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Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:   Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation Concerning  the  Relationship  of

Landscape to

Industry   in  Pittsburgh,  Pennsylvania

A  Study  by  Liam  Lowe as  the  initial  phase  of  his  Thesis  at Carnegie  Mellon  University School  of  Architecture   Class  of  2013

©  2012  by  Liam  Lowe Pittsburgh,  PA

Table  of  Contents

5

Acknowledgements

7

Introduction

9

Abstract

11

Topography  &  Natural  Resources

15

Industry  &  Infrastructure

19

Land  Manipulation  &  City  Steps

23

Maps  &  Methods

33

Inclines  of  Pittsburgh

37

Case  Studies:  Primary  Inclines  of  Pittsburgh

81

Conclusions

83

Looking  Forward

85

Bibliography

4 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Thanks  to  Mary-­‐Lou  Arscott  for  guiding  me  through  the  thesis  process. To  Martin  Aurand  for  inspiration  in  writing  and  access  to  resources. To  my  professors  who  have  provided  direction  on  my  academic  journey. To  my  parents  who  raised  me  to  be  inquisitive  and  perceptive. And  special  thanks  to  my  grandparents  for  making  sure  I  had  all  the   opportunities  I  needed.  This  project  is  dedicated  to  them.

Acknowledgements / 5

6 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Growing  up  in  the  country  taught  me  to  be  attentive  to  the  land  on  which   my  family  lived  while  simultaneously  making  me  envious  of  urbanites.   ‘˜‹‰–‘‹––•„—”‰Šˆ‘”…‘ŽŽ‡‰‡™ƒ•–Š‡ϐ‹”•–•–‡’‹‡š’Ž‘”‹‰› interest  in  cities,  but  my  time  here  has  continued  to  blur  the  distinction   between  urban  and  rural.  Its  varied  terrain  gives  Pittsburgh  a  unique   …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”ǡ†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–ˆ”‘™Šƒ–›‘—‹‰Š–ϐ‹†‹–Š‡‰”‡ƒ–…ƒ’‹–ƒŽ‹•–‰”‹† cities  and  also  from  the  traditional  cities  of  Europe.  The  land  has  much   to  do  with  Pittsburgh’s  historical  importance  as  coal  can  still  be  found  in   its  hills  and  transported  by  river  to  shipping  and  industrial  centers.  This   topographical  connection  is  manifest  in  a  wide  variety  of  ways,  creating   a  special  relationship  between  residents  and  their  land  as  well  as  a   —‹“—‡‡š’‡”‹‡…‡ˆ‘”–Š‡˜‹•‹–‘”Ǥ –Š‡’ƒ•–ǡ‹†—•–”›ƒ†‹ˆ”ƒ•–”—…–—”‡ structured  this  relationship  but  today’s  society  seems  to  have  lost   interest  in  understanding  its  landscape.  Our  apathy  towards  the  terrain   we  inhabit  is  related  to  many  contemporary  global  crises.  A  return  to   a  more  thorough  understanding  of  the  terrain  we  inhabit  is  one  way  to   shift  this  paradigm. In  our  modern  network  society  where  one’s  connection  to  the  landscape   is  more  tenuous  than  ever,  how  do  we  continue  to  relate  to  our  terrain?

Introduction / 7

8 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Pittsburgh’s  urban  form  has  been  shaped  over  time  by  topographic,   technological,  and  economic  forces.  The  valleys  and  rivers  of  the  city   were  the  original  impetus  for  settlement  and  access  to  natural  resources   brought  the  city  its  initial  economic  power.  Industrial  production   ‡š’ƒ†‡†‹––•„—”‰Šǯ•”‘Ž‡‹–‡…Š‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ†‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–ƒ†–Š‡ growth  of  the  nation,  helping  to  build  and  strengthen  the  infrastructural   network  that  is  the  backbone  of  the  country.  All  these  economic  forces   shaped  Pittsburgh  into  a  dense,  connected,  and  important  metropolis  in   the  national  (and  later,  international)  economy.  But  it  was  globalization   ƒ†–Š‡‡š’ƒ•‹‘‘ˆ‘—–•‘—”…‹‰–Šƒ–„”‘—‰Š–‡…‘‘‹…†‡…Ž‹‡–‘ the  region.  Around  the  middle  of  the  century,  industry  began  to  leave   the  city  and  by  the  1990s  Pittsburgh’s  population  was  cut  in  half.   The  contemporary  city  is  thus  structured  on  a  defunct  economic  and   development  model:  a  post-­industrial  landscape. Š‡–Š‡•‹•™‹ŽŽ‡š’Ž‘”‡–Š‡™ƒ›•‹™Š‹…Š‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ•‘…‹‡–›ƒ”‡† (or  was  marked  by)  its  projection  onto  the  landscape  and  how  these   topographical  and  industrial  artifacts  have  survived  or  changed  over   time.  Inclines  provide  a  series  of  cases  to  focus  this  study  due  to  their   relationship  to  topography,  transit,  industry,  and  society.  By  beginning  to   understand  the  history  of  industry  and  infrastructure  in  the  region,  one   can  speculate  about  possible  futures  and  new  ways  to  capitalize  on  the   city’s  unique  terrain.

Abstract / 9

(Engineer’s Society of Western Pennsylvania)

10 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Topography  &  Natural  Resources

Pittsburgh  is  commonly  referred  to  as  a  city  of  hills  but  it  is  more   accurately  described  as  a  city  of  valleys.  The  region  is  carved  from  the   Allegheny  Plateau,  a  subdivision  of  the  Appalachians  stretching  through   Western  New  York  and  Pennsylvania,  Ohio,  and  West  Virginia.  Erosion   by  the  Allegheny,  Monongahela,  and  Ohio  Rivers  and  their  tributaries   created  the  unique  geomorphic  conditions  of  the  Pittsburgh  area.  It  is   ‡šƒ…–Ž›–Š‡•‡…‘†‹–‹‘•–Šƒ–’”‘˜‹†‡†ƒ……‡••–‘–Š‡˜ƒŽ—ƒ„Ž‡ƒ–—”ƒŽ resources  of  Western  Pennsylvania  and  contributed  to  the  initial   economic  success  of  the  city. Š‡‘‹–ƒ––Š‡…‘ϐŽ—‡…‡‘ˆ–Š‡”‹˜‡”•™ƒ•ϐ‹”•–•‡––Ž‡††—‡–‘‹–• strategic  position  and  defensibility;  both  the  French  and  British  had   forts  here  to  control  access  to  points  west.  Pittsburgh  was  an  essential   •–‘’ˆ‘”•‡––Ž‡”•ƒ†–”ƒ†‡”•–ƒ‹‰ƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡‘ˆ–Š‡‡š’ƒ†‹‰ƒ–‹‘ and  became  a  “gateway  to  the  West.”  To  this  day,  the  rivers  provide  an   ‡ˆϐ‹…‹‡––”ƒ†‡”‘—–‡ƒ†…‘‡…––Š‡…‹–›–‘ƒƒ–‹‘ƒŽ‡…‘‘‹…‡–™‘”Ǥ The  city  itself  developed  a  unique  character  in  response  to  its  varied   –‡””ƒ‹Ǥ‹––•„—”‰Š‹•ƒ†‡—’‘ˆƒ›•ƒŽŽ‡‹‰Š„‘”Š‘‘†•†‡ϐ‹‡† largely  by  the  varied  topography  as  evidenced  by  their  names   ȋ“—‹””‡Ž ‹ŽŽǡƒ–Š‡” ‘ŽŽ‘™ǡ”‘› ‹ŽŽǡŠ‡Ž—ˆˆǡ‡–…Ȍ–Šƒ–”‡ϐŽ‡…– their  geomorphic  condition.  Travelling  throughout  the  city,  one  often   encounters  cliffs,  steep  hillsides,  retaining  walls,  bridges,  and  tunnels.   Š‡•‡…‘†‹–‹‘••‡–—’•‘‡ƒ‰‹ϐ‹…‡–˜‹•–ƒ•ƒ†’”‘˜‹†‡ˆ‘”ƒ †”ƒƒ–‹…—”„ƒ‡š’‡”‹‡…‡Ǥ But  it  was  the  discovery  of  coal  in  Mt.  Washington  (formerly  Coal  Hill)   that  would  bring  sweeping  change  and  rapid  economic  growth  to  the   region.  Pittsburgh  sits  on  the  edge  of  a  coal  bed  with  which  it  shares   its  name,  deposited  centuries  ago  by  an  inland  sea  and  one  of  the  most   ˜ƒŽ—ƒ„Ž‡ƒ–—”ƒŽ”‡•‘—”…‡†‡’‘•‹–•‡˜‡”‡š–”ƒ…–‡†ǤŠ‡…‘ƒŽ„‡†•–”‡–…Š‡• through  parts  of  Ohio  and  West  Virginia  and  remains  a  major  economic   driver  in  the  region.  This  resource  provided  a  necessary  source  of  energy   for  the  development  of  industry  on  the  East  Coast  and  in  Pittsburgh   in  particular.  The  iron  and  steel  industry  both  required  intense  heat   to  forge  products,  something  coal  and  coke  (a  form  of  distilled  coal   produced  by  ‘cooking’  it  in  large  ovens)  could  provide.

Topography  &  Natural  Resources / 11

As  the  value  of  these  resources  and  their  associated  industries  became   clear,  humans  began  to  take  greater  advantage  of  the  land  from  which   their  newfound  wealth  was  derived.  In  many  cases  the  landscape  was   ’Š›•‹…ƒŽŽ›ƒŽ–‡”‡†–‘…”‡ƒ–‡‘”‡‡ˆϐ‹…‹‡–ƒ†’”‘ϐ‹–ƒ„Ž‡‡š–”ƒ…–‹‘ǡ ’”‘†—…–‹‘ǡ‘”–”ƒ•’‘”–ƒ–‹‘•›•–‡•ǤŠ‹Ž‡‡š’Ž‘‹–‹˜‡ǡ”‡•‹†‡–•‘ˆ the  region  had  a  distinct  connection  to  their  landscape.  Engineers  were   the  heroes  of  the  day,  those  with  the  skill  and  mathematical  prowess  to   take  on  the  untamed  terrain.  Mines,  railroads,  blast  furnaces,  factories,   •Š‹’’‹‰›ƒ”†•ǡ„”‹†‰‡•ǡƒ†–—‡Ž•†‡ϐ‹‡–Š‡ƒ‡•–Š‡–‹…ƒ†Ž‡‰ƒ…›‘ˆ Pittsburgh’s  industrial  terrain. Despite  the  efforts  of  the  engineers  and  their  employers,  the  industrial   marks  on  the  landscape  have  faded  over  time.  Today,  the  terrain  of   ‹––•„—”‰Š‡š‡”–•‹–•‡Žˆ‘–Š‡Ž‹˜‡•‘ˆ”‡•‹†‡–•™‹–Š‹–••›•–‡‘ˆ ‡‹‰Š„‘”Š‘‘†•ǡ…ŠƒŽŽ‡‰‡•–‘–”ƒ•‹–ǡƒ†ƒ›‡…‘•›•–‡„‡‡ϐ‹–•Ǥ Some  of  the  city’s  greatest  assets  today  are  its  hillsides,  areas  where   †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–™ƒ•‹’‘••‹„Ž‡†—‡–‘–Š‡‡š’‡•‡‘ˆ–ƒ…Ž‹‰•—…Š•Ž‘’‡•Ǥ Š‡•‡ƒ”‡ƒ•’”‘˜‹†‡”‡ƒ†›ƒ……‡••–‘ƒ–—”‡‹ƒ—”„ƒƒ”‡ƒƒ††‡ϐ‹‡ a  unique  system  of  density  and  development.  With  some  investment   and  a  greater  understanding  of  these  conditions,  new  opportunities  for   interaction  with  the  city’s  terrain  could  be  found.

12 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

A coal miner takes a break.

(Shorpy.com)

Topography  &  Natural  Resources / 13

Steps linked neighborhoods to industry.

14 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

(Shorpy.com)

Industry  &  Infrastructure

The  combination  of  access  to  natural  resources  and  river  trade  routes   Ž‡†‹––•„—”‰Š–‘‡š’ƒ†‹–‘ƒ•‹‰‹ϐ‹…ƒ–‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ’‘™‡”‡˜‡„‡ˆ‘”‡ the  development  of  modern  steel.  Iron  and  glass  were  historically   produced  here  but  the  innovation  of  the  Bessemer  process  in  1858,  an   ‡ˆϐ‹…‹‡–‡–Š‘†‘ˆ…‘„‹‹‰‹”‘ƒ†‘–Š‡”‡Ž‡‡–•‹–‘•–‡‡Žȋƒ alloy),  allowed  industrialists  to  capitalize  on  a  new  market.  Steel  rapidly   became  the  material  on  which  the  nation  was  built,  a  critical  element  in   the  infrastructure  projects  that  supported  American  Manifest  Destiny.   Companies  manufacturing  goods  here  play  a  prominent  role  in  history   and  often  in  contemporary  industry  as  well.  The  US  Steel  Corporation,   Pittsburgh  Plate  Glass,  and  Alcoa  as  well  as  Mellon  Bank  (now  BNY   Mellon)  are  all  remnants  of  Pittsburgh’s  former  industrial  might. Industry  required  a  massive  labor  force  to  undertake  the  incredible   amount  of  work  implicit  in  its  modern  manufacturing  methods.  This   drove  Allegheny  County’s  population  to  its  peak  of  2,000,000  around   1950  before  the  decline  of  industry  caused  it  to  fall  again.  Such  a   great  population  created  a  dense  city,  very  different  from  conditions   today.  Pittsburgh  thus  developed  a  strong  network  of  working  class   neighborhoods,  and  the  upward  mobility  provided  by  unionized  labor   offered  people  the  opportunity  to  build  quality  housing  in  such  places.   Many  members  of  these  families  remain  in  the  city  today,  a  genealogical   legacy  of  the  industrial  era.  Social  mobility  coupled  with  the  work  which   ƒ›•ƒ™ƒ•‡••‡–‹ƒŽƒ–‹‘Ǧ„—‹Ž†‹‰™ƒ•–Š‡…ƒ—•‡‘ˆ•‹‰‹ϐ‹…ƒ–’”‹†‡ in  the  work  done  in  Pittsburgh.  Fierce  pride  in  the  city  remains  today,   though  it  is  more  often  channelled  into  the  realm  of  sports  rather  than   manufacturing  prowess. Š‡ϐŽ‘™‘ˆ‘‡›ƒ••‘…‹ƒ–‡†™��–Šƒ—ˆƒ…–—”‹‰‰”‘™–ŠƒŽ•‘Š‡Ž’‡† build  a  wealthy  upper  class.  Their  legacy  remains  in  the  form  of  a  few   ‡‹‰Š„‘”Š‘‘†•ϐ‹ŽŽ‡†™‹–ŠŽƒ”‰‡Š‘‡•ƒ†ƒ•‹‘•–Šƒ–ƒ”‡•–‹ŽŽ ƒ••‘…‹ƒ–‡†™‹–ŠƒˆϐŽ—‡…‡Ǥ ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ–Š‡‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ‹•–•ƒŽ•‘‹˜‡•–‡† in  public  resources  such  as  libraries,  museums,  and  schools.  Andrew   ƒ”‡‰‹‡‹•–Š‡‘•–’”‘Ž‹ϐ‹…‡šƒ’Ž‡‘ˆ–Š‹•ǡ†‘ƒ–‹‰ƒ‡š–‡•‹˜‡ public  library  system  to  the  city  as  well  as  a  cultural  hub  at  the  Carnegie   Museum  and  Performance  Hall  in  Oakland.  In  addition,  he  founded   Carnegie  Tech  (now  Carnegie  Mellon  University)  to  educate  engineers   who  would  go  on  to  innovate  industrial  techniques  and  methods.  Other  

Industry  &  Infrastructure / 15

industrialists  such  as  Henry  Clay  Frick  (a  coke  magnate)  donated  land   to  the  city  to  build  city  parks,  assets  seen  as  vital  to  the  development   of  a  modern  city.  These  public  investments  set  the  stage  for  modern   ‹––•„—”‰Šƒ†•–‹ŽŽ’”‘˜‹†‡ƒ•‹‰‹ϐ‹…ƒ–„‡‡ϐ‹––‘–Š‡…‘—‹–›Ǥ Investment  in  infrastructure  is  another  form  of  development  for  the   public  good  but  is  generally  funded  by  the  government  rather  than   benevolent  private  investors.  Infrastructure  itself  is  both  an  industrial   product  and  necessary  to  the  success  of  industry,  wrapped  in  a   …‘’‘—†‹‰Ž‘‘’‘ˆ…ƒ—•‡ƒ†‡ˆˆ‡…–Ǥ ˆƒ…–ǡ‘‡‘ˆ–Š‡ϐ‹”•–—•‡•‘ˆ–Š‡ Bessemer  process  in  Pittsburgh  (at  the  Edgar  Thompson  Works  starting   ‹ͳͺ͹ͷȌ™ƒ•‹–Š‡…”‡ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ•–‡‡Ž”ƒ‹Ž•ˆ‘”–Š‡ƒ–‹‘ǯ•‡š’ƒ†‹‰ railroad  network.  Infrastructure  such  as  roads,  railroads,  bridges  and   –—‡Ž•’”‘˜‹†‡†–Š‡‡ˆϐ‹…‹‡–…‘‡…–‹‘•–Šƒ–ƒŽŽ‘™‡†–Š‡…‹–›–‘ „‡…‘‡’”‘ϐ‹–ƒ„Ž‡Ǥ –ƒŽ•‘„”‘—‰Š–‹––•„—”‰Š‹–‘–Š‡‘†‡”‡”ƒƒ† supported  the  lives  of  workers  by  providing  sewers,  electricity,  and   transit  in  the  form  of  street  cars  and  inclines.   During  Pittsburgh’s  period  of  peak  industrial  production,  such  shared   resources  were  widely  regarded  as  integral  to  material  and  human   ϐŽ‘™•‹–Š‡…‹–›Ǥ—––Š‡”‹•‡‘ˆ–Š‡…ƒ”ƒ†‡˜‡–—ƒŽ†‡…Ž‹‡‘ˆ‡”‹…ƒ industry  wreaked  havoc  on  these  networks.  As  automobiles  became   more  affordable,  many  upwardly  mobile  families  invested  in  these   status  symbols  representative  of  freedom  and  the  American  dream.   Investment  shifted  to  road  infrastructure  which  led  to  the  demise  of  the   robust  public  transit  system,  and  inclines  and  streetcars  were  replaced   ™‹–ŠŽ‡••‡ˆϐ‹…‹‡–„—•‡•Ǥ––Š‡•ƒ‡–‹‡ǡ‹–„‡…ƒ‡‘”‡’”‘ϐ‹–ƒ„Ž‡ˆ‘” production  to  move  out  of  America  and  much  of  Pittsburgh’s  industry   left  its  home.  These  changing  global  economic  patterns  would  lead  to   massive  population  decline  and  a  dark  era  in  the  city’s  history. As  the  principal  device  by  which  society  mediates  its  terrain,   infrastructure  frames  the  way  we  interact  with  our  landscape.  Pittsburgh   ™ƒ•Žƒ”‰‡Ž›†‡ϐ‹‡†„›–Š‡‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ†‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–‘ˆ‹–•’‡ƒ’‡”‹‘†ǡ •‘‹–•—”„ƒˆ‘””‡ϐŽ‡…–•ƒ•‹‰‹ϐ‹…ƒ–Ž›†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–•‘…‹‡–›ˆ”‘–Šƒ–‘ˆ contemporary  America.  Our  ability  to  alter  and  adapt  this  historical   ‹ˆ”ƒ•–”—…–—”‡–‘”‡ϐŽ‡…–’”‡•‡–…‘†‹–‹‘•™‹ŽŽ†‡ϐ‹‡–Š‡ˆ—–—”‡‘ˆ‘—” relationship  to  the  post-­‐industrial  landscape.

16 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Transportation Infrastructure in the Turtle Creek Valley.

(Historic Pittsburgh)

Industry  &  Infrastructure / 17

Steps from the Bluff (Uptown) to industry on the Monongahela.

18 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

(Historic PIttsburgh)

Land  Manipulation  &  City  Steps

Pittsburgh’s  unique  topography  of  river  valleys  required  taming   to  support  commerce  soon  after  it  was  settled  by  Europeans.  One   method  of  dealing  with  the  terrain  was  to  directly  manipulate  it   –Š”‘—‰Š‡š…ƒ˜ƒ–‹‘ƒ†‰”ƒ†‹‰ǤŠ‹•Šƒ’’‡‡†ƒ—„‡”‘ˆ–‹‡• ‘˜‡”‹––•„—”‰Šǯ•Š‹•–‘”›ǡ„—––Š‡‘•–‡š–‡•‹˜‡‡šƒ’Ž‡‹•–Š‡DzŠ—’ cut”  undertaken  during  the  beginning  of  the  20th  century.  Following   drawings  created  by  Frederick  Law  Olmsted  Jr.  (son  of  the  preeminent   Žƒ†•…ƒ’‡ƒ”…Š‹–‡…–Ȍ–Š‡…‹–›‘˜‡†‡ƒ”–Š‘‡š‹•–‹‰•–”‡‡–•–‘”‡‰”ƒ†‡ them  to  a  more  manageable  slope.  This  was  seen  as  necessary  to  support   the  growth  of  commerce  in  the  area  around  the  Golden  Triangle  and  to   improve  access,  especially  from  the  Hill  to  the  east. Another  approach  to  providing  access  is  the  network  of  city-­‐owned   steps  throughout  the  city.  Pittsburgh  is  home  to  over  700  sets  of  steps   comprising    over  24,000  feet  of  elevation  change.  Historically,  these   steps  provided  access  for  people  from  residential  neighborhoods  on   the  hillsides  to  industrial  jobs  on  the  river  banks.  As  the  city  grew  and   other  options  became  available,  the  steps  were  used  only  by  those  who   could  not  afford  to  drive  or  ride  public  transit.  Some  sets,  such  as  the   Indian  Trail  Steps  (following  pages)  climbing  Mt.  Washington,  provided  a   similar  function  to  the  inclines  for  those  who  couldn’t  afford  transit.  For   ƒ’‡†‡•–”‹ƒŽ‡ƒ”‹‰–‘ƒ˜‹‰ƒ–‡–Š‡…‹–›ǡϐ‹†‹‰–Š‡”‹‰Š–ϐŽ‹‰Š–‘ˆ’—„Ž‹… stairs  could  mean  the  difference  between  a  convenient  connection  and   a  much  longer  route.  Although  many  have  fallen  into  disrepair,  steps  in   ‹––•„—”‰Š•–‹ŽŽ’”‘˜‹†‡‡ˆϐ‹…‹‡–’‡†‡•–”‹ƒ…‘‡…–‹‘•ƒ†ƒ‹†‡–‹–› related  to  the  city’s  varied  terrain.

Land  Manipulation  &  City  Steps / 19

Indian Trail Steps ascending Mt. Washington.

20 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

(Historic Pittsburgh)

Land  Manipulation  &  City  Steps / 21

Railroads of the Pittsburgh District.

(Engineer’s Society of Western Pennsylvania)

22 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Maps  &  Methods

Resources  for  this  study  include  a  variety  of  historical  documents   including  topographic  maps,  photographs,  and  technical  drawings.  The   ϐ‹”•–…‘‡ˆ”‘–Š‡ ‹•–‘”‹…‹––•„—”‰Šƒ’•‘ŽŽ‡…–‹‘ƒ––Š‡‹˜‡”•‹–› of  Pittsburgh  and  are  available  online.  The  most  useful  series  was   created  by  the  City’s  Department  of  Planning  beginning  in  1923  and   updated  again  starting  in  1961.  These  survey  maps  include  all  but  three   of  the  inclines  in  my  study  and  provide  a  way  to  compare  contemporary   conditions  with  those  in  the  past.  Contemporary  topographical   conditions  are  illustrated  in  standard  1:24,000  US  Geological  Survey   maps.  The  University  of  Pittsburgh  also  holds  a  large  collection  of   historic  images  of  the  city,  many  documenting  public  infrastructure   and  industrial  development.  Photos  are  used  throughout  the  book  to   ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‡–Š‡‡š’‡”‹‡…‡‘ˆ„‡‹‰‹–Š‡…‹–›†—”‹‰‹–•Š‡›†ƒ›ƒ†–‘ contrast  this  with  present-­‐day  conditions. In  addition,  Carnegie  Mellon’s  Architecture  Archives  contain  drawings  by   –Š‡‘ˆϐ‹…‡‘ˆƒ—‡Ž‹‡•…Š‡”ǡƒ’”‘‹‡–‡‰‹‡‡”‹‹––•„—”‰Š†—”‹‰ the  latter  decades  of  the  19th  century.  Diescher  designed  the  majority  of   inclined  planes  in  the  United  States  and  many  of  those  in  Pittsburgh.  He   and  his  sons  (incorporated  in  1901)  also  designed  public  infrastructure,   industrial  buildings,  plants  and  equipment  as  well  as  the  machinery  for   –Š‡ ‡””‹•Š‡‡Žƒ––Š‡ͳͺͻ͵‘”Ž†ǯ•‘Ž—„‹ƒš’‘•‹–‹‘‹Š‹…ƒ‰‘Ǥ Diescher  thus  had  a  profound  effect  on  the  industrial  landscape  of   Pittsburgh.  These  drawings  provide  detailed  information  about  the   construction  and  aesthetic  of  the  inclines  as  well  as  the  landscape  on   which  they  were  built.  They  also  represent  an  engineer’s  approach  to  the   application  of  industrial  society  onto  challenging  terrain. ƒ”Ž›‹–Š‡’”‘…‡••ǡƒ•‡”‹‡•‘ˆƒ’•™‡”‡…”‡ƒ–‡†‡š’Ž‘”‹‰’ƒ––‡”• ‹–Š‡”‡‰‹‘ǯ•‰‡‘‘”’Š‘Ž‘‰›ƒ††‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–Š‹•–‘”›ǤŠ‡ϐ‹”•–‹•ƒ collage  of  USGS  maps  from  the  20th  century  (created  in  1907,  1951,  and   1993)  overlaid  to  illustrate  urban  growth  and  variations  in  cartographic   methods.  The  piece  was  created  without  prior  planning  but  became  a   personal  dérivé  highlighting  parts  of  the  city  with  which  I  am  most  well   acquainted.  The  oldest  maps  do  not  differentiate  between  wooded  and   cleared  land,  illustrating  the  indiscriminate  approach  to  developing  the   landscape.  The  midcentury  maps  are  the  most  beautiful  with  bold  green   representing  forests  and  pink  showing  areas  of  fairly  dense  urbanization.  

Maps  &  Methods / 23

Š‡•‡ƒ’•…Ž‡ƒ”Ž›†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‡„‡–™‡‡–Š‡ƒ–—”ƒŽƒ†–Š‡ƒ”–‹ϐ‹…‹ƒŽǤ Š‡‘•–”‡…‡–ƒ’•Šƒ˜‡Ž‡••…‘–”ƒ•–™‹–ŠƒŽ‹‰Š–‰”ƒ›ϐ‹ŽŽˆ‘”—”„ƒ areas  and  light  green  for  wooded  areas.  To  differentiate  between  the   urban  and  natural  environments  seems  less  important  at  this  point,   but  a  dynamic  reading  of  the  landscape  is  lost.  The  collage  served  as  a   –‘‘Ž–‘ƒ‡–Š‡•‡…‘’ƒ”‹•‘•ƒ†–‘‡š’Ž‘”‡•–ƒ†ƒ”†…ƒ”–‘‰”ƒ’Š‹… techniques. Š‡•‡…‘†‡š’Ž‘”ƒ–‹‘‹•ƒ•‡”‹‡•‘ˆ•–‡…‹Ž‡†ƒ’•…”‡ƒ–‡†ˆ”‘ƒ variety  of  sources.  Information  presented  includes  the  rivers,  railroads,   city  parks,  and  various  shades  to  represent  slopes.  The  order  and  variety   of  layers  can  be  changed  to  illustrate  different  relationships  between   –Š‡•‡‡Ž‡‡–•ǤŠ‡•‡•–—†‹‡•‡š’Ž‘”‡†–Š‡—•‡‘ˆƒ—…‘˜‡–‹‘ƒŽ approach  to  bold,  graphic  map-­‐making.   Š‡’”‹ƒ”›–‘‘Žˆ‘”ƒƒŽ›–‹…ƒŽ•–—†›‹•ƒ•‡”‹‡•‘ˆƒš‘‘‡–”‹…†”ƒ™‹‰• of  the  inclines  to  illustrate  their  relationship  to  the  landscape  and   other  infrastructural  development.  These  were  constructed  using  data   from  the  historic  topographic  maps  and  methods  of  projection.  The   †‹ƒ‰”ƒ•”‡ϐŽ‡…–ƒ‹–‡”’Žƒ›„‡–™‡‡–™‘Ǧ†‹‡•‹‘ƒŽƒ†–Š”‡‡Ǧ dimensional  representation.  Two-­‐dimensional  historical  survey  maps   were  created  through  a  process  of  surveying  (itself  a  technique  for   taking  control  of  the  landscape)  and  represented  via  contours.  This   rational  understanding  is  conducive  to  designing  infrastructure  and   ƒŽ–‡”‹‰–Š‡Žƒ†•…ƒ’‡Ǥ ‘”›‡š’Ž‘”ƒ–‹‘ǡ‹–™ƒ•‹’‘”–ƒ––‘”‡–—”–‘ ƒ–Š”‡‡Ǧ†‹‡•‹‘ƒŽ‘†‡‘ˆ”‡’”‡•‡–ƒ–‹‘–‘—†‡”•–ƒ†–Š‡…‘’Ž‡š ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’•‘ˆƒŽŽ…‘’‘‡–•Ǥ’”‘Œ‡…–‡†‰”‹†ȋͷͲǯšͷͲǯ—‹–•Ȍ‹• used  to  illustrate  the  topography  on  paper,  representing  a  combination   of  historical  surveying  methods  and  contemporary  digital  techniques.   This  information  is  intended  to  be  used  as  an  analytical  tool  but  its   ’”‡•‡–ƒ–‹‘‹•‹ϐŽ—‡…‡†„›ƒŠ‹•–‘”‹…ƒŽƒ‡•–Š‡–‹…Ǥ

24 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Inclines & Additional Information

Projected Grid Surface

Contours

Topographical Survey Map, 1923

Maps  &  Methods / 25

Study #1: USGS Map Collage.

26 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Maps  &  Methods / 27

Study #2: layered stencil maps.

28 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Maps  &  Methods / 29

Topographical Survey Maps, 1923

30 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Maps  &  Methods / 31

Primary  Inclines  of  Pittsburgh

11

10

9

1 8 2

3

5 4

6 7

1

Duquesne

South  Shore  -­�  Duquesne  Heights

   400’

2

Monongahela

South  Shore  -­�  Mt.  Washington

   370’

3

Castle  Shannon

Southside  Flats  -­�  Allentown

   445’

4

Castle  Shannon  South  (#2)

ŽŽ‡Â?–‘™Â?ÇŚÂ?‘š˜‹ŽŽ‡

-­�170’

5

�‘š˜‹ŽŽ‡

‘—–Š•‹†‡ Žƒ–•ÇŚÂ?‘š˜‹ŽŽ‡

   365’

6

Mt.  Oliver

Southside  Flats  -­�  Mt.  Oliver

   370’

7

St.  Clair  (22nd  St)

Southside  Flats  -­�  Southside  Slopes

   375’

8

Fort  Pitt

Monongahela  River  -­�  The  Bluff

   110’

9

Penn  (17th  St)

Strip  District  -­�  Hill  District

   315’

10

Nunnery  Hill

Central  Northside  -­�  Fineview

   210’

11

Troy  Hill

Allegheny  River  -­�  Troy  Hill

   130’

32 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

The  Inclined  Plane

The  most  distinctive  response  to  the  city’s  terrain  is  the  inclined  plane   †‡•‹‰‡†–‘ƒ•…‡†‹–••–‡‡’Š‹ŽŽ•‹†‡•ǤŠ‡ϐ‹”•–‹…Ž‹‡•‹–Š‡…‹–›™‡”‡ used  to  ferry  coal  from  Mt.  Washington  down  to  the  river  banks  for   trade  and  later  to  fuel  mills  and  other  industry  located  there.  Once   the  local  coal  mines  became  obsolete  and  resources  came  in  by  other   means,  passenger  and  freight  inclines  became  predominant.  Over  its   history  Pittsburgh  has  been  home  to  at  least  23  inclines  (including  coal   hoists)  with  two  still  in  operation  today.  The  peak  period  for  passenger   inclines  was  around  the  turn  of  the  century  and  many  are  visible  on  the   Topographic  Survey  Maps  from  the  1920s.  Although  the  Monongahela   and  Duquesne  Inclines  are  largely  treated  as  tourist  destinations  today,   they  were  once  integral  parts  of  the  multimodal  transportation  network. Inclined  planes  are  both  marvels  of  construction  and  based  on  simple   physical  principles.  The  cars  travel  in  opposite  directions  and  act  as   counterweights  for  each  other  so  that  the  car  travelling  downhill  helps   ’—ŽŽ–Š‡‘–Š‡”—’Š‹ŽŽǤŠ‹•…”‡ƒ–‡•ƒ•›•–‡–Šƒ–‹•“—‹–‡‡ˆϐ‹…‹‡–„—– •‘‡ˆ‘”‘ˆ‡…Šƒ‹…ƒŽƒ••‹•–ƒ…‡‹••–‹ŽŽ‡‡†‡†Ǥ–ϐ‹”•––Š‹•™ƒ• accomplished  with  a  steam  engine,  but  the  inclines  were  later  converted   to  diesel  or  electric  engines.  Like  the  passenger  elevator,  sophisticated   braking  systems  were  needed  to  limit  accidents  and  assuage  riders’  fear.   Friction  braking  systems  were  integral  to  the  cable  drums  at  the  top   station  and  had  straps  that  could  be  tightened  around  the  drums  to  stop   the  car.  A  secondary  safety  cable  was  also  connected  to  each  car  should   the  primary  drive  cable  fail. The  majority  of  the  inclines  in  America  were  designed  by  the  engineering   ‘ˆϐ‹…‡‘ˆƒ—‡Ž‹‡•…Š‡”ȋŽƒ–‡”ƒ—‡Ž‹‡•…Š‡”Ƭ‘•ȌǤ™‘‘–Š‡”• were  designed  by  John  J.  Endres  with  help  from  his  daughter  Caroline.   Š‡™ƒ•‘‡‘ˆ–Š‡ϐ‹”•–ˆ‡ƒŽ‡‡‰‹‡‡”•‹‡”‹…ƒƒ†™‘—Ž†‰‘‘–‘ marry  Diescher.  Diescher  and  Endres  were  associated  but  it  is  not  clear   if  they  directly  shared  design  responsibilities  on  any  incline.  John  M.   McRoberts  also  designed  two  inclines  in  the  South  Side.

The  Inclined  Plane / 33

Penn Incline.

(Historic Pittsburgh)

The  inclines  were  often  used  by  pedestrians  but  some  wide-­‐gauge   versions  were  also  able  to  transport  carriages  (and  later  automobiles).   Š‡‘‘‰ƒŠ‡Žƒ‹…Ž‹‡ǡ•–‹ŽŽ‹‡š‹•–‡…‡–‘†ƒ›ǡŠƒ†ƒˆ”‡‹‰Š–Ǧ•’‡…‹ϐ‹… ‹…Ž‹‡™‹–ŠƒͳͲǦˆ‘‘–‰ƒ—‰‡”—‹‰‡š––‘‹–—–‹Žͳͻ͵ͷǤŠ‡ƒŒ‘”‹–› of  the  inclines  also  had  direct  connections  to  streetcar  and  rail  lines  by   this  time,  and  it  is  likely  that  many  commuters  used  a  variety  of  transit   modes.  But  it  was  precisely  the  rise  of  the  streetcar  and  automobile  that   spelled  the  demise  of  the  inclines.  By  the  late  1960s  only  two  remained   ƒ•–Š‡›„‡…ƒ‡Ž‡••’”‘ϐ‹–ƒ„Ž‡ƒ†ƒ‹–‡ƒ…‡„‡…ƒ‡Šƒ”†‡”–‘ justify.  Competition  from  the  complete  network  of  streetcars,  improved   highways,  and  widespread  automobile  ownership  proved  to  be  too   strong  to  overcome. The  following  study  is  limited  to  the  primary  inclines  of  central   Pittsburgh.  Most  are  passenger  inclines  though  some  carried  freight  as   ™‡ŽŽǤŽŽ„—––Š”‡‡‘ˆ–Š‡•‡‹…Ž‹‡•‡š‹•–‘–Š‡‘’‘‰”ƒ’Š‹…—”˜‡›ƒ’•

34 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Castle Shannon Incline.

(Historic Pittsburgh)

from  the  1920s,  and  the  others  can  be  easily  located  on  other  maps  or   through  engineering  drawings  although  the  same  maps  will  be  used  to   ’”‘˜‹†‡…‘–‹—‹–›ǤŠ‡‹…Ž‹‡•‡š‹•–‡†‹–Š”‡‡ƒ”‡ƒ•™‹–Š–Š‡ƒŒ‘”‹–› located  on  Mt.  Washington  and  the  South  Side  Slopes.  Other  inclines   †‹†‡š‹•–‘„‘–Š–Š‡ŽŽ‡‰Š‡›ƒ†‘‘‰ƒŠ‡Žƒ•‹†‡•‘ˆ–Š‡‘‹–ƒ• ™‡ŽŽƒ•‘–Š‡‘”–Š‹†‡‹™Šƒ–™ƒ•‘…‡ŽŽ‡‰Š‡›‹–›ȋƒ‡š‡† to  Pittsburgh  in  1907).  Each  incline  will  be  represented  on  a  map  and   –Š”‘—‰Šƒš‘‘‡–”‹…‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹‰‹–•”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’–‘–Š‡—”„ƒ…‘–‡š–Ǥ š‘‘‡–”‹…†”ƒ™‹‰•ƒ”‡’”‡•‡–‡†ƒ––Š‡•ƒ‡•…ƒŽ‡—Ž‡••‘–Š‡”™‹•‡ noted.  Basic  statistics  concerning  size  and  dates  of  operation  are   included  as  well  as  historic  photos  and/or  technical  drawings  to  provide   ƒ•‡•‡‘ˆ–Š‡‹…Ž‹‡ǯ•”‘Ž‡‹–Š‡…‹–›ƒ•™‡ŽŽƒ•–Š‡”‹†‡”•ǯ‡š’‡”‹‡…‡Ǥ Ž–Š‘—‰Š‘•–†‘‘–‡š‹•–ƒ›‘”‡ǡ•‘‡’Š›•‹…ƒŽ”‡ƒ‹•‘”‡ˆˆ‡…–• ‘—”„ƒˆƒ„”‹…ƒ›•–‹ŽŽ„‡ˆ‘—†ǤŠ‡‹–‡–‹•–‘†‡˜‡Ž‘’ƒ–ƒš‘‘›‘ˆ ‹…Ž‹‡•–Š”‘—‰Š…‘’ƒ”‹•‘ƒ†–‘—†‡”•–ƒ†–Š‡•‹‰‹ϐ‹…ƒ…‡‘ˆ–Š‡•‡ unique  pieces  of  Pittsburgh’s  public  transit  history.  

The  Inclined  Plane / 35

Name

Date

Neighborhoods  Served

Duquesne

1877  -­�  present

South  Shore  -­�  Duquesne  Heights

Mongahela

1870  -­�  present

South  Shore  -­�  Mt.  Washington

Monongahela  Freight

1883  -­�  1935

South  Shore  -­�  Mt.  Washington

Castle  Shannon

1890  -­�  1964

South  Side  Flats  -­�  Allentown

Castle  Shannon  South

1892  -­�  1914

‘—–Š‹†‡ Žƒ–•ÇŚÂ?‘š˜‹ŽŽ‡

�‘š˜‹ŽŽ‡

1890  -­�  1960

‘—–Š‹†‡ Žƒ–•ÇŚÂ?‘š˜‹ŽŽ‡

Mt.  Oliver

1871  -­�  1951

South  Side  Flats  -­�  Mt.  Oliver

St.  Clair  (22nd  St)

1886  -­�  1935

South  Side  Flats  -­�  South  Side  Slopes

Fort  Pitt

1882  -­�  1906

Monongahela  River  -­�  Bluff

Penn  (17th  St)

1883  -­�  1953

Strip  District  -­�  Hill  District

Nunnery  Hill

1887  -­�  1899

Central  Northside  -­�  Fineview

Troy  Hill

1887  -­�  1898

Allegheny  River  -­�  Troy  Hill

Castle Shannon Duquesne Monongahela Penn

Nunnery Hill Fort Pitt

Troy Hill

36 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Case  Studies:  Primary  Inclines  of  Pittsburgh

Elevation

Length

Slope

Engineer

400’

800’

30

Samuel  Diescher

370’

650’

38

John  J.  Endres

370’

650’

38

Samuel  Diescher

445’

1,400’

21

Samuel  Diescher

-­‐170’

2,150’

-­‐5

Samuel  Diescher

365’

2,750’

8

John  M.  McRoberts

370’

1,600’

14

John  J.  &  Caroline  Endres

375’

2,050’

11

John  M.  McRoberts

110’

350’

24

Samuel  Diescher

315’

900’

24

Samuel  Diescher

210’

1,200’

11

Samuel  Diescher

130’

450’

21

Samuel  Diescher

Mt. Oliver

Knoxville

St. Clair

Castle Shannon #2

Primary  Inclines  of  Pittsburgh / 37

38 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Duquesne Incline and South Shore from Point Bridge abutment.

(Shorpy.com)

Duquesne  Incline Area:

South  Shore  -­‐  Duquesne  Heights

Elevation:

400’

Length:

800’

Slope: Dates  in  Operation: Engineer:

30° 1877-­‐present Samuel  Diescher

Primary  Inclines  of  Pittsburgh / 39

40 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

(CMU Architecture Archives)

Steel structure from the office of Samuel Diescher.

Indian Trail Steps Grandview Ave. Streetcar

Duquesne

Pittsburgh, Cincinatti, Chicago & St Louis R.R. Carson St. Streetcar Pittsburgh & Lake Erie R.R.

Ohio River

Primary  Inclines  of  Pittsburgh / 41

42 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Monongahela Incline from Pittsburgh & Lake Erie station.

(Historic Pittsburgh)

Monongahela  Incline Area:

South  Shore  -­‐  Mt.  Washington

Elevation:

370’

Length:

650’

Slope:

38°

Dates  in  Operation:

1870-­‐present

Engineer:

John  J.  Endres

Primary  Inclines  of  Pittsburgh / 43

44 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Monongahela Freight cars pass each other.

(Historic Pittsburgh)

Monongahela  Freight  Incline Area:

South  Shore  -­‐  Mt.  Washington

Elevation:

370’

Length:

650’

Slope: Dates  in  Operation: Engineer:

38° 1883-­‐1935 Samuel  Diescher

Primary  Inclines  of  Pittsburgh / 45

46 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Monongahela Freight Incline under construction.

(Historic Pittsburgh)

Grandview Ave. Streetcar

Monongahela Freight Pittsburgh Railway Co.

Monongahela

Pittsburgh, Cincinatti, Chicago & St Louis R.R. Carson St. Streetcar Pittsburgh & Lake Erie R.R. Yard and Passenger Station

Primary  Inclines  of  Pittsburgh / 47

48 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Castle Shannon Incline, Civic Arena, and Downtown.

(Historic Pittsburgh)

Castle  Shannon  Incline Area: Elevation: Length: Slope: Dates  in  Operation: Engineer:

South  Side  Flats  -­‐  Allentown 445’ 1400’ 21° 1890-­‐1964 Samuel  Diescher

Primary  Inclines  of  Pittsburgh / 49

50 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Castle Shannon car from the office of Samuel Diescher.

(CMU Architecture Archives)

Castle  Shannon  South  Incline  (#2) Area: Elevation: Length: Slope: Dates  in  Operation: Engineer:

‘—–Š‹†‡ Žƒ–•ÇŚÂ?‘š˜‹ŽŽ‡ -­â€?170’ 2,150’ -­â€?5° 1892-­â€?1914 Samuel  Diescher

Primary  Inclines  of  Pittsburgh / 51

52 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

(CMU Architecture Archives)

Profile from the office of Samuel Diescher.

Pittsburgh & Castle Shannon R.R. Warrington Ave Streetcar & Yard Mt. Washington Railway Tunnel Castle Shannon #2

Bailey Ave Streetcar Castle Shannon

Mt. Washington Roadway Bridge Pittsburgh, Cincinatti, Chicago & St Louis R.R.

Liberty Tunnels

Pittsburgh, Virginia, & Charleston R.R.

Liberty Bridge

‘–‡ǣš‘‘‡–”‹…ƒ–ͳȀʹ•…ƒŽ‡ Primary  Inclines  of  Pittsburgh / 53

54 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Houses near the curve of the Knoxville Incline.

(Historic Pittsburgh)

Â?‘š˜‹ŽŽ‡Č‹Â‹Â–Â–Â•Â„Â—Â”Â‰ÂŠČŒ Â?…Ž‹Â?‡ Area: Elevation: Length: Slope: Dates  in  Operation: Engineer:

‘—–Š‹†‡ Žƒ–•ÇŚÂ?‘š˜‹ŽŽ‡ 365’ 2,750’ 8° 1890-­â€?1960 John  M.  McRoberts

Primary  Inclines  of  Pittsburgh / 55

56 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

South Side Flats from top of the Mt. Oliver Incline.

(Historic Pittsburgh)

Mt.  Oliver  Incline Area: Elevation: Length: Slope: Dates  in  Operation: Engineer:

South  Side  Flats  -­‐  Mt.  Oliver 370’ 1,600’ 14° 1871-­‐1951 John  J.  &  Caroline  Endres

Primary  Inclines  of  Pittsburgh / 57

58 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

(Historic Pittsburgh)

Mt. Oliver and Knoxville Inclines from Arlington Ave.

East Warrington Ave. Streetcar

South 18th St. Streetcar

Arlington Ave. Streetcar

Pittsburgh, Virginia, & Charleston R.R. Mt. Oliver

East Carson St. Streetcar

Knoxville

‘–‡ǣš‘‘‡–”‹…ƒ–ͳȀʹ•…ƒŽ‡ Primary  Inclines  of  Pittsburgh / 59

60 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Mission St. Bridge over the former site of the St. Clair Incline.

(Historic Pittsburgh)

St.  Clair  (22nd  Street)  Incline Area: Elevation: Length: Slope: Dates  in  Operation: Engineer:

South  Side  Flats  -­‐  South  Side  Slopes 375’ 2,050’ 11° 1886-­‐1935 John  M.  McRoberts

Primary  Inclines  of  Pittsburgh / 61

62 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Hoisting machinery from the office of Samuel Diescher.

(CMU Architecture Archives)

Mission St. Pumping Station

Pittsburgh, Virginia, & Charleston R.R. St. Clair

‘–‡ǣš‘‘‡–”‹…ƒ–ͳȀʹ•…ƒŽ‡ Primary  Inclines  of  Pittsburgh / 63

64 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Steps that replaced the Fort Pitt Incline.

(Historic Pittsburgh)

Fort  Pitt  Incline Area:

Monongahela  River  -­‐  Bluff

Elevation:

110’

Length:

350’

Slope: Dates  in  Operation: Engineer:

24° 1883-­‐1906 Samuel  Diescher

Primary  Inclines  of  Pittsburgh / 65

66 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Hoisting Machinery from the office of Samuel Diescher.

(CMU Architecture Archives)

Armstrong Tunnel

Future Site of Blvd. of the Allies Second Ave Streetcar Baltimore & Ohio R.R.

Fort Pitt

10th St Bridge

Monongahela River

Primary  Inclines  of  Pittsburgh / 67

68 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

(Brookline Connection)

Penn  (17th  Street)  Incline Area:

Strip  District  -­‐  Hill  District

Elevation:

315’

Length:

900’

Slope: Dates  in  Operation: Engineer:

24° 1883-­‐1953 Samuel  Diescher

Primary  Inclines  of  Pittsburgh / 69

70 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

(CMU Architecture Archives)

Profile from the office of Samuel Diescher.

Bigelow Blvd.

Pennsylvania R.R. Company Yard Liberty Ave Streetcar Penn

Primary  Inclines  of  Pittsburgh / 71

72 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

(Pittsburgh Post-Gazette)

Nunnery  Hill  Incline Area: Elevation: Length: Slope: Dates  in  Operation: Engineer:

Central  Northside  -­‐  Fineview 210’ 1,200’ 11° 1887-­‐1899 Samuel  Diescher

Primary  Inclines  of  Pittsburgh / 73

74 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Plan and Profile from the office of Samuel Diescher.

(CMU Architecture Archives)

Catoma St. Streetcar Nunnery Hill

Federal St. Streetcar

Henderson St. Streetcar

Primary  Inclines  of  Pittsburgh / 75

76 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

(Pittsburgh Post-Gazette)

Troy  Hill  Incline Area:

Allegheny  River  -­‐  Troy  Hill

Elevation:

130’

Length:

450’

Slope: Dates  in  Operation: Engineer:

21° 1887-­‐1898 Samuel  Diescher

Primary  Inclines  of  Pittsburgh / 77

78 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

View of Rialto St. parallel to Troy Hill Incline.

(Historic Pittsburgh)

Lowrie St. Streetcar

Troy Hill East Ohio St. Streetcar Pennsylvania R.R. Company Pittsburgh & Western R.R. 30th St. Bridge (to Herr’s Island)

Allegheny River

Primary  Inclines  of  Pittsburgh / 79

(Historic Pittsburgh)

80 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Conclusions Inclines  represent  a  critical  point  in  Pittsburgh’s  industrial  history  for   a  number  of  reasons.  For  one,  they  dealt  directly  with  the  challenges  of   ƒ’’Ž›‹‰‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ—”„ƒˆ‘”–‘ƒ‡š–”‡‡–‘’‘‰”ƒ’Š›ƒ†…‘‡…–‹‰ laborers  to  places  of  employment.  The  approach  was  distinctly  pragmatic   and  utilized  modern  technologies  and  production  methods.  This  type   of  solution  was  prevalent  across  the  country  at  a  time  of  massive   commercial  growth  and  represents  an  engineer’s  approach  to  tackling   the  landscape.  The  resultant  aesthetic,  while  unintentional,  became   associated  with  American  global  economic  power  and  survives  today   in  many  cities,  especially  those  in  the  Rust  Belt  of  the  Central-­‐Eastern   United  States.  Much  of  the  infrastructure  created  during  this  period  is   •–‹ŽŽ—•‡†–‘†ƒ›ǡ…‘–‹—‹‰–‘†‡ϐ‹‡‘—””‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’–‘–Š‡Žƒ†ǤŠ‹• …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…ǡƒ•™‡ŽŽƒ••‹‰‹ϐ‹…ƒ–†‡…ƒ›ƒ†ƒ„ƒ†‘‡–ǡ…‘’”‹•‡ our  contemporary  condition:  the  post-­industrial  landscape. The  inclines  directly  tackled  the  problem  of  linking  river  bank  industries   with  the  labor  force  that  would  drive  them.  Thus  they  represent  an   “ideal  section”  through  the  topography  of  the  Pittsburgh  region.  These   pieces  of  transit  infrastructure  tied  together  and  related  to  a  wide   variety  of  economic,  production,  and  societal  systems.  Each  incline  had   a  top  station  in  a  residential  neighborhood  and  derived  its  identity  from   this  location.  If  the  hillside  was  shallow  enough  to  develop,  the  incline   itself  would  pass  through  residential  areas  and  cross  various  roads   and  pedestrian  steps.  Railroads  were  constrained  by  the  geometries   that  could  be  navigated  by  their  cars  and  thus  were  usually  situated   ‹ƒ•’‡…‹ϐ‹…’‘•‹–‹‘‹–Š‡Žƒ†•…ƒ’‡Ǥ ‹––•„—”‰Šǡ–Š‹•‡ƒ––Š‡ majority  of  rail  lines  ran  along  the  foot  of  the  hills  or  the  edge  of  the   river.  Between  these  rail  lines  were  yards  for  handling  cars  as  well  as  the   industries  that  they  served.  Manufacturing  facilities  were  placed  here   because  of  the  availability  of  relatively  level  ground  and  their  adjacency   to  the  river  trade  network.  The  incline’s  bottom  stations  were  transit   hubs,  interfacing  directly  with  other  transportation  systems.  These   ’ƒ––‡”•†‡ϐ‹‡†–Š‡†‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–‘ˆ‹––•„—”‰Šǡ„—––‹‡Šƒ•‘„•…—”‡† their  effects  on  the  form  of  the  city.

Conclusions / 81

Finally,  inclines  represent  a  unity  of  all  the  above  factors  in  a  single   industrial  artifact.  These  landscape  machines  mediated  between  the   •…ƒŽ‡‘ˆ–Š‡‹Â?†‹˜‹†—ƒŽ™‘”Â?‡”ǥ–Š‡‹Â?†—•–”‹ƒŽ…‘Â?’Ž‡šǥƒÂ?†–Š‡„”‘ƒ†‡” landscape  through  a  uniquely  engineered  solution  to  topographical   constraints.  They  responded  to  local  conditions  as  a  way  to  move   ’‡‘’Ž‡ƒÂ?†‰‘‘†•‡ˆĎ?‹…‹‡Â?–Ž›ƒÂ?††‹†•‘™‹–ŠƒÂ?—Â?‹Â?–‡Â?–‹‘Â?ƒŽ‹Â?†—•–”‹ƒŽ aesthetic  that  survives  to  this  day.  They  represent  investment  by  the   government  to  serve  the  public  good,  a  missing  link  in  the  development   of  contemporary  America. –‡Â?–ƒ–‹˜‡–ƒš‘Â?‘Â?›‘ˆ‹Â?…Ž‹Â?‡•…ƒÂ?„‡†‡”‹˜‡†ˆ”‘Â?–Š‹••–—†›ǥ–Š‘—‰Š this  is  not  the  only  grouping  that  could  be  developed.  It  is  primarily   based  on  an  understanding  of  the  role  these  inclines  played  in  the   neighborhoods  they  served  and  is  as  follows: Limited  Effect:

Lasting  Effect:

Tourist  Attractions:

Nunnery  Hill Troy  Hill Fort  Pitt Monongahela  Freight St.  Clair Penn

Castle  Shannon  (1  &  2) Duquesne �‘š˜‹ŽŽ‡ Monongahela Mt.  Oliver

Note  that  the  longest-­â€?lasting  inclines  (besides  those  remaining  on   Mt.  Washington)  serve  the  South  Side  Slopes  in  the  area  of  densest   working-­â€?class  housing,  an  area  that  survives  primarily  as  a  blue-­â€?collar   neighborhood.  These  were  also  the  longest  inclines  (requiring  a  transfer   to  a  different  line  in  the  case  of  Castle  Shannon)  serving  residents  fairly   far  from  employment  centers  on  the  Monongahela  River.  Of  course,  the   local  effects  of  any  of  these  inclines  should  not  be  deemphasized,  as   all  contributed  to  the  development  of  the  neighborhoods  they  served.   The  response  to  some  of  these  inclines  is  limited  because  they  were   removed  fairly  early  in  the  industrial  period  to  make  way  for  other   forms  of  infrastructure.  The  removal  of  the  majority  of  the  inclines  was  a   •‹‰Â?‹Ď?‹…ƒÂ?–Ž‘••–‘–Š‡…‹–›„‘–Šĥ—•‡ˆ—Ž’‹‡…‡•‘ˆ–”ƒÂ?•‹–‹Â?ˆ”ƒ•–”—…–—”‡ and  as  a  unique  characteristic  of  Pittsburgh’s  industrial  identity.

82 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Looking  Forward This  volume  represents  the  beginning  of  continuing  study  through  the   development  of  a  design  proposal  in  the  coming  semester.  The  variety  of   reading  as  well  as  the  development  of  a  case-­‐study  analysis  has  served   –‘•Šƒ’‡›ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š–‘–Š‡‡š–’Šƒ•‡‘ˆ–Š‹•’”‘Œ‡…–™Š‹…Š™‹ŽŽˆ‘ŽŽ‘™ some  guidelines  laid  out  here. Š‡‡š’Ž‘”ƒ–‹‘™‹ŽŽ–ƒ…Ž‡ƒ‘†‡”–‘’‘‰”ƒ’Š‹…ƒŽ’”‘„Ž‡ǣ–Š‡ relationship  of ��Pittsburgh  residents  to  the  post-­‐industrial  landscape  in   which  they  live.  America  today  is  home  to  a  ubiquitous  urban  form  due   to  our  automobile-­‐  and  consumer-­‐centric  culture.  This  ubiquity,  while   somewhat  comforting  in  its  lack  of  differentiation,  is  largely  responsible   for  our  current  environmental,  economic,  and  societal  crises  due  to  the   implicit  dissociation  between  people  and  the  land  on  which  they  live.  I   believe  to  attack  and  alter  this  paradigm  is  to  tackle  problems  central  to   being  a  conscious  citizen  today. Š‡‡š–’Šƒ•‡‘ˆ–Š‡’”‘Œ‡…–™‹ŽŽˆ‘ŽŽ‘™ƒˆ‡™–‡‡–•ǣ 1.   A  designer  must  gain  insight  through  history  and  avoid  repeating   mistakes  in  pursuit  of  nostalgia. 2.   The  product  must  be  a  unique  response  to  the  local  landscape,   history,  society,  and  economy.   3.   The  product  must  be  inclusive  and  provide  a  relevant  and  desired   public  asset,  improving  Pittsburgh’s  status  as  a  contemporary  city.

Further  development  of  the  project  can  be  followed  at  my  blog: Š––’ǣȀȀŽ‹ƒϐŽ‘™‡Ǥ–—„Ž”Ǥ…‘Ȁ–ƒ‰‰‡†Ȁ–Š‡•‹•

Looking  Forward / 83

84 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Annotated  Bibliography Inspiration  for  Study: Aurand,  Martin.  The  Spectator  and  the  Topographical  City.  Pittsburgh:   University  of  Pittsburgh  Press,  2006. Aurand  studies  the  development  of  Pittsburgh  through  the  eyes   of  ‘the  spectator’,  describing  various  regions  of  the  city  through   ˜‹•—ƒŽ‡š’‡”‹‡Â?…‡Ǥ ‹•–Š”‡‡ǎ–‡””‡•–”‹ƒŽ”‘‘Â?•ǯČ‹‘™Â?–‘™Â?ÇĄ—”–Ž‡ ”‡‡Â?ÂƒÂŽÂŽÂ‡Â›ÇĄƒÂ?ŽƒÂ?Â†ČŒ…‘˜‡”•‘Â?‡‘ˆ–Š‡Â?ƒŒ‘”Š‹•–‘”‹…ƒŽ‹Â?Ď?Ž—‡Â?…‡• on  development  of  the  city  including  the  founding  of  the  city   and  development  as  a  commercial  hub,  the  growth  of  industry,   and  philanthropy  and  investment  by  wealthy  industrialists  that   contributed  to  cultural  growth  and  amenities. Lipsky,  Florence.  San  Francisco:  Where  the  Grid  Meets  the  Hills.  Marseille:   Editions  Parentheses,  1999. ‹’•Â?›ǯ••–—†›‘ˆƒÂ? ”ƒÂ?…‹•…‘‹•”‡Ď?‹Â?‡†ƒÂ?†•’‡…‹Ď?‹…ǤÂ?ƒŽ›•‹•ƒÂ?† representation  are  drawn  from  a  wide  variety  of  sources  and  creative   Ď?‹‡Ž†•ǤŠ‡•—„Œ‡…–Â?ƒ––‡””‡Žƒ–‡•—”„ƒÂ?’ŽƒÂ?Â?‹Â?‰†‹”‡…–Ž›™‹–ŠŠ—Â?ƒÂ? ‡š’‡”‹‡Â?…‡‘ˆ–Š‡…‹–›ǥ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‹Â?‰–Š‡‹Â?’‘”–ƒÂ?…‡‘ˆ…ƒ”‡ˆ—Ž’ŽƒÂ?Â?‹Â?‰Ǥ Š‹•„‘‘Â?Šƒ†ƒ•‹‰Â?‹Ď?‹…ƒÂ?–‹Â?Ď?Ž—‡Â?…‡‘Â?–Š‡•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆÂ?›•–—†›Ǥ McHarg,  Ian.  Design  with  Nature.  Garden  City:  The  Natural  History  Press,   1969. Â… ƒ”‰™”‹–‡•ˆ”‘Â?’‡”•‘Â?ƒŽƒÂ?†’”‘ˆ‡••‹‘Â?ƒŽ‡š’‡”‹‡Â?…‡ƒ„‘—– mankind’s  relationship  to  landscape.  He  describes  large-­â€?scale   ecological  and  urban  systems  as  well  as  developing  a  framework  for   †‡•‹‰Â?‹Â?‰…‘Â?Â?—Â?‹–‹‡•–Šƒ–…‘‡š‹•–™‹–Š–Š‡‹”Ž‘…ƒŽ‡Â?˜‹”‘Â?Â?‡Â?–Ǥ Morrish,  William  R.  Civilizing  Terrains:  Mountains,  Mounds,  Mesas.  San   Francisco:  William  K  Stout  Publishers,  2005. ‘””‹•Š•–—†‹‡•–Š‡…—Ž–—”ƒŽ•‹‰Â?‹Ď?‹…ƒÂ?…‡‘ˆŽƒÂ?†ˆ‘”Â?ÇĄ‡š’Ž‘”‹Â?‰ how  and  why  various  landscapes  contribute  to  man’s  worldview   and  how  this  affects  urban  development.  The  series  of  analytical   †”ƒ™‹Â?‰•ƒÂ?†–‡š–•’Žƒ›‘ˆˆ‡ƒ…Š‘–Š‡”ƒÂ?†…‘Â?•–”—…–ƒˆ”ƒÂ?‡™‘”Â?ˆ‘” understanding  the  relevance  of  landscape.

Annotated  Bibliography / 85

Shepheard,  Paul.  What  is  Architecture?  An  Essay  on  Landscapes,  Buildings,   and  Machines.  Boston:  MIT  Press,  1994.   Shepheard,  Paul.  The  Cultivated  Wilderness,  or  What  is  Landscape?   Boston:  The  MIT  Press,  1997. Shepheard,  Paul.  Â”Â–Â‹Ď”Â‹Â…Â‹ÂƒÂŽÂ‘Â˜Â‡ÇŁ–‘”›‘ˆƒ…Š‹Â?‡•ƒÂ?†”…Š‹–‡…–—”‡.   Boston:  MIT  Press,  2003. All  three  describe  the  author’s  approach  to  understanding  the   relationship  between  landscape  and  architecture.  The  framework   is  described  through  stories  yet  is  both  broad  and  clear,  laying  out   ƒ™‡„‘ˆ‹Â?–‡”…‘Â?Â?‡…–‹˜‹–›„‡–™‡‡Â?–Š‡•‡Ď?‹‡Ž†•ǤŠ‡•‡…‘Â?†Šƒ†ƒ •‹‰Â?‹Ď?‹…ƒÂ?–‡ˆˆ‡…–‘Â?–Š‡•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆÂ?›–Š‹Â?Â?‹Â?‰ƒ„‘—––Š‡ŽƒÂ?†•…ƒ’‡Ǥ Steenbergen,  Clemens,  and  Wouter  Reh.  Architecture  and  Landscape:  The   Design  Experiment  of  the  Great  European  Gardens  and  Landscapes.  Basel:   Birkhäuser,  2003. An  academic  study  of  the  European  landscape  tradition  as  a  lineage   ‘ˆ‡š’‡”‹Â?‡Â?–•‹Â?ŽƒÂ?†•…ƒ’‡‡š’‡”‹‡Â?…‡ƒÂ?††‡•‹‰Â?Ǥš–”‡Â?‡Ž›™‡ŽŽnj researched,  the  authors  of  this  volume  also  draw  on  a  wide  variety  of   ”‡•‘—”…‡•Ǥ‡–Š‘†•‘ˆ‰”ƒ’Š‹…”‡’”‡•‡Â?–ƒ–‹‘Â?ƒ”‡‡š–”‡Â?‡Ž›•–”‘Â?‰ ƒÂ?†™‘”Â?™‡ŽŽ‹Â?„‘‘Â?ˆ‘”Â?ÇĄ–Š‡•‡Šƒ†ƒ‰”‡ƒ–‹Â?Ď?Ž—‡Â?…‡‘Â?Â?› ƒš‘Â?‘Â?‡–”‹…ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š–‘ƒÂ?ƒŽ›•‹•Ǥ Pittsburgh  Resources: Arnold,  Bion  J.  Report  on  the  Pittsburgh  Transportation  Problem.   Pittsburgh:  1910. Citizens  Committee  on  City  Plan  of  Pittsburgh.  Railroads  of  the  Pittsburgh   District,  a  part  of  the  Pittsburgh  Plan.  Pittsburgh:  1923. Horne,  Murray.  On  the  Waterfront:  Projects  for  Three  Rivers.  Pittsburgh:   Pittsburgh  Center  for  the  Arts,  1991. Horsbrugh,  Patrick.  Pittsburgh  Perceived;  a  critical  review  of  form,   features  and  feasibilities  of  the  prodigious  city.  Pittsburgh:  Department  of   City  Planning,  1963. Mitchell  &  Ritchey.  Pittsburgh  in  Progress.  Pittsburgh:  Kaufmann’s,  1947. Ohler,  Samuel  R.  Pittsburgh’s  Inclines.  Pittsburgh:  Pickwick-­â€?Morcraft,   1972. 86 / Pittsburgh’s  Inclines:  Case  Studies  in  Industrial  Adaptation

Samuel  Diescher  Collection  [technical  drawings],  CMU  Architecture   Archives,  Carnegie  Mellon  University,  Pittsburgh,  PA.   ‘‡”‡™‹–œǡƒš‹ŽŠ‡ŽǤ‹––•„—”‰ŠǢ…‘‡‘”ƒ–‹‰–Š‡ϔ‹ˆ–‹‡–Š anniversary  of  the  Engineers’  Society  of  Western  Pennsylvania.  Pittsburgh:   Cramer  Printing  &  Publishing  Company,  1930. Youngner,  Rina.  The  power  and  the  glory  :  Pittsburgh  industrial  landscapes   by  Aaron  Harry  Gorson,  1872-­1933.  New  York:  Spanierman  Gallery,  1989. Web  Resources: Bell,  Jon.  “Pittsburgh,  Pennsylvania:  Incline  Railways.”  http://web.presby. edu/~jtbell/transit/Pittsburgh/Inclines/  (accessed  December  16,  2012). Burton,  Clint.  “Pittsburgh’s  Old  Inclines.”  Brookline  Connection  (blog),   http://www.brooklineconnection.com/history/Facts/Inclines.html   (accessed  December  16,  2012). “City  of  Pittsburgh  Geodetic  and  Topographic  Survey  Maps,  1923-­‐1961.”   Historic  Pittsburgh,  http://images.library.pitt.edu/g/geotopo/  (accessed   December  16,  2012). ‘šǡ”–Š—”ǤDzŠ‡‹…Ž‹‡„—‹Ž†‡”•ǣ ‘”‰‘––‡‡‰‹‡‡”•‘ˆ‹––•„—”‰ŠǤdz pghbridges.com  (blog),  http://pghbridges.com/articles/inclines/inc_ builders_trib.htm.  Dec  03,  2001. “Historic  Pittsburgh  Image  Collections.”  Historic  Pittsburgh,  http:// digital.library.pitt.edu/images/pittsburgh/  (accessed  December  16,   2012). “Inclines  Listed  by  Location.”  pghbridges.com  (blog),  http://pghbridges. com/inclinelist.htm.  Jun  27,  2000. “Pittsburgh’s  Incline  History.”  Old  Pittsburgh  Maps  –  Pittviewer  (blog),   http://oldpittmaps.wordpress.com/2012/05/02/pittsburghs-­‐incline-­‐ history/  (accessed  December  16,  2012). “Shorpy  Historical  Photo  Archive.”  Shorpy  (blog),  http://www.shorpy. com/  (accessed  December  16,  2012). Annotated  Bibliography / 87


Pittsburgh's Inclines: Case Studies in Industrial Adaptation