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Understanding the relationship between terrorists and society Dr. Risa Brooks knows what it’s like to be mistaken for and sometimes focuses on anthropological elements, such as a U.S. government operative. It’s an occupational hazard, of graffiti markings and attendance at militants’ funerals. That sorts. That’s because the assistant professor of political science influences her assumptions about how tolerant a society is asks a lot of questions about terrorists and their role in society. for a group’s violence, but it’s not an exact science. “People assume you’re a CIA operative. Or there’s always “It’s quite a different process than going in with a survey that possibility,” she says. “Maybe it’s paranoia, but there’s a and hiring a consulting firm,” she says. “It’s an informal, sense of wondering about who you are.” developing process, but it’s fun, too.” Brooks, who specializes in the Middle East, focuses her research on societal-militant group relations, specifically relationships between militant-terrorist groups and the societies in which they live or with which they identify. “How are these kinds of groups that we often think of “How are these kinds of groups that we often think of as extremely violent and extremely vile responding to cues from society?” as extremely violent and extremely vile responding to cues from society?” she asks. “When do they care? Do some groups care more than others?” Some do, especially ethnonationalist ones, like a few And a bit anxiety-inducing. There’s the time she met privately with a former Egyptian military officer to discuss the country’s wars with Israel during the 1960s and ’70s. Or Palestinian nationalist groups and the Provisional Irish when she was followed after she deviated from the usual Republican Army. “They see themselves as representing a tourist sites to visit a military museum in Egypt. constituency,” says Brooks, who authored Shaping Strategy: “Those moments were like, ‘Am I getting myself in a little The Civil-Military Politics of Strategic Assessment and co- bit of trouble here? This is a little too much like a spy novel,’” edited Creating Military Power: The Sources of Military she says. Effectiveness. On the other hand, as a foreign-led terrorist group, al Qaeda in Iraq does not. Because Brooks can’t easily interview heads of these militant Brooks’ current research project, “Terrorist behavior as a function of societal tolerance for violence,” is funded by the Department of Homeland Security through a grant supported groups, she studies the features of their organizations and by the University of Maryland-based National Consortium for violent activities. Her work also has interdisciplinary aspects the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. — BDJ A 2-minute lifesaver Who knew taking 2 minutes to complete a form could help save your life? More than 8,000 Americans die from oral cancer each year — roughly one person every hour. But Dr. Amir Seifi in the Marquette School of Dentistry is working on an oral cancer risk assessment form that has the potential to catch this deadly disease at early stages and reduce the number of fatalities. “Finding a way of assessing the risk in our patients and catching the disease early with good diagnostic tools is our goal,” says Seifi, an assistant professor of oral medicine and diagnosis. The assessment form asks patients about their medical history, ethnicity, age and personal habits. Dentists routinely do comprehensive soft tissue exams, but Seifi says his form would help make the risk assessment a standardized practice — helping dentists educate their patients on avoiding risk factors and determine how aggressively they should treat a patient based on his or her risk factors. “If I see a discoloration or ulceration and my patient is at high risk, I would biopsy it,” Seifi says. Early detection is critical. Caught early, oral cancer has an 80 to 90 percent survival rate, and patients can typically avoid surgery (which can involve removing part or all of certain head and neck structures, such as the tongue or soft palate). “When you know you’re adding to this person’s life quality and life strength, it feels amazing,” Seifi says. Starting this spring, patients at the campus clinic will be asked to complete the new form. Seifi will use the data collected to compare the diagnoses and treatments received by high-risk patients against those with low risk factors to determine the form’s effectiveness. — AB Marquette University 21

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