, cards and other material together with thread. Sewing machines were invented during the first Industrial Revolution to decrease the amount of manual sewing work performed in clothing companies. The research and development department of a manufacturer works, in conjunction with the marketing department, to develop specifications for a new machine that is then designed as a prototype. Software for manufacturing the machine is developed, and working models are made and tested by users. Meanwhile, engineers test the working models for durability and establish useful life criteria. In the sewing laboratory, stitch quality is precisely evaluated, and other performance tests are conducted under controlled conditions. Sewing machine Lock Stitch Machine: Lockstitch sewing machine is very popular sewing machine and widely used in most of the conventional modern garments sewing system. The lockstitch machine is very easy to use but required more power to operate. Lockstitch machine The primary components concerned with the formation of the stitch are: (i) The needle, (ii) The feed dogs, (iii) Throat plate, (iv) The presser foot, (v) The rotary sewing hook, and (vi) Bobbin and the bobbin case. Stitch forming action of the rotary-hook lock stitch machine: Rotary-hook machine forms the plain stitch or simple two thread lock stitch by carrying the needle thread loop around a bobbin containing the under thread. Commencing with the needle at the lowest point of its stroke, the needle starts to raise the needle-thread which, being flexible, bulges out away from the needle to form a loop. The loop formed in the needle-thread is then entered by the point of the sewing hook. As the needle continues to rise and the hook progresses in its rotation, the needle-thread take-up arm provides sufficient slack thread to be drawn down through the fabric to increase the size of the loop. On its first rotation, the sewing hook carries the needle-thread loops around the bobbin case and bobbin, the inside of the loop sliding over the face of the bobbin-case whilst the outside passes around the back, to enclose the bobbin-thread. As the needle-thread take-up starts to rise, the loop is drawn up through the “cast-off” opening of the sewing-hook before the revolution is complete. Overlook Machine: • • • • No of needles - one or 2 needs No of thread – 2-5 threads Stitches per minute ( SMP)- ( 6500- 8500) Stitch length Maximum 4mm and stitch length and be changed by push button • Used for sewing both woven and knitted good butextens lively used for knitted well. Overlook Machine Chain stitch machine: • • • • • No of needle --- one or more needle No of thread – one or more thread Stitches per minute ( SPM) – ( 1800-6000) Various types of feed mechanism is adjusted to the m/c use in knitted wear and jeans Chain stitch machine Button hole machine: Button hole m/c • Stitch group lock on chain stitch • Arrangement of button hale size being smaller larger • Button hole can be mode to cut the hole before or after • sewing a button hole • Button hole looks cleans • No arrangement changing the button hole position Hoffman press: Hoffman Press has been in business since 1908. We are a fourth-generation company, located in New Haven, CT, that prints pressure sensitive labels, tags, and foil. We print up to 8 colors and up to 20x19 inches wide, with all different substrates, papers, films, and foils along with thermal transfer and direct thermal labels. Hoffman press m/c We pride ourselves on our service and we give the customer exactly what they want. We give our customers the proper knowledge, experience, and attention with every quote to ensure that you are getting the best quality, service, and lowest cost possible. Whether your job is large or small, we will get the best service, quality, and low cost that we deserve. Hoffman Press also offers a full service, in house art department. Our art department offers design, layout, and typesetting. We can design a label from just an idea in your head or take our existing artwork and turn it into a masterpiece. Whatever your needs are, we can handle it. Please feel free to inquire about any information above. We also carry a full line of label applicators, thermal transfer and direct thermal printers as well as thermal transfer ribbons. Steam iron: There are many irons on the market, but when it comes to deciding whether you need a steam iron or a steam generator, and how much steam output to go for, there are three main things to review: the size of your average ironing load, the types of fabrics and how often you use the iron. Other factors include the length of the cable and anti-scale systems if you live in a hard water area. We recommend trying and getting one with a ceramic sole plate if possible they give the smoothest gliding. Steam iron Clean Tools and Materials: Having clean tools in proper working condition will be important to completing a project on time. Having to buy new tools can be expensive but with the proper care you can save your money as you will only need to buy them once. Regularly cleaning your tools will go a long way in keeping them in working condition which will keep you in working condition. Clean Tools and Materials Method of Pressing Operation: 1. All shirt collars and cuffs are finished. 2. The operator loads the body form. 3. The Hoffman Automated. The expandable Transport Conveyor System is used for buttoning, collar striping and preparation for folding. After the preparation, the conveyor moves the shirts to the folding stations where they are either folded, or for GOH a hanger is inserted, after which the garment then goes to a central bagging area. Average Family: For an average family's weekly ironing needs, consider a more heavy duty steam iron with greater constant steam. Look for one with 2400 watts or more - they heat up and stay hot, quicker. If you have a lot of thicker or crease prone fabrics then you may want to consider a steam generator. Power Users: Does our ironing pile never seem to go down, iron working overtime. We would certainly benefit from the extra muscle of a steam generator. Their large water tanks can produce huge amounts of high pressure steam for a couple of hours before a top-up is needed. We won't want to go back to using a regular steam iron ever again! Task-1.2 Adjust and maintain industrial equipment to ensure an acceptable quality of finish Acceptable quality of finish garments: In the apparel business, before accepting the finished goods from the manufacturer buyer do inspection of goods. As whole lot of goods inspection is not viable, also not advisable, inspection is done on sampling basis. In inspection how much percentage of defective pieces will be accepted depends on acceptable quality level. In the following table a sampling plan is given for final shipment inspection. The AQL level varies process to process, product to product and even buyer to buyer. The AQL (Acceptable Quality Level) is the maximum per cent defective that for the purpose of sampling inspection can be considered satisfactory as a process average. Table: Sampling plan for shipment inspection: Lot or Batch Sample size size Code Letter 2–8 A 9 – 15 B 15 – 25 C 26 – 50 D 51-90 E 91-150 F 151-280 G 251-500 H 501-1200 J 1201-3200 K 3201-10000 L Sample Size Acceptable Quality level 2.5 4.0 Ac Re Ac 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 3 5 7 10 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 6 8 11 0 0 0 1 1 2 3 5 7 10 14 6.5 Ac 0 0 0 1 2 3 5 7 10 14 21 Re 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 6 8 11 15 Re 1 1 1 2 3 4 6 8 11 15 22 2 3 5 8 13 20 32 50 80 125 200 10001-35000 M 315 14 15 21 22 21 22 Source: ANSI/ASQ Z 1.4 The Sampling procedures and table for inspection by attributes Lot or Batch size: This means total how many pieces inspector is going to check or inspect. If we have been offered a shipment of 600 pieces order quantity, the batch size of this shipment will fall under 501 to 1200 pieces. Sample size Code letter: This code is indicative a range of batch size. (Code 'G' means our lot size range is from 151 pieces to 280 pieces. Sample size: It means that how many pieces will be picked up for inspection from the total offered pieces (Batch). Ac (Accepted): The number in this column denotes that if the inspector finds up to that much defective pieces the shipment will be accepted by buyer. Re (Rejected): On the other hand number in this column denotes that if the inspector finds that much defective pieces or more than the listed number, the shipment will be rejected (or asked to the manufacturer for 100% inspection and re-offer for final inspection) by buyer. Example: Suppose we have been offered a shipment of 1000 pieces for inspection. Select the range from table, it is 501-1200. Now from table we have to select number of sample you are going to actually inspect. According the above table you will select 80 pieces out of 1000 pieces. Now assume that you are inspecting at 2.5 AQL. So, after inspecting all 80 pieces if you find 5 or less than 5 defective pieces will accept the shipment. And if we find 6 or more than 6 defective pieces in 80 samples we will reject that shipment. Plan of the overall function of quality control: • The cost of quality. • • Functions of Quality Assurance. Commercial advantages effective control systems. form • • Economic assurance. aspects of quality The role of quality control. Quality reporting: Quality reporting details the definition of the quality reporting process from the Functional Area Lead standpoint, including reporting template. Process detailed within this section will be congruent with the process supported by the nausea seaport Communication Plan. Seam: In sewing, a seam is the join where two or more layers of fabric, leather, or other materials are held together with stitches. Prior to the invention of the sewing machine, all sewing was done by hand. Seams in modern mass-produced household textiles, sporting goods, and ready-to-wear clothing are sewn by computerized machines, while home shoemaking, dressmaking, quilting, crafts, haute couture and tailoring may use a combination of hand and machine sewing. In clothing construction, seams are classified by their type plain, lapped, abutted, or French seams and position in the finished garment center back seam, inseam, side seam. Seams are finished with a variety of techniques to prevent raveling of raw fabric edges and to neaten the inside of garments. Types: All basics seams used in clothing construction are variants on four basic types of seams: • • • • Plain seams French seams Flat or abutted seams Lapped seams A plain seam is the most common sort of machine-sewn seam. It joins two pieces of fabric together face-to-face by sewing through both pieces, leaving a seam allowance with raw edges inside the work. The seam allowance usually requires some sort of seam finish to prevent raveling. Either piping or cording may be inserted into a plain seam. In a lapped seam, the two layers overlap with the wrong side of the top layer laid against the right side of the lower layer. Lapped seams are typically used for bulky materials that do not ravel, such as leather and felt. Plain seam. seam Sewing: • • • • French seam • • • • • Ancient or Old German flat Fabric tube turning Facing Floating canvas Gather Godet Basting Cut Darning Embellishment • • • • • • • • • Gore Gusset Hem Heirloom sewing Lining Pleat Ruffle Shirring Style line • • • • • • • • • • • • Eyelet Grommet Interfacing Notions Passementerie Piping Rickrack Self-fabric Saguache Trim Twill tape Wrights Stitches: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Backstitch Bar tack Blanket Buttonhole Chain stitch Cross-stitch Embroidery stitch Hemstitch List of sewing stitches Lockstitch Overlock Pad stitch Running Sashiko Tack Topstitch Zigzag Closures: • Buckle • Button • • • • • • • • • Buttonhole Fly Frog Hook-and-eye Placket Shank Snap Velcro Zipper Materials: • • • • Bias Yarn / Thread Selvage Textiles / Fabrics Notions and trims: • Bias tape • Elastomeric Tools: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Mercer / Mercury Sewing occupations Tailor Bobbin Dress form Needle threader Pin Pincushion Pinking shears Scissors Seam ripper Sewing needle Stitching awl Tailor's ham Tape measure Thimble Tracing paper Tracing wheel • • Sewing machine manufacturers: • Barthelme Thimonnier • Bernina • • • • • • • • • • • Brother Industries Elias Howe Janome Marrow New Home Pfaff Seymour Singer Tape master Viking / Husqvarna White Trades and suppliers: • Cloth merchant • Draper • • Dressmaker Haberdasher Patterns: • Butte rick • Cloth kits • McCall's • Simplicity Openings and fastenings: Fasteners for clothing are both functional and decorative. Certain types of snap fasteners, for example, feature a decorative cap that resembles a round button, yet requires no buttonhole. Toggle-fastenings offer an alternative to zippers that occasionally jam or break. Fasteners help reinforce a section of a garment and add structural integrity. Toggle fastenings are often made of wood, buffalo horn, metal or plastic. In contrast to the disc-shaped button, the toggle is usually long and narrow. The duffel coat features four toggle fastenings, sometimes known as "walrus teeth." The toggle fastenings insert through loops of rope or leather to help fasten the front of the coat. A person wearing gloves is able to fasten and unfasten these toggle fasteners. Collars and cuffs: A shirt has several components: A one-piece back, which is usually pleated, gathered, or eased into a section of fabric in the upper part of the back behind the neck and over the shoulders known as the yoke (either one-piece or seamed vertically in the middle); one-piece sleeves with plackets at the wrist, or else short-sleeved (cut off above the elbow), though this is not traditional; a band of fabric around each wrist known as a cuff; the collar, a strip around the neck, which is normally a turndown collar, with the strip folded down away from the neck, leaving two points at the front, the width of which is known as the spread; and finally two front panels which overlap slightly down the middle on the placket to fasten with buttons. Collars: Eyelet collars require a barbell-style collar bar to join the small stitched hole on each point. Tab collars are point collars with two strips of fabric extending from the middle of the collar and joined behind the tie. These lift the tie, giving an arc effect similar to a pinned collar. The tabs can be closed with a metal snap, button or stud. Club collars have rounded edges, and were very popular in the first few decades of the twentieth century. The varsity is a type of spread collar in which the points curve outward from the placket of the shirt. Shirts designed to take a detachable collar have a tunic collar, which is a low standing band of fabric around the neck, with a hole at the front and back for the collar studs. Contrast collar shirts are occasionally made, which are white collars on a colored or patterned shirt. These are worn for a variety of reasons, such as to offset certain complexions; Cuff: The main distinctions between cuffs are whether they require buttons or cufflinks to fasten, and whether they are folded back (double) or single. The main resulting types are therefore Barrel cuffs, the standard style fastened by one or two buttons according to taste; Bauble, or French, cuffs, which are more formal, and have an extra length of sleeve folded back and fastened with links; and Single cuffs, the most formal style, usually only worn with formal eveningwear, which are double cuffs without the fold. Seam finishes: Most machines these days come with the ability to sew zigzag stitching, and this is a great help for finishing seams. It is so much quicker than hand finishing that for most areas, it has taken over completely. The following are three ways of finishing seams. They are all used on flat seams. Task-1.3 Create and present a collection of samples that show the potential/limitations of the application of a range of manufacturing equipment and techniques At first I went to sikder apparel industry Ltd and draw out the measurement for making Tshirt. Using that measurement, draw a pattern piece for the sleeve. Both arms will have an identical sleeve pattern, so it is only necessary to create one piece and copy it for the other sleeve. Once the front and back are completed, add 1/4 inch to the edges of the pattern to allot for sewing salvage Trace the pattern with fabric chalk onto a flat piece of inexpensive fabric for sampling. Cut out the front, back and sleeve pieces of the pattern. Sew the pieces together to create a sample of the pattern. Then I make a finished garment of T-shirt. T-shirt process of garment making is given below: Measurement of T-shirt pattern: • • • • • • • • Length – 8.3/4 ins Chest - 7.3/8 ins Across shoulder- 6.1/4 ins Back neck with- 3.3/4 ins Arm hole -3.3/8 ins Front neck droop- ½ ins Sleeve length – 3 ins Sleeve opening/all round -5 ins • Neck rip - ½”(height) ins Use of machine: • • • • • • Shoulder join ------- Over-lock m/c. Rip tack -------------- Plain m/c. Sleeve ham ---------- Flat lock m/c. Sleeve join ---------- Over-lock m/c. Side join ------------- Over-lock m/c. Level attach --------- Plain m/c e. A sample Garment of T-shirt & pattern Task-1.4 Contribute to a safe working environment: Safe working environment: Provide a safe work environment for all employees, free from any hazards and complying with all state and federal laws. Health and safety in the workplace is about preventing work-related injury and disease, and designing an environment that promotes well-being for everyone at work. Knowledge is the key ingredient in providing a safe work environment if everyone knows the correct procedures then accidents and injuries can be kept to a minimum. The following checklists are also available to help we provide a safe working environment. Health and safety: Occupational health and safety procedures must be implemented wherever the work is being conducted be that in an office, factory, construction site or home. We should develop and have in place an occupational health and safety policy to meet the following standards: • Ensure that the way work is done is safe and does not affect employees’ health • Ensure that tools, equipment and machinery are safe and are kept safe • Ensure that ways of storing, transporting or working with dangerous substances is safe and does not damage employees’ health Provide employees with the information, instruction and training they need to do their job safely and without damaging their health Consult with employees about health and safety in the workplace Monitor the work place regularly and keep a record of what is found during the checks. • • • Safety Guidelines Work: Every workplace has job-specific safety issues, from working with potentially dangerous equipment on construction sites to ergonomic considerations in an office. OSHA requires employers to provide. Hydraulic Press Safety: Operators running a hydraulic press are responsible for correctly positioning, feeding and removing materials from the machine. Due to the high amount of operator involvement necessary to run. Work Safety Policy: Hot work is an operation that includes welding, flame cutting or other fire-producing work, according to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Work safety policy guidelines. Work Platform Safety Guidelines: There are different types of aerial work platforms, such as elevating work platforms, scaffolds, scissor lifts, hotel lifts and cherry pickers. They provide temporary work surfaces and access. Heavy Lifting Safety: Heavy lifting safety is an essential, yet often overlooked, aspect of workplace safety training. It is important to recognize the proper technique for lifting heavy objects to avoid injury. Safety for kids: Kids like to mimic what their parents do. Boys and girls often want to help with household repairs or building projects. While it is good to teach children how these things are done, caution should. Safety Bingo Work: Safety bingo is a motivational game that increases safety awareness in the workplace. The concept is similar to traditional bingo. Each employee receives a bingo card at the beginning of the game. Safety rules of sewing machine: • • • • • • Never run with scissors because you can fall on them and hurt yourself and others. Never run with a needle or pin otherwise you'll prick yourself or others Always put anything you've used back to where you found it Keep your fingers well away from the needle on the sewing machine Never put a needle on a chair otherwise someone or you will sit on it and end up having a sore bum. Always remember to keep your hair tied up so when you use a sewing machine our hair won't go in your face and end up being cut off by the needle on the sewing machine. Safety work Safety of Benefits: Industrial safety clothing offers several benefits. However, the choice of type, style or material will depend on the specific nature of a company's business and the particular hazards that its employees are likely to be exposed to. For example, fire, acids and chemicals are such hazards that appropriate industrial safety clothing can provide protection against. When combined with safety gloves, helmets, boots, masks and eyewear, industrial safety clothing will offer complete body protection against most hazards. Task-2 Construct an accurate calico toile for an identified garment Task-2.1 Cut appropriate pieces accurately following a lay plan: A lay plan is when we position pattern pieces onto fabric and then cut them out. We can have a piece of paper with pattern pieces on then cut them out onto fabric and sew them together. Cutting: The definition of cutting is very complex. in germens industries fabric is cut from lay and spreading with accuracy and properly which is termed as fabric cutting. Marker outline is used to cut the fabric .fabric cutting is very important as if something is cut in wrong way, cannot be rectified. Methods of fabric cutting: 1. Manual 2. Hand operated scissor 3. Manually operated power knife. a. Straight knife b. Band knife c. Round knife Computerized: 1. Knife 2. Laser 3. Water knife 4. Plasma torch Features of straight knife • • • • • Possible to cut pattern piece directly from the fabric lays Could be used to cut for higher depth of fabric High cutting sped Blade height 10 to 33 cm Ballade stroke 2.5 cm to 4.5cm d. Die cutting e. Notcher f. Drill • Special attachment such as sew edge or serrated edge can be provided for heavy fabric such as canvas or denim. Advantages of straight knife • • • • • • Comparatively cheap and can be transferred easily from one place to another. Higher lay of height can be cut very easily Round corners can be cut more e precisely then even round knife. Production speed is very good as up to 10 heights can be cut at a time. Garment compo9nents can be directly separated from fabric lays. Fabric can be cut from any angle. Disadvantages of straight knife • • • Sometimes deflection may occur due to the weighty of the motor. Knife defection is high is risk, when lay height s too high . Sometimes accident may happen. Features of Round knife The elements of a round knife are: • Base plate. • Electric motor • • • • • Blade diameter varies form 6 – 20cm. The circular knife is driven by 1000 – 3500rpm. Blade edge. Wave edge. Circular edge. Advantages of Round knife: • • • • • Suitable for single ply cutting as well as multi – layer Suitable for small scale cutting. Suitable for gentle curve cutting. Easy to operate. Useful of cutting layer parts of a garments. Disadvantages of Round knife: • • • • • • Not suitable for cutting very curved lens in higher number of lays as the blade does not straight all the piles simultaneously at the same point. Round knife is used only for straight lines and lower number of piles. Not suitable for higher production. Possibility of accident is high. Difficult of cut small component. Needs skilled operator. Seam allowance: Seam allowance refers to the area between the stitching and raw, cut edge of the fabric. The most common seam allowances are 1/4", 1/2" and 5/8". Always check your pattern directions and use the seam allowance called for in the directions. A seam joins more than one pieces of fabric. All layers of fabric joined by a seam must have the same seam allowance. Make sure that the raw edges line up evenly to create an equal seam allowances on all of the pieces being joined. Balancing the Armhole: Measure the front & back armhole. The front armhole should measure 1/2 inch shorter than the back armhole. Correcting front & back armhole: To make the armhole longer removing 1/4 inch at the middle of the armhole, shaping back to its original corners at the top and bottom. To make the armhole shorter add 1/4 inch at the mid/armhole area, and again, reshape to its original corners at the top & bottom. If the arm hole does not balance by removing or adding 1/4 inch an error was made on the dress form or when transferring your markings. Checklist: • 1/2 inch ease at side seam/armhole • 1/8 inch ease across front chest area without pulling • 1/4 inch ease across back shoulder blade level • Draped side seams align with dress form side seam. • Side seam draped together without pulling, twisting or distorting. Notching: Once we have both pattern pieces cut out, its time to notch. We'll need the CF/neck & waist, CB/neck & waist, Shoulder & Waist darts & armhole. For the Front & Back Armhole Notch measure 3 inches away from SS. Note that the back armhole gets two notches. So measure 1/2 inch from the 3 inch point & notch. Marking our patterns: First open our patterns so they are mirrored. The front bodice shouldn't be a problem, but the back bodice since they are two separate pieces, we should have a right and left back bodice. 1. Start by Marking the Front Bodice, grain line, Pattern Piece Name, Size & Cut # (circle the cut number). 2. For the Back Bodice mark the, grain line, Pattern Piece Name, Size & Cut # (circle the cut number). 3. Like I said in this episode, I'm going to make a separate tutorial explaining all you need to know about marking your patterns. Buying Supplies Full automatic Advantages • Marching can be set before the desired amount of piles spreading. • After completing spreading will stop automatically and give a signal. • It is automatically spliced and stray new fabric spreading where the last fabric roll has finished. • Less time needed for fabric spreading. • Less labor cost. Disadvantages • Very expensive • • so that capital investment is high Skillful operator is needed to operate the machine. Requirements of fabric spreading: 1. Alignment of fabric ply. 2. Correct ply tension. 3. Fabre must be fault. 4. Elimination of fabric flaws. 5. Correct ply direction and lay stability . 6. Eliminations f static electricity. 7. Easy separation of the cut lay into bundles . 8. Avoidance of fusion of plies during cutting. 9. Avoidance of distortion is spread. 10. Matching checks and stripes. Task-2.2 Identify a suitable sequence of processes to construct a toile from working design: Any filament, fiber, or yarn that can be made into fabric or cloth, and the resulting material itself. The word originally referred only to woven fabrics but now includes knitted, bonded, felted, and tufted fabrics as well. The basic raw materials used in textile production are fibers, either obtained from natural sources or produced from chemical substances. Textiles are used for wearing apparel, household linens and bedding, upholstery, draperies and curtains, wall coverings, rugs and carpets, and bookbindingâ€™s, in addition to being used widely in industry. Working design flowchart: Sketch / Design Pattern Laying Cutting Sewing Finishing Design / Sketch: In the garment manufacturing the first step is designing the sketch for the dresses that have to be prepared. For this purpose the designer first draw several rough sketches in the sketch book. The designer does not go for details at this moment but he rather let his creativity flow on the paper and he draws many sketches. Later these sketches are analyzed by a panel of designers. They finally select few out of them. These few sketches are rendered in detail separately or in the form of a single collection. The designer also draws working drawings along with the sketch. Working drawings are flat drawing of the sketch and it help pattern maker in understanding the patterns involved in the construction. Pattern Design: The pattern maker now develop first pattern for the designs in any one standard size. This is made by pattern drafting method and the purpose of making this pattern is to create the sample garment for test fit. Sample Making: The first patterns are sent to the sewing unit for assembling them into garment. This is usually stitched on calico or muslin which is an inferior quality of fabric and it reduces cost. This sample is constructed to analyze the pattern fit and design too. After the sample garment is stitched it is reviewed by a panel of designers, pattern makers and sewing specialists. If any changes have to be made they are made at this time. Marker Making: The measuring department determines the fabric yardage needed for each style and size of garment. Computer software helps the technicians create the optimum fabric layout to suggest so fabric can be used efficiently. Markers, made in accordance to the patterns are attached to the fabric with the help of adhesive stripping or staples. Markers are laid in such a way so that minimum possible fabric gets wasted during cutting operation. After marking the garment manufacturer will get the idea of how much fabric he has to order in advance for the construction of garments. Therefore careful execution is important in this step. Cutting: The fabric is then cut with the help of cloth cutting machines suitable for the type of the cloth. These can be band cutters having similar work method like that of band saws; cutters having rotary blades; machines having reciprocal blades which saw up and down; die clickers similar to die or punch press; or computerized machines that use either blades or laser beams to cut the fabric in desired shapes. Sorting/Bundling: The sorter sorts the patterns according to size and design and makes bundles of them. This step requires much precision because making bundles of mismatched patterns can create severe problems. On each bundle there are specifications of the style size and the marker too is attached with it. Sewing/Assembling: The sorted bundles of fabrics are now ready to be stitched. Large garment manufacturers have their own sewing units other use to give the fabrics on contract to other contractors. Stitching in-house is preferable because one can maintain quality control during the processing. On the other hand if contractors are hired keeping eye on quality is difficult unless the contactor is one who precisely controls the process. Inspection: Open seams, wrong stitching techniques, non- matching threads, and missing stitches, improper creasing of the garment, erroneous thread tension and raw edges are some of the sewing defects which can affect the garment quality adversely. During processing the quality control section needs to check each prepared article against these defects. Pressing/ Finishing: The next operations are those of finishing and/or decorating. Molding may be done to change the finished surface of the garment by applying pressure, heat, moisture, or certain other combination. Pressing, pleating and creasing are the basic molding processes. Creasing is mostly done before other finishing processes like that of stitching a cuff. Creasing is also done before decorating the garment with something like a pocket, embroidered emblems etc. Final Inspection: For the textile and apparel industry, product quality is calculated in terms of quality and standard of fibers, yarns, fabric construction, color fastness, designs and the final finished garments. Quality control in terms of garment manufacturing, pre-sales and posts sales service, delivery, pricing, etc are essential for any garment manufacturer, trader or exporter. Certain quality related problems, often seen in garment manufacturing like sewing, color, sizing, or garment defects should never be over looked. Sewing defects: Open seams, wrong stitching techniques, non- matching threads, and missing stitches, improper creasing of the garment, erroneous thread tension and raw edges are some of the sewing defects which can affect the garment quality adversely. Packing: The finished garments are finally sorted on the basis of design and size and packed to send for distribution to the retail outlets. Production methods: Weaving is a textile production method which involves interlacing a set of longer threads (called the warp) with a set of crossing threads (called the weft). This is done on a frame or machine known as a loom, of which there are a number of types. Some weaving is still done by hand, but the vast majority is mechanized. • Knitting and crocheting involve interlacing loops of yarn, which are formed either on a knitting needle or on a crochet hook, together in a line. The two processes are different in that knitting has several active loops at one time, on the knitting needle waiting to interlock with another loop, while crocheting never has more than one active loop on the needle. Spread Tow is a production method where the yarn is spread into thin tapes, and then the tapes are woven as warp and weft. This method is mostly used for composite materials; Spread Tow Fabrics can be made in carbon, alamode, etc. Braiding or plaiting involves twisting threads together into cloth. Knotting involves tying threads together and is used in making macrame. Lace is made by interlocking threads together independently, using a backing and any of the methods described above, to create a fine fabric with open holes in the work. Lace can be made by either hand or machine. Carpets, rugs, velvet, velour, and velveteen are made by interlacing a secondary yarn through woven cloth, creating a tufted layer known as a nap or pile. Felting involves pressing a mat of fibers together, and working them together until they become tangled. A liquid, such as soapy water, is usually added to lubricate the fibres, and to open up the microscopic scales on strands of wool. Nonwoven textiles are manufactured by the bonding of fibres to make fabric. Bonding may be thermal or mechanical, or adhesives can be used. • • • • • • Task-2.3 Construct a toile: Sample of garments calico toil: A composting toilet is a dry toilet that using a predominantly aerobic processing system that treats excreta, typically with no water or small volumes of flush water, via composting or managed aerobic decomposition. Composting toilets may be used as an alternative to flush toilets in situations where there is no suitable water supply or waste treatment facility available or to capture nutrients in human excreta as humanize. They are in used in many of the roadside facilities in Sweden, in National Parks both in the United States and the United Kingdom. The human excrement is normally mixed with sawdust, coconut coir, peat moss to support aerobic processing, absorb liquids, and to reduce the odor. The decomposition process is generally faster than the anaerobic decomposition using in wet sewage treatment systems such as septic tanks. A finished garment from Calico Toile: Measurement of toile garments : • • • • • • • • • Length – 8.3/4 ins Chest - 7.3/8 ins Across shoulder- 6.1/4 ins Back neck with- 3.3/4 ins Arm hole -3.3/8 ins Front neck droop- ½ ins Sleeve length – 3 ins Sleeve opening/all round -5 ins Neck rip - ½”(height) ins • Pocket length – 2.3/2 ins Use of machine: • • • • • • • Shoulder join ----- Over-lock m/c. Rip tack ----------- Plain m/c. Sleeve ham -------- Flat lock m/c. Sleeve join -------- Over-lock m/c. Side join ---------- Over-lock m/c. Level attach ----- Plain m/c. Pocket join ------ Plain m/c. Task-3 Produce a well-finished garment accurately and effectively Task-3.1 Draw up a plan based on a logical breakdown of manufacturing sequences using appropriate equipment and skills to achieve a quality finish Design / scatch Pattern design Sample making Production pattern Grading Marker making/ lay planning Fabric spreading Cutting Shorting/ bundling Sewing / assembling Final pressing / finishing Final inspection Packing Cartooning Send to buyer Discussion about the garments manufactures sequence: Design / Sketch: It is given by buyers to manufacture. Design / Sketch of the garments could be done manually or with the help of computer. Basic block: Without any allowance basic block of the garments could be done manually or with the help of computer. Pattern design: Hard paper copy of teach component of the garment of export dimension of each component is called pattern. The pattern also includes seam allowance, trimming allowance, darts and pleats, each allowance any special design etc. pattern design also be done manually or with the help of computer. Sample making: After getting all sample sent to the buyers for approval to rectify the faults. Sample making could also be done manually. Production pattern: The pattern of the approved sample garments are used for making production pattern. This method is used by manually or computerized. Grading: It is done according to different size. It is done by manually or computerized. Marker making: All the pattern pieces for all the required sizes are arranged on the paper. Marker making could also be done manually. Fabric Spreading: Fabric is spreading in a lay from. It is used by manually or computerized. Cutting: Normally straight knife cutting machine is used to cut out the garments components as per exact dimension of each pattern in starch from. Cutting of the garments could be done manually or computer. Sorting / Bundling: After cutting the entire fabric lay all the garments components in stack is sorted out as per size and color. It is use manually. Sewing: It is most important department / section of a garments manufacture industry. It is used manually. Costing: The garments industry dose costing by four points. 1) Fabric required 2) Making charge Ironing & finishing: Garments are treated by steam. It is use manually. Final inspection: Should meet to specs given by buyer. It is use manually. Packing: Poly is packing by manually. Cartooning: After packing the garments used to a hard paper box for export. It is use manually. Send to buyer: Every think is ok than it is send to buyer. It is done by manually. 3) Trimmings 4) Profits. Task-3.2 Produce a well-finished garment accurately and effectively: Measurement of Polo-shirt: • • • • • • • • • Length – 8.3/4 ins Chest - 7.3/8 ins Across shoulder- 6.1/4 ins Back neck with- 3.3/4 ins Arm hole -3.3/8 ins Front neck droop- ½ ins Sleeve length – 3 ins Sleeve opening/all round -5 ins Neck rip - ½”(height) ins • Collar height – 1.3/5 ins Use of machine: • • • • • • • Shoulder join ----- Over-lock m/c. Rip tack ------------ Plain m/c. Sleeve ham -------- Flat lock m/c. Sleeve join -------- Over-lock m/c. Side join ----------- Over-lock m/c. Level attach ------ Plain m/c. Collar join -------- plain m/c A finished garment Task-4 Evaluate use of industrial equipment and the finished garment. Task-4.1 Evaluate how well industrial equipment is used to construct a toile and achieve a quality finish to the garment Quality finish to the garment: Especially for the businesses engaged in export, business has to sustain a high level of quality to ensure better business globally. For every industry or business, to get increased sales and better name amongst consumers and fellow companies it is important to maintain a level of quality. Generally quality control standards for export are set strictly, as this business is also holds the prestige of the country, whose company is doing the export. Export houses earn foreign exchange for the country, so it becomes mandatory to have good quality control of their products. In the garment industry, quality control is practiced right from the initial stage of sourcing raw materials to the stage of final finished garment. For textile and apparel industry, product quality is calculated in terms of quality and standard of fibers, yarns, fabric construction, color fastness, surface designs and the final finished garment products. However, quality expectations for export are related to the type of customer segments and the retail outlets. There are a number of factors on which quality fitness of garment industry is based such as performance, reliability, durability, visual and perceived quality of the garment. Quality needs to be defined in terms of a particular frame work of cost. The national regulatory quality certification and international quality programmers like ISO 9000 series lay down the broad quality parameters based on which companies maintain the export quality in the garment and apparel industry. Here some of main fabric properties that are taken into consideration for garment manufacturing for export basis: • • • • Overall look of the garment. Right formation of the garment. Feel and fall of the garment. Physical properties. • • • Color fastness of the garment. Finishing properties Presentation of the final produced garment. Sourcing of Fabrics: There are certain problems that could be faced by garment manufacturers when sourcing for certain fabrics, so precautions should be taken for it beforehand to minimize the problems. The garment exporters source cotton fabrics mainly from handloom sectors, power looms and mills. Each of these sectors presents their own unique set of problems to the garment exporters. Sourcing cotton from handloom sectors might present some set of problems like colour variation, missing ends and picks, irregular weaves and unreliable supplies. However, the handloom sector is significant source of heavier cotton. Common problems faced in power loom cotton sourcing are broken ends and reed marks, thick and thin places, difference in width and massive variation in costing. The major problem in mill-made fabric sourcing is to meet huge demands from the mills. Fabrics have to be ordered well in advance in mills and the long time taken for producing the fabric is a matter of concern for garment exporters. Mills generally hesitate to take small orders which pose a problem for small scale exporters. It is not that sourcing problem which only confined to cotton fabrics, but also to other fabrics as well. In silk garment industry there are some sorts of problems faced by silk garment exporters. Some of the problems that could be faced by silk garment exporters are as follows: • • Shortage of imported silk yarns in the quantities required, as a result delivery is delayed. Silk material is very vulnerable to stains during manufacturing process as well as stocking, staining results in rejection so a lot of care has to taken during these procedures. Roll length of the silk yarn is often insufficient. Color fastness of dyed silk material is sometimes not satisfactory. There are also chances of warp breakage. • • • Basic Thumb Rules for Garment Exporters: For a garment exporter there are many strategies and rules that are required to be followed to achieve good business. The fabric quality, product quality, delivery, price, packaging and presentation are some of the many aspects that need to be taken care of in garment export business. Some rules that are advisable for garment exporters are listed below: • • • • • • • • • • • Quality has to be taken care by the exporter, excuses are not entertained in international market for negligence for low quality garments, new or existing exporters for both it is mandatory to use design, technology and quality as major up gradation tools. Apart from superior quality of the garment, its pricing, packaging, delivery, etc has to be also taken care of. The garment shown in the catalogue should match with the final garment delivered. It is important to perform according to the promises given to the buyer, or else it creates very bad impression and results in loss of business and reputation. In international market, quality reassurance is required at every point. Proper documentation and high standard labels on the garment are also important aspects as these things also create good impression. Timely delivery of garments is as important as its quality. If our competitor has the better quality of garment in same pricing, it is better to also enhance our garment quality. Before entering into international market, garment exporters have to carefully frame out the quality standards, or else if anything goes wrong it could harm the organization. And after that strictly follow it. The garment quality should match the samples shown during taking the orders. The garment exporters should know to negotiate a premium price after quality assurance is done. Quality is a multi-dimensional aspect. There are many aspects of quality based on which the garment exporters are supposed to work. • • • • • • Quality of the production. Quality of the design of the garment. Purchasing functions' quality should also be maintained. Quality of final inspection should be superior. Quality of the sales has to be also maintained. Quality of marketing of the final product is also important as the quality of the garment itself. There are certain quality related problems in garment manufacturing that should not be overlooked: Sewing defects:Like open seams, wrong stitching techniques used, same colour garment, but usage of different colour threads on the garment, miss out of stitches in between, creasing of the garment, erroneous thread tension and raw edges are some sewing defects that could occur so should be taken care. Colour effects: Colour defects that could occur are - difference of the colour of final produced garment to the sample shown, accessories used are of wrong colour combination and mismatching of dye amongst the pieces. Sizing defects - Wrong gradation of sizes, difference in measurement of a garment part from other, for example- sleeves of 'XL' size but body of 'L' size. Such defects do not occur has to be seen too. Garment defects: During manufacturing process defects could occur like - faulty zippers, irregular hemming, loose buttons, raw edges, improper button holes, uneven parts, inappropriate trimming, and difference in fabric colours. Task-4.2 Evaluate the finished garment Evaluate: Good Quality increases the value of a product or service, establishes brand name, and builds up good reputation for the garment exporter, which in turn results into consumer satisfaction, high sales and foreign exchange for the country. Quality is ultimately a question of customer satisfaction. The perceived quality of a garment is the result of a number of aspects, which together help achieve the desired level of satisfaction for the customer. Therefore, quality control in terms of garment, pre-sales service, posts sales service, delivery, pricing etc is essentials for any garment exporter. We have learned: • • • • • • • We are able to produce effective pattern. We have learned clothing manufacturing and factory. We have learned technology and equipment for pattern and garments manufacturing. We have learn some important terms like Purchase Order, Invoice , Letter of credit that will be helpful for our future life and in other track of supply and procurement. We know how to find out the cost of a finished garments or a product. We know about various types of garments manufacturing process and have a good idea of the total process. In the manufacturing process different types of process are used in a particular objective. We have learned about different types of process and found that every process is necessary in a particular situation. We will be able to select a system that is suitable in the specific situation. We might do: • • • We are now conscious about pattern construction process. We observe few manufacturing process and make a report on it. So we might observe many garments manufacturing process. Purchasing and costing system is a great term and we just know the simple method of purchasing and costing so we might describe it elaborately. We work doubly hard to guarantee our men’s wrinkle-free shirts are the softest and most comfortable we’ve ever worn. First, we treat the pure cotton fabric, then we treat the finished garment. Not only do our shirts come out of the dryer wrinkle free, they stay that way all day. Plus, our extra step makes them the softest wrinkle-free cotton shirts you’ll find. Cotton. Washable Imported. Men’s shirt sizes: M(38-40), L(42-44), XL(46-48), XXL(50-52). Production management is an important business activity undertaken by manufacturing firms. Management must plan how to finance the project, the manufacturing method that will be used for producing the product and how to accurately apply product costs. Several techniques can be used by manufacturers based on their product and production process. The first stage of production management is estimating future cash inflows against present cash outflows. Using a basic time value of money formula, management will estimate the amount of cash a product or service will produce in future years and discount it back to today's cash value. References: Web. www.google.com www.acadjournal.com www.techexchange.com www.ciltuk.org.uk www.wikipedia.org www.e How.org www.total-logistics.co.uk Book 1. Production Techniques By- Md. Moshiour Rahman 2. Textile fibre By- Khaled 3. Garments Technology By- Md. Moshiour Rahman 4. Production Planning Technique By- Gordon Cook Practical campus By- Sikder Textile (Naraingong). Class lecture By- Saiful Islam Tanvir sir Library Work By- SCTFT Library.