2013 I/O Newsletter
Newsletter for the I/O Psychology Doctoral Program at Louisiana Tech.
Fall 2013 LOUISIANA TECH I/O BULLETIN Industrial/Organizational Psychology Doctoral Program Newsletter ! • Fall Retreat 2013 • Recent News • Alumni Report • Consulting Challenge • SIOP and IPAC 2013 Inside this Issue • Internships • Meet the Students and Faculty • Research • Photos THE START OF A NEW ACADEMIC YEAR Greetings and welcome to the annual newsletter for the Louisiana Tech University I/O Psychology Ph.D. program! We are entering our 5th year and, wow, how time flies! It seems like yesterday that Frank Igou and I were discussing which classes to include in the program. Frank was instrumental in the planning and creation of the program and I just don’t think we would be where we are now if he hadn’t decided to leave the warm sunshine of Florida. We now have three graduates and five more working their way toward graduation in the coming year. We have accomplished so much over the last four years and it has definitely been a team effort by both students and faculty. !AROS continues to thrive under the leadership of Mitzi Desselles. Our weekly AROS meetings are light years from that first meeting where the topic of discussion was “What’s our name?” Occasionally I run into the original list of names we generated (OPAG, AIRO, Axiom, etc.) and I am reminded of how fortunate we are to have ended up with AROS as our acronym. ! ! In this year’s newsletter, we will try to catch you up on some of the highlights from the last year and introduce you the current group of students. You’ll also notice that we added a new faculty member this year, Steven Toaddy, a recent graduate of North Carolina State University. Steven has wasted no time in making himself part of our team and we have all benefited from his energy and enthusiasm. !To wrap things up, I just want to say thank you to everyone who has made this program what it is today. I really wouldn’t change a thing (other than having some additional funding). It has been a very enjoyable four years and I’m looking forward to the years to come. Thanks Everyone! !Tilman Sheets, Ph.D. Coordinator of the I/O Doctoral Program !1 Fall 2013 FALL RETREAT This year, students and faculty departed from Ruston early in the Fall Quarter to spend a fun-‐9illed weekend together at Toledo Bend, located on the Louisiana-‐Texas border. Three Villas were rented at Bailey’s Bluff, a beautiful condominium community overlooking Toledo Bend Lake. The accommodations and amenities were fantastic; the villas were bright, spacious, and provided a great atmosphere for faculty and students to spend some quality time together. A pontoon boat was rented and the better part of a day was spent cruising around the lake. There were swimming, sports, and very loud card games, but the highlight of the weekend was the Friday-‐night cook off! Students were split up into two teams and engaged in a culinary competition that will not soon be forgotten. When the smoke cleared (literally), it was up to our faculty-‐judges to decide which team would emerge victorious. Indeed, champions were made and hearts were broken, but win or lose, everyone had a blast! ! All in all, the weekend was a great opportunity for the 9irst-‐year students to get to know their second-‐ and third-‐year colleagues, and all of the students, as well as the faculty, grew closer together. !2 Fall 2013 RECENT NEWS ! ! ! What a Year! • Congratulations to Dr. Frank Igou who received tenure this year. ! • ! • ! • ! • ! • ! ! ! ! Dr. Tilman Sheets and second-year doctoral student Richard Chambers were selected to serve on the Society of Industrial/ Organizational Psychology’s Electronic Communications Committee. Richard Chambers was selected to serve on the American Psychological Association’s Science Student Council. The I/O Psychology program welcomed Dr. Steven Toaddy as a new faculty member. This year, the faculty and students of the LA Tech I/O Psychology program had more accepted papers than any other graduate program at the International Personnel Assessment Council Conference. We were even recognized during the keynote speech. Dr. Mitzi Desselles was named the assistant editor of the Journal of Motivation, Emotion and Personality. • Third-year doctoral student AnnMarie Rabalais won best presentation at the 2013 Louisiana Academy of Science conference. • The Psychology Times recognized The Association for Psychological Science submission by doctoral students Brandon Dennis and Victoria Smoak in a recent cover story. • Second-year doctoral student Bharati Belwalkar won the best paper award at the 2013 North Louisiana Behavioral and Social Sciences conference. • Stephanie Murphy, James De León and Bharati Belwalkar were selected by the Personnel Board of Jefferson County in Birmingham, Alabama to serve as assessors for two public service positions. ! ! ! !3 Fall 2013 ALUMNI REPORT Luke Simmering is in his second year as a consultant with the Global Organization Effectiveness Team at Wal-Mart’s corporate headquarters. Luke’s responsibilities include human resource analytics, change management, organizational design, selection strategies, survey design and research, and performance management. Luke recently celebrated a new addition to his family - the birth of his daughter Clara Jean! His research with Dr. Dan Sachau was also recently used in yet another Golf Digest article: http://www.golfdigest.com/magazine/2013-08/golfersatisfaction-survey. That makes a very cool line on the Vita! John Buckner recently graduated, got married, and took a job in the greater Detroit area with AlixPartners as an Assessment Specialist. AlixPartners is a global management consulting firm that specializes in helping turnaround companies. Their client list includes Fortune 500 companies. John is responsible for interpreting job candidates’ assessment results and creating integrative reports for hiring managers, onboarding new consultants, and helping in the coaching/training and development of new and existing consultants. After graduating last year, Cole Napper spent some time working as an external consultant at RTI before settling into position as an Organization & Management Development Analyst at the corporate headquarters of Frito-Lay North America (PepsiCo) in Plano, TX. Cole’s responsibilities include advanced data analytics, constructing and administering surveys, managing multiple vendor relationships, and implementing best practices across the organization's frontline selection systems. !4 Fall 2013 CONSULTING CHALLENGE ! ! The 2012-2013 Consulting Challenge was another great success! Brittani and James competed against Chris H. and Ann-Marie. The faculty report that the judges had a tough time deciding a winner but Brittani and James ended up with the prize. According to Dr. Sheets, “They all did a really great job and made us proud!” As is in past challenges, the competitors couldn’t wait to go home and get some much deserved sleep. ! Our students had this to say: ! “The consulting challenge coupled with our experiences in AROS Consulting gives our graduates a HUGE step up when it comes to interview situations and being able to explain and claim job experience.” ! “It was exciting, a rush, and a huge learning experience for all of us. A very anxiety-laden day, but in the end I really loved it.” !5 Fall 2013 SIOP AND IPAC SIOP In April, the students and faculty of the I/O program piled into a couple of rented LA Tech vans and drove to Houston, TX to attended SIOPâ€™s 28th annual conference. I/O professionals from around the country descended upon Houston and our program was eager to take advantage of the many networking opportunities. Our students and faculty attended symposia that aligned with their wide range of research interests and used the coffee breaks to speak with various leaders in the field of I/O Psychology. A number of our students and faculty were selected to hold poster presentations. In fact, Drs. Frank Igou and Mitzi Desselles received a top poster award for the second year running! ! What is a conference without a little fun? Our program teamed up with students and faculty from the Minnesota State I/O Psychology program and hosted a very successful 20â€™s themed party at Hughes Hangar. Looking like we had just raided the wardrobe room on the set of The Great Gatsby, we took the opportunity to get to know some other I/O professionals and I/O students from around the country. The party was a blast, and a great way to relax with our new friends and colleagues! ! ! ! second- and third year students traveled up to Columbus, Ohio for the 2013 International Personnel Assessment Council conference. Our program had nine submissions accepted to the IPAC conference and seven of those were from our students! These submissions encompassed a variety of areas pertaining to I/O Psychology including selection, test validity, organizational climate, and job analysis. We were thrilled to find out that the Louisiana Tech I/O program had the most submissions accepted to IPAC this past summer, more than any other group or I/O program represented at the conference! We were even recognized by the president of IPAC during the keynote speech and were given a standing ovation! IPAC Over the summer, one of our faculty members and some of our now !6 Fall 2013 INTERNSHIPS Our ABD students have been ! selected for very competitive ! internships and report that they’re ! working on challenging projects and initiatives. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! • ! ! ! ! • ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! • ! ! Stephanie Murphy is currently developing selection systems and conducting concurrentvalidity studies at Bethesda Rehabilitation Hospital in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! • Amy Frost is developing multilevel analyses of safety climate and identifying predictors of turnover at SGS Operational Integrity in Houston, TX. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! • Victoria Smoak is working at the global headquarters office for PepsiCo, located in New York. Her role involves working in the center of excellence to develop and support the global HR core processes including employee assessment, engagement, and development. ! ! ! DeAnn Arnold was interning at a state agency and was tasked with creating a promotional examination that was developed over 15 months. The project included item generation, test administration and scoring, and report production. In their own Words... Chris Castille is performing benchmarking analyses and evaluating the selection systems at CenturyLink in Monroe, Louisiana. We asked our ABD students how their experiences have influenced their development as I/O professionals. They told us that one of the most important experiences has been acquiring a diverse skillset and having the opportunity to work with and be mentored by experienced professionals. Our students are also very happy to have the opportunity to manage and develop their own projects. Another big plus has been the chance to network and work with an educationally- and demographically-diverse workforce. !7 Fall 2013 M EET O U R S T U DEN T S Jasmine Adekoya Originally from Houston, TX, Jasmine is a first-year doctoral student at Louisiana Tech University. She received her bachelor’s degree in Psychology from Baylor University in May 2013. Jasmine has also completed a research assistant internship at the University of Texas at Austin created to encourage the enrollment of minority students in doctoral programs. Her current research interests include organizational justice, application of I/O theories to sports teams, and employee selection. Fun Fact: During her time at Baylor, Jasmine competed as a hammer thrower on the track and field team. Scott Hines Scott is an I/O Psychology Ph.D. student at Louisiana Tech University and a Project Associate at AROS Consulting. Scott earned a bachelor’s in Psychology at The University of Texas at Austin and a master’s in Psychology at Stephen F. Austin State University. Prior to attending Louisiana Tech University, Scott worked for several years as a Project Manager/Researcher, developing assessments for employee selection and psycho-educational purposes. His current areas of research interest include psychometrics and employee selection. Fun Fact: Scott has trained his dog to retrieve various items from the refrigerator. Mike Knott Mike grew up in Dubai, U.A.E. and prior to coming to Louisiana Tech he lived in Houston, Texas. He obtained a bachelor’s in Psychology from Texas A&M University and a master’s in Counseling Psychology from Houston Baptist University. Currently, Mike is a first-year I/O Psychology doctoral student at Louisiana Tech University and project associate at AROS Consulting. His research interests include discrimination against the disabled, selection, and training. Fun Fact: Mike has been an avid bow hunter for years, and is proficient with both a compound bow and a crossbow. !8 Fall 2013 M EET O U R S T U DEN T S Jason Marks Jason received a bachelor’s in psychology from the State University of New York at Albany and is now a first-year student in the I/O doctoral program at Louisiana Tech. He has worked with various national non-profit organizations including the YMCA, the Boys and Girls Club, and Youth Advocate Programs. Jason hopes to use his experience with and knowledge of the non-profit sector to contribute to the success of future projects organized by AROS Consulting. His research interests include employee selection, assessment, recruitment, retention, and leadership skills training. Fun Fact: Jason is an avid basketball player and fan and tries his best to never miss a NY Knicks game. Lindsey Anderson Lindsey is originally from Henderson, TX and has earned bachelor’s degrees in both psychology and sociology from Louisiana State University in Shreveport, as well as a master’s degree in I/O Psychology from Louisiana Tech University. Her research interests include organizational politics, motivation, training and development, and employee health and well-being. Lindsey also serves as Secretary and Project Manager for AROS Consulting. Fun Fact: Lindsey’s favorite pastime is watching baseball. Go Yanks!! Bharati Belwalkar Bharati is a second-year doctoral student at Louisiana Tech University. Prior to joining a doctoral degree program, Bharati earned a master’s degree in I/O Psychology from Florida Institute of Technology. She interned with the Florida Institute of Technology Office of Human Resources while pursuing her master’s and worked as an Assessment Specialist for the City of Jacksonville following graduation. Currently, she is a designated Research Officer of the I/O doctoral program and a Project Associate at AROS Consulting. Her research interests are proactive personality, job analysis, cross-cultural work behaviors, and diversity issues in personnel selection. Fun Fact: Bharati speaks four languages fluently and possesses a functional knowledge of two others. !9 Fall 2013 M EET O U R S T U DEN T S Richard Chambers Originally from Minneapolis, Richard earned a bachelor’s in Psychology and Business Administration from the University of Wisconsin-River Falls. Currently, he is a second-year student in the Louisiana Tech I/O doctoral program. His research interests include technology and social media use in the workplace, employee selection, the use of social networking sites for selection, climate, work design, and psychometrics. Richard is also an active member of SIOP's Electronic Communications Committee and was recently selected to be the I/O representative for APA's Science Student Council. Fun Fact: Richard has played in the World Cup of Paintball. Brandon Dennis Brandon is originally from Murray, Utah. He completed his bachelor’s in Psychology and History from Utah Valley University and earned a master’s in Counseling Psychology from Forest Institute of Professional Psychology in Springfield, Missouri. Brandon is a second-year student in the Louisiana Tech I/O doctoral program and his research interests include motivation and emotions in the workplace. Fun Fact: Brandon lived in Spain for two years. Christopher Patton Christopher is a second-year doctoral student in the I/O doctoral program at Louisiana Tech University and a Project Associate at AROS Consulting. His current areas of research and consulting focus include training, selection, job analysis, creativity in the workplace, and employee motivation. Christopher received a master’s degree in I/O Psychology from Louisiana Tech University. Fun Fact: Christopher has completed a marathon and remains an avid runner. !1 0 Fall 2013 M EET O U R S T U DEN T S William Scanu William is originally from Genoa, Italy and holds bachelor’s in both Psychology and Sociology from the University of Georgia. William is currently a secondyear PhD student in the I/O psychology program at Louisiana Tech University. His research interests include personality, social influence techniques, personnel selection, executive coaching, and employment law. Currently, he is involved in the development of an assessment center for local and state government agencies and is leading a team responsible for conducting a needs assessment to construct a violence prevention training program. Fun Fact: William enjoys an arduous poker game and loves to work on his car’s engine. Evan Theys Originally from Michigan, Evan is currently in his second-year of the I/O doctoral program and serves as the Assistant Student Director for the program’s AROS Consulting group. While diligently and effectively completing consulting projects, Evan has also dived into I/O research encompassing various topics such as organizational justice, the application of professional sports data to I/O theory, and the role of reversal theory in applied psychology research. Fun Fact: Evan is a diehard Detroit sports fan! James De León James is from Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic and received a bachelor’s in Psychology from Eastern Connecticut State University and a master’s in I/O Psychology from Louisiana Tech University. Currently, James is a third-year student in the I/O Psychology doctoral program and serves as the Training Officer of AROS Consulting. He is currently working on the creation of an organizational climate item pool and researching job demands and counterproductive work behaviors. Fun Fact: James is an avid Yankees fan. !1 1 Fall 2013 M EET O U R S T U DEN T S Christopher Huynh Christopher is from Houston, TX and earned a master’s in I/O Psychology from Louisiana Tech University and a bachelor’s in Psychology from the University of Houston. As a third-year ABD doctoral candidate, Christopher is interested in a variety of research topics including climate, culture, ethics, emotional labor and justice. Fun Fact: Christopher loves to play sports in his spare time. Brittani Plaisance Brittani is originally from Thibodaux, Louisiana and earned her bachelor’s in Psychology and her master’s in Economic Development from the University of Southern Mississippi. Currently, Brittani is a third-year doctoral student and the Student Director of AROS Consulting. She is currently working on the creation of an organizational climate item pool, researching cognitive ability in selection contexts, and completing program-evaluation services for a client of AROS Consulting. Fun Fact: Brittani is a Harry Potter expert, and can tell you anything you want to know! Ann-Marie Rabalais Ann-Marie is a third-year doctoral student. She was born and raised in Bunkie, LA and received a bachelor’s in Psychology from the College of Charleston in South Carolina. Ann-Marie completed her master’s in Industrial/Organizational Psychology at Louisiana Tech University in 2011. Currently, she is researching employee motivation through a reversal-theory perspective and gender differences in leadership. Fun Fact: Ann-Marie is related to everyone. !1 2 Fall 2013 M EET O U R F A C U L TY Tilman Sheets Dr. Tilman Sheets received his PhD in Psychology with an emphasis in I/O Psychology from the University of Southern Mississippi. He is currently an associate professor and the Director of the I/O doctoral program at LA Tech. Dr. Sheets specializes in the areas of employee selection and organizational metrics. Mitzi Desselles Dr. Mitzi Desselles holds a PhD in I/O Psychology from Louisiana State University and currently serves as Coordinator of AROS Consulting. She has recently returned to academia and is an assistant professor in the graduate program. Dr. Desselles’ research area is the application of reversal theory to leadership, team effectiveness, and the management of change. Frank Igou Dr. Frank Igou is the Coordinator of the I/O Psychology Master’s Program and Assistant Professor of Psychology at Louisiana Tech. He holds a B.S. in Psychology from the University of Wisconsin – Oshkosh and an M.S. and Ph.D. in I/O Psychology from Auburn University. Dr. Igou has over 20 years of experience assisting organizations in areas relating to recruitment, selection, diversity issues, E.E.O.C. compliance and litigation support. Steven Toaddy Dr. Steven Toaddy earned a PhD in I/O Psychology from North Carolina State University and currently serves as an assistant professor specializing in organizationalside and psychometric topics. His primary research and practice interests all relate to the concept of justice and include new conceptions of organizational justice, the use of technology in organizations, survey design methodology, and the scholarship of teaching and learning. !1 3 Fall 2013 2013 STU D E N T RE S E A R C H Faculty Research: Desselles, M., Murphy, S. L., & Theys, E. R. (2013, May). The development of the reversal theory state measure. Paper presented at the Reversal Theory Conference, Reims, France. Desselles, M., Theys, E. R., & Walczyk, J. (2013, April). Explaining tolerance of deceit: A tale of two models. Poster session presented at the North Louisiana Behavioral and Social Sciences Conference, Ruston, LA. Desselles, M., Theys, E.R., & Walczyk, J. (2013, May). Predicting tolerance for deceit: Integrating reversal theory and the social norm model. Paper presented at the Reversal Theory Conference, Reims, France. Igou, F. P., Deselles, M., Theys, E. R., & Scanu, W. (2013, April). Could Sackett and Roth have saved New Haven? Poster session presented at the annual conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Houston, TX. Igou, F.P., & Rafilson, F. M. (2013, July). Score use method, adverse impact and utility estimation: An example using promotional procedure data. Paper presented at the annual conference of the International Personnel Assessment Council, Columbus, OH. Igou, F.P., Rafilson, F. M., & Mulay, D. S. (2013, July). Race, gender and structured oral Interview ratings. Paper presented at the annual conference of the International Personnel Assessment Council, Columbus, OH. Sheets, T. L., Castille, C. M., Chambers, R. J. II, Plaisance, B. E., D茅Leon, J. A., & Belwalkar, B. B. (2013, July). Content validation for higherorder factors: A pretest procedure. Paper presented at the annual conference of the International Personnel Assessment Council, Columbus, OH. Student Research: Anderson, L. M., Belwalkar, B. B., Arnold, D. H., & Plaisance, B. E. (2013, July). The Political Agenda: Exploring Biases in Job Analysis. Paper presented at the annual conference of the International Personnel Assessment Council, Columbus, OH. Arnold, D. H. & Anderson, L. M. (March 2013). Predicting disruptive innovation development: Do characteristics of the firm predict business model innovations? Paper presentation at the Louisiana Academy of Sciences Annual Conference, Grambling, LA. Arnold, D. H., Huynh, C. T. , DeLeon, J. A., & Dennis, B. E., & Anderson, L. M. (2013, April). Examining Public Service Motivation and Affective Commitment in School Teachers. Interactive poster session presented at the annual conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Houston, TX. Arnold, D. H., Murphy, S. L., Smith, S., & Igou, F. P. (2013, July). Documenting for Defensibility: A template and review of the documentation process in job analysis. Paper presented at the International Personnel Assessment Council Annual Conference, Columbus, OH. Belwalkar, B. B., Anderson, L. M., & Igou, F. P. (2013, July). Comparing models of calculating the criticality index in job analysis. Paper presented at the annual conference of the International Personnel Assessment Council, Columbus, OH. Belwalkar, B. B., Scanu, W., & Chambers, R. J. II (2013, March). Using behavioral game theory for team selection. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Louisiana Academy of Sciences, Grambling, LA. Belwalkar, B. B., & Sheets, T. L. (2013, February). Are emotionally mature sojourners really well adapted? Paper presented at the annual conference of the Society for Cross-Cultural Research, Mobile, AL. Belwalkar, B. B., & Tobacyk, J. T. (2013, April). Theoretical review of scale development. Paper presented at the North Louisiana Behavioral and Social Sciences conference, Ruston, LA. Castille, C. M., & Buckner, J. E., V. (2013, March). UF-NO! UFOs and cognitive dissonance. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Louisiana Academy of Sciences, Grambling, LA. Castille, C. M., & Simmering-Dickerson, M. (2013, November). The effectiveness of temporal separation of measurement for avoiding common method variance: A Bayesian Approach. Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Management Association, New Orleans, LA. Chambers, R. J. II, & Belwalkar, B. B. (2013, July). Meeting the needs of subject matter experts to increase positive outcomes. Paper presented at the annual conference of the International Personnel Assessment Council, Columbus, OH. De Le贸n, J. A., Huynh, C.T., & Sheets, T. L. (2013, March). Top executive succession and issues leading to performance. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Louisiana Academy of Sciences, Grambling, LA. De Le贸n, J. A., Theys, E. R., Dennis, B. E., Huynh, C.T., & Sheets, T. L. (2013, March). Choosing the right candidate: A look into performance in major league baseball. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Louisiana Academy of Sciences, Grambling, LA. Huynh, C. T., Rabalais, A. M., & Tobacyk. J. T. (2013, March). Revising the Core Self-Evaluations Scale: A Study Examining Academic Performance. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Louisiana Academy of Sciences, Grambling, LA. Patton, C. B. (2013, March). Creativity and conscientiousness in the workplace. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Louisiana Academy of Sciences, Grambling, LA. Plaisance, B. E., Napper, C., Igou, F. P., & Theys, E. R. (2013, July). Go for the screen! A demonstration of how to apply criterion validity to screening candidates using online recruitment sources. Paper presented at the annual conference of the International Personnel Assessment Council, Columbus, OH. Scanu, W., Arnold, D. H., & Igou, F. P. (2013, July). Utilizing Readability Tools for Item Generation in Assessment. Paper presented at annual conference of the International Personnel Assessment Council, Columbus, OH. Scanu, W. & Murphy, S.L. (2013, March). Are we content with content validity? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Louisiana Academy of Sciences, Grambling, LA. Theys, E. R., De Leon, J., Dennis, B.E., & Huynh, C. (2013, November). Pay for plays: Compensation and performance in professional baseball. Paper to be presented at the Southern Management Association Conference, New Orleans, LA. Theys, E. R., & Desselles, M. (2013, March). Metamotivational State and Group Cohesion: Reversal Theory in Teams. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Louisiana Academy of Sciences, Grambling, LA. External Submissions: Buckner, J., Dykstra-Long, G., De Le贸n, J. A. (2013, May). Exploring employee well-being: combining the job demand-control and job demand- r esource models. Poster session presented at the annual conference of the Association for Psychological Science, Washington, DC. Mahoney, K. T., Dennis, B. E., Smoak, V. J., Chauvin, I., & Buboltz, W. C. (2013, May). Emotional labor and counseling professionals. Poster session presented at the annual conference of the Association for Psychological Science, Washington, DC. !1 4 Fall 2013 PHOTOS !1 5 Fall 2013 CONTRIBUTING TO THE CAUSE ! Our Applied Research and Organizational Solutions work group provides students with the opportunity to work on project with a variety of companies and non-profit organizations. Currently, money associated with any project is donated to the Louisiana Tech I/O PhD program. ! Additional information is available at our website: http://www.arosconsulting.org Want to know more? Contact us! Louisiana Tech University Department of Psychology P.O. Box 3163 Ruston, LA 71272 Phone: (318) 257-3008 Fax: (318) 257-3442 AROS@arosconsulting.org http://www.latech.edu/education/psychology/iophd/ !1 6