Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12
Official handbook for the Kenya Airports Authority, published by Land & Marine Publications Ltd.
Kenya airports authority Handbook 2011-12 To advertise in this e-edition please contact Lester Powell at Land & Marine Publications Ltd. Tel: +44 (0)1206 752902 or Email: email@example.com Kenya airports authority Handbook 2011-12 3 ForeWord on course For A top-FliGHt Airport sYstem 4 settinG our siGHts HiGH proFile oF KenYA Airports AutHoritY 8 KenYA Airports AutHoritY contActs 1 10 Airports As economic enGines Airports development spurs locAl economies; Keeps nAtionAl economY HumminG 15 JKiA set to trAnsForm into AFricA’s AviAtion HuB eXpAnsion set to douBle pAssenGer cApAcitY At JKiA 19 trAdeWinds AviAtion Group KcAA plAns For sAFer sKies contents 20 Best oF tHe Best JKiA AGAin Wins routes mArKetinG AWArd For AFricA 22 JKiA is AFricA’s premier cArGo HuB eXpAnsion turns JKiA into A FresH produce HuB 24 siGinon Group 26 KeepinG tHe Birds AWAY For pAssenGer And AircrAFt sAFetY At JKiA 28 momBAsA internAtionAl Airport tourism spurs GroWtH At momBAsA 33 cArGo is BiG Business For eldoret FolloWinG mAKe-over Airport stimulAtes Horticulture industrY in reGion 38 supportinG tourism And Aid eFForts in tHe reGion Wilson GroWs to Be AFricA’s Busiest liGHt AircrAFt Airport 40 mAlindi set to HAndle direct internAtionAl FliGHts 42 reAdY For internAtionAl stAtus Kisumu Airport set For tAKe-oFF WitH eXpAnsion oF eAc 44 WAJir militArY AirBAse AdApts Well to HAndlinG civil FliGHts 45 loKicHoGGio, tHe HuB oF HumAnitAriAn FliGHts 47 uKundA set to HAndle reGionAl FliGHts As tourism numBers continue to climB 48 mAndA to Get neW terminAl BuildinG this Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 is published by: lanD & marine puBlications (Kenya) ltD suite A6, 1st Floor, ojijo plaza, plums lane, off ojijo road parklands, po Box 2022, village market 00621 nairobi, Kenya tel: +254 (0)20 374 1934 • cell: 0722 731003 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org • Website: www.landmarine.com pictures supplied by: denis Gathanju and KAA the opinions expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of the editor nor of any other organisation associated with this publication. no liability can be accepted for any inaccuracies or omissions issn 2046-5416 © 2011 land & marine publications (Kenya) ltd Kenya airports authority (hQ) p0 Box 19001-00501, nairobi, Kenya tel: +254 (0)20 661 1000, 661 2000 Fax: +254 (0)20 822 078 email: email@example.com Web: www.kenyaairports.co.ke Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 3 Eng. Stephen M. Gichuki Managing Director Kenya Airports Authority (KAA) The Kenya Airports Authority is committed to seamless connections through our national and international airports. This we can achieve through partnerships with key players, both in the public and private sector. In order to provide aviation services that are unmatched in the region and subscribe to international best practice, the KAA has undertaken capital intensive programmes of rehabilitation, modernisation and expansion at the country’s key airports and airstrips. This is driven on the one hand by market forces and on the other by a desire to provide efficient facilities that meet safety standards for the aircraft, passengers and cargo using our airports. JKIA, the main airport in Kenya and the regional aviation hub for East and Central Africa, is undergoing a massive expansion that will more than double its annual passenger capacity to 10 million. The airport will have a new Terminal 4 building. EXPANSION The expansion programme at our principal airport also includes an expanded cargo handling capacity. This makes JKIA the largest and busiest hub in Africa for fresh produce. With the expanded airport facilities comes an enhanced security system for both cargo and passenger traffic. Currently, JKIA handles more than 300 million kilograms of cargo annually. This is more than other regional hubs such as Johannesburg and Cairo. To underline this fact, JKIA was recently voted the Best Airport in Africa and the Best Cargo Airport in the Emerging Markets Category. As part of the expansion programme at JKIA, the KAA has announced the development of a new terminal at JKIA to complement the current expansion programme at JKIA. The new ‘Greenfield Terminal’ at JKIA will be delinked from the existing airport termini and will have the capacity to handle up to 20 million passengers per year. It will have 50 international and 10 domestic check-in counters and will be one of the most KAA invests in human capital and product improvement On course for a topflight airport system environmentally friendly termini in Africa as the new terminal will be certified by the World Green Building Council. At KAA, we acknowledge that airports are no longer entry and exit points; we see them as important cogs in the growth and development of economies. For this reason, we have continued to expand and develop our airports to meet the needs of a growing Kenyan economy that is interlinked with regional economies. This is evident at our other airports, such as Eldoret International Airport and Kisumu Airport, which are at critical stages of development to serve the emerging economies in the Great Lakes region. As we continue to develop and expand our airports, the KAA has been working closely with the airlines, both passenger and cargo, that fly into our airports. This partnership is geared at identifying areas in which we need to improve on service delivery. Because of this, JKIA, our principal airport, has clinched, for the third time in a row, the Routes Marketing Award. To ensure that we continue to offer the highest customer service at our airports, especially at JKIA, we are facilitating a benchmarking agreement with Incheon International Airport in Seoul, South Korea. Incheon is rated one of the best airports not only in Asia but in the world in terms of customer service. In the quest for enhanced customer service, we are continuously investing in our human resource capital through constant training workshops, geared to making us friendly and responsive to the needs of our direct and indirect customers. We welcome your feedback as we seek to build the airport system of choice in the region. Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 4 Dominic Ngigi Corporate Communications Manager Kenya Airports Authority (KAA) Setting our sights high Profile of Kenya Airports Authority The Kenya Airports Authority (KAA) was established in 1991 by an Act of Parliament (Chapter 395 of Laws of Kenya). Under the Act, KAA is mandated to: • Administer, control and manage aerodromes in the country • Provide and maintain facilities for efficient aircraft operations • Provide rescue and fire-fighting equipment and services • Construct, operate and maintain aerodromes and other related activities • Construct or maintain aerodromes on an agency basis at the request of any government department • Provide other amenities for passengers and other persons using the services and facilities provided by the KAA • Approve the establishment of private airstrips and the control of their operations. The KAA works with other government agencies and departments, most notably the Kenya Civil Aviation Authority (KCAA), which is responsible for air navigational services and civil aviation regulation. It also collaborates with the Ministry of Transport, which is responsible for policy formulation and approval of aviation tariffs. vision statement: ‘To be the airport System Hub of Choice’ mission statement: ‘To facilitate seamless connectivity through provision of efficient and effective airports facilities and services in an environmentally sustainable manner to exceed stakeholder expectations’ Quality status: ISO 9001-2000 certified KAA-managed aerodrome facilities: 1. Jomo Kenyatta International Airport 2. Moi International Airport 3. Eldoret International Airport 4. Wilson Airport 5. Kisumu Airport 6. Malindi Airport 7. Lokichoggio Airport 8. Ukunda Airstrip 9. Manda Airstrip 10. Wajir Airport. The KAA also provides technical expertise on maintenance of public airstrips on behalf of the government on an agency basis. Operations and major business areas: • Landing and parking facilities • Air bridge services • Aviation fuel concession • Ground transport concession • Advertising • Duty-free concession • Building and land rent • Retail concession (banking services, business centre, catering, foreign exchange bureaux, etc) • Car parking • Passenger and cargo facilitation. Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 KAA institutional set-up 5 BOARD OF DIRECTORS MANAGING DIRECTOR DEPUTY MANAGING DIRECTOR CORPORATION SECRETARY GM Finance GM Projects & Engineering Services GM Human Resources Development HOD, Corporate Planning & Strategy GM Security Services GM Marketing & Business Development HOD, Internal Audit GM Information Communication Technology HOD, Procurement & Logistics Airfield and terminal capacity projects at JKIA, Nairobi Summary of JKIA major projects ACTIVITY OUTPUT E/COST STATUS FUNDING KES MILLIONS 1 Package 1: Upgrade runway, taxiway and apron capacity 12 additional aircraft parking slots and fuel hydrant 2,640 Complete 2 Construction of T4 building T4 and parking garage 4,900 Clearance by AFD KAA WB- USD 14M AFD-USD 46M 3 Reorganisation of terminals 1,2,3 and the arrivals building Additional space and 12 boarding bridges 6,200 Tender document preparation EIB/KAA 4 Cargo apron expansion Five parking bays, car parks and dual road 1,582 Substantially complete KAA 5 Sewerage capacity upgrade Expanded gravity flow sewer capacity 773 Substantially complete KAA 6 Rehabilitation of aircraft Resurfacing of runway and repair pavements to taxiways and apron 1,980 Tender document preparation AFD 7 Runway capacity improvement Construction of new rapid exit taxiways 2,128 Tender document preparation AFD 8 Upgrading of instrument Upgrading of instrument to Cat II landing system 948 Tender document preparation AFD 9 225 complete KAA/WB 10 Security screening equipment Procurement of security screening equipment. To enhance screen of passengers, baggage and mail Fire-fighting equipment Purchase of six new fire engines 92 complete WB 11 Construction of a new domestic Construction of a temporal domestic terminal of terminal Package 5- Lot A 7500 sq.m plus associated car par and civil works 750 million Tender document preparation 12 New Greenfield Terminal Construction of a new passenger terminal building of 500 million (USD) Package 5 â€“ Lot B floor area about 172000 sq.m, with 32 No. contact gates plus 8 No. remote gates, associated apron with 45 stands together with linking taxiways, car parks and landside road access and all utilities KAA Tenders advertised. Preparation of Terms of reference is currently underway. Construction is to be on design and build basis Airfield and terminal capacity projects at principal airports in Kenya Other airports ACTIVITY OUTPUT E/COST STATUS FUNDING KES MILLIONS 1 Mombasa International Airport: Sustain pavement strength and serviceability Pavement rehabilitation 3,800 Tender documents KAA 2 1,300 Detailed design KAA 3 Kisumu Airport: Extension of runway from 2075m to 3000m and Redevelopment of facilities widening from 30m to 45m 2,952 Completed KAA 4 Malindi: Terminal building Increase passenger processing capacity 80 Completed KAA 5 Malindi: Runway resurfacing Sustain pavement strength and serviceability 125 Completed KAA 6 Manda: Pavement expansion study Wilson Airport: Upgrade of New terminal building terminal facilities Bigger runway and sustained pavement strength and serviceability 25 Completed KAA Manda: Terminal Building Increased passenger processing capacity construction 100 Completed KAA 7 777 Construction MOT Wajir: Pavement rehabilitation Sustain pavement strength and serviceability 8 Isiolo: Fencing Securing airport against intrusion 75 Construction Construction of runway and New aircraft pavements aircraft pavements 1,500 Tender documents Terminal building New passenger processing capacity 160 Tendering 9 National Airports System Plan Updated NASP 138 In progress KAA KAA Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 7 KAA performance FISCAL YEAR 2004/5 2005/6 2006/7 2007/8 2008/9 190,099 201,289 207,280 OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE Aircraft movements 195,578 197,137 Passengers 5,660,680 6,187,053 6,589,474 6,685,972 6,630,000 Cargo (tonnes) 253,246 284,863 293,554 320,547 302,000 FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE Revenue (KES millions) 3,907 5,161 5,391 5,071 5,707 Expenditure (KES millions) (2,718) (3,242) (2,949) (3,202) (4,070) Operating income (KES millions) 1,189 1,919 2,697 1,869 1,637 o Upgrade of common-user terminal equipment for airport operation data that help in traffic management and service delivery o Installation of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) in Mission Critical areas o Upgraded website to facilitate, inter alia, interaction with stakeholders. Optimise revenue generation Plans Review of land use to identify sites for commercial activities through areas of Public Private Partnerships (PPP). In Jomo Kenyatta International Airport these areas include: To serve our mandate by ensuring: 1. Medical Clinic • Airfield and terminal capacity adequacy • Maintenance of safety and security • Improvement of service efficiency • Optimise revenue generation • Compliance with environmental rules on carbon neutrality • Review of KAA Act to optimise Board representation, eliminate regulatory overlap with KCAA and recast the business in terms of commercial operations and the management of security and safety. 2. Airport Food Court Enhancement of safety and security Safety and security at the airports: 24-hour activity reinforced by: • Enhanced intelligence gathering capability • Security fence • Installation of modern communication and security screening equipment (scanners and CCTV) • Upgrade of fire cover • Pavement safety • Runway maintenance • Strict verification of applications for airside access passes • Management of birds and wildlife • Regular security audits and training of key staff • Ongoing harmonisation of security procedures in EA region. Improvement of service efficiency • Enforcing service excellence through service level agreements with concessionaires and other third party service providers • Participating in the ACI quarterly service quality surveys and using feedback to enhance service quality • Business process automation with the following activities already in progress: 3. Airport Transit Hotel 4. In-Flight Catering Kitchen 5. Transit Warehouses 6. Aircraft Maintenance Hangars. Land for packhouses (warehouses with cold rooms) and transit facilities at Moi International Airport and Kisumu International Airport has also been identified. Sound environmental management • KAA complies with statutory environmental requirements in its operations • KAA is commencing a project in conjunction with ACI Africa to comply with carbon neutrality requirements • Airline operators are upgrading their fleets with fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly new-generation aircraft • Energy audit on KAA’s facilities is ongoing with a view to eliminating wastage. Challenges • Encroachment on airport land that undermines security and safety management as well as facility expansion • Dynamism in safety and security threats • Limited resources to meet customer demands on time • Over-regulation of KAA’s operations. Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 8 Kenya Airports Authority Contacts Kenya Airports Authority (HQ) Kisumu Airport P0 Box 19001-00501, Nairobi Tel : +254 (0)20 661 1000, 661 2000 Fax: +254 (0)20 822 078 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.kenyaairports.co.ke PO Box 13, Kisumu Tel: +254 (0)57 202 0811 Fax: +254 (0)57 202 1857 Jomo Kenyatta International Airport PO Box 19087-00501, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0)20 822 111, 661 1000, 661 2000 Fax: +254 (0)20 822 930 Moi International Airport PO Box 93004, Mombasa Tel: +254 (0)41 343 32111 Fax: +254 (0)41 343 3220, +254 (0)41 343 4434 Wajir Airport PO Box 512 â€“ 70200, Wajir Tel: +254 (0)46 421 019 Fax: +254 ()46 421 362 LokichogGio Airport PO Box 88, Lokichoggio Tel: +254 (0)54 32266 Fax: +254 (0)54 32440 Ukunda Airstrip Eldoret International Airport PO Box 139, Kwale Tel: +254 (0)40 320 2126 PO Box 2323, Eldoret Tel: +254 (0)53 206 3377 Fax: +254 (0)53 60337 Manda Airstrip Wilson Airport PO Box 19005, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0)20 603 260/77 Fax: +254 (0)20 601 496 Malindi AirPORT PO Box 67, Malindi Tel: +254 (0)42 31201 Fax: +254 (0)42 31840 PO Box 167, Lamu Tel: +254 (0)42 632018 Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 9 S OUTHERN SUDAN ETHIOPIA Lokichoggio LOKICHOGGIO AIRPORT Ramu Lodwar EASTERN Marsabit U GANDA Wajir WAJIR AIRPORT RIFT VALLEY K E N Y A Kitale WESTERN Kakamega ELDORET INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT NORTH EASTERN Mado Gashi Eldoret Isiolo Nanyuki KISUMU AIRPORT Kisumu Nakuru Nyeri Kericho CENTRAL NYANZA Narok Thika NAIROBI WILSON AIRPORT Garissa Embu EASTERN JOMO KENYATTA INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT Magadi Lamu Garsen MANDA AIRSTRIP COAST TANZANIA MALINDI AIRPORT Malindi INDIAN OCEAN MOI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT Mombasa UKUNDA AIRSTRIP Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 10 Airports as economic engines Airports development spurs local economies and keeps national economy humming Airports have long ceased to be merely entry and exit points. Over the years they have been transformed into vital economic engines for the nations they serve. The economic benefits that come with a vibrant 24-hour airport operation have become a major focus for many countries, especially in the developing economies. Leisure and business travel continue to show tremendous growth as the world gradually shrinks into a global village. And as businesses and corporations from the developed economies continue to seek new markets, especially in the emerging economies of Africa, the Middle East, the Asia Pacific region and Latin America, the critical role played by airports in harnessing business linkages cannot be understated. Air travel into and out of these regions has grown as business and commerce continue to thrive, and this in turn has placed a greater emphasis on airports playing a pivotal role in helping spur business and trade in these regions by offering first-rate connections worldwide. According to statistics from the Kenya Tourism Board, business travel through Nairobi has overtaken leisure travel in the past few years, further underlining the pivotal role played by Nairobiâ€™s Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA) in advancing business growth in Kenya. Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 11 LEFT: A Kenya Airways jet stops at a boarding bridge for international arrivals at JKIA BELOW LEFT: Construction of the new apron and Terminal 4 at JKIA RIGHT: Nairobi skyline BELOW: JKIA handles fresh produce straight from the farms for export to European markets In Kenya, air travel has gradually expanded over the past two decades. This, together with the fact that Nairobi has become a diplomatic, hospitality, banking, manufacturing, aviation and commercial hub for the whole of East and Central Africa, has further enhanced the development of Kenya’s aviation sector and its airports. Floriculture and horticulture The exponential growth and development of the Kenyan economy, especially the floriculture and horticulture subsectors, has fuelled the development of a first-rate aviation infrastructure. The industry has seen remarkable growth over the past 20 years to become one of the leading foreign exchange earners for Kenya and the largest in Africa. Its development has seen JKIA transformed into a logistical cargo hub not only for Kenya, but for the entire region. As the subsectors continue to grow, JKIA has a key role to play in the development of the industry. A sign of this trend is the expansion of cargo facilities at the airport. JKIA has become the largest and busiest cargo hub in Africa, with the capacity to handle fresh produce straight from the farms for export to European markets. As well as handling produce from Kenyan farms, the cargo termini at JKIA process fresh farm produce for export from neighbouring countries such as Uganda, Rwanda and Tanzania. JKIA now has the largest and most modern cold rooms in Africa for fresh produce. Aside from JKIA, Eldoret International Airport (EIA), Kenya’s third-largest air gateway, located in the North Rift region, is billed as a new economic engine that will enhance the growth and development of fresh farm produce exports from western Kenya. The airport is centrally located in some of Kenya’s most fertile farmlands and could play a pivotal role in developing floriculture and horticulture in the region. Nairobi’s growing stature With a booming Kenyan economy has come a rising middle class and an enhanced business environment that has seen Kenya’s small and medium-sized enterprises flourish. This has led to an increase in efficient air connections from Nairobi to key markets in the Middle East and Far East that has been achieved through the continued expansion of the national carrier, Kenya Airways. Many regional and international carriers now fly into Nairobi to take advantage of the business opportunities arising from Kenya’s expanding economy. This has significantly reduced travel time to Europe, Africa and Asia and has made Kenya a favoured business destination in the region, thanks to JKIA. The effectiveness of JKIA as an aviation hub has strengthened Nairobi’s key role in the region as a meeting place for diplomats and business people. In addition, Nairobi is home to the global headquarters of the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and the United Nations Human Settlements Agency (UN-Habitat). Each year, the United Nations Office in Nairobi (UNON) pumps more than $350 million into the Kenyan economy, with some of the revenue coming from the many international meetings hosted by the city. Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 14 Airline-airport hub concept The ambitious expansion of Kenya Airways, arguably the most successful and fully privatised airline in Africa, underlines the critical role played by JKIA in the Kenyan economy. Kenya Airways has seen remarkable growth over the past decade. According to its CEO, Titus Naikuni, this growth could not have been achieved without an efficient air hub capable of handling the huge passenger and cargo traffic generated by Kenya Airways. Under this partnership, the Kenya Airports Authority (KAA) and Kenya Airways are working closely to develop the airport into a successful airport-airline hub concept similar to Amsterdam Schiphol-KLM and London Heathrow-British Airways. According to Naikuni, this concept will be a great driver for economic growth and development, not only for the airline and the airport, but also for the entire Kenyan economy. Tourism The expansion of Kenya Airways and the entry of new regional and international carriers flying into JKIA has not only provided business and diplomatic travellers excellent air links, but has also helped fuel Kenya’s booming tourism industry. JKIA not only serves as the aviation gateway to Kenya and the whole region, but also provides feeder traffic and support to Kenya’s secondlargest airport, Moi International Airport (MIA) at Mombasa. While MIA serves both passenger and cargo aircraft into and out of the coastal city, the airport also serves a large number of chartered airlines, especially from key tourism source markets in Europe. According to the Ministry of Tourism, this has helped develop Kenya’s tourism product through excellent air links between the holiday resort and key European markets such as France, Germany, Italy and the UK. Nairobi’s second airport, Wilson Airport, also has a critical role to play in developing Kenya as a tourism destination. Located south of Nairobi, Wilson is Africa’s busiest airport for light aircraft and the source of many flights to and from principal tourist desti- ABOVE: The expansion of Kenya Airways has helped fuel Kenya’s booming tourism industry BELOW: Light aircraft form a vital link for many safaris nations such as the Masai Mara National Reserve in the south, Samburu National Reserve in the north and holiday resorts such as Diani in the South Coast, Mombasa, Malindi and Lamu Island. Figures from Kenya Tourism Board (KTB) show that tourism generated more than US$1.1 billion in 2010 compared with US$980 million in 2009. As Kenya continues to focus on domestic and conference tourism, the KAA has reported handling more than 40,000 highvalue conference customers at its principal airports in 2010. This, according to both KAA and KTB, is the result of leveraging on Kenya’s growing stature as a regional conferencing hub. Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 15 Simon Githaiga Airport Manager Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA) JKIA set to transform into Africa’s aviation hub Expansion set to double passenger capacity at JKIA Once dogged by a crumbling infrastructure and misguided investment policies that were never implemented, Kenya has recently seen a radical shift in its investment policies. This has led to a huge investment programme by the government aimed at overhauling the nation’s infrastructure. The shift in investment policy is driven largely by the demands of a robust and ever-expanding economy and guided by the nation’s ambition to become a middleincome, industrialised economy by 2030. opments across the country. Key among the planned upgrades is the transport sector, which over the years has been starved of investment in its crumbling yet vital infrastructure. Some facilities have received no upgrading or regular maintenance since they were first built in the 1970s. This, coupled with the nation’s steadily growing population, has further put a strain on the ageing facilities, stretching them to the brink of collapse. The government has pumped millions of dollars into upgrading the infrastructure as well as planning new infrastructural devel- One such facility is the nation’s principal air gateway, Nairobi’s Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA), which also provides BELOW: Airlines that fly into JKIA Regional aviation hub Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 16 ABOVE: $200 million makeover for JKIA FAR RIGHT: JKIA will be transformed into Africa’s premier aviation hub a passenger and cargo hub for the whole region. Nairobi’s growing status as the region’s aviation, communications, medical, banking and diplomatic hub has been a key factor in pushing up traffic at the airport in the past few years. Kenya’s growing middle class and the expansion of small and medium-sized businesses have helped to fuel the growth in passenger and cargo traffic at the airport. So has the fact that multinational companies and businesses as well as non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have chosen Nairobi as the site of their regional headquarters. In addition, Nairobi is the only Third World city to host the global headquarters of two major United Nations agencies – the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and the United Nations Settlement Programme (UN-Habitat). This means that Nairobi plays host to high-level diplomatic meets all year round, with JKIA being the principal entry and exit point. Expansion of Kenya Airways Meanwhile, national carrier Kenya Airways has embarked on an ambitious route expansion and fleet modernisation programme in the past decade that has seen the airline increase its passenger and cargo volumes into and out of Nairobi. Today, the airline JKIA STATISTICS ITEM << ACTUAL PROJECTED >> 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AIRCRAFT Domestic 13,902 15,936 23,479 25,085 25,004 29,149 30,023 International 43,685 45,580 49,213 51,188 55,191 58,188 59,934 Total 57,587 61,516 72,692 76,273 80,195 87,337 89,957 PASSENGERS Domestic 629,326 646,960 850,085 892,167 908,774 963,598 1,011,778 International 2,706,601 2,859,444 3,060,469 2,876,393 3,163,013 3,421,004 3,592,054 Transit 903,020 942,628 951,152 982,599 1,006,181 1,101,169 1,156,227 Total 4,238,947 4,449,032 4,861,706 4,751,159 5,077,968 5,485,771 5,760,060 FREIGHT Domestic 3,484,091 3,050,487 1,257,946 6,845,904 1,264,179 1,522,470 1,674,717 International 200,353,873 239,443,091 275,623,371 293,891,078 261,805,894 226,747,960 249,422,756 Total 203,837,964 242,493,578 276,881,317 300,736,982 263,070,073 229,850,286 252,835,315 Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 17 operates one of the youngest fleets in the African skies and is continuously acquiring larger aircraft such as the Boeing 777. According to its CEO, Titus Naikuni, the rapid expansion of the national carrier is in line with its strategy to develop an airline-airport hub concept similar to KLM at Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam and British Airways at Heathrow Airport in London. Over the past decade Kenya Airways has expanded its routes in Africa, the Middle East and Asia, making it the fastest growing and most dominant airline in Africa, offering first-rate connections worldwide. The expansion of Kenya Airways notwithstanding, Kenya’s growing economy and the role played by Nairobi as a regional hub for products and services has attracted regional and international carriers to JKIA. The ripple effect of all the combined forces has been serious congestion at the airport, especially at peak times in the morning and evening. $200 million make-over gers and about 1 million tonnes of cargo. When construction is complete in 2013, JKIA is expected to have doubled in area from 25,662 square metres to 55,222 square metres. According to Engineer Stephen Gichuki, managing director of the KAA, the planned expansion at JKIA will not only increase the airport’s capacity but also turn it into Africa’s premier aviation hub, offering seamless international connections. Given all these factors, JKIA has come under intense pressure and its capacity has been stretched to the limit. Built 28 years ago, the airport was designed to handle about 2.5 million passengers a year, but now deals with about 5 million passengers. This has led to urgent demands for an immediate upgrade of the airport and auxiliary infrastructure to meet current demand and allow for future growth. According to Gichuki, the already completed Phase I has expanded aircraft parking space from 200,000 square metres with 23 stands to well over 300,000 square meters with 37 stands. Two additional taxiways were also constructed in Phase I. Over the past two years, through the Kenya Airports Authority (KAA), the government has earmarked more than $200 million for rehabilitation and expansion of facilities at the airport. Also in Phase I, there is an expanded apron stretching from the soon-to-be-constructed Terminal 4 passenger complex to the cargo village. KAA’s cargo commercial manager, William Simbah, said this would allow simultaneous loading of up to five wide-bodied cargo aircraft compared with three previously. Under this three-phase programme, which commenced in 2007, the airport’s passenger and cargo handling capacity will be increased to meet current and projected demand. Once construction and upgrades are complete, its annual capacity will be increased to more than 10 million passen- 2012 2013 2014 2015 JKIA is one of the largest and fastest growing cargo hubs in Africa, thanks to a robust Kenyan economy and an everexpanding fresh produce subsector catering for the Kenyan and regional markets. To make sure the airport stays competitive, the KAA has issued tenders for the construction of three 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 39,174 30,924 31,852 32,807 33,792 34,805 35,850 36,925 38,033 61,732 63,584 65,491 67,456 69,480 71,564 73,711 75,922 78,200 92,656 95,435 98,299 101,248 104,285 107,413 110,636 113,955 117,374 1,062,367 1,115,485 1,171,259 1,229,822 1,291,313 1,355,879 1,423,673 1,494,857 1,569,600 3,771,657 3,960,240 4,158,252 4,366,164 4,584,473 4,813,696 5,054,381 5,307,100 5,572,455 1,214,039 1,274,741 1,338,478 1,405,402 1,475,672 1,549,455 1,626,928 1,708,275 1,793,688 6,048,063 6,350,466 6,667,989 7,001,388 7,351,458 7,719,031 8,104,982 8,510,231 8,935,743 1,842,189 2,026,408 2,229,048 2,451,953 2,697,148 2,966,863 3,263,550 3,589,905 3,948,895 274,365,032 301,801,535 331,981,688 365,179,857 401,697,843 441,867,627 486,054,390 534,659,829 588,125,812 278,118,846 305,930,731 336,523,804 370,176,184 407,193,803 447,913,183 492,704,501 541,974,951 596,172,446 Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 18 warehouses under a build, operate and transfer (BOT) arrangement. According to Gichuki, the whole of Phase I has been financed by KAA at a total cost of US$40.2 million. Enhanced airport security After some delays, the second and most critical expansion phase at JKIA has begun. According to Gichuki, this will involve construction of the long-awaited Terminal 4 passenger complex to help alleviate congestion. The new complex will handle domestic arrivals and departures as well as international arrivals. Total cost is put at US$72.3 million, with the World Bank contributing US$14 million. Phase II will include a new three-storey car park complex with a basement and a footbridge linking the car park to the arrivals terminal. This phase will also see the installation of seven new boarding gates, increasing the number of gates to 21. The second phase will not only transform JKIA into an ultramodern facility but will also make the airport more secure. In a post-September 11 world, airport security is of paramount importance. Kenya has borne the brunt of terrorism in the past and security was a key item to be considered at Africaâ€™s secondbusiest airport. While many airports across the world have installed bollards or reinforced concrete blast walls to enhance security, JKIA is going a step further by keeping vehicle traffic away from the terminal buildings. Blast barriers and shrapnel protectors, disguised as planters, will guide cars toward a remote parking facility from where passengers will disembark and undergo security checks. Security will further be enhanced in Phase III by introducing separate facilities for departing and arriving passengers. Under the third and final upgrading phase, KAA will construct an additional floor on all three termini so that arriving passengers will have their own space, separate from departing passengers. At a cost of US$92 million, Phase III will put the final touches to JKIAâ€™s makeover. Under this phase, Terminals 1 and 2 and the international arrivals complex will be renovated. It will also include the construction of an airside corridor to separate arriving and departing passengers as well as the installation of 12 new boarding bridges. With the planned expansion under way, the strategic location of JKIA and the ever-growing status of Nairobi as a commercial and diplomatic hub, the airport is continuing to see a growth in aircraft movements. Foreign carriers have been flocking to JKIA over the past three years to take advantage of the new opportunities in the region. Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 19 Tradewinds Aviation Group Tradewinds Aviation Group is a privately owned company based at the Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, Nairobi, Moi International Airport, Mombasa and Stansted Airport, UK. The group comprises Tradewinds Logistics and Tradewinds Aviation Services. It has been operating in Kenya for 18 years and has made a major contribution to the development of Kenya’s aviation industry. Operating 24 hours a day, it employs over 700 highly skilled personnel. KCAA plans for safer skies Kenya Civil Aviation Authority (KCAA) was established on 24 October 2002 by the Civil Aviation (Amendment) Act 2002. Its mandate is to plan, develop, manage, regulate and operate a safe, economically sustainable and efficient civil aviation system in Kenya, in accordance with the provisions of the Civil Aviation Act Cap. 394. KCAA carries out its mandate through three Operational Directorates and one Support Directorate, namely, Aviation Safety Standards and Regulation, Air Navigation Services, East African School of Aviation and Corporate Services. The group’s services include: These tasks are performed under the following key functions: Operational Services • Aircraft handling (inbound and outbound), aircraft weight and balance, load supervision, crew transport and import export documentation. • Its Nairobi base offers an extensive communications network providing up-to-the-minute information to crews and headquarters. General Cargo • Large agent worldwide network ensures consignments are quickly and safely dispatched. • Efficient cargo tracking and tracing systems. • Excellent working relationships with the Nairobi warehouse operators: African Cargo Handling, Kenya Airfreight Handling, Transglobal Cargo Centre and Cargo Service Centre. Together these offer comprehensive warehousing services including strong rooms, cold rooms and animal handling. • Arrangement and management of inland haulage. Ramp Handling • Complete ground handling service at JKIA since 2004. • From light aircraft to Boeing 747-400 and Antonov 124 Freighters. • Extensive investment in ground handling equipment. • Oversight Functions: Aviation safety and security regulation to cover safety and security oversight and air transport economic regulation • Service Provision (Operators): Air Navigation Services (ANS) and East African School of Aviation (EASA) in the provision of ANS services for the safe operation of aircraft in Kenyan and other delegated airspaces; and provision of aviation training • Support Functions: Support services including finance; human capital and administration; internal audit and quality assurance; corporate communications; legal; procurement; ICT; and corporate planning services. Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 20 Best of the best Lucy Mbugua KAA Marketing and Business Development General Manager JKIA again wins Routes Marketing Award for Africa For the third time in a row, Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA) has won the prestigious Routes Marketing Award for the African Airports category. The award was presented to JKIA at the 16th World Routes Airport Marketing Awards in Vancouver in September 2010. Having clinched the coveted title in 2008 and in 2009, the latest award underlines the benefits of the ongoing expansion programme at east and central Africa’s largest and busiest air hub. The expansion programme at JKIA began in 2007 and is due for completion by 2013. It will more than double the airport’s current capacity to 10 million passengers a year. Healthy airport-airline relationship Lucy Mbugua, the Kenya Airports Authority (KAA) General Manager in charge of marketing and business development, says the Routes Marketing Award is particularly prestigious since the votes are cast by the airport’s customers – the airlines. She said: “The award is indicative of the healthy relationship cultivated between the airlines and JKIA. While voting for the airports, the airlines consider a wide range of factors such as customer service and available airport facilities.” Ms Mbugua added: “The KAA has undertaken a number of marketing activities at JKIA focused on rewarding loyal customers, increasing airport capacity, expanding our market share while providing quality customer service. This award is a testament that we are on the right track as we have witnessed unprecedented growth of six per cent in passenger traffic, three per cent in aircraft traffic and a 7.4 per cent increase in cargo.” According to Ms Mbugua, JKIA’s success can be attributed to the quarterly customer satisfaction surveys and the product improvement exercise that have enabled the airport to deliver an improved service. This exercise in product improvement targets all the customer contact points, from entry to the airport to check-in, security, lounges, shopping, boarding, arrival procedures and landscaping as well as cargo. According to Simon Githaiga, Airport Manager of JKIA, the award could not have come at a better time: JKIA is undergoing a major expansion programme that will see its passenger capacity more than doubled, while cargo capacity will also be increased; and it has the largest and most modern fresh produce facility in Africa. Second runway Mr Githaiga said: “We are currently at the second phase of the expansion programme that will witness the completion of Terminal 4 at JKIA and we are looking at constructing a second runway at JKIA once the third and final phase of the expansion programme is completed in the next two years. Under this phase, Terminals 1, 2 and 3 will be refurbished and expanded by constructing another floor on top of the existing complex.” According to Mr Githaiga, a second runway is critical for the future development and expansion of the airport as it transforms into an aviation hub for the region: it will not only come with auxiliary infrastructure, such as new terminal buildings and cargo handling terminals, but will also ensure a smooth operation at the airport should the current runway be rendered unusable in the event of an aircraft suffering a mechanical or technical failure. “We have also witnessed increased interest from existing airlines that seek to add frequencies into Nairobi and new airlines that are seeking landing rights into the airport,” said Mr Githaiga. “Some other airlines have even inquired about landing the Airbus A380 at JKIA and it is some of these factors that are guiding us towards the next expansion phase of the airport once the ongoing expansion programme is complete.” Mr Githaiga believes this kind of product improvement and expansion is a key factor in winning over many of the airlines now flying into Nairobi, who have consequently voted JKIA the best airport in Africa for the third time. Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 21 “The ongoing modernisation and expansion of JKIA will most definitely give new impetus to the airport as it grows into a regional hub,” said Ms Mbugua. “This will bring in new carriers into Nairobi. The rapid expansion of our national carrier, Kenya Airways, over the last few years has also greatly helped improve the profile of JKIA as a vital hub that seamlessly connects passengers transiting through JKIA to destinations in Europe, Asia, the Middle East, eastern and central Africa, southern Africa and West Africa. It has greatly increased the number of city pairs and has consequently raised the profile of JKIA.” Benchmarking with the best Aside from infrastructural upgrades, JKIA is benchmarking itself against some of the world’s best airports. According to Ms Mbugua, the airport is in talks with Seoul’s Incheon International Airport, arguably one of the largest and best airports in Asia, with a view to entering into a memorandum of understanding that will see the two airports exchange notes and learn from each other in terms of customer care and service. While the Government of Kenya (GoK) has pumped millions of dollars into the expansion and modernisation of JKIA, it is also investing heavily in other vital transport infrastructural programmes that are geared towards making that connection at JKIA smooth and hassle-free. This will be achieved through the construction of a modern light rail transport system to link JKIA with Nairobi’s Central Business District. The GoK will be spending KES 800 million (US$10 million) on the rail link, which will connect JKIA with central Nairobi via Embakasi station. Construction is expected to take about eight months. ABOVE: Approach road to Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA) BELOW: President Mwai Kibaki (left) commissions the expansion programme at JKIA. With him is the then KAA MD George Muhoho Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 22 Many regional and international cargo carriers have been looking to JKIA as their hub of choice JKIA is Africa’s premier cargo hub Expansion turns JKIA into a fresh produce hub The ongoing expansion of Nairobi’s Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA) will not only enhance facilities at the region’s largest and busiest airport but will underline its status as the passenger and cargo hub of choice for East and Central Africa. This includes an extension of the cargo apron at the termini and an expansion of the aircraft parking bays to accommodate more and larger freighters. According to Simbah, the cargo area has been expanded to handle at least eight wide-bodied cargo aircraft compared with three previously. Boasting the largest air cargo business in Africa, fuelled by Kenya’s booming horticulture and floriculture subsectors, JKIA has been taking decisive steps to meet growing cargo demand. According to William Simbah, cargo commercial manager at Kenya Airports Authority (KAA), the cargo business at JKIA, especially for fresh produce, has been on an upward path over several years. operations William Simbah Cargo Commercial Manager Kenya Airports Authority Moreover, KAA is looking to consolidate operations at the cargo termini in a move that will see cargo handling companies relocate to the airside. According to Simbah, this will involve a centralisation of key handling activities, especially of perishable cargo, closer to the airside. This will help to safeguard cargo at JKIA, which was prone to pilferage when cargo had to be transported from the landside to the airside. Consolidation to the airside, notes Simbah, will further enhance security at the cargo termini and avoid duplication of duties. To meet the growing demand for cargo capacity at JKIA, the KAA has entered into a build, operate and transfer (BOT) agreement with major cargo handling companies at the airport. Under this agreement, the companies will install modern cargo termini to boost cargo capacity. This has seen the number of cargo termini at JKIA increase from two to five, with plans to increase them to seven. Cargo termini now in operation at JKIA: The strategic location of Nairobi, at the crossroads of various trade routes, together with the rapid expansion of national carrier Kenya Airways, have also helped to push up cargo traffic at JKIA. Many regional and international cargo carriers have been looking to JKIA as their hub of choice to serve the growing cargo business from Kenya and the entire Great Lakes Region. In its efforts to expand capacity at JKIA and improve the infrastructure, the government, through the KAA, has so far invested more than KES 1.6 billion in expanding the cargo termini and associated infrastructure. • Kenya Airfreight Handling Limited (KAHL) • The Nairobi Cargo Centre • Transglobal Cargo Centre • Swissport International Ltd • Siginon Freight. Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 23 ABOVE: Cargo aircraft at the expanded cargo facility at JKIA JKIA exports (kg) December 2010 REGION FRESH PRODUCE FLOWERS While cargo business at JKIA has been growing, it is fresh produce – especially the flower subsector – that has boomed in recent years and has led the demand for expanded facilities. Europe 3,496,346 Middle East 1,496,277 4,708,199 887,707 Far East 48,212 69,843 249,549 East & Central Africa 213,790 Indian Ocean Islands 70,706 95,229 West Africa 51,437 73,280 capacity Southern Africa 132,071 48,451 North Africa 162,667 120,435 Statistics from the Kenya Flower Council (KFC) indicate that Africa supplies close to 80 per cent of flower demand to Europe, with more than half coming from Kenya alone. Thanks to the level of capacity and expertise that Kenya has developed in the flower farming and handling subsector, regional countries such as Tanzania, Uganda and Rwanda have been using the cargo facilities at JKIA to export their flowers and other fresh farm produce to Europe. Other International 146,788 1,976 Total International 5,818,294 6,254,669 Total Domestic 115,183 94,013 Grand total 5,933,477 6,348,682 As a result, the airport has become Africa’s largest and most developed cargo hub for fresh produce, according to the KFC and KAA. The growth in this traffic has been exponential, with capacity for fresh produce handling at KAHL Freight Terminal being expanded from an initial 20,000 tonnes per year to 100,000 tonnes. JKIA exports (kg) January 2010 REGION FRESH PRODUCE FLOWERS Europe 2,879,256 Middle East 1,517,645 5,068,368 552,357 Far East 30,986 6,878 361,966 East & Central Africa 299,468 Indian Ocean Islands 30,969 2,284 West Africa 6,933 1,856 Southern Africa 159,784 147,986 North Africa 272,551 224,910 Other International 150,317 47,486 Total International 5,347,909 6,414,091 Total Domestic 1,015 - Grand total 5,348,924 6,414,091 Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 24 SIGINON Group Siginon Group, one of the largest and longest-serving freight companies in Kenya, is to develop a state-of-the-art air cargo terminal at Nairobiâ€™s Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA). Construction of the $10 million Siginon Air Cargo Terminal will be guided by high standards of global aviation security. The new terminal will contribute towards efficient handling operations while reducing costs and maximising cargo warehouse throughput capacity. Key facilities will include import and export warehouses, a perishable goods handling centre with cool and freezer chains, strong rooms, a dangerous goods area and security cages for valuable and vulnerable cargo. The Siginon Air Cargo Terminal will provide much needed capacity at a time when there has been an increase in cargo transport by air to and from Africa. Siginon is aware of global trends in the industry and the new air cargo terminal is designed not only to meet the demands of the market but also to increase cargo handling capacity at JKIA. It will boost the airportâ€™s capacity by an additional 9,000 square metres. information technology The growth of information communication technology (ICT) globally has provided Siginon with opportunities to leverage information technology (IT) expertise towards supporting business growth and enhancing operational efficiency in its customer delivery. Siginon has adopted Cargospot, a global online cargo handling system which automates air cargo handling operations. Keeping in mind that air cargo is always time-critical, Cargospot provides Siginon customers with speedy, efficient and reliable cargo clearance at the touch of a button. To boost this further, Siginon business processes have been centralised through the adoption of SAP ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) business systems for efficient business management and enhanced customer service. SAP allows for linkages with various customer databases and systems, thus facilitating prompt invoicing and payment processing as well as sharing of information with customers. Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 25 While cargo business at JKIA has been growing, it is fresh produce – especially the flower subsector – that has boomed in recent years and has led the demand for expanded facilities CARGO IMPORTS IMPORTS SPARES & GARMENTS/ ELECTRONICS PHARMA- MISC. EQUIPMENT TEXTILES/ CEUTICALS PERISHABLE CLOTHING CARGO MISC. DRY CARGO MAIL COURIER TOTAL Europe 3,066,570 429,976 463,277 833,914 14,793,698 831,204 233,321 27,436 20,679,396 Middle East 2,117,641 956,792 872,343 1,946,723 8,349,975 255,599 164,973 97,868 14,761,914 Far East 163,949 178,133 99,661 48,856 885,934 11,302 2,040 913 1,390,788 East & Central Africa 850,064 169,886 177,026 255,819 3,159,584 776,169 387,241 40,775 5,816,564 Indian Ocean Islands 204,541 30,743 43,338 52,699 845,737 51,006 5,719 2,461 1,236,244 West Africa 156,944 135,901 35,320 20,628 577,305 36,283 14,362 3,195 979,938 Southern Africa 1,748,714 239,915 170,320 329,211 3,529,948 1,976,313 83,336 140,183 8,217,940 North Africa 291,155 143,970 50,044 126,735 1,290,316 159,469 11,194 1,082 2,073,965 Other International 3,020 195 34,537 3,919 139,256 9,665 381 21 190,994 Total International 8,602,598 2,285,511 1,945,866 3,618,504 33,571,753 4,107,010 902,567 313,934 55,347,743 Total Domestic 53,962 44,430 11,828 13,091 112,511 330,122 32,815 5,039 603,798 TOTAL 8,656,560 2,329,941 1,957,694 3,631,595 33,684,264 4,437,132 935,382 318,973 55,951,541 CARGO EXPORTS EXPORTS FRESH FLOWERS MISC. GARMENTS/ ELECTRONICS SPARES & PRODUCE PERISHABLE TEXTILES/ EQUIPMENT PRODUCTS CLOTHING MISC. DRY CARGO MAIL COURIER TOTAL Europe 50,529,831 83,091,997 24,017,261 1,207,261 83,589 684,297 4,716,086 124,359 3,658 164,458,339 Middle East 14,075,982 6,495,785 146,420 145,145 180,609 1,288,051 14,175 5,819 24,220,491 1,868,505 Far East 137,997 90,764 82,472 8,292 9,041 12,796 48,591 11,125 247 401,325 East & Central Africa 1,021,836 688,321 689,524 742,234 500,586 2,633,960 6,681,699 142,935 4,732 13,105,827 Indian Ocean Islands 535,266 86,692 111,753 230,080 34,405 112,729 362,201 19,254 5,590 1,497,970 West Africa 57,168 25,923 138,758 204,215 107,790 345,253 1,050,573 39,700 8,601 1,977,981 Southern Africa 1,138,438 581,007 338,411 423,455 300,460 1,119,547 3,543,466 194,734 2,000 7,641,518 North Africa 2,970,349 5,212,237 1,083,706 74,233 51,751 580,393 1,033,778 10,387 - 11,016,834 Other International - - 6,069 3,006 136 5,546 39,803 267 - 54,827 Total International 70,466,867 96,272,726 28,336,459 3,039,196 1,232,903 5,675,130 18,764,248 556,936 30,647 224,375,112 Total Domestic 93,226 116,936 7,161 77,162 179,943 7,549 19 632,703 TOTAL 70,560,093 96,371,730 28,388,162 3,156,132 1,240,064 5,752,292 18,944,191 564,485 30,666 99,004 TOTAL INTERNATIONAL 279,722,855 TOTAL DOMESTIC 1,236,501 GRAND TOTAL 280,959,357 51,703 225,007,815 Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 26 Keeping the birds away For passenger and aircraft safety at JKIA Officials at Nairobi’s increasingly busy Jomo Kenyatta International Airport are working day and night to deal with safety and security problems caused by birds. According to George Amutete, the Kenya Airports Authority (KAA) Wildlife Control Manager stationed at JKIA, there has been a marked increase in bird activity at or close to the airport, with large numbers of them criss-crossing the runway and flight paths. “This is attributable to a number of factors,” said Amutete. “Some of these factors can be remedied while other factors are natural and are beyond our control. However, we are working around the clock to ensure that these birds are kept away from the airport precincts – and our work is bearing fruit.” According to Amutete, since the Wildlife Control Division was established under the Safety & Security Department in 2006 there has been a marked decrease in conflicts between aircraft and wildlife at JKIA. Perimeter fence He says this was achieved thanks to various security and animal control measures such as fencing off the entire perimeter area of the airport to help keep away animals. Owing to the proximity of Nairobi National Park and open spaces on the east side of the airport, small and large animals, including gazelle, hyena and even zebra, were known to venture deep into the airport precincts, some grazing within a few metres of the runway. With passenger and aircraft safety in mind, the KAA invested KES 200 million in fencing off the whole airport land so as to keep animals out as well as enhance security. The concrete foundation of the perimeter fence is sunk 15 cm underground and the fence is 9 ft high so that small animals cannot dig under it and larger animals cannot jump over it. Amutete said: “While the fence easily takes care of the small and large animals from straying into the airport precincts, it is the birds and insects that are difficult to keep away and even control. It is very tricky, and we have to use all the bird behavioural habits that we know of to try to keep them away, since they roam freely in the air and cannot be restricted by physical boundaries or barriers.” There has been a marked increase in birdlife in recent years. According to Amutete, the biggest factor is the Dandora landfill site, located 15 km from the airport, which attracts birds of all kinds from Nairobi National Park. PEAK TIMES JKIA is sandwiched between the national park to the south and the landfill to the north, so that the birds fly over its busy flight paths and runway. The ritual is repeated each morning and late afternoon as the birds commute to and from the landfill. These are also the peak times for aircraft landings and takeoffs at JKIA. “In the mornings, we have the long-haul flights from Europe and Asia arriving,” said Amutete. “There are also flights from West Africa coming in. There are also numerous local and regional flights going out, while in the late afternoons and early evenings we have the regional flights coming in and some longhaul flights departing. This is the critical time when a bird can be easily sucked into an aircraft’s engine, and the consequences would be disastrous.” Even though Amutete and his team are working to ensure that a bird strike does not occur, these are the busiest times for them as they continuously patrol the flight paths and clear the air space around and above the runway. According to Amutete, the landfill has attracted all kinds of birds including dangerous large birds such as eagles, marabou storks and vultures. Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 27 In addition, small insects are attracted to the airport, especially at night when it is floodlit. This, in turn, attracts birds. “We have also noted a radical shift in bird behaviour over the last few years,” said Amutete. “For instance, herons do not fly at night, but now they are resting during the day and are flying into the airport at night to feed on the nocturnal insects that are attracted to the airport by the bright floodlights. This is totally new to us and we have to deal with it. It is some form of adaptation.” Residential estates Other man-made problems contributing to the increase in the local bird population include the rapidly growing Eastlands housing estates, which are close to the area used by departing aircraft. The rapid expansion of the Athi River and Kitengela industrial and residential areas has also attracted more birds to the area, mainly because some of the new housing estates are not planned and lack basic water and sewerage. Amutete and his team have been using all means to keep away the birds and maintain the safety of passengers and aircraft. They use both simple and sophisticated methods. The most basic is rubber catapults and slingshots, but they also have two solar-powered machines that produce noises to scare the birds away. Stakeholder participation FAR LEFT: Bird control experts at JKIA. They use solar-powered bird scaring equipment to keep away birds form the airport ABOVE: The Wildlife Control team at JKIA He went on: “Other government agencies that we are working with include the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), who have helped by fencing off part of the Nairobi National Park to help keep away small and large animals, as well as the National Museums of Kenya (NMK), who have bird experts. They help us in studying the behavioural life and patterns of the birds that we normally spotted within the airport precincts.” Under the Wildlife Hazard Management Plan (WHMP), which brings together the KAA, the NCC, the KWS, the NMK and the National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), the Wildlife Control Division at KAA has been able to employ both reactive and proactive methods to curb the bird strikes. Long-term remedies being sought by the KAA in collaboration with other agencies include relocation of the landfill and the provision of vital services such as sewerage in the new residential developments. The NCC will be working with government agencies to oversee the provision of such services and to ensure proper planning of the new housing estates and industrial complexes. In addition, Amutete and his team liaise with other government agencies to help deal with the bird threat. According to Amutete, there has been a drastic reduction in bird strikes at the airport since the Wildlife Control Division was set up in 2006. “We are working in close collaboration with Nairobi City Council to help in the planning and installation of essential water and sewerage services in the mushrooming housing estates close to the airport,” said Amutete. “We have also engaged the NCC in talks that will eventually have the Dandora landfill moved to another location away from the airport.” He said: “Of course, you cannot completely eliminate the bird threat. No airport in the world can do this. The challenge for us is to keep it at the very minimal to ensure the safety of the passengers and aircraft that use JKIA and other airports across the country that are under the management of the KAA.” Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 28 BELOW: The passenger terminal building at Moi International Airport, Mombasa Mombasa International Airport Tourism spurs growth at Mombasa Yatich Kangugo Airport Manager Moi International Airport The bustling city of Mombasa is home to one of Africa’s busiest seaports, providing a vital gateway for trade with East and Central Africa. But there is another side to Mombasa, which is also a resort city boasting some of the world’s finest beaches. Today, Mombasa is a popular tourism destination, especially with European visitors, who can fly direct to the city’s Moi International Airport (MIA) from various places across Europe. Tourism is one of Kenya’s top foreign exchange earners and is the largest employer at the coast. Thanks to its efficient air links with Europe, Mombasa has become the region’s holiday destination of choice. From its humble beginnings as a small airstrip, developed just after the Second World War, the airport has grown in stature to become not only Kenya’s second-largest airport, but a critical driver of Kenya’s expanding tourism industry. According to Kenya Tourism Board (KTB), the airport has a pivotal role to play in this sector because of the very large number of leisure tourists from Europe who enter and leave the country via Moi International Airport. Formerly Port Reitz Airport, it was expanded to handle larger aircraft such as the Boeing 747 and was renamed Moi International Airport in 1978 after it was expanded to handle inter- MIA STATISTICS << ACTUAL PROJECTED >> 2011 ITEM 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 AIRCRAFT Domestic 11,370 13,816 17,488 13,642 16,454 19,034 9,605 International 4,638 5,293 5,549 3,174 4,877 6,372 6,563 Total 16,008 19,109 23,037 16,816 21,331 25,406 26,168 PASSENGERS Domestic 543,895 553,664 649,446 570,680 657,383 689,344 723,811 International 462,906 573,767 604,823 235,277 356,871 473,743 497,430 Transit 52,930 76,943 91,517 80,837 99,620 107,991 113,391 Total 1,059,731 1,204,374 1,345,786 886,794 1,113,874 1,271,078 1,334,632 FREIGHT Domestic 2,169,614 1,629,896 1,077,921 903,721 832,231 470,365 517,402 International 6,005,403 7,968,297 8,218,347 5,256,977 5,644,158 7,667,917 8,434,709 8,175,017 9,598,193 9,296,268 6,160,698 6,476,389 8,168,092 8,984,901 Total Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 29 national flights and a modern passenger terminal building was built to handle tourists flying in from Europe. Tourism development As Kenyaâ€™s tourism sector underwent tremendous growth, the airport was stretched to capacity and a KES 5.5 billion expansion programme was carried out. This included the building of a second passenger terminal in 1996 and refurbishment of the runway, taxiways and apron as well as an expansion of the passenger apron and construction of a general aviation apron. As the Kenyan economy continues to grow, MIA will go on handling more passengers and aircraft. Key factors in this growth include the development of Destination Mombasa as a resort of choice; and the growing conference and domestic tourism sector at the coast. Kenya Airports Authority (KAA) predicted that traffic through MIA would continue to grow at an average of 5.5 per cent between 2008 and 2018 and an average of 4.4 per cent between 2018 and 2028. According to KAA statistics, the best year for the airport was 2007, at the height of Kenyaâ€™s tourism boom, when it recorded some 1.27 million passengers and 17,247 aircraft movements. 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 20,193 20,799 21,423 22,066 22,728 23,409 24,112 24,835 25,580 6,760 6,963 7,172 7,387 7,609 7,837 8,072 8,314 8,563 26,953 27,762 28,595 29,453 30,336 31,246 32,184 33,149 34,144 760,002 798,002 837,902 879,797 923,787 969,976 1,018,475 1,069,399 1,122,869 522,302 548,417 575,838 604,629 634,861 666,604 699,934 734,931 771,677 119,060 125,013 131,264 137,827 144,718 151,954 159,552 167,529 175,906 1,401,363 1,471,432 1,545,003 1,622,253 1,703,366 1,788,534 1,877,961 1,971,859 2,070,452 569,142 626,056 688,661 757,528 833,280 916,608 1,008,269 1,109,096 1,220,006 9,278,180 10,205,998 11,226,597 2,349,257 13,584,183 14,942,601 16,436,861 18,080,547 19,888,602 9,883,391 10,871,730 11,958,903 13,154,794 14,470,273 15,917,301 17,509,031 19,259,934 21,185,927 Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 30 Refurbishment Seaport-airport hub To enhance the delivery of services and support the growing tourism sector, the government, through the KAA, is gradually refurbishing the infrastructure at MIA. Planned works include: Away from tourism, the airport is set to benefit handsomely once the proposed Mombasa Free Port is up and running. The airport can expect a significant rise in passenger and cargo traffic as a result of linkages to be created in what experts call the seaport-airport hub concept. • Milling of the top 50 mm of the entire runway pavements, regulation of the surface to restore the cross-section geometry and laying of a new 50 mm asphalt wearing course. To avoid rapid wear and tear it is recommended that the touchdown zones be reconstructed in rigid pavement. MIA currently handles 18 scheduled and chartered flights from Europe and more than 20 regional connections. Cargo • Reconstruction of some section of the taxiways, milling, regulation and laying a new asphalt wearing course for the taxiways and aprons. MIA has one cargo facility capable of handling 500 tonnes of cargo export and import traffic per month. Handling agent is Kenya Airfreight Handling Ltd (KAHL). The cargo facility includes: • Removal and replacement of pre-cast concrete slabs that have extensive cracks and repair of joints and cracks in slabs with isolated cracks. • Export warehouse, 5,110 sq ft • Refurbishment of the airfield lighting system, including new lighting masts and towers. • Radioactive room, 100.4 sq ft • Import warehouse, 5,380 sq ft • Strongroom, 841.1 sq ft • Refurbishment of the runway and apron edge lighting including replacement of burnt primary cables, replacement of constant current regulators (CCRs), precision approach path indicator (PAPI) units, apron floodlight fittings and high voltage switchgear at substations. • Security cage, 328.17 sq ft • Freezer room, 15.25 sq m • Cold room, 25 sq m • Improvement to the drainage system to protect the runway and taxiways from subsurface water infiltration and as part of environmental improvements. • 55 offices of various sizes • 150 vehicle parking slots The refurbishment programme at MIA is being financed by the World Bank with tendering expected soon. • Communications facilities (telephone, fax, email, etc). Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 Away from tourism, the airport is set to benefit handsomely once the proposed Mombasa Free Port is up and running MIA facts and figures 31 AIRPORT IDENTIFICATION: HKMO LONGITUDE: 039°35.52’E LATITUDE: 04°01 43. 08’S ELEVATION: 59.74 m (196 ft above sea level) TRANSITIONAL ALTITUDE: 3,000 ft RUNWAYS: There are two runways: • 3,350 m by 45 m (21/03) • 1,260 m by 36 m (33/15) MAGNETIC VARIATION: 1° W AVERAGE TEMPERATURE: 32.7°C LAND AREA: 539 ha TAXIWAYS: Taxiway system includes: • A parallel taxiway 3,564 m by 23 m designated A • Exit taxiways 23 m wide marked B, C & D • Connecting taxiways 23 m wide marked K, L • Connecting taxiways (for small aircraft) marked H, J • Isolated area at Taxiway F, west end of RWY 15 • Military taxiway (old apron) marked M APRONS: • Main apron • General aviation apron • Military apron PASSENGER APRON: The passenger apron consists of rigid pavement bays at the main gear positions of the aircraft. The surrounding area is flexible pavement between the rigid pavement and Terminals 1 & 2. There is also a ground safety service road, plus a static tank and a lawn. Capacity of the current apron configuration: • Main apron 1 - 9 bays • General aviation apron 1 - 14 bays (for small aircraft) • Military apron (bays are not marked but can hold two wide-bodied, five medium-bodied and nine small aircraft). TERMINAL BUILDINGS: The airport has four terminals. • Terminal 1 has international / domestic departures and international / domestic arrivals. • Terminal 2 is used for international departures only • General aviation terminal for local departures to tourist destinations and local airports and airstrips like Wilson, Malindi, Ukunda and Manda Island. • Cargo terminal for uplift of cargo exports and imports. SERVICES AND FACILITIES: • State pavilion TOP: The terminal building at Moi International Airport ABOVE: Tourists arrive • VP/VIP lounge • First-class lounge • Business lounge • Administrative units based at Terminal 1 & 2 freight • Freight terminal south of Terminal 1 • Control tower • Service building for power and water supply • Police station • Workshops • Two hangars • Several canteens • Specialised freight area • Telephone exchange • Standby generators • Post office SOURCE: Kenya Airports Authority • Banks • Bureaux Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 33 Cargo is big business for Eldoret following make-over Peter Wafula Airport Manager Eldoret International Airport Kenya’s third-largest international air hub (after Nairobi and Mombasa) is Eldoret International Airport (EIA), located 16 km south of the country’s fifth-largest city, Eldoret. Eldoret was developed in 1995 and commissioned in 1998 with the aim of opening up the agriculturally rich North Rift region and western Kenya to global markets. The floriculture and horticulture subsector was seen as a viable source of business for the new airport. Since the construction of EIA, new horticulture and floriculture farms have sprung up in and around Eldoret town, with more than 400,000 hectares now given over to horticulture. The town’s growing industrial base was also considered a strong factor in helping to develop business for the airport. It provided a new export gateway for local farmers and industrialists rather than taking their produce and products by road to Nairobi for shipment via JKIA. Airport stimulates horticulture industry in region As well as a catalyst for new investment and the expansion of business and farming activities in the region, EIA was seen as a tool for development of tourism in western Kenya, providing direct flights between Eldoret and other airports within Kenya, across the region and in the key markets of Europe. The development of this facility would greatly reduce travel time from Nairobi and other destinations. Transformation into a regional cargo hub Although EIA suffered teething troubles in its first decade of operation, the Government of Kenya, through the Kenya Airports Authority (KAA), went back to the drawing board to chart out a new future for the airport. The result was a new plan to transform the airport into an influential cargo hub not only for the North Rift and western Kenya but for the entire Great Lakes region. Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 The turning point came in February 2007 when Canken International Ltd, a privately owned company, commissioned a 150 tonne capacity dry cargo warehouse at EIA. Along with the existing warehouse, this more than doubled the airportâ€™s dry cargo capacity. Although Eldoret is focused on cargo, it also handles passengers. Traffic has grown steadily from 2,036 passengers in its first months of operation in 1997 to 88,494 passenger movements in 2008. AirKenya, Fly540 and JetLink Express are among those operating passenger flights between EIA and Nairobi. The transformation of EIA into a regional cargo hub of choice was further underlined when a 230 tonne capacity cold store was commissioned, leading to the first export of perishable goods from the airport in October 2007. This has given the airport a competitive edge in the region, where it is quickly becoming the preferred export point for perishables. However, it is cargo traffic that continues to record impressive growth. EIA has the capacity to handle both imports and exports comfortably thanks to the existing 300 tonne warehouse and the new 230 tonne cold store. The business of exporting flowers and perishables via EIA has been gradually expanding over the past few years and there is scope for further growth. EIA STATISTICS << ACTUAL PROJECTED >> ITEM 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AIRCRAFT Domestic 1,676 2,169 3,994 5,859 3,507 4,158 4,283 International 256 239 309 299 236 204 210 Total 1,932 2,408 4,303 6,158 3,743 4,362 4,493 PASSENGERS Domestic 19,490 27,142 51,612 85,049 68,620 69,234 72,696 International 87 124 57 134 60 29 30 Transit 85 250 2,360 12,838 12,013 14,016 14,717 Total 19,662 27,516 54,029 98,021 80,693 83,279 87,443 FREIGHT Domestic 91,138 - 2,550 13,000 73,739 - - International 8,330,727 9,750,985 11,888,143 8,635,090 7,175,508 7,328,042 8,060,846 8,421,865 9,750,985 11,890,693 8,648,090 7,249,247 7,328,042 8,060,846 Total Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 35 EIA is served by various local and international cargo carriers including Emirates SkyCargo, which operates a Boeing 747-400 to and from Dubai. Other cargo carriers include Cargolux, Egypt Air Cargo and Qatar Air Cargo. Revenue at EIA Recently, the airport has seen a shift of emphasis from its traditional dependency on aviation revenue to non-aviation sources of revenue. This has prompted the KAA to introduce a programme of afforestation. In the past three years, EIA has planted more than 600 acres of eucalyptus trees in a bid to offset carbon emissions at the airport. KAA has also planted 100 acres of trees at the Eldoret Airstrip. Since its inception, the growth in revenue at EIA has been impressive. A case in point is the financial year ended June 2009, when revenue increased by 49.5 per cent. Total revenue for that year was KES 60,983,561 compared with KES 40,788,287 in the previous year â€“ a growth of KES 20,195,274. This surpassed the budget by nine per cent. Revenue was generally boosted by an increase in passenger service charges and landing fees (aeronautical revenue); and increased occupancy of office space and cargo concession (non-aeronautical). The airport has seen a shift of emphasis from its traditional dependency on aviation revenue to non-aviation sources of revenue Business opportunities EIA offers many opportunities for business and investment. They include: I Property and estates Farmland in the airport and its outlying airstrips can be utilised through joint venture schemes with investors or leased out for agricultural use. II Construction of hangars There is scope for aircraft maintenance companies to construct hangars. EIA is keen to persuade investors to set up a flying school at the airport to complement the many colleges in town offering aviation courses. TOP LEFT: Eldoret International Airport is served by a range of local and international cargo carriers LEFT: EIA is Kenyaâ€™s third-largest airport 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 4,411 4,544 4,680 4,820 4,965 5,114 5,267 5,425 5,588 216 223 230 236 244 251 258 266 274 4,628 4,766 4,909 5,057 5,208 5,365 5,526 5,691 5,862 76,330 80,147 84,154 88,362 92,780 97,419 102,290 107,405 112,775 32 34 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 15,453 16,225 17,037 17,888 18,783 19,722 20,708 21,743 22,831 91,815 96,406 101,226 106,287 111,602 117,182 123,041 129,193 135,653 - - - - - - - - - 8,866,931 9,753,624 10,728,986 11,801,885 12,982,073 14,280,281 15,708,309 17,279,140 19,007,054 8,866,931 9,753,624 10,728,986 11,801,885 12,982,073 14,280,281 15,708,309 17,279,140 19,007,054 Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 37 LEFT: KAA afforestation programme at EIA 3 RIGHT: The passenger complex at EIA EIA facts and figures AIRPORT IDENTIFICATION: HKEL, ELD III Retail services This includes duty-free shopping areas, shopping malls, email services and telecommunications. IV Concessions Scope for a range of businesses, including restaurants, warehousing, fuel supply, ground handling, taxi services and airline businesses. EIA currently has two cold stores of about 230 tonnes capacity. The airport is keen to encourage private developers to construct new cold storage facilities. One developer has shown interest and has been put in contact with the legal department. V Banking facilities There is adequate space for banks and ATM machines. EIA environmental contribution EIA has maintained its leading position as an environmentally concerned organisation, not only in terms of the airport’s own working environment but also in regard to the surrounding area. EIA has planted well over 600 acres of eucalyptus trees with the capacity to absorb 1,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year and to positively affect rain distribution, thus helping the local people. Further plantations have included the Kitale and Eldoret airstrips. The local communities are proud of the airport because of its concern to maintain a clean environment. Thanks to the EIA initiative, this process is likely to be replicated at other airports. LONGITUDE: 36°55.33’E LATITUDE: 01°19.07’S ELEVATION: 6,847.97 ft above sea level RUNWAYS: Two runways on one stretch Designation 08/26 Runway is 3,500 metres long LAND COVERAGE: 762 hectares TAXIWAYS: Taxiway system includes: • Link taxiways, 23 metres wide, marked A and B • Holding bays at western end of the runway. Holding 08 • Loop taxiways at northern threshold R/W26 PASSENGER APRON: The passenger apron is made up of asphalt bays at the main gear positions of the aircraft. The surrounding area is also asphalt and the airside road in front of the terminal is concrete. Capacity of the current apron configuration: • One wide-bodied (for example, Boeing 767) • Three medium haul Airbus 300 aircraft • Four light aircraft (Fokker 50, Dash 8) TERMINAL BUILDING: Terminal building has two areas: • International departures and arrivals • Domestic departures and arrivals FACILITIES: Administrative and technical area north of the terminal and freight to the south, including: • Control tower • VIP lounge • Passenger apron / freighter • Terminal building composed of departure unit, arrivals domestic and international • Service building for power and water supply • Police divisional office • Staff canteen • Workshops • Water treatment plant • Health centre TOTAL PASSENGERS HANDLED SINCE AIRPORT CONSTRUCTION: Over 440,000 TOTAL CARGO HANDLED SINCE AIRPORT CONSTRUCTION: Over 90 million tonnes Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 38 Supporting tourism and aid efforts in the region Wilson grows to be Africa’s busiest light aircraft airport Amoas Chena Wilson Airport Manager Nairobi’s Wilson Airport (WAP) is Africa’s busiest gateway for light aircraft as well as being Kenya’s first and oldest airport. The airport is in the southern suburbs, off Lang’ata Road, less than 10 km from the city centre. The Uhuru Monument, commemorating Kenya’s independence in 1963, is nearby. Wilson Airport is named in honour of Florrie Wilson, who in July 1929 formed Wilson Airways Ltd, operating from a former First World War airfield at Dagoretti Corner. This site was later abandoned in favour of the present location of Wilson Airport. This new site, originally called Nairobi Aerodrome, had two murram runways, built by the Public Works Department in 1933. Imperial Airways commenced airmail services between Kisumu and Nairobi soon after. The aerodrome was renamed Wilson Airport in 1962 by the government as a tribute to Ms Wilson for her pioneering work in developing aviation in Kenya. This marked the first stage in the evolution of the present-day airport, which now serves private, chartered and scheduled international and domestic short-haul flights. critical role WAP also plays a critical role in the development of Kenya’s tourism industry, with many domestic and charter flights to destinations across the country, including the seaside resorts of Mombasa, Diani, Malindi, Lamu and Manda islands. Flights to Kenya’s game parks and reserves such as Masai Mara, Amboseli, Samburu, Tsavo and Meru also use WAP. Each day, the airport handles 160 to 180 landings and takeoffs, rising to 200 at the peak of the tourism season. Tourism and charter flights are the airport’s main economic drivers, with business and relief flights following close behind. WAP STATISTICS << ACTUAL PROJECTED >> ITEM 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AIRCRAFT Domestic 57,069 58,292 67,878 57,033 59,062 67,594 69,622 International 10,637 10,468 8,510 7,550 6,669 6,272 6,460 Total 67,706 68,760 76,388 64,583 65,731 73,866 76,082 PASSENGERS Domestic 217,630 258,112 293,027 220,407 211,779 224,643 235,875 International 28,170 37,980 39,726 18,469 16,192 17,666 18,549 Total 245,800 296,092 332,753 238,876 227,971 242,309 254,424 FREIGHT Domestic 397,335 269,521 501,802 98,704 66,883 94,480 103,928 International 5,815,123 5,694,006 3,081,728 3,667,244 4,267,787 2,487,355 2,736,091 Total 6,212,458 5,963,527 3,583,530 3,765,948 4,334,670 2,581,835 2,840,019 Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 39 facts and figures AIRPORT IDENTIFICATION: HKNW (WLN) LONGITUDE: 1°19’16.578S LATITUDE: 36°48’53.881E ELEVATION: 5,536 ft Transitional altitude: 220 0 Runway: There are two runways running approximately at right angles: • Runway 07/25 is 1,463 m by 24 m • Runway 14/32 is 1,558 m by 24 m wide with displaced threshold giving a landing distance of 1,350 m As well as serving the tourism sector, WAP has a thriving cargo business and is a logistics hub for local and international aid organisations, which own and charter small aircraft and helicopters for humanitarian missions across Kenya and in the Great Lakes Region. Aid organisations use the facility to airlift emergency food and medicine to remote locations. Land coverage: 13.3 ha Passenger apron: Total of 0.84 ha of tarmacked apron Facilities: • Control tower • Fire station Services provided by KAA: • Airport management and maintenance • Airport security • Fire, crash and rescue services • Common-user engineering services, airfield lighting, roads, power, lighting, water and sewerage gateway The airport is also a vital export gateway for the popular miraa (or khat) trade. Traders from Meru, where this mild stimulant herb is commercially grown, export their produce through the airport to markets in Somalia. Regional air operations provided by other organisations: • Flying doctor and air ambulance • Missionary aviation • Regional locust control • Aerial crop spraying • Aerial survey and mapping Charter companies: • Charter flights serving over 30 tour operators • Passenger facilities, booking, ticketing, baggage weighing and handling • Agents of private aircraft owners • Freight flying Aviation-related services: • Flying schools • Aircraft maintenance facilities • Aircraft fuel supply • Sales of aircraft • Sales of aircraft radios and instruments From a single airline several decades ago, WAP is now home to over 200 operators with more than 400 aircraft. Over the past three years, the airport has registered growth of between five and 10 per cent as a result of Kenya’s economic and tourism expansion. 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 71,710 73,862 76,078 78,360 80,711 83,132 85,626 88,195 90,841 6,654 6,854 7,059 7,271 7,489 7,714 7,945 8,184 8,429 78,364 80,715 83,137 85,631 88,200 90,846 93,571 96,378 99,270 247,669 260,052 273,055 286,708 301,043 316,095 331,900 348,495 365,920 19,477 20,451 21,473 22,547 23,674 24,858 26,101 27,406 28,776 267,146 280,503 294,528 309,255 324,717 340,953 358,001 375,901 394,696 114,321 125,753 138,328 152,161 167,377 184,115 202,526 222,779 245,057 3,009,700 3,310,670 3,641,736 4,005,910 4,406,501 4,847,151 5,331,866 5,865,053 6,451,558 3,124,020 3,436,422 3,780,065 4,158,071 4,573,878 5,031,266 5,534,393 6,087,832 6,696,615 Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 40 Malindi set to handle direct international flights Walter Agong Airport Manager Malindi Malindi Airport is less than 3 km south of the oceanside resort town of Malindi. The town is a former Arab settlement that once rivalled Mombasa City to the south. The Portuguese navigator, Vasco da Gama, visited Malindi in April 1498 in the course of trying to establish a sea route from Europe to India. The hospitable role of Malindi has continued from the days when it hosted Portuguese seafarers in the 15th century through to modern times, when the first tourist hotel was built in the Swahili town. The Eden Roc Hotel opened in 1957 and is still in existence to this day. A small airstrip was built within the grounds of the hotel to receive international tourists. The town still has a reputation for hospitality and is considered one of the top holiday destinations in Africa, while its beaches are among the best in the world. Little wonder that Malindi plays host to many local and foreign tourists seeking the ultimate in relaxation on the Kenyan coast. arrivals facts and figures Longitude: 31°32’3.679S Latitude: 40°6’01.891E Elevation: 22.25 m (73 F) / 29.5 C Runway: There are two runways: • Primary runway is 1,402 metres long and 30 metres wide • Secondary runway is 1,128 metres long and 20 metres wide Magnetic variation: 171/351 Taxiways: Secondary runway is linked with apron by one liaison taxiway 15 metres wide. Apron: Apron area is about 4,500 metres square and can accommodate two aircraft of F-50 type. Navigational aids: Airport has adequate navigational aids Terminal building: Passenger terminal is a single-storey building, 300 metres square, with three main parts: • Terminal part consisting of a common arrival and departure hall including a bar, cafeteria, ticketing office, check-in weighing desk and embarkation lounge • Office block for airport staff • Private VIP lounge on apron side near a small garden. Facilities and Services: • Airport is equipped with a synoptic meteorological station behind the fire station • Fuel farm at western side of apron has a storage capacity of 15 cubic metres of AV-GAS and 35 cubic metres of JET-A1 • Control tower and ATC block are west of the terminal. This is a two-storey building with a visual control room on the upper floor As tourist arrivals into Malindi continued to grow, the then colonial government decided to relocate the airport to its current location on the southern outskirts of the town. Today, Malindi Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 41 The town still has a reputation for hospitality and is considered one of the top holiday destinations in Africa Airport has been transformed into a vital engine for the local tourism-based economy, which is now booming. management The Kenya Airports Authority (KAA) took over the management and running of Malindi Airport in 1992. But while the airport serves a huge number of foreign tourists, it does not handle direct international flights. They have to land first at Nairobi’s Jomo Kenyatta International Airport or Mombasa’s Moi International Airport for Customs clearance before they can proceed to Malindi as domestic flights. However, because of the town’s growing importance as a tourist destination and the subsequent expansion of its economy, the KAA has already finished the conceptualisation of the upgrading of Malindi to an international airport under Kenya’s Vision 2030. This will mean that the airport will be in a position to handle direct international flights, especially charter flights from Europe, the starting point for most of Malindi’s holiday visitors. The completion of a new passenger terminal forms the central part of the upgrading work. ABOVE: Malindi is growing in importance as a tourist destination BELOW: KAA is looking to upgrade Malindi to an international airport capable of handling direct international flights Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 42 Ready for international status Kisumu Airport set for take-off with expansion of EAC Joseph Okumu Airport Manager Kisumu Airport On the banks of Lake Victoria, the world’s second-largest freshwater lake, Kisumu is Kenya’s most westerly and thirdlargest city. It has a central location in the expanded East African Community that includes Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi. Kisumu has good road and rail links with major towns and cities in Kenya and across the border into Uganda and Tanzania. It also has marine connections to major inland ports in Uganda and Tanzania. However, it is the development of an efficient aviation hub at Kisumu that has excited the region. Kisumu Airport, on the western outskirts of the city, is one of Kenya’s fastest-growing airports. Developed as one of the country’s first airports, Kisumu has witnessed continued growth in the past 10 years as the western region of Kenya continues to open up economically and the demand for efficient domestic air services goes on growing. and the entire western region continues to grow, with local and regional airlines looking to start up or expand operations there. KAA has now completed rehabilitating and upgrading the existing facilities, including a modern passenger terminal that will help ease congestion during peak hours. Completion of the work wand the extension of the runway will now see Kisumu upgraded from a domestic to an international airport. Through this expansion programme, KAA aims to: • Sustain the airport’s traffic-handling capacity • Expand facilities to accommodate future growth in domestic, regional and international traffic • Expand facilities to accommodate international cargo traffic. From its humble beginnings in the 1930s, when the city was served by seaplane flights taking off and landing on the nearby lake, Kisumu Airport has continued to grow in stature over the years. The expansion of Kisumu Airport has been determined by a recent feasibility study by Netherlands Airport Consultants (NACO), which concluded that its existing facilities could accommodate only light aircraft operating in the domestic market and would struggle to handle medium-range passenger and freight aircraft serving regional and international markets. In recent years the government, through the Kenya Airports Authority (KAA), has taken steps to rehabilitate and expand the airport, especially as demand for air travel to and from Kisumu The study also noted that the airport lacked the infrastructure to allow leasing of land for development of aircraft maintenance hangars, freight-handling facilities and cold stores. KISUMU AIRPORT STATISTICS << ACTUAL PROJECTED >> ITEM 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AIRCRAFT Domestic 3,504 3,331 6,463 6,888 5,850 6,821 7,026 International 198 160 190 130 61 170 175 Total 3,702 3,491 6,653 7,018 5,911 6,991 7,201 PASSENGERS Domestic 105,914 108,353 204,013 232,484 195,038 215,960 226,758 International 535 515 1,009 939 180 1,402 1,472 Transit 580 812 1,089 1,626 4,094 6,518 6,844 Total 107,029 109,680 206,111 235,049 199,312 223,880 235,074 • New Apron • New TW LAKE VICTORIA Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 RA Existing Kisumu Airport Layout AY 43 Proposed Kisumu Airport Layout ILW &R Cargo Development OA D RW 2000 x 30mm New TB RW 3000 x 45mm R&FF New TW’s TB TWR • 35.6 million US$ investment • Runway lengthened to 3000m • New Terminal Building • New Apron • New TW LAKE VICTORIA The conclusion was that the airport must expand to meet growing demand and facilitate easier movement of passengers, cargo and aircraft. Traffic forecasts indicated a need for larger passenger and cargo aircraft to operate to and from Kisumu, which must be upgraded and expanded to handle mediumand long-range aircraft. And with trade expected to grow as the East African Community expands, Kisumu could soon be handling cargo jets from the Middle East and Europe and, therefore, needed to be upgraded and expanded. Work completed at Kisumu Airport includes: LAKE VICTORIA It is believed that an expanded Kisumu Airport will help ease congestion at Jomo Kenyatta International (JKIA) and Wilson RA LW and from regional (WAP) as it will accommodate air traffic Ito AY &R OA Sudan, thus destinations such as the Great Lakes and Southern D enhancing city-to-city networks within the region. With the RW 2000 x 30mm completion of the new passenger terminal and the extension of the runway, the airport awaits an official opening. R&FF facts and figures TB TWR Airport identification: HKK1 KIS • Reconstruction of aircraft pavements Longitude: • Runway to be extended from 2,000 to 3,000 metres and widened from 30 to 45 metres to accommodate the B737 • New apron for three B737 stands or five F28 stands with provision for expansion • 3,500 square metres of parking for up to 130 cars • New airfield ground lighting including approach lights • New power substation, two guardhouses and a toll-booth. 2012 2013 2014 2015 7,236 7,453 7,677 7,907 180 186 191 197 7,417 7,639 7,868 8,104 238,096 250,001 262,501 275,626 1,546 1,623 1,704 1,789 7,186 7,545 7,923 8,319 246,828 259,169 272,128 285,734 34°43’44”E Latitude: 00°05’10”S Elevation: 3,796 ft above sea level LAKE VICTORIA Transitional altitude: 7,000 ft Runway: 2.1 km by 30 m Magnetic variation: 2° Land coverage: 762 ha Taxiways: There are two taxiways: • Eastern Taxiway measuring 370 m by 15 m • Western Taxiway measuring 400 m by 15 m Apron: Apron covers a total of 2.5 acres. There are four apron floodlights with lantern fitting which can illuminate the entire apron. Perimeter area: Total area of 864 acres of which 530 acres is within the perimeter fence. The government has set aside 333 acres for future expansion. However, this land has yet to be acquired by Kenya Airports Authority. Facilities and services: • Navigational aid • VOR • DME/NDB • VDF • Airport landing facilities including runway edge lights, PAPI, apron lights, etc • Full control tower services • Fire and rescue services – Category 5 • Immigration services • Customs services • Port health services • Fuel services • First aid, ambulance and vaccination services • Catering services • Bars and restaurants • Courier services • Lounges – VIP lounge, departure lounge and arrival lounge • Mobile phone services Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 44 Wajir military airbase adapts well to handling civil flights Located in Wajir County, in north-eastern Kenya, Wajir Airport began life as a military airbase, constructed by an Israeli company and completed in 1978. represented at the airport. They include the KAA, the Kenya Civil Aviation Authority (KCAA), Customs, Immigration, Port Health and the National Security Intelligence Service. The airport is situated about 5 km east of Wajir Town. It remained a purely military facility until 7 September 2007 when it was commissioned by President Mwai Kibaki to handle passenger and cargo flights. Meanwhile, it continues to handle military jets. Owing to its proximity to war-ravaged Somalia, the airport is currently handling both domestic and international flights. Flights to and from Somalia are required to land at Wajir for security screening before continuing to their final destinations. In this context, the airport is equipped to handle international and domestic, arriving and departing, passenger and cargo aircraft. According to Kenya Airports Authority (KAA), the government has plans to transform Wajir into an international airport. expansion Wajir Airport currently stands on 566.48 hectares. There are plans to acquire more land to bring the total airport area to 801.77 hectares. This will provide room for future expansion. The airport has a 2.8 km runway (designated 15/33) and eight taxiways (A to H). The longest taxiway is A (Alpha) which runs parallel to the runway and is of the same length. The airport is open daily for operations between 06.30 and 18.30 hours. Owing to loose chips on the runways, taxiways and apron, the airport is used only by propeller-driven aircraft. There is a terminal building which houses the arrival and departure lounges, check-in, screening and transit areas as well as an administration wing, a police station, and the Customs, Immigration and Port Health services. The control tower, crash gate and fire station are 50 metres south of the terminal building. The airport contains two military camps (one air force, one army) within its perimeter fence. The airport is entered via a single gate manned by armed military personnel to ensure a high standard of security. Wajir Airport employs about 100 workers. Most of these are with the police department, but several other agencies are No passenger airline currently operates at Wajir Airport apart from Echo Flight, which calls twice a week to drop off or pick up special passengers, mostly NGO staff. The other flights are charter, cargo or military. The airport handles an average of seven flights a day, most of which are cargo. facts and figures Airport Identification: HKWJ Longitude: 40°5’29.477E Latitude: 1°43’59.93N Elevation: 770 ft ASL Transitional Altitude: 3,000 ft QNH Run Way and Apron: • The runway goes from north-west to south-east. It has eight taxiways and an apron with three parking areas. • Parking area No 1 can accommodate up to four Fokker 50s. Area No 2 can accommodate two Fokker 50s and area No 3 one Fokker 50 • Apron surface: Asphalt and concrete. Strength: PCN 5 OIF IB/W /T • 2,800 metres long Magnetic Variation: 1W Taxiways: 25 metres wide Facilities: • 2,800 metre long by 30 metre wide runway (15/33) • Parallel taxiway 2,800 metres long by 25 metres wide • Apron with three parking areas • Terminal building • Control tower • Fire station • Police station Services provided by KAA: • Air navigational services • Airport lounges Navigational aids: • Aviation fuel uplifts (supplied in drums) • VOR/DME (WAV) • Radar station • NDB (WA) Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 45 Located in the north of the country, Lokichoggio Airport has grown in stature in recent years since it was established in the 1970s as an airstrip for Christian missionaries working in the remote and arid region of Turkana. This was a small facility until the civil war in Southern Sudan. As that conflict intensified, the airport saw an increase in air traffic. A tripartite agreement was signed between the Government of Kenya (GoK), the Sudanese People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) and the United Nations in 1989. This allowed UN aid agencies and non-government organisations to use Lokichoggio to bring relief supplies such as food and medicine into northern Kenya for the many Sudanese refugees who had fled the civil war. With the humanitarian situation in Southern Sudan worsening, the GoK expanded Lokichoggio to accommodate larger aircraft as the UN and other agencies launched Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS). comprehensive This situation continued until a comprehensive peace agreement (CPA) was reached, with Kenya’s help, between the northern Islamic government of Sudan and the SPLM. This brought an end to decades of civil war in the Christian south. Lokichoggio continued to serve northern Kenya as well as the now semi-autonomous region of Southern Sudan, where vital transport and communications infrastructure such as roads and airports had all been destroyed. At this stage, Lokichoggio Airport was not only receiving humanitarian charter flights from Nairobi but was also handling a growing number of scheduled cargo and passenger services because of its proximity to Southern Sudan. After the signing of the CPA between the SPLM and the Sudanese government, Juba International Airport opened in Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Since then, Lokichoggio Airport has seen a reduction in both passenger and cargo flights. However, even with peace in Southern Sudan, the airport continues to play a key humanitarian role because it is used by NGOs and other UN agencies to supply relief efforts in northern Kenya, especially at the Kakuma Refugee Camp. Lokichoggio, the hub of humanitarian flights facts and figures Airport identification: HKLK Elevation: 2,100 ft / 640 metres above sea level Average temperature: 31ºC Runway: 5,900 ft / 1800 metres by 65 ft / 20 metres Runway position: RWY 09ºN 04 12.25ºE 03420.39 RWY 27ºN 04 12.22ºE 03421.38 Hours of operations: 03.30 to 15.30 UTC Land area: 600 acres, with about 250 acres in use Location: 370 nautical miles north-west of Nairobi and 214 km north-west of Lodwar Town, 24 km to border of South Sudan Taxiways: There are no designated taxiway systems in Lokichoggio. However, aircraft are guided to designated parking positions through radio control and physical marshalling Aprons: Apron surface both tarmacked and murramed. No marked apron bays. Area is divided into: • Caravan ramp for general aviation • Main apron for mainly WFP operations and medium aircraft • Buffalo ramp and murram ramp • Former ICRC ramp • 748 ramp for private parking Cargo facilities: No cargo facilities at Loki. However, World Food Programme operates a large warehouse at the airport for storing relief supplies. Other small-scale cargo is handled by individual operators Airport components: • Runway 1,800 metres long and 20 metres wide adjoined the aprons • No runway lighting • Runway has centre marking and threshold marking • Aerodrome has no meteorological station • Electricity supplied by two generators with capacity of 200 KVA each • Terminal structure is temporary and movable • AV Gas 100 on prior arrangement • Control tower • Police post • Port Health services • Immigration office • Passenger canteens • Customs office • Jet A-1 Terminal building: Terminal building is made up of temporary and movable structures Services: • Passenger facilitation and Co-ordination • Air navigation services • Duty-free shop • Air charters • Taxi services • Aviation fuels • Hotel booking • Fire and rescue services • Bar and restaurants • Police service Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 47 Ukunda set to handle regional flights Mohamed Shiraj Ukunda Airstrip Manager Located in the heart of Kenya’s south coast beach resort area, Ukunda Airstrip plays a key role in linking this popular tourism centre – which includes the Diani stretch south of Mombasa – to other parts of the country, especially the major tourism circuits inland. From the airstrip, tourists can board flights from Diani to visit remote locations across the country, including major game parks and reserves in the coastal areas of Kenya such as the Tsavo East and West Game Reserves. Ukunda Airstrip also handles chartered flights from private airstrips across Kenya and acts as a feeder to other airports, especially Mombasa’s Moi International Airport and Nairobi’s Wilson Airport, as some tourists prefer to fly in and out of the south coast at either end of their vacation. This is the airstrip of choice for tourists and tour operators as it avoids travelling through central Mombasa City and delays at the Likoni Ferry that links Mombasa Island with mainland Likoni and the road to Diani. In addition to safari flights, the airstrip handles scheduled passenger services operated by AirKenya and Fly540 from Nairobi’s Wilson Airport to Ukunda Airstrip. As the tourism industry continues to grow, the government, through the KAA, is looking to expand the Ukunda Airstrip. This As tourism numbers continue to climb facts and figures airstrip: The airstrip is less than 1 km east of Ukunda Township and 30 km south of Mombasa. Access is via the A14 main road from Mombasa to Tanzania, by way of the Likoni Ferry. Facilities: The runway is 1,100 metres long and 20 metres wide and is linked to the apron by two short cross taxiways of 10 metres width. This Class 1B runway has an ICAO code and its magnetic orientation is 01/19. The 5,000 square metre apron, located near runway threshold 01, can accommodate three DHC-6 aircraft at the same time. Terminal facilities: The airstrip service building covers 150 square metres and accommodates passenger documentation formalities and some offices. Ukunda Airstrip has no air traffic control or navigational facilities. Potential: The airstrip is important because it serves the south coast hotels. It has potential for growth, especially as the tourism industry continues to flourish. expansion will embrace a number of infrastructure improvements. These include lengthening the runway to accommodate larger aircraft flying out of Nairobi’s Jomo Kenyatta International Airport. Customs and Immigration services will be provided at Ukunda Airstrip. Tourists staying on the south coast will be able to fly directly from Ukunda to other resorts in East Africa, including the Tanzanian capital, Dar es Salaam; the spice islands of Zanzibar and Arusha in northern Tanzania; and Mount Kilimanjaro. Kenya Airports Authority Handbook 2011-12 48 Mohamed Lipi Manda Airstrip Manager Manda to get new terminal building Situated on Manda Island, at the northern edge of Kenya’s coastal strip, Manda Airstrip serves the mainly tourist destinations on that stretch of coast, most notably the historical Swahili town of Lamu. The airstrip was developed in 1962 and 1963 to serve the then colonial administration. Later, it was used by a group of white settlers for day trips to nearby Lamu Island, since there were no hotels on the island. As a result of the boom in Kenya’s tourism industry, the airstrip is now served by charter and scheduled passenger flights from various airports at the coast and from Nairobi’s Wilson Airport. Currently, the airstrip boasts a new passenger terminal, which has just been completed and awaits official opening. While Manda is used mainly by international visitors touring the Swahili settlements of Lamu, it is not classified as an international airport. For this reason, all international flights heading for Manda Airstrip must land first at Nairobi’s Jomo Kenyatta International Airport or Mombasa’s Moi International Airport for airport and Customs formalities before they can proceed to Manda as domestic flights. Manda is an unmanned airstrip, however, so that pilots must co-ordinate among themselves to make a safe landing there. Emergency arrangements can be put in place at short notice. General operations The airstrip stands on 194 hectares, thus providing room for future expansion. This is important because of the intended construction of Kenya’s second deepwater seaport at Lamu. Manda is a Class III airstrip and has Category 5 fire cover. It operates between 06.00 and 18.00 hours. There are two runways. The main runway (16/34) is 1 km long by 15 metres wide with a bitumen surface, while the second runway has an overrun of 700 metres of compact murram. The main runway (PCN 8) can accommodate a range of aircraft including: • • • • ATR 42 Saab 340 Challenger II Twin Otter • • • • Dash 7 and Dash 8 Citation L-410 King Air. The secondary runway (08/26) is 700 metres long and 15 metres wide. The surface of this runway is all compact murram and it is used mainly at certain times of the year, especially when there is a change in cross winds. Owing to its nature and length, the runway can accommodate only small, light aircraft. facts and figures Airport identification: LAU Co-ordinates: 2°16’S, 40°55’E Runway: There are two runways (both serviceable): • Main: 1 km bitumen and 600 metres compact murram • Secondary: 700 metres x 15 metres all compact murram Bearing: • 10 ft ASL 16/34 (main) • 08/26 (secondary) Navigation aids and ATS: None Immigration services: None at airstrip, but can be arranged Frequency of aircraft movement: Daily Kenya Airports Authority (HQ) P0 Box 19001-00501, Nairobi, Kenya Tel: +254 (0)20 661 1000, 661 2000 Fax: +254 (0)20 822 078 Email: email@example.com Web: www.kenyaairports.co.ke